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TAHARAH (PURIFICATION)

Lifting the states of hadath/janaba (major/minor ritual impurity). Removing najasa (filth).

Non-Fard Ghusl/wudu etc. (ex: sunna ghusl on Fridays)

HADATH
The state of non-wudu : lifted by wudu alone. Wudu is nullified/ hadath entered by: 1) Anything, except sexual fluid, exiting from the private parts. 2) Loss of intellect (insanity, unconsciousness, sleep etc. but not drowsing, daydreaming).

HADATH
3) Touching of any amount of non-mehrams skins. Even if: w/o desire, unintentionally, aged/deceased person, with tongue, nonfunctional/surplus limb. But not if: teeth, nails, hair, severed limb, child below the age that usually evokes sexual interest. Also not when uncertain if : touched a male/female, hair/skin, mehram or non.

HADATH
Sleep doesnt nullify wudu if: Firmly seated on any firm surface that prevents passing wind(even when riding/leaning on a thing removing which will cause sleeper to fall). The rear doesn't shift while asleep. Rear moved after/during awakening. UNCERTAIN if rear moved during sleep / awakening, drowsed/slept, slept while firmly seated or not. Arm drops to the ground while firmly seated.

HADATH
4) Touching human private parts with the palm/inner surface of the fingers. (Those parts which touch when palms put together) Even if: w/o desire, absentmindedly, front/rear, male/female, oneself/another, deceased, child. But not if: with finger tips, skin between the fingers, outer edge of the hand, animals parts. HADATH IS NOT ENETERED BY ANYTHING APART FROM THE ABOVE FOUR.

HADATH
When uncertain that previously performed ablution has subsequently been nullified, then it has NOT & vice-versa. Principle: A state of confirmed existence does not cease through a state of unconfirmed existence.

HADATH
Actions Haram when in the state of Hadath Salah, Sajdah-e-Tilawat, Sajdah-e-Shukr, Tawaf. Carrying the Quran: even if by a strap / in a box. Touching the Quran: whether its writing, spaces between its lines, its margins, binding, the carrying strap attached to it, or the bag / box it is in. Touching anything on which even part of an ayah is written for study purposes(ex: slate). But not so when for non-study purposes (ex: amulet, even if it contains the entire Quran)

HADATH
TO: Carry the Quran in baggage Carry money, rings, clothes with Quran written on Carry fiqh, hadith, tafsir books IF < 50% = Quran Write Quran w/o touching/carrying the written matter* IS PERMISSIBLE. Children at age of discrimination can touch/carry Quran w/o ablution FOR STUDY PURPOSES ONLY. (Giving Quran to children younger than this is insult. Turning Quranic pages with salivated fingers = HARAM)
* Writing w/o touching is allowed even when janab.

HADATH
If fear of Quran getting: burnt, soaked, touched by a non-muslim or filth

+
No safe place for it, then: MUST to pick it up even if in hadath/janab BUT Tayyamum obligatory IF possible.

Using Quran/Islamic books as pillow = Haram. But if fear of theft then Halal.

JANABA
Maniyy(sperm) discharge/ penetration => Ghusl Fard. Unlustful discharge of madhy (thin-sticky-white) Or wady (thick-cloudy-white) =/=> Ghusl Fard. When unsure if maniyy/madhy: Ghusl(Washing cloth not Fard)/ Wudu(Washing cloth Fard) Best do both. Everything haram in hadath, haram in janaba + 1. Remaining in mosque (Enter/leave at diff doors allowed if need else makruh) 2. Reciting any of the Quran except with niyya of dhikr /nothing specific.

NAJASA
1.Urine 2.Excrement 3.Blood 4.Pus 5.Vomit 6.Wine

7. ANY liquid intoxicant Anything with alcohol: cologne/ cosmetics etc. Rukhasa if strict need. ex: For postoperative patients. Solid intoxicants =/= najasa BUT consumption Haram. 8.Wady,Madhy 9.Dogs,Pigs

10.Slaughtered haram animals.

NAJASA
11. Dead animals except aquatic/locusts/ humans. Amphibians =/= Aquatic => Najas when dead. 12.Haram animals milk 13.Dead animals hair

14. Living Haram animals detached hair. Rennet from zabiha suckling lamb/kid on milk = Halal. Stuff from sleepers mouth:= Najas/ Pure if from stomach/saliva ducts.

NAJASA
Things not najas: 1. Any creatures eggs. 2. Milk, fur, wool, feathers of all halal animals if detached while alive/after zabiha.*

*For

more refer e14.5 of the book

NAJASA
Only Najasa that can be purified: 1. Wine changed to vinegar W/O ADDING ANYTHING. 2. Hide of dead animal (except dog/swine) after tanning. Impure tanning agent => filthy garment. Wash with purifying water. The hair (if non-trivial) left after tanning = najas.

3. New life emerging from filth. (ex: worms growing in carrion)


4.For Ahanaf: Molecularly altered filth, ex: pig to soap.

NAJASA
Impurity by trace moisture from dogs/swine => To be washed seven times. Once (preferably not last) with purifying (earth + water) Must reach entire affected area. Earth substitute (soap, glasswort etc.) impermissible . Moisture: Anything moist/moistened dry parts. Dry parts (ex: breath, hair) need only be brushed away.

To purify suckling boys urine from clothes: Sprinkle enough water to wet most of the spot. Water need not flow over it. Suckling girls must be washed away as an adult's.

NAJASA
Washing away najasa For Najasa hukmiyya (indescernible najasa) (Ex- invisible drop of dry urine on garment) Flowing water over it suffices.

For Najasa Ayniyya (descernible najasa) Obligatory to remove all taste of it, even if difficult. Obligatory to remove (color + odor) if not difficult. If odor alone/ color alone difficult to remove: Excused. If both (odor + color) remain: Not Excused.

NAJASA
Washing away najasa If water < 216l: Flowing over the najas spot = Obligatory. Wringing it =/= Obligatory. Washing twice more = Recommended. If water > 216l: Immersing najas spot in it allowed.

NAJASA
Washing away najasa For ground/floor/carpet soiled with liquid najasa (ex: wine/urine): Drenching that place with water = Necessary. (Even if marks of najasa wiped by sun/fire/wind) Sinking of najasa into ground =/= Necessary.

ONLY purifiable liquid = Water.


To purify solids: Remove najasa & the part around it.

NAJASA
Washing away najasa Used water is najas if: 1. It changes. 2. Its weight increases.

3. Neither of above have but some trace (inexcusable amount) of najasa remains on the place to be purified. None of above but < 216l => Pure, NOT purifying. None of above & >/made to 216l => Pure + Purifying.

WATER
1. Purifying Water (Natural water of any taste/color/odor) Pure in itself, purifies else. 2. Pure Water Pure in itself, purifies nothing.

3. Impure Water Neither pure nor purifies.


3a. Less than Qullatyn(216l) with najasa. Even if taste/color/odor unchanged. 3b. >= Qullatayn with najasa. Only if taste/color/odor changed.

WATER
Cannot purify with: 1. Water + Enough Avoidable pure stuff (flour/saffron) that renders it Non-Water. 2. < 216l water already used for fard acts of fard wudu/ghusl even if childs. 3. < 216l water already used to remove filth, even if unchanged.

WATER
Can purify with water: 1. Slightly changed by avoidable pure stuff (f/s). 2. Changed by proximity to aloe, oil etc. even if fragrant. 3. Changed by unavoidable agents (algae, leaves, dust) or affected by standing too long. 4. Already used for non-fard rituals: Sunnas of fard wudu like rinsing, non-fard wudu/ghusl. 5. Already used to lift hadath/janaba but collected to make > 216l.

WATER
If < 216l water: After (1st face wash/niyyah) in fard (wudu/ghusl), niyyah of using hands to scoop water MUST. Else introducing hands renders it non-Purifying.

If >= 216l: Even if >=2 janab persons immersed in it, remains purifying.

216l water becomes impure even if slight change in its taste/color/odor due to najasa. Water is again purifying if change vanishes by itself. (Not by adding musk/ ambergris/camphor to mask scent, saffron: mask color, vinegar: mask taste, earth etc.)

WATER
< 216l still/running water becomes impure by mere contact with najasa (except bloodless dead creature like fly) , even when unchanged, except when indiscernible with average look.

If total collectes pure/impure water >216l and no change remains => Purifying.
Change by something pure does not hurt if still classifiable as water. Ex: Sugar/tea keep water pure but not purifying. But slight discoloration by tea leaves, slight sweetness from sugar, keep it purifying.

CONTAINERS AND UTENSILS


Can purify with water from any pure container. Except golden/silver or gilded/silvered so much that heating separates the coat from vessel. Even possessing them is haram (even if a tiny eye-liner stick of silver). Vessels soldered with gold = Haram. Soldered with much silver for decoration = Haram. Soldered with little silver for repair = Halal. Vessel made of any precious gem( ruby, emerald) = Halal. Using vessels/wearing clothes of non-Muslims = Makruh.

SIWAK
Using twig etc. on/around teeth to undo unpleasant breath etc. with the niyyah of sunna. Mustahab at all times but makruh after noon during fast. Ditto toothpaste + if reaches stomach:Fast Breaks:Haram.

Anything coarse except rough fingers fulfills the sunna. Best is dried arak twig moistened for use.
Best to clean the teeth laterally: starting from right, paying particular attention to bases of the back teeth, and intend sunna thereby.

SIWAK
Especially desirable for: Every salah, reading (Quran,hadith,lesson), wudu. Yellowness of teeth, waking from sleep, entering one's house, and for any change of breath due eating something with a bad odor or from not eating.

Demand for an act + equal demand not to : then proper course is not to do it.

THE BODY
It is sunnah to:

1. Trim nails.
2. Clip mustache (Max till pink of lip visible. Plucking out/shaving off = Makruh). Shaving beard is Haram/Makruh as per Imam Shafi'i. Leaving sunnah to imitate kuffar + believing their way is superior than sunna => Kufr. 3. Pluck away(if possible)/shave underarms, nostrils hair, shave pubic hair. 4. Line eyes with kohl odd, preferably 3 times.

THE BODY
Shaving head partially = Makruh. Sporting different lengths of hair =/= Makruh. Shaving all of it = non-mustahab, save for Hajj/Umrah. Circumcision (removing prepuce) = Fard . Dyeing hair black (except for is jihad) = Haram. Plucking gray hair = offensive. Dyeing hair yellow/red = sunnah

Woman cuts hair to disfigure herself(to mourn)= Haram. For beauty = Halal. Married woman dyeing full hands/feet with henna = sunnah Man doing above w/o need (ex: prevent sunburn) = Haram.

WUDU
To wash certain body-parts with the niyyah of worship. Legal Basis: 1. "O believers, when you go to pray, wash your faces, and wash your forearms to the elbows, wipe your heads, and [wash] your feet to the two anklebones" (Quran 5.6) 2. "A prayer is not accepted without purification. (Muslim) 3. Ijmah.

INTEGRALS OF WUDU
Six fard integrals (arkaan): (a) Intention when starting to wash the face. (b) Washing the face. (c) Washing arms up to and including elbows. (d) Wiping a little of the head with wet hands. (e) Washing the feet up to and including the anklebones. (f) Doing all these things in the order mentioned. All actions besides the above = sunnas of wudu. Fard to perform (b), (c), (d),(e) minimum once. Sunnah to perform them each three times.

INTEGRALS OF WUDU
NIYYAH 1. To lift hadath. 2. To purify for salah OR 3. For an act haram in hadath (ex: touching Quran). The niyyah of fard wudu suffices in place of all above. These intentions not for: 1. Anyone suffering from chronic annulment of wudu. (ex:Inability to hold back intermittent drops of urine.) 2. Someone intending tayammum. They intend permission to offer fard salah etc. (These peoples hadath is not lifted, rather the Sharia gives them rukhsat to pray etc. w/o lifting it.)

INTEGRALS OF WUDU

NIYYAH Necessary condition of wudu = Niyyah in the heart while washing of first part of face. To pronounce it aloud + have it in the heart from start of wudu = Mustahab. This niyyah should persist in the heart till washing the first part of the face. Niyyah ONLY at first washing of face => No reward for previous sunnas.

HOW TO PERFORM WUDU


1. Begin wudu by reciting Basmala : Mustahab. "In the name of Allah" = Minimum. Complete Basmala = Optimum. Reciting taawwudh before Basmala = Sunna. Adding after the Basmala: "Praise to Allah for Islam and its blessings. Praise to Allah who made water purifying and Islam a light. My Lord, I take refuge in You from the whispering of devils and take refuge in You lest they come to me. It is sunna to say all the above to oneself. If intentionally/absentmindedly omits beginning with Basmala then one pronounces it during wudu by saying, "In the name of Allah, first to last".

HOW TO PERFORM WUDU


2. Washing hands thrice = Mustahab. (an independent sunna)

Dipping hands in <216l water w/o 1st washing them thrice = Makruh : If not sure that hands are free of najasa. Haram : When sure that they have najasa. 3. Next use siwak, then rinse mouth/nose thrice: Take in mouthful of a handful + snuff up some of the rest. Swish water around mouth, expel from mouth/nose together. Repeat twice more.
Let water reach as much of the mouth/nostrils as possible. But go lightly when fasting.

HOW TO PERFORM WUDU


4. Then wash face thrice: Height = From where the hairline usually begins to chin. Width = From ear to ear. Fard to wash all inner/outer facial hair (thick/thin)& the skin beneath. (except) For the beard: Thin => Wash inner/outer hair & the skin beneath. Thick => Enough to wash outer hair. Saturating by combing from below w/ wet fingers= Mustahab. Using new water for this= Sunna. Flowing water over ONLY outside of beard below chin= Fard.

Washing part of head demarcating the face= Fard.

HOW TO PERFORM WUDU


5. Then wash hands up to elbows thrice. If the arm is amputated: between hand & elbow: Wash remaining forearm & the elbow. at the elbow: Wash end of the upper arm. betn elbow & shoulder: Washing rest of arm is mustahab.
6. Then wipe the head with wet hands: Begin at front & slide paired palms to the nape & back. ( Beginning at any part of head fulfills the obligation.) Repeat twice more.

HOW TO PERFORM WUDU


If bald/never had hair/long hair/braided: Sliding back not recommended, any of following suffices: I. Place hand w/o moving so that at least part of a single hair not below limits of head is wetted. II. Drip water on head w/o making it flow. III. Wash the head (If removing turban difficult: After wiping required minimum, may finish by wiping the turban.) 7. Then wipe ears inside/out with new water, thrice, then ear canals with little fingers & more new water, thrice. 8. Then wash feet up to & including anklebones thrice.

HOW TO PERFORM WUDU


If doubt that sunna of washing thrice not done, assume having washed least number sure of & do the rest. Right/Left hands, cheeks, & ears, r washed simultaneously, for others first right then left.

Wash face > is fard (i.e include part of the head/neck)& for arms/legs include > elbows/ankles, upto a maximum of whole upper arm/lower leg.
Wash all parts successively & w/o pause(in normal weather previous part shouldnt dry before begining the next). Though pause, even if long, neither invalidates wudu nor necessitates renewing of niyyah.

HOW TO PERFORM WUDU


After finishing, say: "I testify that there is no god but Allah, alone, without partner, and I testify that Muhammad is His slave and messenger. O Allah, make me one of the oftrepentant, one of the purified, one of Your goodly slaves. O Allah, I declare Your exaltedness above every imperfection and Your Praise. I testify their is no god but you. I ask Your forgiveness and turn to You in repentance." Supplications said for each limb washed, are not authenticated as being of the sunna.

OTHER

MUSTAHABBAT OF WUDU
1. Face the Qibla.

2. Dont talk unnecessarily. 3. Begin at top of the face & dont slap water on it. 4. Dont use < 1 mudd(0.51) water for wudu. 5. Dont use < 1 sa(2.03l) water for ghusl. 6. Dont dry off wudu water (valid excuse: illness/cold weather etc.) nor shake it off the hands. 7. Dont ask someone to pour water for wudu 8. Dont wipe the neck.

OTHER MUSTAHABBAT OF WUDU


If another pours water/using tap, begin washing arms/feet from the elbows/anklebones. Else begin washing arms/feet from fingers/toes. Reach water to inner corners of eyes, heels & such easy to neglect places, especially during winter. Moving ring to reach water under it= mustahab/fard. Saturate betn toes w/ left little finger: Begin at right little toe, from beneath, finish at left little toe. MAKRUHAAT OF WUDU 1. Having another wash one's limbs, w/o valid excuse 2. Washing left before right. 3. Wasting water.

OTHER PROVISIONS
If ANY amount of dirt/waterproof glue/paint/nail polish etc. on nails/skin prevents water = wudu/ghusl invalid. Doubt about having washed any part DURING wudu => Fard to rewash it & everything after it in the sequence. But if doubts AFTER wudu => no need to repeat anything. Renewing wudu post any fard/nafil salah = Mustahab.

Wudu is mustahab for janab who wishes to eat, drink, sleep etc.

WIPING

KHUFF (FOOTGEAR)

Wiping khuff with wet hands: Rukhsat. Khuff: Ankle-high, zip-up leather socks worn w/in shoes. Halal for 72 hours, on a sharaii journey. Halal for 24 hours if non traveller. Thereafter, a wudu w/o khuff restarts rukhsat duration. Rukhsat time starts at 1st hadath setting after putting on khuffs while in wudu. Wiping halal for only 24 hours if: 1. Wiped one/both khuffs THEN begun trip. 2. Wiped one/both when on trip then finished trip. 3. Doubt as to which of the above is the case. But for 72 hrs if wudu broke b4 departure & renewed by wiping while travelling.

WIPING

KHUFF

Cannot wipe while in doubt that rukhsat duration exists. (Rukhasa NOT taken if unsure that all prerequisites met) If unsure exactly when rukhsat duration began then assume the earliest possible start time.

If janaba sets in during rukhsat duration then MUST take off khuff for ghusl.
Conditions for this ruhsat to be permissible: 1. Full wudu when putting them on for first time. 1. Free of filth khuffs.

WIPING

KHUFF

3. Whole foot including anklebones covered by khuffs.

4. Waterproof khuffs: Water dripped on them drop by drop shouldnt reach the foot (if reaches through holes of seam's statues: excused) 5. Durable khuffs allowing walking upon attending to needs They may be of leather/felt/rag-layers/wood etc. (thick, wool socks if waterproof, not dress-socks) They may have cleavage laced up with eyelets (but none of foot must show). If ONE Khuff/foot shows through a hole: Wiping disallowed.

WIPING

KHUFF

Wiping khuffs on top/bottom/heel in lines, combing with fingers, w/o covering every part nor wiping more than once = SUNNA. Put left hand under heel & right on top of toes, draw right back towards shin while drawing left along bottom towards toes. Wiping some of upper surface (from foot-top to ankle-level) suffices. Wiping some of bottom/heel/side/inner surface doesnt. Wudu from masa-alal-khuffayn, then some part shows due taking off/through a hole: Merely washing feet again suffices, no need to repeat wudu.

GOING TO LAVATORY
Mustahab way of going to lavatory:

1. Wear footwear, unless valid excuse (ex: no shoes).


2. Cover the head (even if only with kerchief). 3. Leave back things bearing mention of Allah Most High, His Messenger (Allah bless him and give him peace), or any revered name (ex: of prophets, angels). If its a ring close the hand around it. 4. Ready stones/purifying agent to rid of filth. 5. Say: "In the name of Allah. O Allah, I take refuge in You from demons, male and female" B4 entry.

GOING TO LAVATORY
Mustahab way of going to lavatory: Say: "[O Lord,] Your forgiveness. Praise be to Allah who rid me of the hurt and gave me health after exit. 6. Entry: Left foot 1st, Exit: Right 1st (indoors/outdoors).

7. Raise garment only post squatting & lower b4 standing.


8. Put most of the weight on left foot. 9. Dont spend a long time. 10. Dont speak. 11. After urinating, lightly pressure the part with left hand from base to head thrice = Mustahab: if sure urine stopped/Fard if not sure.

GOING TO LAVATORY
Mustahab way of going to lavatory: 12. Relieving while standing= Makruh if no excuse. (x: standing saves clothes from soiling/sitting hardship). 13. Dont use water in the same place, if it splashes back 14. Distance & screen from others if outdoors. 15. Dont urinate into holes/hard surface/windy place/in waterways/where people gather/on paths/under fruit trees /near graves/in still water/in <216l of running water. 16. Dont relieve with front/rear facing sun/moon/Jerusalem.

GOING TO LAVATORY
Relieving on edibles/bones/things deserving respect/grave/ in mosque = Haram. Relieving with front/rear towards Qibla when outdoors & no barrier = Haram.

If indoors & w/in 1.5m of a barrier at least 32cm High or in a hole that deep then facing Qibla= Halal.
If lavatory walls are farther than 1.5m or shorter than 32cm then facing Qibla= Makruh. Fard to get rid of every impurity excreted except gas/dry worms/stones/excrement w/o moisture.

GOING TO LAVATORY
Cleaning agent not followed with water (ex: stones)should be: Solid, pure, remove filth, undeserving of respect, inedible. Fard to use water if: 1. 1st wash was with a liquid/something impure. 2. Soiling with filth from another source occurred. 3. Filth reached another part of body or dried. 4. Feces spread beyond inner buttocks/urine beyond head.

GOING TO LAVATORY
When cleaning only with a dry agent: Fard to remove filth + wipe 3ice With 3 pieces/3 sides of 1 piece. BUT fard to repeat till all removed. Traces not removable w/o water excused. Odd no. of strokes mustahab. Wipe front to back on right w/ 1st piece, left w/ 2nd, both sides & anus w/ 3rd. Begin at impurity free point on skin. Using right hand is makruh. Best to clean b4 wudu, cleaning later doesnt invalidate wudu (if no such acts occur) but tayammum.

HOW TO PERFORM GHUSL


1. Recite Basmala. 2. Remove any unclean pure/impure matter on body. 3. Perform wudu. 4. Pour water over head thrice, intending ghusl/lifting janaba/permission to offer salah while running the fingers through one's hair to saturate it.

5. Pour water over body's right 3ice, then left 3ice, Ensuring it reaches all joints/folds, while rubbing.

HOW TO PERFORM GHUSL


Things fard in ghusl: 1. Niyyah when using water 1st time. 2. Water should reach all hair to roots, skin, under nails, visible part of ear canals.* No harm if Wudu breaks during ghusl. Removing najasa & ghusl can be clubbed in a single wash.

Niyyah for fard ghusl & sunna ghusl of Friday can be clubbed in same ghusl but if one niyyah made then only that ghusl will be counted.
*
For womens issues refer e11.

HOW TO PERFORM GHUSL


Ghusl is sunna: 1. For attending Jumua Salah (time begins at dawn). 2. On 'eids (time begins at midnight). 3. Days of solar/linar eclipse. 4. Before drought prayer. 5. After washing deceased (wudu if touched a corpse). 6. After regaining sanity/consciousness having lost it. 7. B4 entering ihram, when entering Mecca/Medina, for standing at 'Arafa, for tawaf and saee, at al-Mash'ar al-Haram, each day of stoning at Mina.

TAYAMMUM
Preconditions for this rukhsat :

1. The earth be lifted to face/arms AFTER time for any time-bound salah (fard/nafil) has begun WITH CERTAINITY. Tayammum done midmorning for a Qada Fard salah suffices for zuhr if it set in b4 having prayed the qada/any qada.
2. It be performed with plain, purifying earth that contains dust, even the dust contained in sand. But not pure dust-free sand, earth mixed w/ flour etc, gypsum pottery shards, previously used earth (already on limbs or dusted off them).

TAYAMMUM
Preconditions for this rukhsat : 3. Inability to use water. Tayammum suffices in place of lifting all forms of ritual impurity permitting them everything that fard ghusl permits. A subsequent hadath is just that, not janaba UNTIL water found after which fard to do proper ghusl.

TAYAMMUM
Causes of inability to use water: LACK OF WATER No need to search for it if sure there is none. If there might be some, look through effects/inquire until asked the entire group & if too numerous then till there is no time left except for prayer. Instead of asking each person individually, simply call: "Who has water, even for aprice?" Then look around, if on level ground. If not, check on foot in range at which the group could be expected to respond to a cry for help, provided there is no threat to life or property. Or climb a nearby hill.

TAYAMMUM
Causes of inability to use water: LACK OF WATER

The search must occur after time for that salah sets. If no water found, do tayammum. No need to research b4 tayammum for next fard salah, provided mind unchanged about negative results of 1st search. But if didnt search exhaustively 1st/something suggests that there might now be water (x: rain clouds, riders) then fard to recheck for water.
If sure water will be found by waiting till last of prayer's time: better to wait. And vice versa.

TAYAMMUM
Causes of inability to use water: LACK OF WATER Getting water for wudu/clothes to cover awrah in salah:

Accepting water/bucket(if its the only means of water) as loan/gift = allowed but not their price.
If water/bucket available for sale at usual price for that locality/time, buying it = fard, provided: Money exceeds debts, even those not immediately due. Money exceeds need for journey's expenses, round trip.

TAYAMMUM
Causes of inability to use water: LACK OF WATER Getting water for wudu/clothes to cover awrah in salah: If someone doesnt sell water he doesnt need: taking by force not allowed, except when compelled by thirst, provided: Owner himself not thirsty. He is paid the normal price for that locality/time. If water found isnt enough to complete purification: use it till it lasts then tayammum in place of the rest. For hadath, start wit the face. For janaba mustahab to start at top of body.

TAYAMMUM
Causes of inability to use water:

FEAR OF THIRST
For self/worthy fellows/animals even if in future=> 1. Wudu/Ghusl = Haram. 2. Salah w/ tayammum w/o need to make up later (if lack of water predominates there). Worthy=> Whose killing = haram ex: trained hunting dog. Unworthy=> Kuffar at war with Muslims, murtads, convicted married adulterers, pigs, biting dogs.

TAYAMMUM
Causes of inability to use water:

ILLNESS
If wudu/ghusl likely to cause:

1. Harm to life/limb. 2. Disability. 3. Serious ailment. 4. Increase in/delay in recovery from ailment. 5. Severe pain. 6. Ill-effect ex: radical change in skin color on visible part of body.
To decide probability of above rely on knowledge of skilled physician (even if not Muslim)/previous experience.

TAYAMMUM
Causes of inability to use water: ILLNESS If any of above is due to injury then for Shafi'i : Wudu + Full tayammum on reaching injured part. If cast/dressing harmful to remove: Wudu MUST at 1st applcation, thereafter: wipe w/ water + Tayammum on reaching it. If bandage on face/arms: Repray all prayed w/ such wudu. Hanafi: Wudu + Wipe w/ wet hands to cover >50% of injury. But if above/removing bandage entails harm, cant reapply dressing w/ w/o help: Wudu + Wipe w/ wet hands to cover >50% of bandage. Being w/o hadath/janaba when putting bandage not MUST.

TAYAMMUM
Causes of inability to use water:

ILLNESS If any of above due to cold & no means of heating water or warming limbs later, then: Tayammum + Repray later.
When neither water nor earth: Fard to offer fard salah + make up when water/earth found. No need to make up if in a place where Tayammum suffices (ex: desert).

TAYAMMUM
FARD INTEGRALS:

1. Niyyah: Permission to perform fard salah/carry Quran etc. Niyyah of lifting hadath/fard taymmum = inadequate. For fard salah: Make niyyah of fard tayammum. Neednt specify WHICH salah. If niyyah for fard of zuhr, can instead pray asr, but not both. If Niyyah for both fard/nafil salah: Both may be prayed with same tayammum. But if niyyah for only nafil/janaza/simply salah: Cannot pray a fard.

TAYAMMUM
FARD INTEGRALS:

If Niyyah for both fard/nafil salah: Both may be prayed with same tayammum. But if niyyah for only nafil/janaza/simply salah: Cannot pray a fard. Make niyyah when 1st striking earth & continue until part of face wiped. 2,3. Touch earth with hands, shake excess dust, & convey it up to face/arms.

4,5. Wipe face, w/o missing under nose, & arms including elbows. 6. Maintain above sequence. 7. Strike earth 2ice. 1: For face 2: For arms. Reaching earth under hair of arms/face =/= Fard.

TAYAMMUM
SUNNAS:

1. Basmallah 2. Wiping upper face before lower. 3. Wiping right arm before left. 4. To wipe arms: Place left hand crosswise under right Left's fingers touching backs of rights Slide left hand upto right wrist.

TAYAMMUM
SUNNAS:

Next, curl fingers around side of right wrist Slide left hand to right elbow Turn left palm to rest it on top of right forearm with its thumb pointing away from self. Slide it back down to wrist & wipe back of right thumb with inside of left. Repeat above for left arm. Then interlace fingers, rubbing the palms together, & then dust hands off lightly. This method not fard. Any way that wipes all of both arms suffices. Separate fingers when striking the earth both times. Remove ring for the second b4 wiping the arms.

TAYAMMUM
NULLIFIERS:

1. What breaks wudu & mere belief, b4 starting to pray, that one can now get water (seeing a mirage/riders). 2. If this belief DURING a salah-to-be-made-up-later (no water at home):Then Tayammum breaks DURING salah.

(^: Salah with tayammum in a place where water generally exists for whole year HAS to b made up as it is a rare excuse. Making up a salah prayed w/o full ritual purity due a rare excuse= fard. Ex: Water cut off for a brief time. Not so if water seldom exists there ex: desert.)
Interrupting non-repraying salah for wudu = mustahab. Single tayammum suffices for multiple nawafil/sunan salah but not for multiple fard/vowed salah.