Está en la página 1de 34

TRNG AI HOC S PHAM K THUT TPHCM KHOA IN - IN T B MN IN T-VIN THNG

TAI

GIAO VIN HNG DN: ThS. U TRONG HIN SINH VIN THC HIN: NGUYN THANH TM NGUYN THANH TM 06117061 06117062

NI DUNG BAO CAO


t vn Cng ngh MPLS K thut lu lng trong mng MPLS M phng Kt lun

T VN
Hin nay, mng Internet ang pht trin rt mnh v nhu cu s dng nhng dch v cht lng cao ngy cng tng. Lu lng trn ton b h thng mng ch yu l lu lng IP. Giao thc IP thng tr ton b tt c giao thc lp mng, nhng n cn bc l mt s hn ch nn i hi mt cng ngh mng mi vi chi ph thp hn, cht lng tt hn. Mt trong nhng cng ngh l cng ngh MPLS.

Cng ngh MPLS ra i vi nhng tnh nng vt tri hn mng IP, trong ni bt l kh nng iu khin lu lng qua mng nh cung cp dch v c th khai thc hiu qu ti nguyn mng, trnh c hin tng nghn mng mt tuyn lin kt ny trong khi cc tuyn khc rnh. V y cng chnh l i tng nghin cu chnh ca ti.

Cng Ngh MPLS


V sao chuyn mch nhn ra i ? Chuyn mch nhn gii quyt c mt s hn ch trong mng IP : -Tc v tr. -Ti nguyn s dng. -Tng kh nng h thng -iu khin nh tuyn

Cc khi nim c bn trong mng MPLS:


ng chuyn - Lp chuyn xp tinmch mch LSP bng kt Intf Label Dest Intf c ---C-nhthng nhn. tng ng FEC B s tuyn chuyn nhn nhn LSR: ni trong LSR Ngn tip nhn Label Dest Intf Label Nhn nhn LIB :L Intf In LSR cha gi h nhn/ FECIng nhnOutvo cng In cng nh thng tr tr MPLS:0.50 47.1 1c v gn nhn mi cho gi c gn Out LSR 3ra In 47.1 Out router c 0.40 1 LER 3 0.40 LER tin v ng gi d liu truyn tin xc nh phng1 thc 47.1 IP 47.1.1.1 LSP 3 Intf Dest tin c chuyn tip. Intf Label mt gi 3
IP1
In 3 Out Out 47.1 1 0.50
1 1 #L1 2

IP1
47.2

IP1
47.3 3

IP1 2
IP2

#L2
#L2

IP1
IP2

#L3
#L3 IP2

IP2 IP2
IP 47.1.1.1

#L1 2

Cc gi tin n vi prefix khc nhau nhng c th gp chung mt FEC

Cng Ngh MPLS


Cc thnh phn trong mng MPLS: -B nh tuyn chuyn mch nhn ( Lable Switching router-LSR ). -ATM-LSR. -B nh tuyn bin nhn ( Lable Edge Router-LER ) -ATM-LSR bin.

Cng Ngh MPLS


Label Switching Routers (LSRs) (ATM Switch or Router)

Label Edge Routers

Cng Ngh MPLS


Hot ng c bn ca MPLS
gi tin truyn qua mng MPLS, mng s thc hin cc bc sau: -To v phn phi nhn. -To bng cho mi bng nh tuyn. -To ng chuyn mch nhn. -Gn nhn da trn tra cu bng. -Truyn gi tin.

To LSP v chuyn gi tin qua min MPLS

Cc giao thc trong MPLS


Giao thc phn phi nhn LDP (Label Distribution Protocol) Giao thc phn phi nhn l mt tp cc th tc m nh mt LSR c th thng bo cho mt LSR khc bit v mi lin kt nhn-FEC m n tin hnh.

Vng hot ng ca LDP

Cc giao thc trong MPLS


Giao thc phn phi nhn LDP (Label Distribution Protocol) - Cc bn tin LDP Bn tin Notification. Bn tin Hello. Bn tin Initialization. Bn tin KeepAlive. Bn tin Address. Bn tin Address Withdraw. Bn tin Lable Mapping. Bn tin Lable Request. Bn tin Lable Abort Request Bn tin Lable Withdraw. Bn tin Lable Release.

TH TC PHT HIN LSR LN CN

TIME

UDP-Hello

UDP-Hello

TCP-open

Initialization(s) Label request

IP

TIME

#L2
Label mapping

Giao thc phn phi nhn da trn rng buc ( CR-LDP )


S dng bn tin LDP (request, map, notify) Chia s kt ni TCP/IP vi LDP. Cc bc hot ng ca CR-LDP: 1-Router ng vo tp hp thng tin trng thi mng. 2-Mt lung yu cu ti nguyn t trc. 3-Router ng vo tnh ton con ng cho lung ny. 4-Router ng vo yu cu mt LSP r rng cho lung v nh x nhn cho con ng. y l chc nng ca CRLDP. 5- Nu thnh cng lung s s dng con ng chuyn mch nhn ny.

Giao thc dnh trc ti nguyn RSVP ( Resource Reservation Protolcol )


RSVP l giao thc bo hiu ng vai R3 quan trng trong mng MPLS, tr R2 c s dng dnh trc ti nguyn cho mt phin truyn trong mng PATH R4 Internet. RESV PATH R1 RSVP c dng cung cp kh nng vn hnh c bo v bng vic t RESV Host B trcAti nguyn cn thit ti mi my tham gia vo h tr lung lu lng. Host RSVP phi mang cc thng tin sau: R5 -Thng tin phn loi. -Ch tiu k thut ca lung lu lng v cc yu cu QoS. Trong c hai loi c bn l PATH v RESV (Resevation -Bn tin dnh trc) xc nh lung v cc QoS cho lung.

nh tuyn trong MPLS

nh tuyn rng buc: -Xc nh cc route khng ch da trn m hnh mng (thut ton SPF chn ng ngn nht) m cn s dng cc metric c th khc nh bng thng, tr, cost v bin ng tr. -Thng thng ngi ta dng metric da trn s lng hop v bng thng.

nh tuyn trong MPLS

nh tuyn tng minh ER (Explicit Route): - nh tuyn tng minh ER (Explicit Route) l mt tp con ca nh tuyn rng buc, trong s rng buc l i tng ca tuyn tng minh. - Tuyn tng minh ER l mt danh sch cc nt tru tng (abstract node) m mt ng chuyn mch nhn rng buc CR-LSP phi i qua. Nt tru tng c th l mt nt (a ch IP) hoc mt nhm nt (IP prefix hoc mt AS).

K Thut Lu Lng Trong MPLS


K thut lu lng (TE) l qu trnh iu khin cch thc cc lung lu lng i qua mng sao cho ti u ho vic s dng ti nguyn v hiu nng ca mng. K thut lu lng MPLS c chia ra thnh 3 qu trnh: + Phn phi thng tin. + Tnh ton v thit lp ng i cho ng hm chuyn mch nhn. + Chuyn tip lu lng xung ng hm.

Gii thut thng r (Leaky bucket)


M hnh thng r c c im l tc ra khng i bt chp vic tc nc vo thng l bao nhiu hay trong thng cn bao nhiu nuc. Nu thng y m lu lng vn chy vo th thng s y v trn mt. Tng t cho d liu khi ti mt router trong mng nu hng i y th gi tin s b drop.

Gii thut thng token (token bucket)


Gii thut thng token c th c dng trong vic sa dng lu lng (shapping) ha c ng dng trong vic thc thi khng ch( policing).

Trung k lu lng v cc thuc tnh

Trung k lu lng l mt tp hp cc lung d liu chia s mt s thuc tnh chung no .

Trung k lu lng v cc thuc tnh

Cc thuc tnh ca trung k lu lng: - Thuc tnh tham s lu lng (traffic parameter) - Thuc tnh la chn v qun l ng - Thuc tnh u tin / ln chim (Prority/Preemtion) - u tin thit lp (priority) - u tin cm gi (holding priority) - Thuc tnh n hi - Thuc tnh khng ch (Policing)

Cc hot ng trn trung k lu lng


To ra cc trung k lu lng bng cch la chn LSP, ch nh nhn v quan trng Lm cho trung k lu lng bt u hot Establish nht l ch nh ti nguyn cho trung k. ng bng cch s dng mt vi chc Dng chuyn d liu bng trung k bng Activate nng nh tuyn a lu lng vo cch s dng chc nng nh tuyn v trung k. i cc c im ca trung k lu Deactivate Thay ngng a d liu vo trung k. lng (v d nh bng thng kh dng). Modified Attributes Chn mt con ng i khc cho trung k Reroute lu lng. Loi b hon ton trung k lu lng v Destroy thu hi tt c cc ti nguyn c cp pht cho n.

Tnh ton LSP rng buc (CR-LSP)


Vic tnh ton LSP s xem xt n ti nguyn kh dng, cc thuc tnh lin kt (link) v c cc trung k khc v vy n c tn gi l tnh ton rng buc. Kt qu ca vic tnh ton ny l tm ra mt chui cc a ch IP i din cho cc hop trn ng LSP gia u u v u cui ca trung k lu lng. Tin trnh tnh ton ng rng buc (CR-LSP) lun lun c thc hin ti u ngun trung k lu lng v n c kch hot l do nhng nguyn nhn nh sau: -Mt trung k lu lng mi xut hin. -Mt trung k ang tn nhng thit lp LSP tht bi. -Ti ti u ha mt trung k ang tn ti.

Trnh t thc hin gii thut chn ng


Gii thut chn ng rng buc c thc hin theo cc bc sau: Ct b cc lin kt c lp ti nguyn (resource-class) b loi do php tnh Affinity ra khi m hnh mng (topology). Tip theo l ct b cc lin kt c bng thng d tr khng theo yu cu ca trung k. Thc hin gii thut tm ng i ngn nht (v d thut ton tm ng ngn nht Dijktra) tm ng c tng TE cost nh nht trn phn mng cn li sau khi ct b cc lin kt (link) khng t yu cu.
Chn nguyn kh dng Xem xt ting tt nht Xem xt cc rng buc khng ch

Ti ti u ha
Cc c trng v trng thi mng bin ng theo thi gian. Do , cc trung k lu lng ti u c thit lp trc c th khng cn ti u na. V th, mun duy tr mng lun trng thi ti u nht th phi thc hin ti ti u ha (re-optimization).

thc hin vic ti ti u ha LSP, c cc trng hp nh sau:

- Ti ti u ha nhn cng (Manual reoptimization).


- Ti ti u ha da trn timer nh thi (Timer-based reoptimization).

- Ti ti u ha iu khin theo s kin (Event-driven reoptimization).

Ti ti u ha

Ti ti u mt LSP

Bo v v khi phc ng

C ch bo v v khi phc ng trong MPLS cung cp dch v tin cy cho vic chuyn ti lu lng trong mng MPLS v ti nh tuyn lu lng qua mt ng chuyn mch nhn LSP. Mt s khi nim cn lu : ng lm vic. ng khi phc. PSL (Path Switch LSR). PML (Path Merge LSR). POR (Point of Repair). FIS (Fault Indication Signal). FRS (Fault Recovery Signal). MPLS Protection Domain . Bypass Tunnel. Revertive Mode

C ch bo v khi phc

Bo v ton cc l bo v m trong LER pha ngun ng vai tr l PSL v POR, nhn tn hiu FIS t nt pht hin li. ng phc hi v ng lm vic trong trng hp ny l tch bit hon ton. Bo v cc b l loi bo v m trong im pht hin li ng vai tr l PSL v cng c th cng l POR nu c cu hnh tng ng. C hai loi bo v cc b l bo v lin kt v bo v nt. - Bo v lin kt - Bo v nt

Ti nh tuyn v chuyn mch bo v

Ti nh tuyn l ch m khi pht hin c li xy ra nh vo FIS, POR s tm ng mi nh vo cc giao thc nh tuyn. Sau khi tm c ng i, PSL s chuyn sang ng mi. Chuyn mch bo v c c ch hot ng gn ging vi ti nh tuyn bo v ch khc ch ng bo v c tnh ton trc . Chnh v iu ny lm cho phng php ny tn t thi gian khi phc hn phng php ti nh tuyn bo v.

M hnh MAKAM

M hnh Makam cung cp c ch bo v ton cc cho mt LSP bng cch thit lp ng khi phc gia ingress-LSR v egress-LSR. ng lm vic v khi phc tch ri nhau c v lin kt v nt. Khi pht hin li bt k v tr no trn ng lm vic, tn hiu FIS c dng chuyn thng bo li v cho ingress-LSR (PSL). Ingress-LSR s thc hin chuyn mch lu lng sang ng khi phc.

M hnh Haskin (Reverse Backup)

C ch Haskin thit lp mt ng d phng o ti nt pht hin li, mt ng d phng o c thnh lp vi chiu lu lng ngc vi chiu ca ung c. Khi lu lng quay tr v n PSL, lu lng c chuyn sang ng khi phc ton cc. Tuy nhin m hnh ny c nhc im l hao tn ti nguyn do ng d phng o v ng khi phc phi thit lp sn.

M hnh Hundessa
C ch Hundessa khc phc nhc im ca m hnh Haskin thng qua vic kim sot s th t cc gi gi v t ung d phng o.Khi gi u tin quay v PSL trn ng d phng o c tc dng nh tn hiu FIS bo cho PSL bit c li. PSL nh du gi cui cng truyn ra ng lm vic (ang c li) bng cch t mt bit trong trng EXP ca nhn, sau ngng y gi ra ng li. Khi gi c nh du quay tr v PSL trn ng o, PSL mi tip tc chuyn cc gi mi trc tip ra ng khi phc.

M hnh Simple Dynamic


y l m hnh bo v cc b trong LSR pht hin li cng ng thi l PSL. Khi pht hin lin kt vi mnh b li, LSR ny s tnh ng ngn nht ti PML. Vi m hnh ny PML bt buc phi l Egress-LSR.

M hnh Simple Dynamic(Link protection). M hnh Simple Dynamic(Link protection).

M hnh Shortest Dynamic

M hnh shortest Dynamic cng l m hnh bo v cc b. iu khc bit y l trong m hnh ny PML phi l LSR downstream k cn vi link hoc LSR b sai. Do ng backup trong trng hp ny cn gi l Bypass Tunnel.

Trong m hnh ny ng bo v thng c tnh ton t trc v trn thc t ngi ta ch s dng giao thc bo hiu RSVP-TE thit lp ng bo v Shortest Dynamic. Ch bo v dng phng php khi phc ny cng c hai loi l bo v nt v bo v lin kt.
M hnh Shortest Dynamic (Link protection).

KT LUN
Sau thi gian thc tp, nghin cu v xy dng ti cng s gip nhit tnh ca cc thy c gio trong khoa to iu kin cho nhm hon thnh ti ca mnh mt cch tt nht. Do iu kin v thi gian cng nh kinh nghim lm vic nn khng trnh khi nhng thiu st trong bo co cng nh trong chng trnh. Nhm rt mong nhn c s quan tm, ch bo ca cc thy c gio, bn b ti ca em c hon thin hn. Cui cng, nhm thc hin xin chn thnh cm n cc thy c gio trong khoa v c bit l thy gio Thc s u Trng Hin tn tnh gip nhm thc hin trong sut qu trnh xy dng v hon thnh ti.