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I HC QUC GIA THNH PH H CH MINH TRNG I HC KHOA HC T NHIN KHOA IN T - VIN THNG

n mn hc:

TNG QUAN H THNG MIMO V K THUT OFDM


GVHD: Ths. Trng Tn Quang. Nhm TH: 1. V Tn Ti 0920218 2. Nguyn Tn Pht 0920081 3. Trn Minh c 0920026 4. L Hng Phc 0920088
Thng 11/2012 O

NI DUNG TRNH BY
CC H THNG THNG TIN KHNG DY

3 K THUT OFDM

2
H THNG MIMO

4 KT HP K THUT OFDM V HT MIMO

CC H THNG THNG TIN KHNG DY

CC H THNG THNG TIN KHNG DY

H thng SISO Ch s dng 1 anten pht v 1 anten thu. Thng c s dng trong pht thanh v truyn hnh, cc HT truyn dn v tuyn c nhn nh wifi, bluetooth. Dung lng HT ph thuc vo t s SNR theo cng thc Shannon C= B.log2(1+SNR) bit/s/Hz

CC H THNG THNG TIN KHNG DY


H thng SIMO S dng 1 anten pht v nhiu anten thu -> ci thin cht lng HT. My thu c th la chn hoc kt hp tn hiu nhm ti a t s SNR bng cch s dng gii thut beamforming hoc MMRC(Maximal Ratio Receive Combining). Khi my thu bit thng tin v knh truyn, th dung lng ca HT s tng theo hm logarit ca s anten thu. C =B.log2(1+NR.SNR) bit/s/Hz
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CC H THNG THNG TIN KHNG DY H thng MISO S dng nhiu anten pht v 1 anten thu. Phn tp pht s dng m Alamouti -> ci thin cht lng tn hiu. S dng beamforming -> tng hiu sut pht v vng ph. Khi my pht bit thng tin v knh truyn, th dung lng ca HT s tng theo hm logarit ca s anten pht. C =B.log2(1+NT.SNR) bit/s/Hz
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CC H THNG THNG TIN KHNG DY


H thng MIMO
S dng nhiu anten pht v nhiu anten thu. Phn tp pht /thu nh nhiu anten ti u pht/thu -> tng cht lng HT S dng beamforming ti pha pht v pha thu -> tng hiu sut s dng cng sut v trit can nhiu. Dung lng ca HT c th c ci thin nh vo li ghp knh bng cch s dng m khng gian_thi gian (V_BLAST) Khi knh truyn c bit ti c pha pht v pha thu, HT c th cung cp phn tp cc i v li ghp knh cc i. Dung lng ca HT trong trng hp t c phn tp cc i l: C =B.log2(1+NT.NR.SNR) bit/s/Hz Dung lng ca HT trong trng hp t li ghp knh cc i l: C = min (NT,NR).B.log2(1+SNR) bit/s/Hz
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CC H THNG THNG TIN KHNG DY

NI DUNG TRNH BY
CC H THNG THNG TIN KHNG DY

3 K THUT OFDM

2
H THNG MIMO

4 KT HP K THUT OFDM V HT MIMO

K THUT PHN TP Khi nim Phn tp: L k thut gip cho pha thu (MS,BTS) ci thin cht lng tn hiu thu b suy gim do fading nh vic kt hp tn hiu thu a ng n t cng mt ngun pht. Phn tp c thc hin ti c MS hoc BTS ty cng ngh.

K THUT PHN TP Phn loi Theo cch thc trin khai: Phn tp pht Phn tp thu Theo k thut phn tp: Phn tp khng gian (Space Diversity) Phn tp tn s (Frequency Diversity) Phn tp thi gian (Time Diversity) Phn tp phn cc (Polarization Diversity)

K THUT PHN TP
Phn tp khng gian Tn hiu c truyn trn nhiu ng khc nhau Trong mng hu tuyn: tn hiu c truyn trn nhiu line khc nhau. Trong mng v tuyn: Thng s dng phn tp anten (phn tp pht/thu) l phn tp trn nhiu anten pht/thu (VD: MIMO). Phn tp gn: Khi cc anten t gn nhau khong vi bc sng Phn tp xa: Khi cc anten t cch xa nhau

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K THUT PHN TP Phn tp tn s Tn hiu c truyn trn nhiu tn s khc nhau hoc trn mt di ph tn rng -> b tc ng bi fading la chn tn s.

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K THUT PHN TP Phn tp thi gian Nu truyn cng 1 tn hiu ngoi khong coherent time th ta c th to ra 2 tn hiu c lp -> li tng Nhc im: Ti pha thu phi mt mt khong thi gian x l tn hiu-> Khng thch hp vi cc ng dng thi gian thc.

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K THUT PHN TP Phn tp cc Pht tn hiu trn cc nhnh c tnh phn cc khc nhau (tn hiu c chia u cho cc nhnh) -> cht lng thu gim

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LI TRONG H THNG MIMO li Beamforming

TX

RX

Khong cch gia cc anten trong h thng MIMO thng nh hn bc sng . Beamforming thng c thc hin trong mi trng t tn x.
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LI TRONG H THNG MIMO li ghp knh khng gian

TX

RX

Tn dng cc knh truyn song song c c t a anten ti pha pht v pha thu trong h thng MIMO. Cc tn hiu s c pht c lp v ng thi ra cc anten nhm tng dung lng knh truyn m khng cn tng cng sut pht hay tng bng thng h thng.
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LI TRONG H THNG MIMO li phn tp

TX

RX

Cung cp cho cc b thu cc bn sao tn hiu ging nhau qua cc knh truyn Fading khc nhau. B thu c th la chn hay kt hp hay kt hp cc bn sao tn hiu ny gim thiu tc sai bit BER, chng Fading qua tng tin cy ca h thng.
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M HA KHNG GIAN V THI GIAN


L phng php m ha cho phn tp pht, t c li phn tp v c li m ha. c cho lm 2 loi: M ha khi khng gian thi gian(STBC) v m ha li khng gian thi gian(STTC).

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M HA KHNG GIAN V THI GIAN


STBC: D thit k, gii m n gin, nhng ch cho li phn tp khng cho li m ha. STTC: Phc tp, cho c li v m ha v li phn tp

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U - NHC IM CA H THNG MIMO


u im: C hiu sut s dng ph tn cao p ng c nhu cu v dung lng Khc phc c nhc im ca truyn a ng tng dung lng v cht lng truyn dn. Trong cc h thng MIMO, phainh ngu nhin v tri tr c th c s dng tng thng lng.

Cc h thng MIMO cho php tng dung lng m khng cn tng bng thng v cng sut.
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U - NHC IM CA H THNG MIMO Nhc im:


HT MIMO cha nhiu anten dn n: tng phc tp, th tch, gi thnh phn cng so vi SISO. V iu kin knh ph thuc vo mi trng v tuyn nn khng phi bao gi h thng MIMO cng c li. Khi tn ti ng truyn thng (LOS), cng trng LOS cao hn ti my thu s dn n hiu nng cng nh dung lng ca h thng SISO tt hn, trong khi dung lng ca h thng MIMO li gim. L do v cc ng gp mnh ca LOS dn n tng quan gia cc anten mnh hn v iu ny lm gim u im s dng h thng MIMO.

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NI DUNG TRNH BY
CC H THNG THNG TIN KHNG DY

3 K THUT OFDM

2
H THNG MIMO

4 KT HP K THUT OFDM V HT MIMO

M HNH TNG QUT


NI TIP/ SONG SONG
SONG SONG/ NI TIP

IU CH

IFFT

KHONG BO V

A/D

TN S

THI GIAN

KNH TRUYN

SONG SONG/ NI TIP

GII IU CH

CN BNG

FFT

NI TIP/ SONG SONG

TCH KHONG BO V

A/D

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M HA KNH L k thut thm cc bit d tha gip cho u thu c kh nng pht hin li hoc sa li. Da trn 2 c ch: BEC(Backward Error Correction ): Pht hin sai yu cu truyn li, khng c kh nng sa li. FEC(Forward Error Correction): Pht hin li v c kh nng sa li.

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K THUT PHN TN D LIU

Gm Block Interleaver v Convolutional Interleaver.

K THUT PHN TN D LIU

Block Interleaver:
Khong delay nh nht gia interleaver v deinterleaver (khng tnh tr khi truyn qua knh truyn) l (2MN 2M + 2) thi gian truyn 1 symbol, vi M l s dng, N l s ct trong ma trn do b interleaver to ra. V d:

Khong delay l: 2MN 2M + 2 = 2x4x6 2x4 +2 = 42 (Ts)

K THUT PHN TN D LIU

Convolutional Interleaver:

Xt trng hp: 1 thanh ghi lu c 1 symbol.

NI TIP

SONG SONG

Do chui thng tin sau khi c interleaving s c bng thng rt ln => chuyn serial sang parallel c c bng thng con < coherence bandwidth => khng b fading chn lc tn s.

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IU CH SNG MANG CON (MAPPING)


Mi symbol c biu din bi 2 trc: I (thc) v Q (o).

IU CH SNG MANG CON (MAPPING)

IFFT V FFT
IFFT: Chuyn t min tn s sang min thi gian. FFT: Chuyn i t min thi gian sang min tn s. Chui tn hiu vo X(k) , 0 k N-1 Khong cch tn s gia cc sng mang l: f Chu k ca mt k t OFDM l: Ts Tn s trn sng mang th k l fk = f0 + kf Tn hiu pht i c th biu din di dng:

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KHONG BO V
c chn gia cc symbols OFDM lin tip. Gip chng li can nhiu ISI. Khong bo v phi ln hn di tri tr ln nht. Gim hiu qu bng thng Mt phn tn hiu c copy v chn vo phn u. Vn gi c tnh trc giao. Mt mu OFDM c chiu di l Ts. Chui bo v c chiu di l TG. Sau khi chn chui bo v th chu k ca tn hiu by gi l Ts + TG .

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BIN I D/A, A/D


sn
D/A & Low pass Filter

s(t)

Ts

Ts

r (t )
A/D

rn

Ts

Ts

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B CN BNG

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B CN BNG
Mong mun ng ra l d liu gi i () nn: = = () = . = 1 = () Tuy nhin, p ng knh truyn thay i theo thi gian B cn bng l b lc c p ng l nghch o ca knh truyn v cn c kh nng thay i theo knh truyn B cn bng thch nghi.
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U, NHC IM CA K THUT OFDM


u im OFDM tng hiu sut s dng bng cch cho php chng lp nhng sng mang con. Bng cch chia knh thng tin ra thnh nhiu knh con fading phng bng hp, cc h thng OFDM chu ng fading la chn tn s tt hn nhng h thng sng mang n. OFDM loi tr nhiu symbol (ISI) v xuyn nhiu gia cc sng mang (ICI) bng cch chn thm vo mt khong thi gian bo v trc mi symbol. S dng vic chn knh v m knh thch hp, h thng OFDM c th khi phc li c cc symbol b mt do hin tng la chn tn s ca cc knh.

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U, NHC IM CA K THUT OFDM


u im: K thut cn bng knh tr nn n gin hn k thut cn bng knh thch ng c s dng trong nhng h thng n sng mang. S dng k thut DFT b sung vo cc chc nng iu ch v gii iu ch lm gim chc nng phc tp ca OFDM. Cc phng php iu ch vi sai (differental modulation) gip trnh yu cu vo b sung b gim st knh. OFDM t b nh hng vi khong thi gian ly mu (sample timing offsets) hn so vi h thng n sng mang. OFDM chu ng tt nhiu xung vi v nhiu xuyn knh kt hp.

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U, NHC IM CA K THUT OFDM


Nhc im: - Symbol OFDM b nhiu bin vi mt khong ng ln. V tt c cc h thng thng tin thc t u b gii hn cng sut, t s PARR cao l mt bt li nghim trng ca OFDM nu dng b khuch i cng sut hot ng min bo ha u khuch i tn hiu OFDM. Nu tn hiu OFDM t s PARR ln hn th s gy nn nhiu xuyn iu ch. iu ny cng s tng phc tp ca cc b bin i t analog sang digital v t digital sang analog. Vic rt ngn (clipping) tn hiu cng s lm xut hin c mo nhiu (distortion) trong bng, ln bc x ngoi bng.

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U, NHC IM CA K THUT OFDM


Nhc im: OFDM nhy vi tn s offset v s trt ca sng mang hn cc h thng n sng mang. Vn ng b tn s trong h thng OFDM phc tp hn h thng n sng mang. Tn s offset ca sng mang gy nhiu cho cc sng mang con trc giao v gy nn nhiu lin knh lm gim hot ng ca cc b gii iu ch mt cch trm trng. V vy, ng b tn s l mt trong nhng nhim v thit yu cn phi t trong b thu OFDM.

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M HNH MIMO-OFDM
#1
+GI

#1
-GI FFT

Input data
MUX

IFFT

Output data
Receive Weight DEMUX

#NTX
+GI IFFT

#NRX
-GI FFT

TX

MIMO-OFDM SDM Systems


#1
+GI

RX

#1
-GI FFT

Input data
MUX ST Encoder

IFFT

Output data
DEMUX

#2
+GI IFFT

#NRX
-GI FFT

TX

RX

MIMO-OFDM STBC Systems

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TI LIU THAM KHO


[1] Gio trnh dy mn Thng Tin Di ng ca Ths. Trng Tn Quang. [2] Gio trnh dy mn Truyn Thng Khng Dy ca Ths. ng L Khoa. [3] X L Tn Hiu S ca PGS. TS Nguyn Hu Phng. [4] Fundamentals of Wireless Communication ca David Tse Pramod Viswanath. [5] Lun vn thc s k thut ca Phm Minh Trit. [6] www.dientuvienthong.net. [7] Mt s ngun khc t internet.
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