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Kuliah 2b

Tenaga: TD & KT.

Dr.Mohd Zin Kandar

Tenaga Diperbaharui

Tenaga Diperbaharui (TD)

Definisi Tenaga lestari yang diperolehi terus dari persekitaran semula jadi melalui suatu makanisma tertentu bagi menghasilkan tenaga haba atau elektrik.

Malaysia dan Strategi Tenaga Kelima (TD)

Kerajaan mempunyai polisi dan strategi untuk memperkenal dan membangunkan serta meningkatkan keupayaan penghasilan Tenaga Kelima. Ia adalah tenaga diperbaharui (TD). Sasaran kerajaan ialah agar TD dapat menyumbang penghasilan elektrik sebanyak 5% dalam jangka masa terdekat dari Keperluan Elektrik negara.

Tenaga Diperbaharui









Solar Thermal

Solar Photovoltaics

Water Heating


PV Power Generation




Box Cookers

Concentrator Cooker

Collector Cookers

India is the 1st in the World in the number of Solar Cookers Produced


555,000 Box Solar Cookers Sold Cost : $ 30 40

Has a Single Reflector
Has a Single Glass Cover Measures : 0.6 Sq.M Weight : 12 Kgs Four Al / Steel Cooking Pots for 4 Dishes Operated on Castor Wheels Outer Case : Al / Fiber Glass Savings : 3 4 LPG Cylinders per year Certain Cookers have Electrical Auxiliary Heating

THE CONCENTRATOR COOKER A Dish Cooker at a Roadside Restaurant


- Cooks for 15 People - Cost:. $75 $120 - The temperature achieved could be around 350 to 400o C which is sufficient for roasting,frying and boiling - Over 2000 Concentrating Cookers Sold

Pemanasan suria air panas

Pengumpul suria Penyimpan air panas

Pemanasan suria air panas

Pemanasan suria air panas

Awana Kijal

Pemanasan suria air panas

Solar Thermal Power Plant

Fotovolta Tenaga Elektrik Suria


Cahaya matahari ditukar terus menjadi tenaga elektrik oleh sel suria

Fotovolta (PV) Tenaga Elektrik Suria

Photovoltaics (PV) or solar cells as they are often referred to, are semiconductor devices that convert sunlight into direct current (DC) electricity. Groups of PV cells are electrically configured into modules and arrays, which can be used to charge batteries, operate motors, and to power any number of electrical loads. With the appropriate power conversion equipment, PV systems can produce alternating current (AC) compatible with any conventional appliances, and operate in parallel with and interconnected to the utility grid.


Fotovolta Tenaga Elektrik Suria

Lakaran skimatik sistem PV disambung dengan Sistem Grid

Fotovolta Tenaga Elektrik Suria

The performance of PV modules and arrays are generally rated according to their maximum DC power output (watts) under Standard Test Conditions (STC). Standard Test Conditions are defined by a module (cell) operating temperature of 25o C (77 F), and incident solar irradiance level of 1000 W/m2 and under Air Mass 1.5 spectral distribution. Since these conditions are not always typical of how PV modules and arrays operate in the field, actual performance is usually 85 to 90 percent of the STC rating. Todays photovoltaic modules are extremely safe and reliable products, with minimal failure rates and projected service lifetimes of 20 to 30 years. Due to the diffuse nature of sunlight and the existing sunlight to electrical energy conversion efficiencies of photovoltaic devices, surface area requirements for PV array installations are on the order of 8 to 12 m^2 (86 to 129 ft^2) per kilowatt of installed peak array capacity.

Fotovolta Tenaga Elektrik Suria

Solar Street Light

Diagram of stand-alone PV system with battery storage powering DC

Fotovolta Tenaga Elektrik Suria

Solar Lantern

Fotovolta Tenaga Elektrik Suria

PV untuk pelbagai aplikasi
PV Solar House

Solar Pumps

Solar Pumps

Fotovolta Tenaga Elektrik Suria : Tadika, Kyoto.

PV untuk pelbagai aplikasi

Fotovolta Tenaga Elektrik Suria: EcoCentre Kyoto

PV untuk pelbagai aplikasi

PV at Keyocera HQ : KyotAplikasi PV untuk pelbagai aplikasi lain PV : Penanda jalanAplikasi lain PV : Sistem tanda jalan

Sumber Tenaga dari biojisim

Palm oil waste:
88.7 boe/ha/yr 5 % of energy utilization (500 MW by 2005) One of main export earner Other options for usage Limited numbers of palm oil mills (~ 400) Palm Diesel

Other sources:
Logging, rubber, paddy, coconut, cocoa etc

Sumber Tenaga dari biojisim

Kayu, sisa hutan, habuk kayu digergaji dsb. Sisa daripada bekalan makanan, sekam padi dsb. Bahan api bio, minyak kelapa sawit, etanol dsb. Sampah-sarap, bahan buangan perbandaran

Biojisim (biomass)

Tenaga daripada sisa pokok kelapa sawit

Biji pokok kelapa sawit segar

Janakuasa Tenaga elektrik

Minyak kelapa sawit

-Batang -Sabut -tempurung

Penjanaan Tenaga Elektrik dari biojisim buangan perbandaran

Tenaga daripada biogas

Tangki fermentasi anaerobik penghasilan biogas dari najis haiwan

- Biogas is a clean, non-polluting and low cost fuel - Contains about 55 to 75 per cent methane - Produced from cattle dung, human waste and other organic matter - Indias position 2nd in the World in Bio Gas

- Cumulative Achievement 3.62 Million Bio-Gas Plants

Bio-gas Program : -

Provide fuel for cooking and organic manure to rural households

Mitigate drudgery of rural women Reduce pressure on forest Improve sanitation in villages by linking toilets with biogas plants.

Tenaga hidro

Loji kuasa hidro

yang besar

Loji kuasa hidro mini

Tenaga hidro
Electric Power System

Electricity is generated when a loop of conducting wire rotates in a magnetic field. In a hydroelectric plant, water falling over a dam turns turbines that spin the generators that produce electricity.

Tenaga hidro
Kebaikan Tenaga hidro Boleh menyimpan tenaga Takungan air
Pengawalan banjir Pengairan Bekalan air minum

Tenaga daripada angin

Telah digunakan sejak beberapa lama
Kincir, bekalan air, pengairan dll

Skala ekonomi Tenaga (laju angin)3 Julat laju angin 4 25 m/s Mekanikal elektrikal

Tenaga daripada angin

Tenaga daripada angin

Demo house Kyoto Jepun

GEOTERMA (Kepanasan Bumi)

GEOTERMA (Kepanasan Bumi)

Kepanasan bumi dibawa ke pusat janakuasa untuk menghasilkan elektrik

Landfill Gas
It may surprise you to learn that landfills are the source of an increasingly valuable commodity energy. All landfills generate a by-product known as landfill gas, which is an excellent source of renewable energy. Landfill gas (LFG) can be used either directly by industry or to generate electricity for public consumption. In fact, when landfill gas is handled effectively instead of being released into the environment, this previously ignored resource has a lot to offer. Landfill gas contains approximately 50 percent methane, which makes it an excellent source of energy. On the down side, methane has a global warming potential of 21 relative to CO2. In other words, one tonne of methane produces the same greenhouse gas (GHG) effect as 21 tonnes of CO2. Capturing and converting LFG into energy prevents it from escaping into the atmosphere.

Bumi semakin uzur disebabkan pembangunan TD perlu diperhebat Tenaga suria mungkin satu-satunya sumber