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Equalized-FEXT method for Upstream Power

Backoff (UPBO)
Chandan Jha
Introduction
The DSL environment can be considered as a multiuser environment
because telephone lines from different customer premise sites are
bundled together on the way to the central office, and different lines in
the bundle create crosstalk interference into each other.
Introduction
Crosstalk: The coupling of unwanted signals from one or more lines into
another line is known as crosstalk.
VDSL has two forms of crosstalk:
NEXT:
FEXT:
Motivation
Distributed topology may illustrate a realistic DSL deployment scenario.
The near-far problem arises when two transmitters located in different
distances attempt to communicate with the same central office at the
same time. When one transmitter is much closer to the central office than
the other, the interference coming from the closer transmitter
overwhelms the signal from the farther transmitter.
When both transmitters at the CP-side transmit with the same PSD, due to
the difference in line attenuation, the FEXT caused by the short line can
overwhelm the data signal in the long line. The upstream performance of
the long line is therefore severely affected by the upstream transmission
of the short line.
Objective
Hence to mitigate this near-far effect, the short line must reduce its
upstream PSD so that it does not cause excessive interference into the
long line. This reduction of upstream transmit PSD is known as upstream
power backoff (UPBO).

Power backoff methods
Constant power back-off method
Reference length method
Multiple reference lengths method
Equalized-FEXT method
Reference noise method

Problem formulation
The effects of the near-far FEXT may be minimized to a significant extent
by shaping the PSD of the signals transmitted by the remote units based
upon the relative distances of the remote units.
By shaping the PSD of the transmissions of the closer units the signals
carried on the disparate lines have similar PSDs and therefore, generate
approximately the same amount of cross-talk interference.
The shaping of the transmissions of the remote units is determined in part
upon the transfer function , H(f), of the channels, or lines. The shaping of
the transmissions of closer remote units becomes a ratio of the transfer
function of the longest line and the transfer function of the remote unit.


Problem formulation
FEXT can be modeled, as used by ANSI TIE 1.4 working group as,

where
is the received power spectral density of the FEXT noise caused by
the other lines and injected into the line into consideration
is the total number of active lines
is the number of lines contributing FEXT noise to the line under
consideration
is a constant
is the length over which FEXT coupling occurs
is the transmit PSD of the disturbing lines
is the magnitude of the channel transfer function of the line under
consideration.
( ) ( ) ( )
2
2
6 . 0
49
1
f H f PSD kl
n
f PSD
dist fext
|
.
|

\
|
=
( ) f PSD
fext
n
( ) f PSD
dist
1 n
k
( )
2
f H
l
Equalized-FEXT
In order to equalize the amount of FEXT noise generated by a first line, line
(i-1), to a second line (i), the PSD of the line under consideration is
computed such that line (i) receives the same amount of FEXT noise line (i)
would have received if line (i-1) was of equal length as line (i).


The expanded equation is :


The i index indicates line (i) is longer than line (i-1). The equation is the
simplified version considering one line disturbing rather than all (n-1)
lines.
( )
( )
( )
i i fext i i fext
f PSD f PSD
1
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
2
2
6 . 0
2
1 1
2
1
6 . 0
49
1
49
1
f H f PSD f kd f H f PSD f kd
i i i i i i
|
.
|

\
|
=
|
.
|

\
|

( )
( )
( )
( ) f PSD
f H d
f H d
f PSD
i
i i
i i
i 1
2
1 1
2
1
.
.

=
Equalized FEXT
The above equation provides the relationship between a longer and a shorter
line necessary to shape the PSD of the signal carried on the shorter line so that
the FEXT received by the central site is approximately same for both the lines.
General equation based upon the longest line,



j is the index for the PSD of the shorter line at issue. n is the index for the
longest line. is any optimized PSD for increased data rates is used.
The above equation describes that in order to equalize the amount of FEXT
noise caused by a shorter line, the PSD of the transmission of the closer
remote unit should be reduced by the ratio of the distance and magnitude of
the longest line (or insertion loss) to the distance and magnitude of the
shorter line.

( )
( )
( )
( ) f PSD
f H d
f H d
f PSD
i
i i
i i
i 1
2
1 1
2
1
.
.

=
( )
( )
( )
( ) f PSD
f H d
f H d
f PSD
n
j j
n n
j
2
2
.
.
=
( ) f PSD
n