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DATE-8 FEB 13

Aerodynamics

How do those things really fly?
ABHISHEK DANGI
ROLL NO.
1006447001
Airbus 380
An aerodynamics challenge
FA-18 Condensation Pattern
Aerodynamics involves multiple flow regimes
Legacy Aircraft
Aerodynamics is a maturing science
Outline

Terms and Definitions
Forces Acting on Airplane
Lift
Drag
Concluding remarks
Terms and Nomenclature
Airfoil
Angle of attack
Angle of incidence
Aspect Ratio
Boundary Layer
Camber
Chord
Mean camber line
Pressure coefficient
Relative wind
Reynolds Number
Thickness
Trailing edge
Wing platform
Wingspan
Force Diagram

Airfoil Definitions

Definition of Lift, Drag & Moment

L = 1/2 V
2
C
L
S
D = 1/2 V
2
C
D
S
M = 1/2 V
2
C
M
S c
A Misconception
A fluid element that splits at the leading edge and
travels over and under the airfoil will meet at the
trailing edge.
The distance traveled over the top is greater than over the
bottom.
It must therefore travel faster over the top to meet at the
trailing edge.
According to Bernoullis equation, the pressure is lower on
the top than on the bottom.
Hence, lift is produced.
How Lift is Produced
Continuity equation
Bernoullis equation
Pressure differential
Lift is produced
The Truth
A fluid element moving over the top surface leaves
the trailing edge long before the fluid element
moving over the bottom surface reaches the
trailing edge.
The two elements do not meet at the trailing edge.
This result has been validated both experimentally
and computationally.
Airfoil Lift Curve (c
l
vs. o)

Lift Curve - Cambered &
Symmetric Airfoils

Slow Flight and Steep Turns
L = 1/2 V
2
C
L
S
Outcome versus Action
Slow Flight
Lift equals weight
Velocity is decreased
C
L
must increase
o must be increased on the lift curve
Velocity can be reduced until C
L

max
is
reached
Beyond that, a stall results

Slow Flight and Steep Turns
L = 1/2 V
2
C
L
S
Outcome versus Action
(Concluded)
Steep Turns (Bank, yank and crank)
Lift vector is rotated inward (bank) by the bank
angle reducing the vertical component of lift
Lift equals weight divided by cosine |
Either V (crank), C
L
or both must be increased to
replenish lift
To increase C
L
, increase o (yank) on the lift curve
To increase V, give it some gas
More effective since lift is proportional to the velocity
squared
Stalling Airfoil

Effect of Bank Angle on Stall
Speed

L = 1/2 V
2
C
L
S
| equals the bank angle
At stall C
L
equals C
Lmax

L = W / cos |
Thus
V
stall
= [2 W / ( C
L max
S cos |)]
1/2

Airplane thus stalls at a higher speed
Load factor increases in a bank
Thus as load factor increases, V
stall
increases
This is whats taught in the Pilots Handbook

Surface Oil Flow - Grumman Yankee
o = 4
0
,

11
0
, &

24
0

Drag of an Airfoil
D = D
f
+ D
p
+ D
w

D = total drag on airfoil
D
f
= skin friction drag
D
p
= pressure drag due to
flow separation
D
w
= wave drag (for transonic
and supersonic flows)
Skin Friction Drag
The flow at the surface of the airfoil adheres to
the surface (no-slip condition)
A boundary layer is created-a thin viscous
region near the airfoil surface
Friction of the air at the surface creates a
shear stress
The velocity profile in the boundary layer goes
from zero at the wall to 99% of the free-
stream value
t = (dV/dy)
wall

is the dynamic viscosity of air [3.73 (10)
-7

sl/f/s]
The Boundary Layer
Two types of viscous flows
Laminar
Streamlines are smooth and regular
Fluid element moves smoothly along streamline
Produces less drag
Turbulent
Streamlines break up
Fluid element moves in a random, irregular and
tortuous fashion
Produces more drag
t
w laminar
< t
w turbulent
Reynolds Number
Re
x
= V

x /
Ratio of inertia to viscous forces
Boundary Layer Thickness
(Flat Plate)
Laminar Flow
o = 5 x / R
ex
1/2

Turbulent Flow
o = 0.16 x / R
ex
1/7

Turbulent Flow-Tripped B.L.
o = 0.37 x / R
ex
1/5

Example: Chord = 5 f, V

= 150 MPH, Sea

Level
R
ex
= 6,962,025
o = 0.114 inches Laminar B.L.
o = 1.011 inches Turbulent B.L.
o = 7.049 inches Tripped Turbulent B.L.
Infinite vs. Finite Wings
Finite Wings
The Origin of Downwash
The Origin of Induced Drag

D
i
= L sin o
i
Elliptical Lift Distribution
C
D,I
= C
L
2
/ (te AR)
Change in Lift Curve Slope
for Finite Wings
Ground Effect
Occurs during landing and takeoff
Gives a feeling of floating or riding on a
cushion of air between wing and ground
In fact, there is no cushion of air
Its effect is to increase the lift of the wing and
reduce the induced drag
The ground diminishes the strength of the wing
tip vortices and reduces the amount of
downwash
The effective angle of attack is increased and
lift increases
Ground Effect
(Concluded)
Mathematically Speaking
L = 1/2

2
S C
L

An increased angle of attack, increases C
L

Hence L is increased
D = 1/2

2
S [C
D,0
+ | C
L
2
/(t e AR)]
C
D,0
is the zero lift drag (parasite)
| C
L
2
/(t e AR) is the induced drag
e is the span efficiency factor
| = (16 h / b)
2
/ [1 + (16 h / b)
2
]
b is the wingspan
h is the height of the wing above the ground

Wing Dihedral (I)
Wings are bent upward
through an angle I, called
the dihedral angle
Dihedral provides lateral
stability, i.e., an airplane in
equilibrium position
This is a result of the lift on
the higher wing being less
than the lift on the lower
wing providing a restoring
rolling moment
Drag of a Finite Wing
D = D
f
+ D
p
+ D
w
+ D
i

D = total drag on wing
D
f
= skin friction drag
D
p
= pressure drag due to
flow separation
D
w
= wave drag (for transonic
and supersonic flows)
D
i
= Induced drag (drag due to
lift)
Drag of a Wing
(Continued)
Induced drag - drag due to
lift
Parasite drag - drag due to
non-lifting surfaces
Profile drag
Skin friction
Pressure drag (Form drag)
Interference drag (e.g., wing-
fuselage, wing-pylon)
Flaps
A Mechanism for High Lift
Effect of Flaps on Lift Curve
High Lift Devices
1. No flap
2. Plain flap
3. Split flap
4. L. E. slat
5. Single slotted flap
6. Double-slotted flap
7. Double-slotted flap
with slat
8. Double-slotted flap
with slat and
boundary layer
suction
9. Not shown - Fowler
flap

Shape Comparison
Modern vs. Conventional Airfoils

Maximum Lift Coefficient Comparison
Modern vs. Conventional Airfoils
Whats Next on the Agenda
Boeing 787 Dreamliner
Boeing 787
Whats Next on the Agenda
Boeing Blended Wing-Body Configuration
Boeing 797
Concluding Remarks
What was not discussed
Transonic flow
Drag-divergence Mach number
Supersonic flow
Wave drag
Swept wings
Compressibility effects
Boundary layer theory
The history of aerodynamics
Airbus 380 Interior
Good aerodynamics results in improved creature comforts
Winglets
Reduced induced drag
Equivalent to extending
wingspan 1/2 of winglet
height
Less wing bending moment
and less wing weight than
extending wing
Hinders spanwise flow and
pressure drop at the wing
tip
Looks modern/esthetically
pleasing
Boeing 737 Winglet
HondaJet
HondaJet
Engine Position
The Sweet Spot
Location where the engine coexists with the wing
and enjoys favorable interference effects
The reason - Transonic Area Rule
Richard Whitcomb - NASA Scientist
The total cross-sectional area must vary smoothly
from the nose to tail to minimize the wave drag
Wave drag is created by shock waves that appear
over the aircraft as a result of local regions of
embedded supersonic flow
HondaJet Aerodynamics
Engine inlet is positioned at 75% chord
As the cross-sectional area decreases at the trailing
edge of the wing, the engine adds area thus
yielding a smooth area variation
This engine position also slows the flow and
decreases the wing-shock strength
The critical Mach number is thus increased from
.70 to .73
The pylon is positioned near the outer portion of
the nacelle and cambered inward to follow the flow
direction
During stall, separation starts outboard of the
pylon; separation does not occur between the
pylon and fuselage
HondaJet
Aerodynamics
(Continued)
Natural laminar flow fuselage nose
Following the area rule, the nose expands
from its tip and then contracts as the
windshield emerges.
As the wing is approached, the fuselage
cross-sectional area increases smoothly;
this helps maintain the laminar flow
HondaJet
Aerodynamics
(Concluded)
Natural laminar flow wing
Utilizes integral, machined panels that
minimizes the number of parts for smoother
flow when mated together
Employs winglets to reduce induced drag
30% more efficient than other business jets
Eagle in Flight
Winglets
Elastic Flaps
Minimized Noise
& Detectability
Variable
Camber
Retractable Landing Gear
STOL/VTOL
Capabilities
Smart Structures
Tilting
Control
Center Smooth
Fairings
Variable
Twist
Dihedral
Turbulator
Tail ?
b/2
c
c
d,i
= c
l
2
/
AR
c
l
= 2 L/
V
2
S