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HC VIN CNG NGH BU CHNH VIN THNG C S TI THNH PH H CH MINH KHOA VIN THNG II

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BO CO CHUYN K THUT CHUYN MCH

MPLS QoS
GVHD:THS. NGUYN XUN KHNH
SVTH: THIU QUANG T ON BI QUNG L THY DIM PHNG L TH NGC MAI L TRUNG HIU TRNG NH L

LP L11CQVT01N

NI DUNG

Chuyn mch nhn a giao thc MPLS Tng quan Qos


Gii thiu Cu trc Qos Dch v tch hp Intserv Dch v phn bit Diffserv Phn loi v dnh du Qun l tc nghn ( Cc k thut hng i )

Diffserv trong MPLS

Chuyn mch nhn a giao thc MPLS

Gii thiu:
MPLS l phng thc chuyn mch: m bo QoS theo yu cu n gin v tc x l rt cao Router MPLS c hai chc nng ring bit: Chc nng chuyn gi tin Chc nng iu khin

Nhn (label)

Kin trc mt nt MPLS (LER V LSR)

NH TUYN V NG DNG
nh tuyn trong MPLS: nh tuyn lp 3 Xc nh ng i ca s liu qua nhiu mng t ngun n ch. Khi chuyn gi IP, router s dng bng chuyn tip ca n xc nh nt tip theo v chuyn tip gi tin i. Router tip theo lp li qu trnh ny cho n khi gi IP n ch. u im v kh nng ng dng cng ngh MPLS - n gin ha chc nng chuyn tip - K thut lu lng - nh tuyn QoS t ngun - Mng ring o VPN - Chuyn tip c phn cp (Hierachical forwarding) - Kh nng m rng (Scalability

GII THIU QoS QoS (Quality of Service) l mt khi nim dng cp n tt c cc kha cnh lin quan n hiu qu hot ng ca mng. QoS bao gm hai thnh phn chnh: + Tm ng qua mng nhm cung cp cho dch v c yu cu. + Duy tr hiu lc hot ng ca dch v.

CU TRC QoS

QoS c nh gi qua cc tham s chnh sau: sn sng ca dch v tr (Delay) bin ng tr (jitter) Thng lng hay bng thng T l tn tht gi (packet loss rate) Qos thc hin cht lng dch v qua cc k thut nh: qun l tc nghn, policing v shaping, nn(compression)

CU TRC QOS
Hai m hnh cung cp cht lng dch v c s dng ph bin ngy nay l: + M hnh dch v tch hp IntServ (Intergrated Services). + M hnh dch v phn bit DiffServ (Differentiated Services).

DCH V TCH HP INTSERV

M hnh IntServ c IETF a vo gia thp nin 90 vi mc ch h tr cht lng dch v t u cui ti u cui. Cc ng dng nhn c bng thng ng yu cu v truyn i trong mng vi tr cho php.

S dng giao thc RSVP bo hiu

M hnh mng Intserv

DCH V TCH HP INTSERV


C hai loi dch v: m bo dch v (Guaranteed Service) v kim sot ti (Control load service). Dch v m bo (Guaranteed Serrvice): Cho php gii hn thi gian chuyn tip cc gi d liu n ch trong mt khong thi gian nht nh, m bo s d liu khng b loi b khi hng i y. Dch v ti iu khin (Controled load Service): Cc ng dng ca dch v ny c th chp nhn kh nng mt d liu v thay i tr mt mc nht nh. Lung d liu khi i vo mng s c kim tra i chiu vi nhng c t lu lng Tspec c ng k, nu khng ph hp th d liu s c chuyn tip theo phng thc n lc ti a.

BO HIU RSVP TRONG INTSERV

RSVP : l giao thc bo hiu ginh bng thng cho ng dng u tin trong m hnh IntServ. c gi nh k theo chiu lu lng u tin khai bo cho cc thit b mng v nhng c im, thng s ca lu lng u tin. Cc loi thng ip trong RSVP Path s dng yu cu ti nguyn dnh trc Resv Gi p ng bn tin ng thit lp v duy tr d tr ti nguyn. PathTear- S dng xa d tr ti nguyn khi mng theo hng i. ResvTear S dng xa b ti nguyn khi mng theo hng v. PathErr Thng bo li bn tin Path ResvErr- Thng bo li bn tin Resv ResvConf L mt bn tin ty chn, gi ngc li ti pha gi ca bn tin Resv xc nhn rng ti nguyn d tr xc nh thc s c ci t ResvTearConf- S dng xc nhn d tr ti nguyn xc nh b xa khi mng.

DCH V PHN BIT DIFFSERV

Vi m hnh DiffServ, trn mi gi d liu s cha thng tin xc nh lp dch v. Thng tin ny c gi l im m dch v phn bit DSCP (Differentiated Service Code Point) ca tiu IP, tin thn l vng ToS (Type of Service).

M hnh mng Diffserv

DCH V PHN BIT DIFFSERV

DSCP xc nh mt hnh vi PHB (Perhop behavior). Sau y l mt s gi tr PHB chun: Gi tr mc nh (Default): yu cu n lc ti a. Chuyn tip nhanh EF (Expedited Forwarding): gi d liu s c thi gian tr nh nht v mt gi thp nht. Chuyn tip bo m AF (Assured Forwading): mi PHB mang mt gi tr AFxy. Gi tr x cho php xc nh hng i dnh cho gi, gi tr y xc nh mc u tin hay kh nng mt gi khi xy ra hin tng nghn mch hoc tranh chp. V d, cc gi c nh du AF11, AF12, AF13 th s xp chung vo mt hng i nhng mc u tin ca cc gi AF13 thp nht.

PHN LOI V NH DU
Trc khi cc ng dng hay cc k thut QoS c p dng, lu lng phi c phn loi v sp xp vo trong cc lp khc nhau. Phn loi (Classification): c thc hin nhn dng lu lng v phn chia lu lng thnh cc lp khc nhau thng qua b m t c trng bao gm: b giao tip ng vo, IP Precedence, DSCP, a ch ngun, a ch ch. c th phn loi c gi tin, thng thng phi kim tra mt s trng trong headers nh trng ACLs: Vi ACL 101 cho php gi tin loi no s c xp vo hng i th 1, vi ACL 102 cho php goi tin loi khc s c xp vo hng i th 2,

NH DU

nh du (Marking) : nh du l mt k thut dng to ra s phn bit gia cc gi tin ca cc loi d liu khc nhau trong khi thc hin QoS, vic nh du s thc hin trn cc mt s trng c trong gi tin nh IP precedent, DSCP, EXP, QoS group Cc gi tr c nh du s c dng phn loi gi tin chng tip theo v thc hin QoS. Vic nh du thng xy ra ti ng vo ca interface, ti y gi tin s c thu nhn v thc hin nh du li (remark) nu cn thit, du va nh s tn ti trong cc hng i ng ra ca router ny v trn ng truyn ti ch tip theo.

K THUT HNG I

V tc x l cc gi tin ca router l chm hn nhiu so vi s lng gi tin n v cn truyn i, v vy cc gi tin cn phi xp hng v i trong mt hng di nu nh khng mun b drop, do k thut hng i cn c p dng cho cc router. CC K THUT HNG I 1. Hng i FIFO ( First In First Out) 2. Hng i PQ ( Priority Queing) 3. Hng i CQ ( Custom Queing) 4. Hng i WFQ ( Weighted Fair Queing) 5. Hng i Class-based WFQ (CBWFQ) 6. Hng i tr thp (Low-latency Queuing - LLQ)

DIFFSERV QOS VI GI TIN IP

Trng TOS gm c 8 bit ( 3 bit u tin l cc bit u tin , 4 bit tip theo l ca trng TOS , bit ci cng thng l khng s dng). Cc bit u tin l c s thc hin TOS trong nhiu h thng . Nhng ta thy y ch c 3 bit u tin ngha l c 8 trng thi dch v. V vy IETF quyt nh thm vi bit trong trng TOS h tr cho Qos v kt qu l 3 bit u tin trong trng TOS c ly lm cc bit u tin.Vy l cui cng c 6 bit u tin c s dng h tr cho Qos v gi l Diffservice

DIFFSERV QOS VI GI TIN IP

Trng TOS gm c 8 bit ( 3 bit u tin l cc bit u tin , 4 bit tip theo l ca trng TOS , bit cui cng thng l khng s dng). Cc bit u tin l c s thc hin TOS trong nhiu h thng . Nhng ta thy y ch c 3 bit u tin ngha l c 8 trng thi dch v. V vy IETF quyt nh thm vi bit trong trng TOS h tr cho Qos v kt qu l 3 bit u tin trong trng TOS c ly lm cc bit u tin.Vy l cui cng c 6 bit u tin c s dng h tr cho Qos v gi l Diffservice

DIFFSERV QOS VI GI TIN IP

Trng DSCP c 6 bit thc hin QoS, vi 6 bit ny ta c th to ra t hp 64 gi tr khc nhau trong Qos ,nhiu hn nhiu so vi cc bit u tin trong trng TOS ca gi tin IP. Nhng thc ra ngi ta khng dng ht 64 gi tr ny m ch dng 21 gi tr v c phn chia thnh 3 lp l: AF, CS v EF ( trong MPLS ch yu s dng lp AF v EF)

DIFFSERV VI GI TIN MPLS

Ta xem li header ca MPLS

Nh ta thy trn hnh c 3 bit EXP ( experimental bit ) gi l cc bit th nghim nhng thc t th n c dng cho cng vic ca Qos.Vy ta phi chuyn cc bit u tin trong gi tin IP ( cc bit DSCP) sang gi tin MPLS v vic chuyn c 2 cch l : nh x theo E LSP v L-LSP

DIFFSERV VI GI TIN MPLS


nh x theo E LSP (EXP-infered-PSC-LSP) : Gi tr DSCP 6 bit s c nh x vo trng EXP 3 bit theo ch c 8 lp c th dng phn loi. V DSCP c 64 gi tr cn EXP ch c 8 gi tr nh vy s c nhiu gi tr trng nhau. Kiu nh x E _LSP th cc LSR s s dng cc bit trong EXP lm c s chuyn tip gi tin, sp xp v loi b u tin cn cc nhn th ch th ch n.

DIFFSERV VI GI TIN MPLS


nh x theo L LSP (Label only-infered-PSC-LSP) : Trong L-LSP nhn c s dng ch th ch n v cc k hoch u tin ( ni chung l thc hin cng vic Qos) cn cc bit trong trng EXP ch lm nhim v ch th vic loi b u tin cc gi tin. Trong cc thit b Cisco thng dng cch nh x nhn theo kiu E-LSP khng s dng kiu L-LSP nn trong cc phn sau chuyn tip gi tin IP vo trong MPLS th nh x nhn ch dng E-LSP. Vi cch nh x E_LSP ch c th thc hin QoS vi 8 lp trong khi DSCP cho php ti 64 t hp, v vy c mt cch nh x khc c th cho nhiu lp hn thc hin QoS l L_LSP.