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Patrick Omar B. Erestain

Pedagogy VS Andragogy
Pedagogy [classroom] Learners Role Follow instructions, passive, receive information, little responsibility for own learning process Through forces of society (family, religion, tradition), immediate, benefit not seen by the learner Teacher controlled, learner has little or no choice Andragogy [adult] Offer ideas, linked to experience, active participation, responsible for learning process From within, learner sees relevance and application of study Centred around life experiences and the problems in the workplace and profession Sharing of and building on knowledge and experiences

Motivation to Learn

Choice of Content

Focus of Methods

Providing information and gaining facts

Principles of Adult Learning

Adults are internally motivated and selfdirected TRUE

Principles of Adult Learning

Adults do not bring life experiences and knowledge to learning process FALSE

Principles of Adult Learning

Adults are goal oriented


Principles of Adult Learning

Adults are relevancy oriented


Principles of Adult Learning

Adults are not practical


Principles of Adult Learning

Adults learners like to be respected


Principles of Adult Learning

Learning climate collaborative rather than authoritarian

- mutual respect, openness - Involvement of trainee in planning, design, evaluation

Leaning is problem centered and experience based

- experiential (problem centered) rather than informational (content centered) - learn from and re-examine experiences

Leaning is enhanced by active participation

- sharing ideas, experiences, group interaction

Concentration on the unique characteristics of adults

Characteristics of adult learning


Do not like to be treated like children Have work and life experience and different backgrounds May be concerned with status, and too proud to fail Are interested in the immediate application and relevance of training for the job or work problems Learning is a self-activity

Motivating the adult learner

Sources of motivation:

Social relationships External expectations Social welfare Personal advancement Escape/stimulation Cognitive interest

Learning is a self activity

Without motivation, no learning takes place! Learning takes place through:

Study Experience Looking and watching Accidents

Knowledge, skills are improved Attitudes are changed!

Barriers to Learning

Lack of time Lack of money Lack of confidence or interest Lack of information about opportunities to learn Scheduling problems red tape Problems with child care and transportation

Learner Interpretation
Learners Role Dependant: introductory courses, new situations Learners Needs Structure, direction, encouragement, esteem for authority Trainers Behaviour Lecturing, demonstration, assignments, checking, testing, transmission of content, reinforcement, grading, materials Collaboration, modelling, questions, feedback, coordination, evaluating, managing Flexibility, feedback, recourses, consultations, listening, negotiating, delegating, evaluating, encouraging

Collaborative: learner has some knowledge, ideas, and info and likes to share and experiment Independent: learner is knowledgeable and wants to and can learn on his/her own , may feel that the trainer has

Interactive, practice, observation, challenge, participation, esteem, experimentation Internal awareness, experimentation, nonjudgmental support

Learning Styles Continuum

Authority Trainers Input Teller

Collaboratio n Helper


Loose Control
Moderate Control

High Control

Participants Input

Training Methods Continuum

Case Guided Structured Practice Studies Discussion Exercises Field Visits Lectures Group Games Demonstration Reading Discussions Trainer Centred Brainstorm Simulation Role Debate Plays

Learner Centred