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Transparencias preparadas para Tanenbaum, A. 2011. Computer Networks, 5th edition. Pearson Education 12/3/2011 Prentice Hall

Computer Networks, Fifth Edition by Andrew Tanenbaum and David Wetherall, Pearson Education-Prentice Hall,

Tipos de canales y sus modos de acceso


Enlace

punto a punto

Protocolo

PPP Protocolo HDLC


Enlace
Se

de difusin

usan protocolos de acceso mltiple El protocolo ideal debera, para un canal de R bps, tener las siguientes caractersticas:
Cuando

haya solo un nodo con datos para tx se le asignar R bps. Cuando haya M nodos con datos pata tx, cada nodo tendr una tasa de R/M bps (tasa media) El protocolo ser descentralizado, esto es, no habr nodo maestro que pueda ser fuente de fallo El protocolo ser simple
22 12/3/2011
Computer Networks, Fifth Edition by Andrew Tanenbaum and David Wetherall, Pearson Education-Prentice Hall,

Tipos de canales y sus modos de acceso


Enlace

de difusin

Protocolos

de particionamiento del canal (TDM, FDM, CDMA) Protocolos de acceso aleatorio (ALOHA, CSMA) Protocolos de toma de turnos

Protocolo de sondeo Protocolo de paso de testigo

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12/3/2011

Computer Networks, Fifth Edition by Andrew Tanenbaum and David Wetherall, Pearson Education-Prentice Hall,

Problema de Asignacin del Canal


Asignacin

esttica del canal Supuestos para asignacin dinmica

44

12/3/2011

Computer Networks, Fifth Edition by Andrew Tanenbaum and David Wetherall, Pearson Education-Prentice Hall,

Supuestos para la asignacin dinmica del canal


Trfico

independiente Canal nico Colisiones observables Tiempo continuo o ranurado Deteccin de portadora o no deteccin de portadora

55

12/3/2011

Computer Networks, Fifth Edition by Andrew Tanenbaum and David Wetherall, Pearson Education-Prentice Hall,

Protocolos de Acceso Mltiple


ALOHA Carrier

Sense Multiple Access (acceso mltiple con deteccin de portadora) Protocolos libres de colisiones Protocolos con contencin limitada Protocolos LAN inalmbrica

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12/3/2011

Computer Networks, Fifth Edition by Andrew Tanenbaum and David Wetherall, Pearson Education-Prentice Hall,

ALOHA (1)
User A B C D E

Collision

Time

Collision

En ALOHA puro, las tramas se transmiten en momentos completamente arbitrarios.


77 12/3/2011
Computer Networks, Fifth Edition by Andrew Tanenbaum and David Wetherall, Pearson Education-Prentice Hall,

ALOHA (2)

Perodo vulnerable para la trama sombreada.


88 12/3/2011
Computer Networks, Fifth Edition by Andrew Tanenbaum and David Wetherall, Pearson Education-Prentice Hall,

ALOHA (3)

Rendimiento total (throughput) versus trfico ofrecido por sistemas ALOHA.


99 12/3/2011
Computer Networks, Fifth Edition by Andrew Tanenbaum and David Wetherall, Pearson Education-Prentice Hall,

CSMA Persistente y No persistente

Comparacin de la utilizacin del canal versus la carga para varios protocolos de acceso aleatorio.
1010 12/3/2011
Computer Networks, Fifth Edition by Andrew Tanenbaum and David Wetherall, Pearson Education-Prentice Hall,

CSMA con Deteccin de Colisiones

CSMA/CD puede estar en uno de tres estados: contencin, transmisin o inactivo.


1111 12/3/2011
Computer Networks, Fifth Edition by Andrew Tanenbaum and David Wetherall, Pearson Education-Prentice Hall,

Protocolos sin Colisiones (1)

Protocolo bsico de mapa de bits.


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Computer Networks, Fifth Edition by Andrew Tanenbaum and David Wetherall, Pearson Education-Prentice Hall,

Protocolos sin Colisiones (2)


Token

Station

Direction of transmiss ion

Token ring.
1313 12/3/2011
Computer Networks, Fifth Edition by Andrew Tanenbaum and David Wetherall, Pearson Education-Prentice Hall,

Conteo Descendente Binario


El protocolo cuenta atrs binario. Un guin indica silencio.

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12/3/2011

Computer Networks, Fifth Edition by Andrew Tanenbaum and David Wetherall, Pearson Education-Prentice Hall,

Protocolos de Contencin Limitada

Probabilidad de adquisicin de un canal de contencin simtrica


1515 12/3/2011
Computer Networks, Fifth Edition by Andrew Tanenbaum and David Wetherall, Pearson Education-Prentice Hall,

Protocolo de Recorrido de rbol Adaptable

El rbol para ocho estaciones.


1616 12/3/2011
Computer Networks, Fifth Edition by Andrew Tanenbaum and David Wetherall, Pearson Education-Prentice Hall,

Protocolos de LAN Inalmbrica (1)

Una LAN inalmbrica. (a) A y C son estaciones escondidas al transmitir a B.


1717 12/3/2011
Computer Networks, Fifth Edition by Andrew Tanenbaum and David Wetherall, Pearson Education-Prentice Hall,

Protocolos de LAN Inalmbrica (2)

Una LAN inalmbrica. (b) B y C son estaciones expuestas al transmitir a A y D.


1818 12/3/2011
Computer Networks, Fifth Edition by Andrew Tanenbaum and David Wetherall, Pearson Education-Prentice Hall,

Protocolos de LAN Inalmbrica (3)

El protocolo MACA. (a) A enviando un RTS a B. (b) B respondiendo con un CTS a A.


1919 12/3/2011
Computer Networks, Fifth Edition by Andrew Tanenbaum and David Wetherall, Pearson Education-Prentice Hall,

Ethernet
Capa

fsica Protocolo de subcapa MAC Desempeo de Ethernet Ethernet conmutada Fast Ethernet Gigabit Ethernet 10 Gigabit Ethernet IEEE 802.2: Control Lgico del Enlace Retrospectiva de Ethernet

2020

12/3/2011

Computer Networks, Fifth Edition by Andrew Tanenbaum and David Wetherall, Pearson Education-Prentice Hall,

Capa Fsica de Ethernet Clsica

Arquitectura de Ethernet clsica


2121 12/3/2011
Computer Networks, Fifth Edition by Andrew Tanenbaum and David Wetherall, Pearson Education-Prentice Hall,

Protocolo de Subcapa MAC (1)

Formatos de trama. (a) Ethernet (DIX). (b) IEEE 802.3.


2222 12/3/2011
Computer Networks, Fifth Edition by Andrew Tanenbaum and David Wetherall, Pearson Education-Prentice Hall,

Protocolo de Subcapa MAC (2)

La deteccin de colisin puede tomar hasta 2.


2323 12/3/2011
Computer Networks, Fifth Edition by Andrew Tanenbaum and David Wetherall, Pearson Education-Prentice Hall,

Desempeo de Ethernet

Eficiencia de Ethernet a 10 Mbps con tiempos de ranura 512-bits. 2424 12/3/2011


Computer Networks, Fifth Edition by Andrew Tanenbaum and David Wetherall, Pearson Education-Prentice Hall,

Ethernet Conmutada (1)

(a) Hub. (b) Switch.


2525 12/3/2011
Computer Networks, Fifth Edition by Andrew Tanenbaum and David Wetherall, Pearson Education-Prentice Hall,

Ethernet Conmutada (2)

Switch Hu b

Switch ports Twisted pair

Un switch Ethernet.
2626 12/3/2011
Computer Networks, Fifth Edition by Andrew Tanenbaum and David Wetherall, Pearson Education-Prentice Hall,

Fast Ethernet

Cableado original de Fast Ethernet.


2727 12/3/2011
Computer Networks, Fifth Edition by Andrew Tanenbaum and David Wetherall, Pearson Education-Prentice Hall,

Gigabit Ethernet (1)

Ethernet de dos estaciones.


2828 12/3/2011
Computer Networks, Fifth Edition by Andrew Tanenbaum and David Wetherall, Pearson Education-Prentice Hall,

Gigabit Ethernet (2)

Ethernet con mltiples estaciones


2929 12/3/2011
Computer Networks, Fifth Edition by Andrew Tanenbaum and David Wetherall, Pearson Education-Prentice Hall,

Gigabit Ethernet (3)

Cableado de Gigabit Ethernet.


3030 12/3/2011
Computer Networks, Fifth Edition by Andrew Tanenbaum and David Wetherall, Pearson Education-Prentice Hall,

10 Gigabit Ethernet

Cableado 10 Gigabit Ethernet.


3131 12/3/2011
Computer Networks, Fifth Edition by Andrew Tanenbaum and David Wetherall, Pearson Education-Prentice Hall,

LANs Inalmbricas
Arquitectura

y pila de protocolos de 802.11 Capa fsica de 802.11 Protocolo de subcapa MAC de 802.11 Estructura de la trama de 802.11 Servicios

3232

12/3/2011

Computer Networks, Fifth Edition by Andrew Tanenbaum and David Wetherall, Pearson Education-Prentice Hall,

Arquitectura y Pila de Protocolos de 802.11 (1)


Access Point To Network

Client

Arquitectura 802.11 modo infraestructura


3333 12/3/2011
Computer Networks, Fifth Edition by Andrew Tanenbaum and David Wetherall, Pearson Education-Prentice Hall,

Arquitectura y Pila de Protocolos de 802.11(2)

Arquitectura 802.11 modo ad-hoc


3434 12/3/2011
Computer Networks, Fifth Edition by Andrew Tanenbaum and David Wetherall, Pearson Education-Prentice Hall,

Arquitectura y Pila de Protocolos de 802.11(3)

Parte de la pila de protocolo del 802.11.


3535 12/3/2011
Computer Networks, Fifth Edition by Andrew Tanenbaum and David Wetherall, Pearson Education-Prentice Hall,

Protocolo de la Subcapa MAC del 802.11 (1)

Enviando una trama con CSMA/CA.


3636 12/3/2011
Computer Networks, Fifth Edition by Andrew Tanenbaum and David Wetherall, Pearson Education-Prentice Hall,

Protocolo de la Subcapa MAC del 802.11 (2)

El problema de la estacin oculta.


3737 12/3/2011
Computer Networks, Fifth Edition by Andrew Tanenbaum and David Wetherall, Pearson Education-Prentice Hall,

Protocolo de la Subcapa MAC del 802.11 (3)

El problema de la estacin expuesta.


3838 12/3/2011
Computer Networks, Fifth Edition by Andrew Tanenbaum and David Wetherall, Pearson Education-Prentice Hall,

Protocolo de la Subcapa MAC del 802.11 (4)

El uso de la deteccin de canal virtual utilizando CSMA/CA.


3939 12/3/2011
Computer Networks, Fifth Edition by Andrew Tanenbaum and David Wetherall, Pearson Education-Prentice Hall,

Protocolo de la Subcapa MAC del 802.11 (5)

Espaciado entre tramas 802.11


4040 12/3/2011
Computer Networks, Fifth Edition by Andrew Tanenbaum and David Wetherall, Pearson Education-Prentice Hall,

Estructura de una trama 802.11

Formato de la trama de datos 802.11.


4141 12/3/2011
Computer Networks, Fifth Edition by Andrew Tanenbaum and David Wetherall, Pearson Education-Prentice Hall,

Banda ancha inalmbrica


Comparacin

entre 802.16 y 802.11, 3G Arquitectura y pila de protocolos 802.16 Capa fsica 802.16 Estructura de trama de 802.16

4242

12/3/2011

Computer Networks, Fifth Edition by Andrew Tanenbaum and David Wetherall, Pearson Education-Prentice Hall,

Comparacin de 802.16 con 802.11 y 3G

Arquitectura de 802.16
4343 12/3/2011
Computer Networks, Fifth Edition by Andrew Tanenbaum and David Wetherall, Pearson Education-Prentice Hall,

Arquitectura y Pila de Protocolos de 802.16

Pila de protocolos de 802.16.


4444 12/3/2011
Computer Networks, Fifth Edition by Andrew Tanenbaum and David Wetherall, Pearson Education-Prentice Hall,

Capa fsica de 802.16


Estructura de tramas de OFDMA con duplexacin por divisin de tiempo (TDD).

4545

12/3/2011

Computer Networks, Fifth Edition by Andrew Tanenbaum and David Wetherall, Pearson Education-Prentice Hall,

Protocolo Subcapa MAC 802.16


Clases

de servicio

Servicio

de tasa de bits constante (voz descomprimida). Servicio de tasa de bits variable en tiempo real (multimedia comprimida). Servicio de tasa de bits variable en no tiempo real (archivos). Servicio de mejor esfuerzo (otras).

4646

12/3/2011

Computer Networks, Fifth Edition by Andrew Tanenbaum and David Wetherall, Pearson Education-Prentice Hall,

Estructura de la Trama 802.16

(a) Una trama genrica. (b) Una trama de solicitud de ancho de banda.
4747 12/3/2011
Computer Networks, Fifth Edition by Andrew Tanenbaum and David Wetherall, Pearson Education-Prentice Hall,

Bluetooth (IEEE 802.15)


Arquitectura Pila

de protocolos Capa de Radio Capas de enlace Estructura de la trama

4848

12/3/2011

Computer Networks, Fifth Edition by Andrew Tanenbaum and David Wetherall, Pearson Education-Prentice Hall,

Arquitectura de Bluetooth

Dos piconets se pueden conectar para formar una scatternet


4949 12/3/2011
Computer Networks, Fifth Edition by Andrew Tanenbaum and David Wetherall, Pearson Education-Prentice Hall,

Pila de protocolos de Bluetooth

Arquitectura de protocolos de Bluetooth.


5050 12/3/2011
Computer Networks, Fifth Edition by Andrew Tanenbaum and David Wetherall, Pearson Education-Prentice Hall,

Estructura de la Trama de Bluetooth

Trama de datos tpica de Bluetooth en (a) bsica, y (b) mejorada, tasa de datos.
5151 12/3/2011
Computer Networks, Fifth Edition by Andrew Tanenbaum and David Wetherall, Pearson Education-Prentice Hall,

Conmutacin en la Capa de Enlace de Datos


Uso

de puentes Puentes transparentes (aprenden) Puentes con rbol de expansin Repetidores, hubs, puentes, switches, routers, y gateways LANs virtuales

5252

12/3/2011

Computer Networks, Fifth Edition by Andrew Tanenbaum and David Wetherall, Pearson Education-Prentice Hall,

Puentes transparentes (1)

Puente conectando dos LANs multipunto


5353 12/3/2011
Computer Networks, Fifth Edition by Andrew Tanenbaum and David Wetherall, Pearson Education-Prentice Hall,

Puentes transparentes (2)

Puentes (y un hub) conectando siete estaciones punto a punto.


5454 12/3/2011
Computer Networks, Fifth Edition by Andrew Tanenbaum and David Wetherall, Pearson Education-Prentice Hall,

Puentes transparentes (3)

Procesamiento de protocolo en un puente.


5555 12/3/2011
Computer Networks, Fifth Edition by Andrew Tanenbaum and David Wetherall, Pearson Education-Prentice Hall,

Puentes con rbol de Expansin (1)


Puentes con dos enlaces paralelos

5656

12/3/2011

Computer Networks, Fifth Edition by Andrew Tanenbaum and David Wetherall, Pearson Education-Prentice Hall,

Puentes con rbol de Expansin (2)

Un rbol de expansin conectando cinco puentes. Las lneas punteadas son enlaces que no forman parte del rbol de expansin. 12/3/2011 5757
Computer Networks, Fifth Edition by Andrew Tanenbaum and David Wetherall, Pearson Education-Prentice Hall,

Repetidores, Hubs, Puentes, Switches, Routers, y Gateways

(a) Cul dispositivo est en qu capa. (b) Tramas, paquetes, y cabeceras.


5858 12/3/2011
Computer Networks, Fifth Edition by Andrew Tanenbaum and David Wetherall, Pearson Education-Prentice Hall,

LANs Virtuales (1)

Un edificio con cableado centralizado usando hubs y un switch.


5959 12/3/2011
Computer Networks, Fifth Edition by Andrew Tanenbaum and David Wetherall, Pearson Education-Prentice Hall,

LANs Virtuales (2)

Dos VLANs, gris y blanca, en una LAN puenteada.


6060 12/3/2011
Computer Networks, Fifth Edition by Andrew Tanenbaum and David Wetherall, Pearson Education-Prentice Hall,

El estndar IEEE 802.1Q (1)

LAN puenteada que slo es parcialmente consciente de la VLAN. Los smbolos sombreados son conscientes de la VLAN. Los vacos no lo son.
6161 12/3/2011
Computer Networks, Fifth Edition by Andrew Tanenbaum and David Wetherall, Pearson Education-Prentice Hall,

El estndar IEEE 802.1Q (2)

Formatos de trama Ethernet 802.3 (heredada) y 802.1Q.


6262 12/3/2011
Computer Networks, Fifth Edition by Andrew Tanenbaum and David Wetherall, Pearson Education-Prentice Hall,