Está en la página 1de 47

AN INSIGHT TO CANCER

PRESENTED BY SAMPRITI JANA (11106231) D.Pharm (Ayu) SIDDHENDU BHATTACHARJEE M.Pharm (Ayu) LOVELY PROFESSIONAL UNIVERSITY

CONTENTS
DEFINATION INTRODUCTION OLDEST DESCRIPTION ORIGIN OF CANCER (ca) CAUSES TYPES OF CANCER SYMPTOMS & SIGN & TESTS. MODERN KNOWLEDGE OF CANCER AYURVEDA AND CANCER
2

DEFINATION
Cancer is the uncontrolled growth of abnormal cells in the body.*

Cancerous cells are also called malignant cells.


* http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmedhealth/PMH0002267/
3

WHAT IS CANCER?? Cancer known medically as a broad group of various diseases, all involving unregulated cell growth. Cancer cells divide and grow uncontrollably, forming malignant tumors, and invade nearby parts of the body. Spread to more distant parts of the body through the lymphatic system or bloodstream

INTRODUCTION

Contd.

Not all tumors are cancerous*.

* Moscow JA, Cowan KH. Biology of cancer. In Goldman L, SchaferAI,


eds. Cecil Medicine. 24th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders Elsevier;2011:chap 185.
5

Demonstration of Cancer
Cancer is a class of diseases characterized by out-of-control cell growth. There are over 100 different types of cancer, and each is classified by the type of cell that is initially affected.

Contd.
More dangerous, or malignant, tumors form when two things occur: a cancerous cell manages to move throughout the body using the blood or lymph systems, destroying healthy tissue in a process called invasion that cell manages to divide and grow, making new blood vessels to feed itself in a process called angiogenesis.
7

Oldest descriptions
Human beings and other animals have had cancer throughout recorded history. So its no surprise that from the dawn of history people have written about cancer. Some of the earliest evidence of cancer is found among fossilized bone tumors, human mummies in ancient Egypt. Growths suggestive of the bone cancer called osteosarcoma have been seen in mummies.
8

Contd.
Edwin Smith Papyrus (copy of part of an ancient Egyptian textbook on trauma surgery) Describe 8 cases of tumors/ ulcers Writing says about Cancer There is no treatment.

Origin of the word cancer


The credit goes to Greek physicianHippocrates- Father of Medicine. The Roman physician, Celsus translated the Greek term into cancer, the Latin word for crab. Galen used the word oncos (Greek for swelling) to describe tumors. cancer specialists oncologists.

10

CAUSES, INCIDENCE, AND RISK FACTORS


Determining what causes cancer is complex. Many things are known to increase the risk of cancerRadiation- High level of radiation (X-rays)breast cancer, thyroid, lung and stomach cancer. Ultra-violet radiation- prolonged exposure to sun- skin damage
11

Causes
Viruses- Hepatitis B, HPV- disease such as AIDS. Chemicals- Pesticides, Nickel, Asbestos, Benzene- Cigarette smokers-lung cancer. Tobacco- Smoking- Mouth, larynx, pancreas, kidney- Mouth, tongue, throat cancer. Alcohol- Heavy drinkers- Mouth, throat, esophagus, liver.

12

Causes
Diet- High fat, high cholesterol- Colon, uterus, prostate- obesity- breast cancer. Hereditary- abnormal gene.

13

Cancer causes: Theories throughout history


HUMORAL THEORY

HIPPOCRATES believed- body had 4 humors

(body fluids): blood, phlegm, yellow bile, and black bile. An excess of black bile in various body sites was thought to cause cancer. This theory of cancer was passed on by the Romans and was embraced by the influential doctor Galens medical teaching
14

Lymph theory:
Of all the fluids, the most important were blood and lymph. Stahl and Hoffman theorized that cancer was composed of fermenting and degenerating lymph, varying in density, acidity, and alkalinity. lymph theory gained rapid support and theory said tumors grow from lymph constantly thrown out by the blood.
15

Blastema theory

German pathologist Johannes Muller- cancer is made up of cells and not lymph, but he believed that cancer cells did not come from normal cells.
16

Contd.
Chronic irritation theory- cancers spread like a liquid. Trauma theory- This belief was maintained despite the failure of injury to cause cancer in experimental animals.

17

Other medical factors


As we age, there is an increase in the number of possible cancer-causing mutations in our DNA. This makes age an important risk factor for cancer.

18

Cancer Metastasis
Symptoms of metastasis are due to the spread of cancer to other locations in the body. They can include enlarged lymph nodes (which can be felt or sometimes seen under the skin and are typically hard), hepatomegaly (enlarged liver) or splenomegaly (enlarged spleen) which can be felt in the abdomen, pain or fracture of affected bones, and neurological symptoms.
19

Pathophysiology

20

Some other types of cancers


stomach cancer Brain cancer Cervical cancer Hodgkin's lymphoma Kidney cancer Leukemia Liver cancer Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma
21

Contd.
Ovarian cancer Skin cancer Testicular cancer Thyroid cancer Uterine cancer Lung Cancer.

22

Symptoms
Symptoms of cancer depend on the type and location of the cancer. Lung Cancer- Coughing, chest pain, shortness of breath Colon cancer- diarrhea, constipation, and blood in the stool. Some cancers may not have any symptoms at all.
pancreatic cancer, symptoms often do not start until the disease has reached an advanced stage.
23

The following symptoms can occur with most cancers


Chills Fatigue Fever Loss of appetite Malaise Night sweats Weight loss
24

Signs and tests


Like symptoms, the signs of cancer also vary based on the type and location of the tumor. Common tests include the following: Biopsy of the tumor Blood tests (which look for chemicals such as tumor markers) Bone marrow biopsy (for lymphoma or leukemia) Chest x-ray
25

Contd.
Complete blood count (CBC) CT scan Liver function tests MRI scan

26

Modern knowledge and Cancer


Viral and chemical carcinogens year-1915- Katsusaburo Yamagiwa- Tokyo University- induced cancer in lab animals for the first time by applying coal tar to rabbit skin. Clinician John Hill of London recognized tobacco as a carcinogen.

27

Oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes

During the 1970s, scientists discovered 2 particularly important families of genes related to cancer: Oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes.
28

Evolution of cancer treatments


Surgery Hormone therapy Radiation Chemotherapy

Immunotherapy
Targeted therapy
29

Twenty-first century-Cancer
More targeted therapies- monoclonal
antibodies and small signaling pathway inhibitors, researchers are developing new classes of molecules such as antisense oligodeoxynucleotides and small interfering RNA (siRNA), PARP inhibitors.

Nanotechnology- New technology for


producing materials form extremely tiny particles is leading to very promising imaging tests that can more accurately show the location of tumors.

30

Contd.
Robotic surgery- This term refers to
manipulation of surgical instruments remotely by robot arms and other devices controlled by a surgeon. Robotic systems have been used for several types of cancer surgery; radical prostatectomy is among the most common uses in surgical oncology. Expression profiling and proteomics: Expression profiling lets scientists determine relative output of hundreds or even thousands of molecules (including the proteins made by RNA, DNA, or even a cell or tissue) at one time.
31

Cancer-treatment timeline
1961- The first treatment of cancer patients with beams of subatomic particles 1963- Allan Cormack of South Africa devises a method for computerised tomography scanning 1969- Godfrey Hounsfield creates the CT scanner at EMI Laboratories, UK 1973- The first PET image is taken by Michael Phelps and Edward Hoffman
32

1974- The first commercial PET machine is built 1975- CT scanners are introduced in hospitals 1980- The first clinically useful magnetic resonance imaging image is taken 1990- A national breast cancer screening campaign is started in the UK 1995- Cancer Research UK develops CHART, a technique for giving radiotherapy in many small doses

Contd.

33

Contd.
2002- The mortality rate of breast cancer is down by 15% on 1994 levels Today- Scientists are working on non-invasive cancer tests, such as the breath test, SIFT.

34

CLASSICAL AYURVEDA AND CANCER


Around 5000 years ago- Ayurvedic doctorstreated treating patients with problems of abnormal growth or tumors- detailed descriptions of cancer- Charaka Samhita, Sushruta Samhita ,Ashtanga Hridayam. These texts clearly signal the fact that tumors and cancer are not modern diseases, but are already for centuries known in Ayurveda.

35

SUSHRUTA SAMHITA
Arbuda is the Sanskrit word for tumor. According to Sushrut the three doshas (Vata, Pitta and Kapha) when aggravated, may develop a malignant tumor; especially aggravated Kapha and Vata doshas. This affects the tissue, which might result in developing a malignant tumor.

36

Features of Tumor
Round Firm Causing mild pain Large Deeply rooted in the body Slow growth Showing no suppuration A swollen, fleshy growth
37

In the Sushruta Samhita, the internal medicine describes the existence of benign and malignant tumors in a similar manner.

SUSHRUT DESCRIBES 6 TYPES OF TUMORS

TUMOR CAUSED BY:


Vatika granthi Paitika granthi Kaphaja granthi Medas granthi(adipose tissue) Rakta arbuda (blood tumor) Mamsa arbuda (muscle tumor) Vata dosha Pitta dosha Kapha dosha Affected adipose tissue Affected blood Affected muscle tissue

38

CHARAkA sAMHItA

Charak explains that large and rough tumors in the abdomen and intestines, neck and vital organs are exceedingly difficult to cure.
39

ASTANGA HRDAYAM written a few centuries after Charak and Sushrut. gives a summary of the two previous works. Tumors and cancer are also discussed in this work. nine types of benign tumors From these nine tumors, six are described that can possibly develop into malignant tumors (three doshas and three tissues).
40

THE DEVELOPMENT OF MALIGNANT TUMORS


benign tumor starts to grow starts to grow roots deeply into the tissue Symptoms compatible with increased Kapha dosha and fatty tissue, a malignant tumor is occurring.
41

Contd.
They are no longer removed by the body grow quickly and cover a large area Caused by three vitiated doshas and always affect muscle tissue, adipose tissue and blood. classification of tumors could be: a. Granthi b. Arbuda.

42

TRIGUNA AND CANCER


Other than body functions, there are also mental qualities that can contribute to the development of a tumor: the Triguna. This concept exists in the following qualities: Sattva (goodness, purity) Rajas (passion) Tamas (ignorance)

43

NAMES TO OF PLANTS TO RECOVER CANCER


Bala Sida cordifolia Bhringaraj - Eclipta erecta Dashmool traditional herbal formula. guduchi Tinosporia cordifolia Kounch Mucuna pruriens Amrit prash herbal paste. Ashwagandha Withania somnifera (Indian Ginseng) Tulsi Ocimum sanctum vidari-Kanda Ipomoea digitata Yashtimadhu Glycyrrhiza Glabra
44

Directions: Golden Triangle


Modern Science

Traditional Medicine Modern Medicine


45

REFERENCES
Angiogenesis Inhibitors Therapy: National Cancer Institute. A fact sheet that describes the process of eliminating the blood supply to tumors. www.cancer.gov/clinicaltrials/digestpage/angiogenesisinhibitors Kardinal C, Yarbro JA. Conceptual history of cancer. Semin Oncol 1979;6:396408. [PubMed:394325] The history of cancer. 2009. Web site accessed at: http://www.bordet.be/en/presentation/history/cancer_e/cancer1 .htm Dr. Anil Kumar Mehta. Ayurveda and Cancer. P. 1-5

46

47