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An Introduction to SAP R/3 and ABAP/4

The sap system is a collection of software that performs standard business function. It provides a complete solution to standard business requirements. It incorporates concept of ERP business process planning into an integrated solution for business applications.

What is SAP?
SAP the company was founded in Germany in 1972 by five ex- IBM engineers. Being incorporated in Germany the full name of parent company is SAP AG, located in Walldorf , Germany . Worlds Third largest independent software provider serves more than 10 million global customers worldwide in more than 120 countries. Now 70 80 %


For better decision making. For strategic planning. For higher system performance. To gain competitive advantage. To meet key business goals. To gain increased solution flexibility. Enables a company to link its business functions. Ties together dis-seperate business processes. Enabling business change. Replacement of an outdated inefficient IT architecture.


Simultaneous visibility across whole enterprise Offers good understanding of current situation of company Offers high security and info consistency To choose best marketing strategy Offers co ordination across the company

What is SAP R/3?

SAP (ess aay pee) stands for Systems, Applications and Products in Data Processing. R/3 means real-time three- tier client-server system.

Origin of SAP R/3

The first version of SAP's flagship enterprise software was a financial Accounting system named R/1. This was replaced by R/2 at the end of the 1970s. SAP R/2 was in a mainframe-based business application software suite that was very successful in the 1980s and early 1990s. It was particularly popular with large multinational European companies who required soft-realtime business applications, with multicurrency and multi-language capabilities built in. With the advent of distributed clientserver computing SAP AG brought out a clientserver version of the software called SAP R/3.SAP R/3 was officially launched on 6 July 1992. It was renamed

What are the different layers in SAP R/3 architecture?

Presentation layer -in very simple word this is responsible to convert end user input data to application specific language input, that application can understood users requirement. application layer -where the real execution of end users input processes. In sap the application server after getting the users request collects or brings data from database server and make process as per the user specifies. database layer -where the real data is stored in database. it has own work process which handles the task related to database.

Application areas of SAP R/3

How does SAP R/3 integrate all application modules?

Integration of all application modules has been done by R/3 Basis system. The R/3 basis system integrate various application modules in the following manner: It guarantees optimal integration by providing run time environment. It provides administration tools for entire system. It provides equilibrium architectural framework for enhancing the system. It also provides portability i.e. base independence (- works on any operating systems.) for the complete system.

What is an ABAP/4?
All application modules are written in SAPs fourth generation language ABAP/4 ABAP stands for Advanced Business Application Programming.It is a programming language for developing applications for the SAP R/3 system.

What is SAP R/3 landscape?

Landscape is nothing but the arrangement of servers.

1. Development: It is the server where the consultants do the customization as per the company's requirements. 2. Quality/ Assurance: It is the server where the core team members test the customization. 3. Production: It is the server where live data is recorded.

ABAP Program types

SAP-ABAP supports two types of programs Report Program and Dialog Program. Report Programs are used when large amounts of data needs to be displayed. If your ABAP program demands user input, Dialog programming is used. Auser dialog is any form of interaction between the user and the program and could be any of the following Entering data Choosing a menu item Clicking a button Clicking or double clicking an entry Dialog program is also used when we need to navigate back and forth between screens Dialog programs are created with type as M Module Pool. They cannot be executed independently and must be attached to at least one transaction code in which you specify an initial screen.

Difference between Report and Dialog Programs

Report Program: A report is a program that typically reads and analyzes data in database tables without changing the database. Dialog Program: A dialog program allows you to work interactively with the system and to change the contents of the database tables. Each dialog program has a certain sequence of screens that are processed by the system one after the other.

ABAP Report Types

Classical reports : Displaying the whole data as one list Interactive reports: Displaying the Summarized Information as the First List And Display the detailed information as secondary list.

What are Sap scripts and Smart forms

SAP script is the SAP Systems own textprocessing system. It looks and feels a lot like other leading text-processing systems. It is used to print preformatted text in preformatted forms. Smart Forms are used in SAP to create and maintain forms for mass printing. The Smart Forms offers the following advantages: Creating and maintaining forms require half the time. Adapting to forms without any programming techniques due to GUI. Web publishing using the generated XML

Difference between Sap scripts and Smart forms.

a) Multiple page formats are possible in Smart forms which is not the case in SAP Scripts b) It is possible to have a Smart forms without a main window . c) Labels cannot be created in Smart forms. d) Routines can be written in smart forms tool. e) Smart forms generates a function module when activated. f) Unlike sap scripts (RSTXSCRP), you cannot upload/download Smart forms to your local hard disk. g)sap script is client-dependent, smart form is client independent. h)sap script main window is mandatory, smart forms not mandatory i)sap script 99 main windows, smart forms only one main window j)you can post sap scripts directly to web but this is

Data transfer techniques in SAP R/3

Batch Data Communication (BDC) BDC works on the principle of simulating user input for transactional screen by way of an ABAP program. The input comes typically in the form of a text file or flat file. The ABAP program reads this file and formats the input data screen by screen into an internal table called BDCDATA. The transaction is then started using this internal table as the input and executed in the background. When using a Call Transaction, the transactions are triggered at the time of processing and so the ABAP program must do the error handling. It can also be used for real-time interfaces and custom error handling & logging features. On the other hand, a Batch Input Sessions is where the ABAP program creates a session with all the transactional data, and this session can be viewed, scheduled and processed (using transaction SM35 - Batch Input: Session Overview at a later time. This technique has a built-in error processing mechanism as well. Direct Input (DI) - This type of program works exactly similar to BI programs except instead of processing screens they validate fields and directly load the data into tables using standard function modules. This makes Direct Input (DI) programs faster than BDC programs and are ideal for loading large volumes of data. However, these programs are not available for all application areas.

Difference between session input and call transaction method

In Call Transaction method, the ABAP/4 program uses the call transaction <T-code > using <bdc_tab> mode <mode> update <update > method. In Classical or session method, ABAP/4 program read the external data that is to be entered to the SAP system and stores the data in the batch input session. When the program has finished creating the session, we can run the session through the TCode SM35. This method involves FM like BDC_OPEN,BDC_INSERT,BDC_CLOSE

In Call Transaction, the transactions are triggered at the time of processing itself and so the ABAP program must do the error handling. Whereas in Batch Input Sessions, the ABAP program creates a session with all the transactional data, and this session can be viewed, scheduled and processed (using Transaction SM35) at a later time. The latter technique has a built-in error

We can update the database both synchronously and asynchronously In Call Transaction. We can specify the mode in the program. Synchronous Database update in Batch Input Sessions. During processing, no transaction is started until the previous transaction has been written to the database.

No batch input processing log In Call Transaction. Detailed Log will be generated for all the sessions in Batch Input Sessions. In Call Transaction execution starts from the first. In Batch Input Sessions execution wont start from the first. It will start from the place where it ends with error.

Call Transaction faster than session method Session Input method is not as fast as call transaction method

SAP enhancements or User Exits.

User exits allow us to add our own functionality to SAP standard program without modifying it. These are implemented in the form of subroutines and hence are also known as FORM EXITs. TYPES OF EXITS: 1) MENU EXITS: 2)FUNCTION EXITS 3)SCREEN EXITS 4)FIELD EXITS