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ti: Tng quan v IPv6, trnh by v so snh IPv4 v IPv6.

Nhm thc hin:


Trn Diu My (Trng nhm). Nguyn Trng Giang (Ni dung). Nguyn c Anh (Slide).

Ni dung ti bao gm:

Tng Quan v IPv6. _S cn kit ca IPv4 v nguyn nhn pht trin IPv6. _u im ca IPv6. _Cu trc ca IPv6. _Unicast Address. _Anycast Address. _Multicast Address. Trnh by, so snh gia IPv4 v IPv6.

Tng Quan V IPv6


S cn kit ca IPv4 v nguyn nhn pht trin IPv6 IPv4 c chun ha k t RFC 791 pht hnh nm 1981. IPv4 dng 32bit biu din a ch IP. S dng 32 bit ny, ta c th nh c khong 4.3 t a ch khc nhau. Nhng ch khong hn 10 nm sau khi ra i, vo na u thp k 90, nguy c thiu a ch IP xut hin ti 1 s nc nh Trung Quc, n , .... Cc nh pht trin triu tp nhiu hi ngh, nhiu phng n xut hin nh: CIDR, NAT, ... song, vi s pht trin cc k tc , 4.3 t a ch kia khng t a ch cho nhng PC, di ng, cc thit b in t khc, ... ni trc tip ti Internet. IPv4 bc l mt s hn ch trong cu trc thit k, khin nhng nh nghin cu, nhng t chc tiu chun ha chu trch nhim v hot ng mng ton cu nhn thy cn c s pht trin ln mt tm cao hn ca giao thc Internet.

Tng Quan V IPv6


S cn kit ca IPv4 v nguyn nhn pht trin IPv6 gii quyt vn th IPv6 ra i. Vi 128 bit ln hn IPv4 gp 4 ln, bn c th nh c khong 340 t t t t a ch. y l khng gian a ch cc ln khng ch dnh ring cho Internet m cn cho tt c cc mng my tnh, h thng vin thng, h thng iu khin v thm ch l vt dng gia nh. C bao gi mt ngy no , bn cha tt my lnh nh, ni cm in nh cha bt, bn c mong mun l d bn c bt c ni u vn c th kt ni v ra lnh cho nhng thit b t xa. Trong tng lai khng xa, chc chn s lm c iu , mi mt vt dng gia nh s mang mt a ch IPv6. IPv6 c tch hp trong Windows XP SP1 v Windows Server 2003 nhng b n . Cn trn Windows Server 2008 v Windows Vista, mc nh IPv6 c m. Hin ti th nhu cu chng ta cn 15% IPv6, cn 85% cn li dng d phng trong tng lai.

Tng Quan V IPv6


u im ca IPv6 _Khng gian a ch ln hn v d dng qun l khng gian a ch. _Khi phc li nguyn l kt ni u cui-u cui ca Internet v loi b hon ton cng ngh NAT. _Qun tr TCP/IP d dng hn: DHCP c s dng trong IPv4 nhm gim cu hnh th cng TCP/IP cho host. IPv6 c thit k vi kh nng t ng cu hnh m khng cn s dng my ch DHCP, h tr hn na trong vic gim cu hnh th cng. _Cu trc nh tuyn tt hn: nh tuyn IPv6 c thit k hon ton phn cp. H tr tt hn Multicast: Multicast l mt ty chn ca a ch IPv4, tuy nhin kh nng h tr v tnh ph dng cha cao. _H tr bo mt tt hn: IPv4 c thit k ti thi im ch c cc mng nh, bit r nhau kt ni vi nhau. Do vy bo mt cha phi l mt vn c quan tm. Song hin nay, bo mt mng internet tr thnh mt vn rt ln, l mi quan tm hng u. _H tr tt hn cho di ng: Thi im IPv4 c thit k, cha tn ti khi nim v thit b IP di ng. Trong th h mng mi, dng thit b ny ngy cng pht trin, i hi cu trc giao thc Internet c s h tr tt hn.

Tng Quan V IPv6


Cu trc a ch IPv6 IPv6 c tng cng l 128 bit c chia lm 2 phn: 64 bit u c gi l network, 64 bit cn li c gi l host. Phn network dng xc nh subnet, a ch ny c gn bi cc ISP hoc nhng t chc ln nh IANA (Internet Assigned Numbers Authority). Cn phn host l mt a ch ngu nhin da trn 48 bit ca MAC Address. a ch IPv6 c 128 bit, do vic nh c a ch ny rt kh khn. Cho nn vit a ch IPv6, ngi ta chia 128 bit ra thnh 8 nhm, mi nhm chim 2 bytes, gm 4 s c vit di h s 16, v mi nhm c ngn cch nhau bng du hai chm.

Tng Quan V IPv6


Cu trc a ch IPv6 Ta ly VD: FEDL:8435:7356:EADC:BA98:2010:3280:ABCD K hiu Hexa c li l gn gng v nhn p hn. Tuy nhin cch vit ny cng gy nhng phc tp nht nh cho ngi qun l h thng mng. Nhn chung, mi ngi thng s dng theo tn cc Host thay bng cc a ch ( iu ny c p dng t IPv4 khi m a ch cn n gin hn rt nhiu ). Mt cch lm cho n gin hn l cc quy tc cho php vit tt. V khi im ban u chng ta s khng s dng tt c 128 bit chiu di a ch do s c rt nhiu s 0 cc bit u. Mt ci tin u tin c php b qua nhng s 0 ng trc mi thnh phn h 16, vit 0 thay v vit y 0000, v d vit 8 thay v vit 0008, vit 800 thay v vit 0800. Qua cch vit ny cho chng ta nhng a ch ngn gn hn.

Tng Quan V IPv6


Cu trc a ch IPv6 Ta ly VD: a ch: 1088:0000:0000:0000:0008:0800:200C:463A --> Bn c th vit 0 thay v phi vit l 0000, vit 8 thay v phi vit 0008, vit 800 thay v phi vit l 0800 V y l a ch c rt gn: 1088:0:0:0:8:800:200C:463A

Nhn chung nh vy cng l tm n, nhng IPv6 cn c mt nguyn tc na l bn c th nhm cc s 0 li thnh 2 du hai chm "::", a ch trn, bn c th vit li nh sau: 1088::8:800:200C:463A 1. Trong dy a ch IPV6, nu c s 0 ng u c th loi b. V d 0800 s c vit thnh 800, hoc 0008 s c vit thnh 8 2. Trong dy a ch IPv6, nu c cc nhm s 0 lin tip, c th n gin cc nhm ny bng 2 du :: ( ch p dng khi dy 0 lin tip nhau).

Tng Quan V IPv6


Cu trc a ch IPv6 Ta s ly thm mt vi VD: V d 1: FADC:BA98::7654:3210 -> IPv6 c tng cng l 8 nhm, m trn bn thy c 4 nhm, nh vy gia 2 du hai chm, s l 4 nhm s 0. Vy a ch trn c th vit y l: FADC:BA98:0:0:0:0:7654:3210 V d 2: FADC:BA98:7654:3210:: -> c a ch y l: FADC:BA98:7654:3210:0:0:0:0 V d 3: ::FADC:BA98:7654:3210 -> c a ch y l: 0:0:0:0:FADC:BA98:7654:3210

Tng Quan V IPv6


Cu trc a ch IPv6 By gi ti s c mt cu hi nh: Gi s c a ch 0:0:0:AB65:8952:0:0:0, yu cu n gin ha a ch ny li, ti a ra 3 p n la chn: 1. ::AB65:8952:: 2. ::AB65:8952:0:0:0 3. 0:0:0:AB65:8952:: p n 2 v 3 l ng. Mt nguyn tc na cn phi nh trong IPv6 l ch c th s dng 2 du hai chm mt ln vi a ch. Khng c vit nh vy ::AB65:8952::, v nu vit nh th s gy nhm ln khi dch ra y . V d: Nu vit ::AB65:8952::, th ngi ta c th on a ch y ca n nh th ny: 0:0:AB65:8952:0:0:0:0 hoc 0:0:0:0:AB65:8952:0:0 ,

Tng Quan V IPv6


IPv6 gm cc loi chnh sau y: + Unicast Address: Unicast Address dng xc nh mt Interface trong phm vi cc Unicast Address. Gi tin (Packet) c ch n l Unicast Address s thng qua Routing chuyn n 1 Interface duy nht. + Anycast Address: Anycast Address dng xc nh nhiu Interfaces. Tuy vy, Packet c ch n l Anycast Address s thng qua Routing chuyn n mt Interface trong s cc Interface c cng Anycast Address, thng thng l Interface gn nht. Ch gn nht y c xc nh thng qua giao thc nh tuyn ang s dng. + Multicast Address: Multicast Address dng xc nh nhiu Interfaces. Packet c ch n l Multicast Address s thng qua Routing chuyn n tt c cc Interfaces c cng Multicast Address Bn nhn thy IPv6 khng c a ch Broadcast v chc nng ca a ch ny bao gm trong nhm a ch Multicast.

Tng Quan V IPv6


1- Unicast Address: c chia thnh 4 nhm: a/ Global Unicast Address: a ch ny c s dng h tr cho cc ISP. Ni i khi cho d hiu l n ging nh a ch Public ca IPv4.

001: 3 bits u lun lun c gi tr = 001. TLA ID( Top Level Aggregation): Xc nh nh cung cp cao nht trong h thng cc nh cung cp dch v. Res: cha s dng. NLA ID (Next Level Aggregation): Xc nh nh cung cp tip theo trong h thng cc nh cung cp dch v. SLA ID (Site Level Aggregation): Xc nh cc site to cc subnet. Interface ID: L a ch ca Interface trong subnet.

Tng Quan V IPv6

Tng Quan V IPv6


b/ Link-local Addresses: y l loi a ch dng cho cc host khi chng mun giao tip vi cc host khc trong cng mng. Tt c IPv6 ca cc interface u c a ch link local Theo hnh bn di, bn s thy

10 bits u tin lun l: 1111 1110 10 54 bits k tip c gi tr bng 0


-> Nh vy, trong Link Local Address: 64 bit u l gi tr c nh khng thay i (prefix : fe80::/64)

Tng Quan V IPv6


b/ Link-local Addresses: Bn th vo cmd, g lnh ipconfig /all xem th gi tr Link-Local Address.

Tng Quan V IPv6


c/ Site-Local Addresses: Site-Local Addresses c s dng trong h thng ni b (Intranet) tng t cc a ch Private IPv4 (10.X.X.X, 172.16.X.X, 192.168.X.X). Phm vi s dng Site-Local Addresses l trong cng Site.

10 bits u tin lun l: 1111 1110 11 (Prefix FEC0::/10). 54 bits k tip : l gi tr Subnet ID. 64 bits cui cng l a ch ca Interface.

Tng Quan V IPv6


d/ Unique Local Address: Unique Local Address l a ch nh tuyn gia cc subnet trn mt private network.

1111 1101 : 8 bits u l gi tr c nh FD00:: /8. 40 bits k tip l Global ID : a ch Site (Site ID). C th gn ty . 16 bits k tip l Subnet ID : a ch Subnet trong Site, c th to ra 65.536 subnet trong mt site. 64 bits cui cng l a ch ca Interface.

Tng Quan V IPv6


2- Anycast Address: Anycast Address l a ch c bit c th gn cho nhiu interface, gi tin chuyn n Anycast Address s c vn chuyn bi h thng Routing n Interface gn nht. Hin nay, a ch Anycast c s dng rt hn ch, rt t ti liu ni v cch s dng loi a ch ny. Hu nh Anycast addresss ch c dng t cho Router, khng t cho Host, l do l bi v hin nay a ch ny ch c s dng vo mc ch cn bng ti. V d : khi mt nh cung cp dch v mng c rt nhiu khch hng mun truy cp dch v t nhiu ni khc nhau, nh cung cp mun tit kim nn ch mt Server trung tm phc v tt c, h xy dng nhiu Router kt ni khch hng vi Server trung tm, khi mi khch hng c th c nhiu con ng truy cp dch v. Nh cung cp dch v t a ch Anycast cho cc Interfaces l cc Router kt ni n Server trung tm, by gi mi khch hng ch vic ghi nh v truy cp vo mt a ch Anycast thi, t ng h s c kt ni ti Server thng qua Router gn nht. y tht s l mt cch x l n gin v hiu qu.

Tng Quan V IPv6


3- Multicast Address: Trong a ch IPv6 khng cn tn ti khi nim a ch Broadcast. Mi chc nng ca a ch Broadcast trong IPv4 c m nhim thay th bi a ch IPv6 Multicast. a ch Multicast ging a ch Broadcast ch im ch ca gi tin l mt nhm cc my trong mt mng, song khng phi tt c cc my. Trong khi Broadcast gi trc tip ti mi host trong mt subnet th Multicast ch gi trc tip cho mt nhm xc nh cc host, cc host ny li c th thuc cc subnet khc nhau. Host c th la chn c tham gia vo mt nhm Multicast c th no hay khng (thng c thc hin vi th tc qun l nhm internet Internet Group Management Protocol), trong khi vi Broadcast, mi host l thnh vin ca nhm Broadcast bt k n c mun hay khng.

Tng Quan V IPv6


Cu trc ca Multicast:

8 bit u ca a ch l prefix c k hiu l 11111111, 4 bit k tip l cc c, tip theo l 4 bit phm vi (scope), v b phn dng nhm 112 bit. 4 bit c th c bit th 4 c dng cho IPv6, 3 bit cn li cha c nh ngha v c gn gi tr 0, c th nh sau: [0 0 0 T] Bit th 4 c vit tt l T. a ch c phn c nh bi Global Internet Numbering Authority. a ch tm thi khng c phn c nh. Khi 1 nhm quyt nh thc hin Multicast n hi Sesion directory a ch ngu nhin (unicityof), a ch ngu nhin c kim tra bi thut ton pht hin xung t. Mi khi session c kt thc, a ch c b qua. Trng scope (phm vi) c m ha l 4 bit nguyn. N c dng gii hn phm vi nhm a ch.

Tng Quan V IPv6


Multicast. Cc gi tr ca trng ny gm:

Tng Quan V IPv6


Cc gi tr ny cho php vic xc nh chnh xc phm vi vng ca a ch multicast. Qua , cc Router s quyt nh cc gi tin trong phm vi gii hn. Thng thng cc phm vi t chc v v tr ch c th c thc hin nu cc Router bit cc lin kt no thuc v t chc no. Ch rng b ch th phm vi khng nh hng ngha ca nhm c phn c nh. Xem xt v d b ch th nhm 43 (hex) c phn cho cc Server thi gian mng (NTP). Chng ta c th lm v hiu n vi 5 phm vi 1, 2, 5, 8 v E, nhn c 5 a ch Multicast. - FF01::43 biu din tt c cc Server NTP trn cng Node vi ngi gi. - FF02::43 biu din tt c cc Server NTP trn cng lin kt vi ngi gi. - FF05::43 biu din tt c cc Server NTP trn cng v tr (site) vi ngi gi. - FF08::43 biu din tt c cc Server NTP trn cng t chc vi ngi gi. - FF0F::43 biu din tt c cc Server NTP trn Internet. Khng ging NTP, nhiu nhm ch c th c dng trong vi phm vi gii hn. V d, vic gi tin n tt c cc Server cu hnh host ng trn Internet s khng c ngha.

Tng Quan V IPv6


Cc a ch Multicast nh ngha trc: Cc nhn dng nhm nh Tt c cc server NTP thng c cp pht bi Internet Assigned Number Authority. Chng thng c c t sn vo cc ng dng tiu biu ca nhm. Tt c cc chng trnh qun l thi gian mng, v d mun bit a ch ca tt c cc Server NTP trn Site (all NTP Server) l FFOS::43. Chng s c khai bo hi vin vi nhm ny khi chng trnh ng dng c bt u, cng cch m cc thnh vin ca video conference gia nhp a ch Multicast m c cp pht ng vo nhm ca chng. Chun IPv6 ch xc nh 4 nhn dng nhm c nh, m tt c cc Node IPv6 phi bit. B nhn dng nhm 0 c dnh ring, n khng c dng vi bt k phm vi no. B nhn dng nhm 1 ch ra cc a ch Node tt c IPv6. N c th c dng vi phm vi 1, FF01::1, nhn ra tt c cc Node trn Node ny, hay vi phm vi 2, FF02::1, nhn ra tt c cc Router trn Link ny. B phn nhn dng nhm 10000 (hex) ch ra nhm tt c cc Server cu hnh ng (DHCP server and relays). N phi c dng vi phm vi 2 FF02::1:0 nhn ra tt c cc Server cu hnh ng (DHCP) v cc relays trn link ny. Chun cng dnh ring cc di a ch Multicast t FF02::1:0:0 n FF02:1:FFFF:FFFF, c dng bi IPv6 tng ng ca ARP

Tng Quan V IPv6


3- Multicast Address:
Aggregatable Global Unicast Address

001

TLA (13)

NLA (32)

SLA (16)

Interface ID (EUI-64)

Link Local Use Address

1111111010

000...000 (54)
Site Local Use Address

Interface ID (EUI-64)

1111111011

000...000 (38)

Subnet (16)

Interface ID (EUI-64)

IPv4 Mapped IPv6 Address / IPv4 Compatible IPv6 Address

000...000 (80)
Multicast Address

FFFF or 0

IPv4 Address (32)

FFFF if host is IPv4 only; 0 if IPv6 capable

11111111

Flags (4)

Scope (4)

Group ID (112)

So snh IPv4 v IPv6


IPv4
a ch di 32 bit a ch di 128 bit

IPv6
IPSec c yu cu
nh dng c lung d liu nn h tr QoS tt hn.

IPSec l ty chn
Khng nh dng c lung d liu

S phn mnh ch xy ra ti host gi. S phn mnh c thc hin ti cc host gi v ti router, nn kh nng thc thi ca router chm. Khng i hi kch thc gi lp lin kt Lp lin kt h tr gi 1.280 byte v ti v phi c ti hp gi 576 byte. hp gi 1.500 byte. Checksum header. Header c phn ty chn. Khng checksum header. Tt c d liu ty chn c chuyn vo phn header m rng.

So snh IPv4 v IPv6


IPv4
ARP s dng frame ARP Request phn gii a ch IPv4 thnh a ch lp lin kt. IGMP (Internet Group Management Protocol) c dng qun l cc thnh vin ca mng con cc b. ICMP Router Discovery c dng xc nh a ch ca gateway mc nh tt nht v l ty chn.

IPv6
Frame ARP Request c thay th bi message Neighbor Solicitation. IGMP c thay th bi message MLD (Multicast Listener Discovery). ICMPv4 Router Discovery c thay th bi message ICMPv6 Router Discovery v Router Advertisement .

a ch broadcast gi lu lng n IPv6 khng c a ch broadcast, m a ch tt c cc node. multicast n tt c cc node (phm LinkLocal). Phi cu hnh bng tay hoc thng qua Cu hnh t ng, khng i hi DHCP cho giao thc DHCP cho IPv4. IPv6. S dng cc mu tin cha ti nguyn a S dng cc mu tin AAAA trong DNS ch host trong DNS nh x tn host nh x tn host thnh a ch IPv6. thnh a ch IPv4.