Está en la página 1de 20

AIR WHAT IS IT MADE OF?

OUP: To be used solely in purchasers school or college

Composition of air

OUP: To be used solely in purchasers school or college

OUP: To be used solely in purchasers school or college

What is global warming?

Over the last few hundred years, the average temperature of the Earths oceans has been rising. This is global warming. Why is this a problem?

Global warming increases the energy in the atmosphere, making it turbulent more storms, more droughts, more floods.

OUP: To be used solely in purchasers school or college

What about the greenhouse effect?

The greenhouse effect is a theory to explain why reaches global Light Some of usisfrom the warming isabsorbed happening. Sun. it
by the Earth and warms it. Some is reflected back into space. With more greenhouse gases, more infrared is reflected back to the Earth, and it gets warmer still.

The Earth gives off infrared radiation because it has been warmed by the Sun. Some infrared radiation is reflected back by the greenhouse gases. This makes the Earth warmer than it would be without the greenhouse gases.

In the atmosphere is a layer of greenhouse gases.

The world needs the greenhouse effect. Without it the How does the greenhouse effect explain global warming? Earth would be too cold for most organisms to live.
OUP: To be used solely in purchasers school or college

The key greenhouse gases

A greenhouse gas is a gas in the atmosphere that reflects infrared radiation back to Earth.
Do these gases act as greenhouse gases in the atmosphere? Answer yes or no.
gas
carbon dioxide methane CFCs ozone nitrogen and sulpher oxides

source
Burning of fossil fuels Cattle farming Industry Car exhausts Incomplete combustion of hydrocarbons

greenhouse gas?
yes yes yes yes yes

One of these gases in particular is on the rise, causing the enhanced greenhouse effect. Which gas? What processes produce this gas?
OUP: To be used solely in purchasers school or college

Acid rain

OUP: To be used solely in purchasers school or college

What is acid rain?

Rain is naturally slightly acidic. Why? Because carbon dioxide in the air dissolves in the falling water to make carbonic acid. carbon dioxide + water So whats acid rain? carbonic acid
normal rain acid rain

Its a term used for rain that is more acidic than normal.
Acid rain forms when acidic gases in the air dissolve in the rain. These gases come from burning fossil fuels.
OUP: To be used solely in purchasers school or college

How acidic is acid rain?

Acid rain is more acidic than normal rain. But how does it compare with other acids? Match the pH to the substance. substance unpolluted rain

pH 1 pH 3 pH 6

pH 2 pH 4 pH 7
pH pH 6

car battery acid


acid in your stomach

pH 2

acid rain from a polluted area pH 4 pH 1

pure water
vinegar
OUP: To be used solely in purchasers school or college

pH 7
pH 3

What causes acid rain?

All of these processes produce acidic gases which cause acid rain. Rank them in order, starting with the worst offender. 1. generating electricity transport (cars, planes, trains, etc.) 2. transport (cars, planes, domestic (fires at home) trains, etc.) 3. industrial furnaces generating electricity and boilers 4. forest furnaces and boilers industrialfires, volcanoes and other natural sources 5. domestic (fires at home) forest fires, volcanoes and other natural sources

OUP: To be used solely in purchasers school or college

Meet the acid gases

The main acidic gases are: sulphur dioxide (SO2) nitrogen oxides (N2O, NO, NO2)

Acidic gases in the air can cause lung problems.


Roughly how many extra deaths occurred from the 5th to the 9th of December?
deaths per day/sulphur dioxide (ppb)

deaths per day

Is it fair to say that acid gases caused these deaths?

sulphur dioxide concentration

date, December 1952

OUP: To be used solely in purchasers school or college

How is acid rain formed?

Acid rain can fall many miles from the source of the pollution.

Acid gases react together in the clouds sunlight encourages this reaction.
Acid gases rise in the air.

Falling rain dissolves the acidic gases.

Dry deposition acid particles fall to the ground in dust.

Burning fuels release acidic gases, mainly sulphur dioxide (power stations) and oxides of nitrogen (vehicles).

Acid rain falls to the ground. It makes soil, lakes and rivers more acidic.

What problems does acid rain cause?


OUP: To be used solely in purchasers school or college

STARTER
Complete the Percentage Composition of Air exercise

OUP: To be used solely in purchasers school or college

It takes a while...

Acid rain is a dilute acid solution. The acid in your stomach is stronger and more corrosive. But acid rain is dangerous because it acts over many years. Think how much rain falls on a building over 200 years! Even a slight increase in the acidity of rain could have serious effects over this timescale. And because the changes from day to day are small, people do not notice them. Why does this make it even more dangerous?
OUP: To be used solely in purchasers school or college

But the effects are serious

Acid rain reacts to dissolve away rocks such as limestone. This destroys valuable buildings.
It makes rivers and lakes more acidic. This causes problems on moors and mountains where the ground is already acidic. It allows poisonous chemicals such as aluminium salts to dissolve in water and soil. They poison trees and fish.

It reduces the growth of plants, including food crops.


OUP: To be used solely in purchasers school or college

Hope or horror?

Is pollution getting worse or better? Try to match the year to the amount of acidic gas produced. Weve added a guess for 2012.
year 1970 1980 1990 2000 2012

3719 1188 4854

6460 875

thousand tonnes of SO2 produced in UK 6460 4854 3719

1188
875

If you drew a graph of this data, what would it look like?


Can you explain this trend?
OUP: To be used solely in purchasers school or college

Good news, bad news

So is the pollution problem getting better? Decide whether each headline is good news or bad news.
Levels of acidic gases in the atmosphere are falling.
Modern devices are more energyefficient than old ones.

We are developing more and more gadgets and devices that use energy.
We are using cars more and more. Governments all over the world have agreed to cut emissions of acidic gases.

What do you think? How could we do better?


OUP: To be used solely in purchasers school or college

Quiz

1. Sulphur dioxide is an acidic gas made by...


a) burning scrap metal b) burning fossil fuels

c) cows as they digest grass.


2. Acid rain is caused by... a) acidic gases in the atmosphere dissolving in falling rain b) ozone in the atmosphere dissolving in falling rain c) increased sunlight.
OUP: To be used solely in purchasers school or college

Quiz

3. The best way to reduce acid rain is by...


a) releasing alkaline gases into the air b) pushing rain clouds out to sea with jet engines

c) reducing the production of acidic gases.


4. Which of the following is NOT caused by acid rain? a) damage to buildings made of limestone

b) damage to lakes in some highland areas


c) asthma.

OUP: To be used solely in purchasers school or college

True or false?

True or False?
4. Carbon in to increase the hole in the to the 3. Global warming is causing a the atmosphere by 2. The rise dioxide contributesgreenhouse ozone 1. Plants tendcarbon dioxide insignificantlyeffectis layer. giving outdue effect. probably carbon dioxide. greenhouse to human activity.
FALSE! Again, take causing agree accept this day for TRUE! Yes, most scientists thenowwith the ozone layer, FALSE! Plants mostin carbon dioxide during the CFCs are scientists hole in this statement.

statement. photosynthesis, more ultraviolet reduce the which is letting so they tend to radiation reach greenhousenot the same problem as global us. This is effect! warming.

OUP: To be used solely in purchasers school or college