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Precision Machine Design ME 250

Kinematic Design 2 Hertz Contact Stresses Flexures


Mark Sullivan September 18, 2008

Agenda

Precision Machine Design Kinematic Design Hertz Contact Stresses Flexures

Kinematic Couplings History, Design Guidelines, Load Capacity, Examples Quasi Kinematic Couplings Constraints Hertz Contact Stresses Flexures References

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Acknowledgements

Precision Machine Design Kinematic Design Hertz Contact Stresses Flexures

Text and figures in these lecture notes are taken from the following sources:
Blanding, D., Exact Constraint: Machine Design Using Kinematic Principles, ASME Press, New York, 1999. Hale, L. C., Precision Engineering Principles, ASPE Tutorial, Monterey, 2006. Smith, S. T., Chetwynd, D. G., Foundations of Ultraprecision Mechanism Design, Taylor & Francis, 1994. Hale, L. C., Principles and Techniques for Designing Precision Machines, UCRL-LR-133066, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 1999. (http://www.llnl.gov/tid/lof/documents/pdf/235415.pdf) Slocum, A. H., Precision Machine Design, SME, 1992. Slocum, A. H., FUNdaMENTALs of Design, MIT, 2008. Precision Engineering Research Group, MIT
http://pergatory.mit.edu/ http://pergatory.mit.edu/kinematiccouplings/
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Kinematic Couplings and Exact Constraint

Precision Machine Design Kinematic Design Hertz Contact Stresses Flexures

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Chart from FUNdaMENTALs of Design, Slocum

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Kinematic Couplings
Two common forms of the kinematic coupling.
2 2 2 (Maxwell) 3 2 1 (Kelvin Clamp)

Precision Machine Design Kinematic Design Hertz Contact Stresses Flexures

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Kinematic Couplings: Some History

Precision Machine Design Kinematic Design Hertz Contact Stresses Flexures

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Chart from Mechanics of Designing Precision Machines, Slocum

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Kinematic Couplings: Three-groove Design Guidelines

Precision Machine Design Kinematic Design Hertz Contact Stresses Flexures

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Chart from FUNdaMENTALs of Design, Slocum

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Kinematic Couplings: Load Capacity of Couplings

Precision Machine Design Kinematic Design Hertz Contact Stresses Flexures

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Chart from Mechanics of Designing Precision Machines, Slocum

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Kinematic Coupling Example: Bal-Tec Components


Bal-Tec Kinematic Coupling Components
High repeatability Low cost Limited load Limited stiffness
Ball Cone Vee

Precision Machine Design Kinematic Design Hertz Contact Stresses Flexures

Flat

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http://www.precisionballs.com/index.html

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Kinematic Coupling Example: Bal-Tec Clamp

Precision Machine Design Kinematic Design Hertz Contact Stresses Flexures

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http://www.precisionballs.com/index.html

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Example of Kinematic Coupling: Adjustable Mirror Mount

Precision Machine Design Kinematic Design Hertz Contact Stresses Flexures

A common example of a kinematic coupling is the adjustable mirror mount found in most optics labs.

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Quasi-Kinematic Couplings

Precision Machine Design Kinematic Design Hertz Contact Stresses Flexures

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Chart from FUNdaMENTALs of Design, Slocum

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Quasi-Kinematic Coupling Example: Ford Engine Assembly

Precision Machine Design Kinematic Design Hertz Contact Stresses Flexures

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Chart from FUNdaMENTALs of Design, Slocum

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Quasi-Kinematic Couplings: Engine Assembly Performance

Precision Machine Design Kinematic Design Hertz Contact Stresses Flexures

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Chart from Mechanics of Designing Precision Machines, Slocum

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Recall: The Size of Things


Precision Machine Design Kinematic Design Hertz Contact Stresses Flexures

Always a good idea to keep in mind the size of things


The thickness of this paper = 100 m The diameter of a human hair = 20 180 m Computer hard drive track spacing = 1 m Diameter of a fiber optic = 4 or 62.5 m core, 125 m cladding Visible light wavelength (mid-spectrum) = 550 nm Size of a typical virus = 10 400 nm Atomic diameter = 0.1 0.6 nm (He to Cs)

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Quasi-Kinematic Couplings (2)

Precision Machine Design Kinematic Design Hertz Contact Stresses Flexures

Quasi-Kinematic Couplings (QKCs) approximate Kinematic Couplings


Reduced repeatability Low cost Increased load Increased stiffness
Three tooth coupling

Three cones with radial flexures

Designs based on line contact offer a significant increase in load capability and stiffness (Hale).
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Quasi-Kinematic Coupling Example: Spherolinder


Spherolinder Quasi-Kinematic Coupling
Reduced repeatability Increased cost Increased load (~100X higher) Increased stiffness
Vee Cone

Precision Machine Design Kinematic Design Hertz Contact Stresses Flexures

Spherolinder

Retainer

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http://www.g2-engineering.com/index.html

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Pop Quiz: Constraints

Precision Machine Design Kinematic Design Hertz Contact Stresses Flexures

How many degrees of freedom does this coupling have? What are they?

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Idealized Kinematic Constraint Configurations

Precision Machine Design Kinematic Design Hertz Contact Stresses Flexures

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Review: Constraints
Constraints 1 2 Ball on flat Link on flat Ball in groove Ball in trihedral Link with one ball in groove and other on flat Three linked balls on flat Link with one ball in trihedral and other ball on flat Link with 2 balls both in a vee groove Link of 3 balls with 2 on a flat & one in a groove Link of 4 balls on 2 inclined flats Configuration

Precision Machine Design Kinematic Design Hertz Contact Stresses Flexures

Link of 2 balls with one in a trihedral hole & the other in a vee groove Link of 3 balls with 2 in vee grooves & one on a flat Link of 4 balls with one in a vee groove & 3 on a flat Link of 5 balls on 2 inclined flats Link of 3 balls in 3 vees (2-2-2 kinematic mount) Link of 3 balls with one in a trihedral, one in a vee & one on a flat (3-2-1 kinematic mount)
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6
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Constraint Model of Kinematic Couplings

Precision Machine Design Kinematic Design Hertz Contact Stresses Flexures

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Rotational DOF

Precision Machine Design Kinematic Design Hertz Contact Stresses Flexures

Statement 9: A constraint (C) properly applied to a body (i.e., without overconstraint) has the effect of removing one of the bodys rotational degrees of freedom (R). The R removed is the one about which the constraint exerts a moment. A body constrained by n constraints will have 6 n rotational degrees of freedom, each positioned such that no constraint exerts a moment about it. In other words, each R will intersect all Cs.

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Exercise 1

Precision Machine Design Kinematic Design Hertz Contact Stresses Flexures

Pick one corner that is not on a constraint line and add one orthogonal constraint at a time until the block is fully constrained. How many constraints must you add? Identify each constraint added with the rotational axis that it constrains (Hint: Use Statement 9).

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Equivalent Pairs of Rotational DOF

Precision Machine Design Kinematic Design Hertz Contact Stresses Flexures

Statement 10: Any pair of intersecting rotational degrees of freedom (R) is equivalent to any other pair intersecting at the same point and lying in the same plane. This holds true for small motions. Statement 11: Two parallel Rs are equivalent to any two parallel Rs parallel to the first pair and lying on the same plane. They are also equivalent to a single R parallel to the first pair and lying in the same plane; and a T perpendicular to that plane.

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Series and Parallel Connections

Precision Machine Design Kinematic Design Hertz Contact Stresses Flexures

Statement 12: When parts are connected in series (cascaded), add the degrees of freedom. When the connections occur in parallel, add constraints.

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Precision Machine Design ME 250

Hertz Contact Stresses

Mark Sullivan September 18, 2008

Hertz Contact Stresses

Precision Machine Design Kinematic Design Hertz Contact Stresses Flexures

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Chart from FUNdaMENTALs of Design, Slocum

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Hertz Contact Stresses (2)

Precision Machine Design Kinematic Design Hertz Contact Stresses Flexures

This is the general case.

For solved cases, see Roark or MathCAD

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Equations from FUNdaMENTALs of Design, Slocum

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Hertz Contact Stresses (4)

Precision Machine Design Kinematic Design Hertz Contact Stresses Flexures

Shear

Radial

Compressive

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Graph and equations from FUNdaMENTALs of Design, Slocum

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Hertz Contact Stresses (3)

Precision Machine Design Kinematic Design Hertz Contact Stresses Flexures

To reduce Hertz Contact Stresses:


Decrease force Increase ball radius Decrease E

To reduce deflection:
Decrease force Increase ball radius Increase E

To reduce contact area:


Decrease force Decrease ball radius Increase E

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Chart from FUNdaMENTALs of Design, Slocum

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Kinematic Coupling Analysis

Precision Machine Design Kinematic Design Hertz Contact Stresses Flexures

Also, MathCAD
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Chart from FUNdaMENTALs of Design, Slocum

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Pop Quiz: Contact Stress

Precision Machine Design Kinematic Design Hertz Contact Stresses Flexures

Which 3 DOF mount has lower Hertz contact stresses? Why? How could you make the stresses even lower?

3-Ball Nest

Tetrahedron

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Precision Machine Design ME 250

Flexures

(Adapted from ME 119 / ME 324 material by D. DeBra, Stanford University) Mark Sullivan September 18, 2008

Conceptual Basis for Flexure Design


Kinematic Design

Precision Machine Design Kinematic Design Hertz Contact Stresses Flexures

A rigid body has 6 DOF with respect to a reference frame (or another rigid body) With exactly 6 constraints suitably arranged, no relative motion. If more than 6 constraints are applied to the body, it is overconstrained and can be strained if its support base strains If less than 6 constraints are applied, movement is made possible (e.g., bearings):
1 rotation free - spindle, rotary bearing 1 translation free - carriage on ways

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Kinematic and Semi-Kinematic Constraint

Precision Machine Design Kinematic Design Hertz Contact Stresses Flexures

Is this mount overconstrained?

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From Hale, 1999


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Constraints and Strain Attenuation

Precision Machine Design Kinematic Design Hertz Contact Stresses Flexures

A constraint is (relatively) stiff along its line of constraint


Can substitute suitable arranged flexible elements to provide functionally equivalent constraint
Ex. Your stick models

Strain attenuation is important


Frictional forces from contacts can transmit unwanted strain

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Basic Building Blocks of Flexures


Rod Which DOF are Stiff Which are Flexible?
x

Precision Machine Design Kinematic Design Hertz Contact Stresses Flexures

Rz y Rx Rz y Rx Ry Ry

Bellows Which DOF are Stiff Which are Flexible?

z x

Ex. of combining rods and bellows to achieve flexural elements.

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Basic Building Blocks of Flexures (2)


Sheets or plates
Which DOF are Stiff Which are Flexible? bh determines strength L influences buckling strength
b h

Precision Machine Design Kinematic Design Hertz Contact Stresses Flexures

z
L x y

Rz

Ex. of combining sheet flexures to reduce constraints. Ex. of combining sheet flexures to increase constraints.

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Blade Flexures
Rigid constraint in its own plane (x, y, & z) Three degrees of freedom: z, x, & y.

Precision Machine Design Kinematic Design Hertz Contact Stresses Flexures

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Parallel-Blade Flexure

Precision Machine Design Kinematic Design Hertz Contact Stresses Flexures

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Cross-Blade Flexure

Precision Machine Design Kinematic Design Hertz Contact Stresses Flexures

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Commercial Flexures

Precision Machine Design Kinematic Design Hertz Contact Stresses Flexures

http://www.c-flex.com/home.html

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Rowlands Ruling Engine

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Henry Augustus Rowland III [1848-1901] - American physicist


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Anti-Distortion Mountings

Precision Machine Design Kinematic Design Hertz Contact Stresses Flexures

Jones, 1961
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Other Flexures

Precision Machine Design Kinematic Design Hertz Contact Stresses Flexures

Jones, 1962
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Other Flexures, cont.

Precision Machine Design Kinematic Design Hertz Contact Stresses Flexures

Why have 2 sets of cantilevered blade flexures? (At least 2 reasons)

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Jones, 1962

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Other Flexures, cont.

Precision Machine Design Kinematic Design Hertz Contact Stresses Flexures

Jones, 1962

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Series and Parallel Connections of Springs

Precision Machine Design Kinematic Design Hertz Contact Stresses Flexures

Rule 1: The equivalent compliance of springs connected in series is the sum of their individual compliances. Rule 2: The equivalent stiffness of springs connected in parallel is the sum of their individual stiffnesses.
cserie
s

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Series and Parallel Connections of Springs (2)

Precision Machine Design Kinematic Design Hertz Contact Stresses Flexures

Corollary: When springs are connected in series, add stiffnesses in parallel. When springs are connected in parallel, add stiffnesses in series.

k1

k2

k3

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References

Precision Machine Design Kinematic Design Hertz Contact Stresses Flexures

Blanding, D., Exact Constraint: Machine Design Using Kinematic Principles, ASME Press, New York, 1999. DeBra, D. ME 119 Lecture Notes on Flexures, Stanford University, 1987. Jones, R. V., Anti-distortion Mountings for Instruments and Apparatus, J. of Sci. Instr., vol. 38, October 1961, pp. 408-409. Jones, R. V., Some Uses of Elasticity in Instrument Design, J. of Sci. Instr., vol. 39, 1962, pp. 193-203. Hale, L. C., Principles and Techniques for Designing Precision Machines, UCRL-LR-133066, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 1999.
(http://www.llnl.gov/tid/lof/documents/pdf/235415.pdf)

Smith, S. T., Chetwynd, D. G., Foundations of Ultraprecision Mechanism Design, Gordon and Breach Science Publishers, Switzerland, 1992.

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