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Rizals Second Sojourn in Paris and the Universal Exposition of 1889

Chapter 15

Universal Exposition (Exposition Universelle) 1889


World's Fair held in Paris, France 100th Anniversary of the "storming of the Bastille", an event traditionally considered as the symbol for the beginning of the French Revolution

Difficulty of Finding Quarters


For a short time, Rizal lived in the house of his friend Valentin Ventura, at No. 45 Rue Maubeuge. He transferred his residence several times. Finally, he lived together with two other Filipinos Capitan Justo Trinidad and Jose Albert.

Life in Paris
He used most of his time in.. - the reading room of the Bibliotheque Nationale - living quarters writing letters to his family and friends - the gymnasium for his daily physical exercises - visiting his friends

Three Filipino Societies Rizal Founded


Kidlat Club - Among the members were Antonio and Juan Luna, Gregorio Aguilera, Fernando Canon, Lauro Dimayuga, Julio Llorente, Guillermo Puatu, and Baldomero Roxas - To bring together the young Filipinos in the French capital

Three Filipino Societies Rizal Founded


Indios Bravos - Its members pledged to excel in intellectual and physical prowess in order to win the admiration of the foreigners, particularly the Spaniards. - They practised with the great enthusiasm the use of the sword and pistol. - Rizal taught them judo.

Three Filipino Societies Rizal Founded


R.D.I.M. Society - Redencion de los Malayos (Redemption of the Malays) - He only mentioned this secret society to: *Jose Maria Basa *Marcelo H. del Pilar - It was patterned after Freesmasonry

Three Filipino Societies Rizal Founded


- Only a few trusted friends of Rizal became members: Gregorio Aguilera, Jose Ma. Basa, Julio Llorente, Marcelo H. del Pilar, Mariano Ponce, Baldomero Roxas & Father Jose Maria Changco (Filipino priest) - The aim of it was the propagation of all useful knowledge scientific, artistic, literary, etc. in the Philippines & the Redemption of the Malay Race

Three Filipino Societies Rizal Founded


- Rizals writing to Blumentritt from Hongkong revealed his intention to be a leader of freedom, if not in the Philippines, then in other lands. - Provisions for Bornean colonization: *Right of the colonists to buy the lands *Free use of the seashores *Unusual long term of lease for 999 years *a period of time long enough for many generations to form a nation and to consolidate its status

Annotated Edition of Morga Published


Rizals outstanding achievement in Paris (1980) He wrote in in the British Museum It was printed by Garnier Freres Professor Blumentritt wrote the Prologue Rizals errors: - Appraising the events of the past in the light of present standards - Attacks on the church were unfair and unjustified because the abuses of the friars should not be construed to mean that Catholicism is bad Rizal published Morgas Sucesos = best of the many histories of the Philippines written by the early Spanish writers Dedicated new edition of Morga to the Filipino people, to know their glorious past : TO THE FILIPINOS (p.159) - Proved that Filipinos were already civilized before the advent of Spain

Comment on Morgas Publication Date


Paris, Libreria de Garnier Hermanos, 1890 title page of Rizals annotated edition of Morga Documentary evidence to show that Rizals edition of Morga must have come off the press in 1889 not 1890. 3 Letters: *October 12, 1889 Blumentritt received the edition (Leitmeritz) *December 28, 1889 Rizal sent copies to Dr. Baldomero Roxas from Paris to Lipa *December 31, 1889 Mariano Ponce received the book Incontrovertible proofs that Morgas Sucesos came off the press in 1889.

Rizal as Historian
Rizals research studies in the British Museum (London) and in the Bibliotheque Nationale (Paris) enriched his historical knowledge His knowledge of foreign languages enabled Rizal to read historical documents: - Pigafettas famous First Voyage Around the World (Italian) - Works of Marsden, Raffles, Lord Stanley, and Wallace (English) - Writings of Blumentritt, Jagor, and Virchow (German) Historical Commentaries which qualify Rizal to be a real historian: Ma-yi (December 6, 1888) and Tawalisi of Ibn Batuta (January 7, 1889) (both written in London)

The Philippines Within a Century


In this article, he expressed his views on the Spanish colonization in the Philippines He predicted with amazing accuracy the tragic end of Spains sovereignty in Asia Parts: - Beginning - glorious past of the Filipino people - Middle - economic stagnation and happiness under the harsh Spanish Rule - Last - peered into the future and warned Spain of what would happen to her colonial empire in Asia if she would not adopt a more liberal & enlightened policy toward the Philippines

The Indolence of the Filipinos


Defense of the alleged indolence of the Filipinos Critical study of the causes why the Filipinos did not work hard during the Spanish regime Main thesis: the Filipinos are not by nature indolent

The Indolence of the Filipinos


10 Causes of decline in economic life: - Native revolts and other internal disorders - Wars which the Filipinos fought for Spain (Dutch, Portuguese, English, etc.) - Raids on the coastal towns and village by the Muslim pirates of Mindanao and Sulu - Forced labor - Lack of stimulus to work harder (people could not enjoy the fruits of their labor)

The Indolence of the Filipinos


- Government neglect and indifference (agriculture, industry, and commerce) - Bad example shown by Spaniards - despising manual labor - Teaching of Spanish missionaries - Gambling - System of Spanish education

International Association of Filipinologists


Universal Exposition of 1889 (Paris) Letter to Blumentritt January 14, 1889 Prospectus: aim of the association to study the Philippines from the scientific and historical point of view

International Association of Filipinologists


Officers: - President: Dr. Ferdinand Blumentritt(Austrian) - Vice-President: Mr. Edmund Plauchut(French) - Counsellors: *Dr. Reinhold Rost(Anglo-German) *Dr. Antonio Ma. Regidor(Filipino-Spanish) - Secretary: Dr. Jose Rizal(Filipino)

International Association of Filipinologists


August 1889 (Paris) scheduled holding of the inaugural convention Renowned scholars in Europe: - Dr. Reinhold Rost - Sir Henry Yule - Dr. Feodor Jagor - Dr. A.B. Meyer - Dr. H. Kern - Dr. Czepelak

Project for Filipino College in Hong Kong


Planned by Rizal while still in Paris To establish a modern college in Hong Kong Aim: to train and educate men of good family and financial means in accordance with the demands of modern times and circumstances Mr. Mariano Cunanan (Mexico, Pampanga) - 40,000 pesos (initial capital)

Project for Filipino College in Hong Kong


Curriculum (Subjects): - Ethics - Religion - Natural Law - Civil Law - Deportment - Hygiene - Mathematics - Physics and Chemistry - Natural History - Geography

Project for Filipino College in Hong Kong


Curriculum (Subjects): - Political Economy - Universal History - Philippine History - Logic, Rhetoric, and Poetics - Spanish - English - French - German - Chinese - Tagalog

Project for Filipino College in Hong Kong


Curriculum (Subjects): - Gymnastics - Equitation - Fencing - Swimming - Music - Drawing - Dancing

Por Telefono
La Vision del Fray Rodiguez - Fray Jose Rodriguez Por Telefono (Barcelona, 1889) - Fr. Salvador Font (banning of Noli) Dimas Alang Telephone conversation between Fr. Font (Madrid) and the father provincial (San Agustin Convent-Manila)

Christmas in Paris
Jose Albert Capitan Justo Trinidad Christmas dinner: fried chicken, rice, and vegetables Rizals last Christmas dinner in Paris After New Year brief visit to London (unknown purpose)

Christmas in Paris
Two theoretical reasons: - To check up his annotated edition of Morgas Sucesos with the original copy in the British Museum; and - To see Gertrude Beckett for the last time Middle of January 1890 back in Paris