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Structural Actions

Permanent Actions
Design Elements
Structural Design
Consider different service scenarios
possible during the life of the structure
Structural design aims to select systems and
members that will perform satisfactorily for
a given environment (including actions)
Scenarios
Actions
Check all scenarios



Evaluate actions on structure Action Effects
Detail




Determine design action effects on
elements
Check for all action effect
combinations
Design elements for adequate
performance at the loads for various
limit states
Check for all action effect
combinations





Detail for construction
Designers must make realistic,
but conservative assumptions
Actions and their Effects
Action
any set of displacements or forces acting on
an element or structure
eg weight, wind pressure, earthquake, ground movement
Action Effect
internal structural effect caused by actions
eg bending moment, axial force, shear force
Design Actions
Values of actions estimated for evaluation
of performance prior to construction
STRUCTURAL ACTIONS
Origin
permanent (G)
imposed (Q)
wind (W)
earthquake (E)
snow (F
sn
)
other
Characteristics of actions
Confidence
known
estimated
Distribution
distributed
concentrated

Duration
long-term
short-term
Return period
frequent event
rare event
Origin of action
Consider anticipated use of the
structure
what events will apply actions to
the structure during its lifetime?
Permanent (G)
Imposed (Q)
Wind (W)
Earthquake (E)
Snow (F
sn
)
Other
Structure will be subjected to a combination of
different actions over its lifetime - must design for all
possible scenarios
Distribution
Distributed -
forces applied over large area
eg. Crowds, wind pressure...


distributed
concentrated
Assume concentrated loads act in the worst position
Often put many concentrated loads together as a distributed loading
Concentrated -
forces applied over specific,
localised area
eg load-bearing wall or column,
feet of machinery or furniture...


Confidence / certainty
Reflects how accurately we can predict the actions
that will be applied to the structure during its
lifetime.
Known - well defined
data obtained from manufacturer
usually imposed actions eg machinery,
filing cabinets, shelving, hoists or jacks
used in construction
known
estimated
Estimated -
environmental actions eg. wind, earthquake actions
occupancy imposed actions eg. crowds


When in doubt, make conservative assumptions
Duration
Important for composite materials
(concrete, fibreglass, timber) that may creep
longer-term
shorter-term
Shorter-term < 5 months, wind, instantaneous
Peak events tend to be of shorter duration
eg: crowds, wind gusts, earthquakes
Instantaneous gives elastic response only

Longer-term > 5 months, permanent
eg: self-weight of structure, semi/permanent
installed items, longer-term storage,
furniture
Can cause increase in deformations
due to creep - serviceability issues
For some materials may cause decrease in strength over time
Frequent events
may be of longer duration
lower intensity
low return period
Rare events
often shorter duration
high intensity
large return period
Return period
Variable loads may have a range of magnitudes
imposed, wind, snow, earthquake actions

frequent event
rare event
Intensity
Return period
1 10 100 1000
PERMANENT ACTIONS
Forces caused by weight of structure itself including:
Permanent stored
materials
Prestressing forces
< AS/NZS 1170.1 Section 2 >
All structural members,
permanent cladding
Permanent equipment - fixtures and fittings
machinery, wiring, airconditioning
Self-weight of structure
Things that dont change in the life of the structure
Permanent partitions
Characteristics of Permanent Actions
Known
Most manufactured building
materials
AS/NZS 1170.1 tabulates
densities and unit weights for
common building materials
Estimated
If densities, dimensions,
moisture content vary
Permanent
longer duration
Distributed - floors and roofs
except under columns
Permanent Actions - Design summary
G1 Analyse structure
find tributary areas
G2 Convert area to weight force using
unit weight per area <AS/NZS 1170.1 Table A2>
density <AS/NZS 1170.1 Table A1>
G3 Calculate action effect due to permanent action
using analysis of structural form
axial tension
axial compression
bending moment
shear force
reaction force
These effects are
used in design of
specific members and
connections
Tributary Areas
Can use approximate analyses to determine contributory areas
Floor carrying udl (kPa)
Bearer
Floor joists
Bearer spacing
Lines midway between supports divide
systems into areas contributing to supports
Half bearer
spacing
Tributary area
central bearer
Tributary Areas
More complicated shapes can also be addressed eg hip rafter in a roof
Hip rafter
Eaves line
Rafters spanning
eaves to hip
Rafters spanning
eaves to ridge
Ridge beam
Loading diagram
Bending moment diagram
Tributary
area
Line connecting mid points
of rafters spanning
eaves to hip
Load Paths
Tracking forces through structure
gravity loads on floor
give axial force in
columns
joist
bearer
column
Load Path & Tributary Area
Tributary area of bearer
Line midway
between bearers
Load Path & Tributary Area
Tributary Area of
Upper Column
Line midway
between columns
Line midway
between columns
Load Path & Tributary Area
Tributary Area of
Lower Column
Line midway
between columns
Line midway
between columns
Line midway
between columns
Line midway
between columns
Permanent Actions - worked example
Example 2.2 (HB108-1998)
Permanent actions on internal bearer
The tributary area for the internal floor bearer is a strip 2.4 m
wide that runs the length of the bearer.
Find the permanent actions on the internal bearer, and the moment
and shear force that the permanent actions induce in the members.
Additional information
Flooring 19mm particleboard (Unit weight = 0.13kN/m
2
)
Joists 140 x 45 F8 seasoned radiata pine (estimate) Check
Bearers 245 x 65 glulam radiata pine (estimate) Check
No walls and partitions fall within the tributary area Check
Worked example
Particle board flooring
External bearer
Internal bearer
Joists
3.6 m
450
2.4 m
Worked example
Flooring
Area contributing in one metre length of bearer is m
2

Weight of flooring in tributary area kN/m
(Table 2.3 HB108)

24 10 24 . . . =
2 4 013 031 . . . =
The bearer is a linear member and load per metre is used to find the
bending moment and shear force. The calculations will therefore
determine the load per linear metre on the bearer.
G1 Tributary area for the bearer
The tributary area ran the full length of the bearer ( 3.6 m) and
took in 1.2 m on both sides of the bearer centre-line.
G2 Weight of structure in the tributary area
Each of the calculations will be performed for a 1 m length of bearer.
Worked example
Volume of joist contributing m
3
/m


<AS 1720.1 Table 2.2> gives density of seasoned radiata pine as 550 kg/m
3
Mass of joist contributing kg/m

Weight of joist contributing N/m kN/m

533 014 0 045 336 10
3
. . . . =

550 336 10 185
3
=

. .
185 981 . .
= 0181 .
Joists
Length of joist contributing in one metre length of bearer


m 33 . 5
45 . 0
0 . 1
4 . 2 =
|
.
|

\
|

Bearer
Volume of bearer in 1 m m
3
/m

<AS 1720.1 Table 2.2> gives density of seasoned radiata pine as 550 kg/m
3
Mass of bearer contributing kg/m

Weight of bearer contributing N/m kN/m

Worked example
10 0 245 0 065 159 10
3
. . . . =

550 159 10 8 75
3
=

. .
875 981 . . 086 . 0 =
Total permanent action on the bearer kN/m
(a uniformly distributed line load)
The permanent action is by nature permanent - a longer
duration loading

031 0181 0086 058 . . . . + + =
Worked example
G3 Moment and shear force due to permanent action
The permanent action was a uniformly distributed line load over the
full length of the bearer. Assuming simply supported at the ends of the
bearer.
Bending moment due to permanent action
M
w L
= =

=
2 2
8
058 36
8
0940
. .
. kNm
Shear force due to permanent action
V
w L
= =

=
2
058 36
2
104
. .
.
kNm
Both of these action effects are permanent in duration
No load factors have been included in the actions or
action effects