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Individual behaviour & understanding self

Transactional Analysis

It is technique to understand the dynamics of self & its relationship to others . It provide method & approach of analyzing & understanding interpersonal behaviour.

when two people interact ,there is social transaction in which one person responds to another .the study of such transaction between people is called transactional analysis
it is the study of social transaction between people. It is technique used to help people better to understand their own & others behaviour.

History of transactional analysis

Dr.Eric Berne is the pioneer of transactional analysis Origin of TA concept happened in 1951 when Dr. wilder Penfield,(neurosurgeon from McGill university)experimenting on the brain of middle aged patient. As the electrode touched a particular spot in the brain. the patient will explain the history of his life. Dr.wilder Penfield concluded that all our experience associated with event get locked in our memory & brain act as tape recorder. During the development Dr.Berne observed that people changes in movements ,gesture ,facial expression ,posture, communication pattern ,appearance , tone of voice etc . as they move through the life. He discovered that there are three ego state in the structure of human personality parent state(P),adult state(A),child state( C)

Transactional Analysis /Ego state

The three ego states 1. Parent Critical parent Sympathetic/nurturing parent 2. Child Natural child (affectionate playful) Adapted child Compliant child Rebellious child The little professor 3. Adult

Parent Ego State

It refers to taught concept It is represented by controlling & authoritarian behavior of individual. People receive from their parents ,elder sister & brothers, teachers & others during their early childhood. This massage were stored as records in the mind of an individual from the childhood time .hence person will operate from parent ego-state.

Two types of parent ego 1. Nurturing parent

Individual personality who is thoughtful , caring ,loving, protective ,sympathetic , concerned & defensive to others. Give advice & guidance it also encourage & support others.


Critical parent
It provide direction for others They behave in a very dogmatic & controlling way They lay down rules & laws for others Evaluative behaviour in interaction with others

Adult Ego State

Adult ego reflect thought concept No emotion in this state He collects the fact & data from the outer environment & process it & based on which he takes the decision The decision taken from this ego state are factual & based on current situation & past experience. This ego state can be identified by verbal & physical sign which include thoughtful concentration & realistic discussion . Example A student giving presentation on the project developed by him. HR manager taking decision of selecting & rejecting a candidate after interviewing him

Child Ego State

It contain the desire & attitude learnt from the child experience This state represented by emotion ,feelings, creativity, curiosity ,energy , spontaneous & impulsive component of personality. This state characterized by immature & kiddish behaviour. Take immediate action without thinking & they want immediate satisfaction The feeling of frustration , insufficiency & helplessness are also the result of child ego state Three types of child ego state 1. Natural child It is open child. he is spontaneous & joyful He is affectionate ,self-centered & aggressive & emerges in a repulsive role 2. The little professor This state is intuitive ,artistic ,spontaneous , untaught , snooping This state gives brilliant & non-logical insights for solving problems.

3. Adapted child This is complying ,retreating ,procrastinating , scared ,guilty Acts as parent expectation Types of Adapted child 1. Compliant child He is act in accordance with parental expectation 2. Rebellious child This state characters by negativity ,rebellions & disobedient Sometimes gets indulge into fight & unnecessary talks which may lead to anger ,fear & frustration

Characteristics of parent ,child ,adult Parent ego

Rules & laws, dos & donts , truths , tradition ,teaching , demonstrating .

Adult ego
Rationality , evaluation , storing of data, exploring ,testing

Child ego
Seeing ,hearing , touching experiencing joy ,frustration , wishing , fantasizing , feeling internally

Eric Berne and Transactional Analysis

Transactional analysis provides better understanding of how people related to each other It helps in establishing better communication & improved human relationship Its useful tool for helping people to understand & improve their interaction in their professional as well as personal lives. Individual can decide how any transaction should develop

Types of Transactions
The three types of transactions 1. Complementary 2. Crossed 3. Ulterior 1. Complementary Transactions: Appropriate and Expected Transactions indicating healthy human relationships. Communication takes place when transactions are complementary. A stimulus invites a response; this response becomes a stimulus inviting further response and so on. In this type of transaction stimulus & response line are parallel

Complementary Transactions
Complementary transaction



Mr.X-what is the time please? Mr.Y- it is 10.45 pm.


2.Crossed transaction A leader in the adult ego state deals with A subordinate who responds from their free child ego state with somewhat negative, rejecting input from the leader A crossed transaction occurs when a massage sent from a specific ego state of one person receive an unexpected response from the other person some other ego state Crossed transaction are the cause of many interpersonal conflicts & person might get upset & frustrated .


2.Crossed transaction
Supervisor P A C Employee P A C

Supervisor- how many units have made by now?(A-A) employee- dont disturb me ;when I complete it ,I will let you know
about it.


Eric Berne and Transactional Analysis

For a leader-follower, there are a number of possible crossed transactions:


3.Ulterior Transaction
This communication has double meaning .at the surface level there is a clear adult message .whereas, there is hidden message on psychological level. In this transaction sender tries to shows that he is speaking from a specific ego state but actually he is secretly using another ego state to send hidden massage to the receiver It involves two ego state on the sender side where one is hidden & another is visible. Here person say something from adult ego state but he means something from parent ego state.

boss to his employees :-if you want growth & promotion in the job then you should always put extra efforts in your work. internal massage that he wants his employees to work after office house hours also & do not ask for the leaves


Ulterior transaction






Johari windows
It is developed by American psychologists Joseph Luft & harry Ingham in 1955. Name of this windows based on Joseph Luft & Harry this window helps an individual to know his values & beliefs & to understand himself in better way. Popular model to analyze the cause of interpersonal conflicts & increase mutual understanding within the orgenisation . According to Joseph & harry the more we share ourselves with other, the more we can expand our interpersonal relationship. This model used for to asses & improve a groups relationship with other groups. Assumptions 1. The level to which an individual know himself 2. The level to which an individual is known to others

Feedback known to self Not known to self

Blind Area

Known to others
Not known to others

Open Area

Hidden Area

Unknown Area

d i s c l o u s e r

Johari windows

Johari windows consist of four parts

1. Open area:
Johari region 1 is known as the area of free activity It consist information about you , your values & beliefs & your experience which are known to people around you Here friendship & mutual understanding amongst people grow & is highest in this area by sharing information with other people they come closer to you Helps in reducing conflicts to almost zero percent The things about an individual that are known to others but not to self Blind area reduces when other those who are observing you tells you about this habit. Blind reduces as you start understanding yourself ,your positive & negative points ,your strengths & weakness etc. Reduce of this area from personality of an individuals the chances of inter-personal conflicts also reduces.

2. Blind area

3. Hidden area It consist things about an individual that are known to self but are hidden from the people in the surroundings People keep some secrets about themselves like some incidences ,experience ,their like & dislike etc because they are scared that if their friends or family come to know about these details then they might make fun of him . This area leads to inter-personal conflict. this area can be reduced if you reduce the number of secret & try too open up. 4. Unknown area It include values ,beliefs & the things about you which are not known to you & others. This is most volatile area Here the person doesnt know about himself because of lack of experience & it is not known to other because it is part of personality. Highly interpersonal conflict This area can be reduced by exchanging thoughts ,sharing experience

Johari window is a tool to conflict resolution

Johari model is referred as a disclosure/feedback model of self awareness Johari windows represent information feelings, experience , views, attitude ,skills ,intention ,motivation etc, within or about a person in relations to their group.

What we know & what they know

information known to everyone share

knowledge belongs only to others

What they know & we not know

knowledge belongs only to self knowledge acquired by learning together

What we know & they do not know

What we know & what they do not know


Interpersonal conflicts arises due to cross cultural barriers like 1. Difference among perception 2. By tone difference 3. Caused by semantics 4. Caused by word imply different thing in different language. Conflicts can reduced by By increasing open area in johari windows ; by sharing more information with others We must sensitive of other feelings . while interacting with other correct word must chosen. Johari window helps in establishing communication & the way of talking with others

Self Disclosure-How to increase open area in johari windows

The process of enlarging the open quadrant vertically is called self disclosure as information shared ,the boundary with hidden quadrant moves downwards & as other people Feedback develops the open area by reducing the blind area The unknown area can be reduced in different ways ;by other observation (which increase the blind area) by self discovery (which increase the hidden area) New team members start with relatively small open areas because relatively little knowledge about the new team member is shared . Open area expanded horizontally into the blind space ,by seeking & actively listening feedback from others known as Feedback solicitation Group member also help a person expand their open area by asking the person about him/herself Manager also give direct feedback about their blind areas Discovery through sensitive communication ,active listening & experience will reduce the unknown area

Life Positions

Attitude toward Oneself


Im OK Youre not OK Im not OK Youre not OK

Im OK Youre OK Im not OK Youre OK




Attitude toward Others


1. I am OK you are not OK aggressive

In this life position an individual has perception that I am always right they operates from high critical parent & rebellious child 'ego state If there is an disagreement they may react strongly

2. I am not OK you are OK-Passive

Here individual is quite compliant & submissive Innovativeness is less Not taking risky responsibility Operate mostly from compliant child ego state


3 . I am not OK you are not OK-Passive aggressive

It is destructive life position They feel helpless ,depressed They dont trust others operates from very low 'Adult ego

4 . I am OK you are OK- assertiveness

The speaker state without violating the right of other It is mostly healthy position High emotional intelligence They trust others & express confidence in self. They are nurturing parent', adult & happy child


A stroke is a unit of recognition which may be positive or negative. A stroke is defined as any act implying recognition of another presence. The stroking is positive or negative or combination of both If we feel good it is positive stroke & reverse is negative stroke. Example of positive & negative combination stroke is supervisor comment to a workers act you did excellent inspite of your small amount of experience in the field To improve relationship with other people TA teaches two things
1. 2. You can seek out ways to give more positive stroke so others know how we feel about them as people We can listen carefully to the stroke others give us

Provide fresh insight into the psychological make-up of the individual concerned Inter-personal communication is improved Inter-personal relation are improved Helps to develop leadership skills among the people

Benefits Of TA

Limitation of TA
Difficult to understand ego state & transaction between people in practice Some people use this tool to manipulate the behaviour of other. TA tends to encourage amateur psychologising if applied carelessaly