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DYSLEXIA

Introduction
Has been around for a long time Defined in different ways Example: World federations definition;

Disorder in children who, despite conventional

classroom experienced, fail to attain skills of reading, writing and spellings(1928)

What happens?
Difficulty in learning to read(despite instructions) Caused by impairment in brain's certain ability to

translate images received from eyes into understandable language.


Can go undetected in early grades of schooling Child can become very depressed and frustrated

Types of dyslexia
Trauma dyslexia
Occurs after some injury to the brain which

controls reading and writing Primary dyslexia


Damage to the left part of the brain Doesnt change with age Hereditary

Types of dyslexia
Secondary dyslexia
Also known as developmental dyslexia Caused by unbalanced hormonal development

during fetal development


More common in boys

Effects
Dyslexia may affect several different functions Visual dyslexia is characterized by letter reversals

and inability to draw symbols,


Auditory dyslexia involves difficulty with sounds of

letters or groups letters


Dysgraphia refers to the childs difficulty holding

and controlling a pencil so that the correct markings can be made.

SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS


Letter and number reversals Difficulty copying from board or book Disorganization of written work

Child cant remember content


Problems with spatial relationship

Uncoordinated actions in sports or games


Difficulty with left or right is common

AUDITARY PROBLEMS
Difficulty in remembering what he/she hears Recalling the sequence is difficult Parts of words or sentences may be missed

Words coming out can sound funny


The wrong or a similar words can be misplaced

Cant express their thoughts to others

DIAGONISING DYSLEXIA
Difficult to diagnose dyslexia Testing determines the childs reading levels All aspects of reading helps to pinpoint where the

breakdown occurs
Further assesses how a child process the

information and use it

DETERMINATION BY TESTS
Learn better by hearing? (auditory) Learn better by looking at info? (visual) Whether a child perform better? (output)

Doing something? (kinesthetic)


How sensory system work? (modalities)

OTHER TREATMENTS
Each one requires a different strategy With individual educational plan Extra learning assistance (remedial instruction)

Private independent tutoring


Special day classes

Positive reinforcement is a vital key (improve

esteem)

DYSLEXIA AT A GALNCE
Difficulty in learning to read Related to brain injury, hormonal influences,

hereditary problems
Letter and number reversals are a common

warning
Diagnosis involves reviewing aspects related to

seeing, hearing, participating in activities


Treatment ideally involves planning between the

parents and the teachers too.