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ANGUL AR MOME NT UM

CHAPTER 11
PRODUCTO VECTORIAL
Existe instancias donde el producto de vectores
resultar ser otro vector.
Anteriormente se observo que el producto de dos vectores
tambin puede ser un escalar.
Ello es denominado producto punto y es aplicado a
circunstancias donde los vectores son paralelos.
El producto vectorial de dos vectores es
denominado producto cruz y es aplicado a
circunstancias donde los vectores son
perpendiculares.
PRODUCTO VECTORIAL Y TORQUE
El vector torque est en
una direccin
perpendicular al plano
formado por los
vectores posicin y
fuerza.
t = r x F
El torque es el producto
vectorial (o cruz) del
vector posicin y del
vector fuerza.
DEFINICIN DE PRODUCTO
VECTORIAL
Dado para dos vectores, A y B
El producto vectorial (cruz) de A y B es definido
como un tercer vector, C.
C es ledo como A cruz B
La magnitud de C es AB sen u
Donde, u es el ngulo entre A y B.
EL PRODUCTO VECTORIAL
El mdulo AB senu es
igual al rea del
paralelogramo formado
por los vectores A y B.
La direccin de C es
perpendicular al plano
formado por los vectores
A y B.
La mejor forma de
determinar la direccin
es usando la regla de la
mano derecha.

PROPIEDADES DEL PRODUCTO
VECTORIAL 1
El producto vectorial no es conmutativo. El orden en
la determinacin de la multiplicacin es importante.
Tomando en cuenta el orden, recordar:
A x B = - B x A
Si A es paralelo a B (u = 0
o
or 180
o
), luego, A x B = 0
De la misma manera: A x A = 0

Si A es perpendicular a B, luego |A x B| = AB

PROPIEDADES DEL PRODUCTO
VECTORIAL 2
El producto vectorial obedece a la ley distributiva:
A x (B + C) = A x B + A x C
La derivada del producto cruz con respecto a
determinadas variables tales como t es:


donde es importante para ejecutar la
multiplicacin el orden de A y B.

( )
d d d
dt dt dt
= +
A B
A B B A
PRODUCTO VECTORIAL CON
VECTORES UNITARIOS

0



= = =
= =
= =
= =
i i j j k k
i j j i k
j k k j i
k i i k j
( ) j i j i

=
Los signos son intercambiables en el producto cruz.
A x (-B) = - A x B



USANDO DETERMINANTES
El producto cruz tambin puede ser expresado
como:





Desarrollando cada determinante se obtiene:


y z x y
x z
x y z
y z x y
x z
x y z
A A A A
A A
A A A
B B B B
B B
B B B
= = +
i j k
A B i j k
( )
( )
( )

y z z y x z z x x y y x
A B A B A B A B A B A B = + A B i j k
VECTOR TORQUE, EJEMPLO
Dados los datos:




Determine t = ?

m )

00 . 5

00 . 4 (
N )

00 . 3

00 . 2 (
j i r
j i F
+ =
+ =

[(4.00 5.00 )N] [(2.00 3.00 )m]

[(4.00)(2.00) (4.00)(3.00)

(5.00)(2.00) (5.00)(3.00)

2.0 N m
t = = + +
= +
+ +
=
r F i j i j
i i i j
j i i j
k
MOMENTO ANGULAR 1
Considerando una partcula de masa m
determinado por el vector posicin r y movindose
con cantidad de movimiento p.

Adicionando el trmino
( )
= =

d
dt
d
dt
d
dt
t
t
p
r F r
r
p
r p
MOMENTO ANGULAR 2
El momento angular
instantneo L de una
partcula relativa al
origen O es definido
como el producto cruz
de del vector posicin
r y su cantidad de
movimiento
instantneo p de la
partcula.
L = r x p
TORQUE Y MOMENTO ANGULAR
El torque es relativo al momento angular.
De manera idntica como la fuerza se comporta
en la cantidad de movimiento.



Esto es la rotacin anlogo a la segunda ley
de Newton.
Et y L deben ser medidos respecto a un mismo
origen.
Valido para sistemas de referencia inerciales.
d
dt
t =

L
MOMENTO ANGULAR 3
The SI units of angular momentum are (kg
.
m
2
)/ s
Both the magnitude and direction of L depend on
the choice of origin
The magnitude of L = mvr sin |
| is the angle between p and r
The direction of L is perpendicular to the plane
formed by r and p

ANGULAR MOMENTUM OF A
PARTICLE, EXAMPLE
The vector L = r x p is
pointed out of the
diagram
The magnitude is
L = mvr sin 90
o
= mvr
sin 90
o
is used since v is
perpendicular to r
A particle in uniform
circular motion has a
constant angular
momentum about an
axis through the
center of its path
ANGULAR MOMENTUM OF A SYSTEM
OF PARTICLES
The total angular momentum of a system of
particles is defined as the vector sum of the angular
momenta of the individual particles
L
tot
= L
1
+ L
2
+ + L
n
= EL
i
Differentiating with respect to time

tot i
i
i i
d d
dt dt
t = =

L L
ANGULAR MOMENTUM OF A SYSTEM
OF PARTICLES, CONT
Any torques associated with the internal
forces acting in a system of particles are
zero

Therefore,

The net external torque acting on a system about
some axis passing through an origin in an inertial
frame equals the time rate of change of the total
angular momentum of the system about that
origin
tot
ext
d
dt
t =

L
ANGULAR MOMENTUM OF A SYSTEM
OF PARTICLES, FINAL
The resultant torque acting on a system about an
axis through the center of mass equals the time rate
of change of angular momentum of the system
regardless of the motion of the center of mass
This applies even if the center of mass is accelerating,
provided t and L are evaluated relative to the center of
mass
ANGULAR MOMENTUM OF A
ROTATING RIGID OBJECT
Each particle of the
object rotates in the
xy plane about the z
axis with an angular
speed of e
The angular
momentum of an
individual particle is L
i

= m
i
r
i
2
e
L and e are directed
along the z axis
ANGULAR MOMENTUM OF A
ROTATING RIGID OBJECT, CONT
To find the angular momentum of the entire object,
add the angular momenta of all the individual
particles


This also gives the rotational form of Newtons
Second Law

2
z i i i
i i
L L m r I e e = = =

ext
z
dL d
I I
dt dt
e
t o = = =

ANGULAR MOMENTUM OF A
ROTATING RIGID OBJECT, FINAL
The rotational form of Newtons Second Law
is also valid for a rigid object rotating about
a moving axis provided the moving axis:
(1) passes through the center of mass
(2) is a symmetry axis
If a symmetrical object rotates about a fixed
axis passing through its center of mass, the
vector form holds: L = Ie
where L is the total angular momentum measured
with respect to the axis of rotation
ANGULAR MOMENTUM OF A
BOWLING BALL
The momentum of
inertia of the ball is
2/5MR
2

The angular
momentum of the
ball is L
z
= Ie
The direction of
the angular
momentum is in
the positive z
direction

CONSERVATION OF ANGULAR
MOMENTUM
The total angular momentum of a system is
constant in both magnitude and direction if
the resultant external torque acting on the
system is zero
Net torque = 0 -> means that the system is
isolated
L
tot
= constant or L
i
= L
f

For a system of particles, L
tot
= EL
n
= constant
CONSERVATION OF ANGULAR
MOMENTUM, CONT
If the mass of an isolated system
undergoes redistribution, the moment
of inertia changes
The conservation of angular momentum
requires a compensating change in the
angular velocity
I
i
e
i
= I
f
e
f
This holds for rotation about a fixed axis and for
rotation about an axis through the center of mass of a
moving system
The net torque must be zero in any case
CONSERVATION LAW SUMMARY
For an isolated system -
(1) Conservation of Energy:
E
i
= E
f
(2) Conservation of Linear Momentum:
p
i
= p
f
(3) Conservation of Angular Momentum:
L
i
= L
f

CONSERVATION OF ANGULAR
MOMENTUM:
THE MERRY-GO-ROUND
The moment of inertia
of the system is the
moment of inertia of
the platform plus the
moment of inertia of
the person
Assume the person can
be treated as a particle
As the person moves
toward the center of
the rotating platform,
the angular speed will
increase
To keep L constant
MOTION OF A TOP
The only external
forces acting on the
top are the normal
force n and the
gravitational force M
g
The direction of the
angular momentum L
is along the axis of
symmetry
The right-hand rule
indicates that t = r F
= r M g is in the xy
plane
MOTION OF A TOP, CONT
The direction of d L is parallel to that of t in part. The
fact that L
f
= d L + L
i
indicates that the top precesses
about the z axis.
The precessional motion is the motion of the symmetry axis
about the vertical
The precession is usually slow relative to the spinning motion
of the top
GYROSCOPE
A gyroscope can be
used to illustrate
precessional motion
The gravitational force
Mg produces a torque
about the pivot, and
this torque is
perpendicular to the
axle
The normal force
produces no torque

GYROSCOPE, CONT
The torque results in a
change in angular
momentum d L in a
direction perpendicular
to the axle. The axle
sweeps out an angle d|
in a time interval dt.
The direction, not the
magnitude, of L is
changing
The gyroscope
experiences
precessional motion

GYROSCOPE, FINAL
To simplify, assume the angular momentum due to
the motion of the center of mass about the pivot is
zero
Therefore, the total angular momentum is L = Ie due to its
spin
This is a good approximation when e is large

PRECESSIONAL FREQUENCY
Analyzing the previous vector triangle, the rate at
which the axle rotates about the vertical axis can
be found


e
p
is the precessional frequency

p
d Mgh
dt I
|
e
e
= =
GYROSCOPE IN A SPACECRAFT
The angular momentum
of the spacecraft about
its center of mass is zero
A gyroscope is set into
rotation, giving it a
nonzero angular
momentum
The spacecraft rotates in
the direction opposite to
that of the gyroscope
So the total momentum
of the system remains
zero
ANGULAR MOMENTUM AS A
FUNDAMENTAL QUANTITY
The concept of angular momentum is also
valid on a submicroscopic scale
Angular momentum has been used in the
development of modern theories of atomic,
molecular and nuclear physics
In these systems, the angular momentum
has been found to be a fundamental
quantity
Fundamental here means that it is an intrinsic
property of these objects
It is a part of their nature
FUNDAMENTAL ANGULAR
MOMENTUM
Angular momentum has discrete values
These discrete values are multiples of a
fundamental unit of angular momentum
The fundamental unit of angular momentum is h-
bar


Where h is called Plancks constant


2
34
kg m
1.054 10
2 s
h
t

= =
ANGULAR MOMENTUM OF A
MOLECULE
Consider the
molecule as a rigid
rotor, with the two
atoms separated by a
fixed distance
The rotation occurs
about the center of
mass in the plane of
the page with a
speed of

CM
I
e ~
CLASSICAL IDEAS IN SUBATOMIC
SYSTEMS
Certain classical concepts and models are
useful in describing some features of atomic and
molecular systems
Proper modifications must be made
A wide variety of subatomic phenomena can be
explained by assuming discrete values of the
angular momentum associated with a particular
type of motion
NIELS BOHR
Niels Bohr was a Danish physicist
He adopted the (then radical) idea of discrete
angular momentum values in developing his theory
of the hydrogen atom
Classical models were unsuccessful in describing many
aspects of the atom
BOHRS HYDROGEN ATOM
The electron could occupy only those circular orbits
for which the orbital angular momentum was equal
to n
where n is an integer
This means that orbital angular momentum is
quantized