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History, Grade XII

History Grade: XII

An Introduction to World History


Full marks : 100 Teaching hours : 150

Course Description
This course is designed to make students familiar with the development of the human civilization, prominent religions of the world and main political events of the modern world. The whole course is divided into two units. The first unit entitled, Ancient Civilization includes the contribution as well as the social, economic and religious life of Egypt, Mesopotamia, China, Indus Valley, Vedic Era, Greece and Rome. The topics like the teaching of Bhagawat Gita, Gautam Buddha, Mahavir Vardhamana, Jesus Christ and Hajrat Muhammad are also included in the first unit. The second unit of this course entitled, Medieval and Modern World includes topics like the rise and fall of feudalism, causes, nature and effects of renaissance and reformation, causes and effects of different revolutions such as Glorious revolution,1688; American War of independence 1776-83, Industrial Revolution, French Revolution, 1789 and Russian Revolution of 1917. The topics like the causes and the effects of the First and Second World Wars and the establishment, objectives and organs of the League of Nations and United Nations are also included in this unit. The first topics of the first unit entitled Egyptian Civilization includes the contributions as well as the social economic and religious life of Egypt. Egyptian Civilization is regarded as one of the oldest civilization in the World. Egypt would have become desert without Nile river. Egypt lies in
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History, Grade XII

northeast side of Africa. It is surrounded by the Mediterranean Sea in the north, the Sahara desert in the west, the Red Sea in the east and the Cataracts in the south. The north part of Egypt was called lower and the south was called upper Egypt. It is said that Menes, the great king of ancient Egypt, united upper and lower Egypt and founded the first Egyptian Dynasty in 3400 B.C. About 2000 B.C., another tribe called Amorites settled in Babylon, a city on the banks of the Euphrates river. Hammurabi, the sixth Amorits King, developed the capital city Babylon and conquered the whole of Mesopotamia. During his reign, the Amorites were called Babylonians. His rule was called the Golden Age in the history of Mesopotamia. He was popular with his code. The code was also called code of Hammurabi. It was the first legal code of the ancient world. After the death of Hammurabi, another tribe called Kassites ruled nearly six centuries in Mesopotamia. After the fall of Kassites, another tribe called Hittites from Asia Minor conquered Mesopotamia. Assyrian ruled Mesopotamia after the fall of the Hittites. The chief centres of Assyrian power were Asur and Nineveh which lay on the banks of the River Tigris. The Assyrians rose to power during the rule of kings like. Tigleth piloser like III Sargon II and Sennacherib. Assyrian power was destroyed by mades and the Persian from the north and the Chaldean from the south. They divided the Assyrian empire. The Chaldean built the new Babylonian Empire. The greatest of the Chaldean emperors was Nebuchadnezzar, who reigned from 604 to 561 B.C. He built the famous Hanging Gardens of Babylon on the roof of the imperial palace. The third topic includes contributions as well as the social, economic and religious life of China. The background of the Chinese civilization has a past
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History, Grade XII

history of its own. The Chinese legend highlight its golden age three thousands years before the birth of Christ. However, the actual evidence of the Chinese history mentions the date as 1000 B.C. Chinese civilization has its own origin. It has glorious history of the past. However, it may be comparable in some respect with the other civilization of the world. In this regard, H.A. Davies in his book entitled, "An outline History of the World" mentions "like Sumeria and Egypt, China was originally a land of city, states, the art of writing originated with pictorial signs in China as in Egypt, there was a feudal age in China as in Egypt, followed by a centralizing empire, Chinese Civilization, like that of the Egyptian and the Sumerians, owed much to its river the Hwang-ho (Huang-ho or Yellow River) and the Yangtse-Kiang." The fourth topic of the same unit includes contributions as well as the social, economic and religious life of Indus Valley Civilization. This civilization was unknown to modern world before the excavation in 1922. The excavation works were carried on in Punjab, Sind and Baluchistan and spread over an area of 1200 x 700 miles. Mohanjodaro on the banks of the Indus, Harappa on the banks of Ravi and Lothal on the Kathiawar coast were three most important sites among one hundred forty discovered so far. The fifth topic includes contributions as well as the social economic and religious life of the Vedic people. The Aryans were regarded as the founder of the Vedic Civilization. It is believed that the Aryans originated in western part of Asia. One group of the Aryan migrated to Europe and other group to Iran. They entered into India around 2000 B.C. The four Vedas such as Rig Veda, Sama Veda, Yajur Veda and Atharva Veda describe the Vedic civilization. The Rig Veda has been regarded as the collection of the earliest and most important hymns
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History, Grade XII

composed about 1500-1200 B.C. It is the source book of the development of Hindu culture. The Sama Veda is the collection of melodies. The Yajur Veda is something like a 'guide book' for rituals. Atharva Veda is the descriptions of the belief and superstitions of the Aryans. The sixth topic of this unit mentions contributions as well as the social, economic and religious life under the Greek Civilization. The Greek Peninsula lies in the south-eastern part of Europe and is separated from the Asia Minor by the Aegean Sea. This peninsula is surrounded by a large number of islands on all the three sides. Crete is the largest island below the peninsula. The mainland of Greece is full of rugged mountain. Therefore the people developed number of small Greek city states. The majority of the people were dependent on farming on the limited land. The scarcity of the cultivable land and nearness of the sea forced the people to sea-farming and trade. They came in contact with Phoenicians who supplied them necessary goods. Hence, the Phoenicians alphabet has some impact on the Greek script. The seventh topic of this unit is the social, economic and religious life of the Romans. The Roman civilization has many common features with the Greek. The Greek gave the idea of democracy, art, philosophy, science and literature to the world and the Romans added their legal system. Like Greece, the Roman civilization was also influenced by geographical or natural factors. The Alps in the north and sea in all the three sides gave Rome a protection from the enemy. However, there were some differences between these two. The
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History, Grade XII

Greeks always remained disunited but the Romans had faith in unity and consolidation. The former believed in theory and philosophy whereas the latter in practice and reality of life. It is said that group of people called Italics came to Italy about 1800 B.C. One of their tribes was the Latins who settled in the south of river Tibar. Another tribes who were called Itruscans, settled in the north of river Tiber. These Tribes were regarded as the civilized people from the Asia Minor. Beside these two there were other tribes who settled in Italy. Rome was founded by twin brothers named Romulus and Remus on the Palatine hill in 753 B.C, according to the legends. Apart from civilization, this unit also mentions some philosophical thoughts of the ancient times. The Bhagawat Gita is one major focus in this unit. The literal meaning of the Gita is singing or saying of the God, meaning Krishna. But the Bhagawat Gita is related to the events of the Mahabharata. It is said that the Bhagawat Gita is the divine word of Sri Krishna spoken to Arjuna, the third Pandava, in the battle of Kuruchhetra. The whole text of the Bhagawat Gita has been divided into forty-seven verses. In its first or the opening verse, King Dhritarastra, who is blind and unable to assess the situation of the battlefield interrogates Sanjaya about the details of the war. Thereupon Sanjaya describe in the second verse as to how, approaching Dronacharya, Duryodhana starts his conversation. In the third verse Duryodhana invites Dronacharya to observe the mighty army of the Pandavas and devotes verses four to six to a recital of the names of the prominent warriors on the Pandava side. In the seventh verse Duryodhan
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asked Dronacharya the name of the main warriors and generls of his own army, he gives in verses eight and Nine the names of some of them and describes their heroism and skill in warfare. In the tenth verse Duryodhana declared his own army as incomparable, and that of the Pandavas as comparatively weaker, in the eleventh he requested all his warriors to guard Bhimsen on all sides. The twelfth verse speaks of Bhisma blowing his conch and thirteenth describes the noise produced by the sudden blaring forth of conches, kettle drum, drums and trumpets, etc. in the Kaurava army. Fourteenth to eighteen in verses speak of Bhagavan Sri Krishna, Arjun, Bhim, Yudhistir, Nakula, Sahadeva and all other important warriors of the Pandava camp blowing their respective conches. The verse Nineteen tells about the terrible sound echoing through heaven and earth and rending the heart of Duryodhan and his followers a feeling of shock. Seeing the sons of Dhritarastra arrayed for battle Arjun requested Sri Krishna, in verses twenty and twenty one to place the chariot between the two armies, and in verses twenty two and twenty three he requested that the chariot should be kept there till eh observed and scanned the warriors assembled for the fight. The verses twenty-four and twenty-five describe how placing the chariot between the two armies, as desired by Arjuna, Sri Krishna invites the latter to behold the warriors assembled for the fight. Then, up to the verse thirty there is a description, first by Sanjaya and then by Arjun himself, of the latters perplexity and grief at the right of his relations in battlearray. In verse thirty-one Arjun pointed out the evil consequences of war and verses thirty-two and thrity-three are devoted to his reasons for not covering either victory or the pleasures attending sovereignty. In verse thirty-four and thirty-five Arjun stated his close relationship with the warriors. viz, their being his teachers, uncles, etc, and declared that he did not want to kill them though he might be killed by them. He proceeded in verses thirty-six and thirty-seven to say that even though
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History, Grade XII

Duryodhana and his brothers were desperadoes, their killing would result only in sin and happiness could never be expected from it. In verses thirty-eight and thirty-nine he pointed out why the Pandavas should desist from the sin of destruction of their own race and enmity towards friends, and devotes verses forty to forty four to a detail enumeration of the evils resulting from the destruction of a family and its traditions. In verses forty-five and forty sin Arjun argued that the preparation for war with a view to kill his own relatives for throne and enjoyment was nothing but preparation for the commission of a great sin, and expressing regret for it he declared that it was better that the sons of Dhritarastra should kill him. In the last forty-seven verse Sanjaya described how having determined not to fight, and agitated by grief, Arjun laid down his arms, and sank into his chariot. The teachings of Gautam Buddha have long and lasting effects in the society of our region. In fact, Gautam Buddha was the worthy and respected son of Nepal. He was born in 563 B.C. in Lumbini in Nepal. Min Bahadur Shakya aptly writes "Lumbini, the birthplace of Lord Shakyamuni Buddha is the scared palce for Buddhist from all over the world." Mr. Shakya has also quoted from a veteran Asian traveller and author as saying "as millions of Chiristians look to Jerusalem for inspiration, as millions of Muslim turn to Mecca, so do the three hundred million Buddhists see in the sacred kingdom of Nepal hollowed thicket marked by a pillar left by the great Ashoka where the Shakyamuni was born. Buddhist know that the Site was in Nepal." Like Gautam Buddha, Mahavira Vardhamana was the worthy son of this subcontinent. He was the founder of Jainism. His native place was Kundapura near Vaisali in Bihar. He was born in a Kshatriya family. Siddhartha and Trisala were his father and mother respectively.
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History, Grade XII

Mahavira received the usual education and training in literature, philosophy, military, administration, music and fine arts. During his youth he started to make a plan for renunciation. His parents were unhappy to listen to the plan. They tried to solve the problem by marrying him to a beautiful young woman named Yasoda. Yasoda gave a birth of a daughter named Anoja. However, after the death of his parents Mahavira left his residence for renunciation at the age of thirty. Mahavira started traveling from place to place, wearing no clothes. The most prominent places of his visit were Nalanda, Rajagriha, Champaran, Vaisali and Sravasti. He attained supreme enlightenment at the age of forty three, in the thirteenth year after his renunciation. He was enlightened on the tenth day of the bright fortnight in the month of Vaisakha, under a Sal tree in a field near the village Jimbhikagrama (Jambhi gaon near the Damodar in Hajaribagh). He started preaching soon after attaining the enlightenment. He continued it until his death at the age of seventy at Pavapuri in district of Patna. His first converts were eleven Brahmans. It is said that there were 14,000 monks and 36,000 nuns at the demise of Mahavira. He never forbid women to be nun. As they wore no clothes, the nuns must have lived separately. Although Mahavira organized a Sangha, he never allowed monks to live together in monasteries. They used to spend their lives either in the forest or in solitary place near towns and villages. Jesus Christ was the founder of Christianity. He was born a Jew at Bethlehem, a small village near Jerusalem in 4th B.C. He was born in a stable and died a criminal's death at the age of 33. His father was Joseph of Nazareth (a dessendant of King David) and his mother was Virgin Mary. Jesus was born at a time when the Jews were under Roman control.

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History, Grade XII

Jesus Christ was very much influenced by his cousin, John the Baptist. John was executed for his preaching as a baptised. Therefore, Jesus took the responsibilities of his cousin and started preaching here and there. He talked about the kingdom of God where there would be Justice, Love and Kindness. He used to help those who were sick and exploited. His disciples called him Messiah. Some of his teaching was against the spirit of the Jewish Laws. The popularity of Jesus caused alarm and suspicion. He was executed by crucifixion along with two thieves at Golgotha. While being nailed to the cross, he said "Father, forgive them, for they know not what they are doing. The book entitled, "My world and I, the way of Unification" mentions "He did not leave any written works, and we have no description of what he looked like. Yet our calendar starts from the year of his birth. Across the world, people who are not even his followers, celebrate his birthday every year. Who was this man who wrought such an incredible change in the world history? Many years after Jesus died, accounts of his life were committed to record his life and teaching for posterity. These are called Gospels, meaning Good News. The earliest may have been written in about 50 A.D., although some scholars date them much later. The only sources of the life of Jesus was the Gospels in the New Testament." Hajrat Muhammad was born at Mecca in 570 A.D. His parents died in his early childhood. He was looked after by his grandfather and later by his uncle, Abu Talib. He could not receive any formal education because of his poverty. However he was trained to look after sheep and camels. He entered into the service of a wealthy widow named Khadija. Later on he married her. They had two sons and many daughters. His sons died in their early age. His daughter Fatima was very popular. Muhammad was very popular for his honesty and sincerity. Therefore he was called 'Amin' by his fellows. During his early youth he visited many
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History, Grade XII

places including southern Arabia and Syria. He met the Jews and the Christians and was influenced by their ideas. He spent most of his time in religious meditations. He started to visit Mount Hira, near Mecca, for meditation and fasting. He fell into fits many times and uttered words which became Koran, the religious text of Islam. Muhammad realised that he had received divine messages from the God and he must spread it among his fellow men. He declared "there is no other God but Allah, and Muhammad is his Prophet". But his preaching made the priest of Mecca especially the Temple of Kaaba, hostile against him. His life was in danger and therefore he had to retreat to Medina in 622 A.D. It was the most significant year for Islam and they called it Hijira, a new year in the Muslim Calendar. He got warm welcome in Medina. He captured Mecca whose citizens followed his faith. In this way Muhammad sowed the seed of new religion called Islam (meaning Peace with God) in Arabia and it became the great religion of the world. It is the main religion in most of the Middle East, Northern Africa, Central Asia, Malaysia and Indonesia. Indonesia is the largest Muslim country in the world. Today, about one billion people around the world profess the Islamic faith. Mecca and Medina are the two religious sites for all the Muslims of the world. Muhammad died in Medina in 632 A.D. The second unit of this course starts with the topic like the Rise and the Fall of Feudalism. Feudalism was one of the most significant developments of the Middle Age in Europe. It was based on the principles of decentralization of political powers to fulfill the need of disturbed society. It began in France after the death of Emperor Charlemagne (814 A.D.) and spread to many parts of Europe. Feudalism was developed in Europe as a response to check the disturbance created by the barbarian invaders.

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History, Grade XII

The second topic of this second unit is about the nature, causes and effects of two important historical events in Europe and popularly known to outside world as Renaissance and Reformation. The term 'Renaissance' is used to describe the changes brought by the people after the end of the Middle Age. it is a rebirth of Greco-Roman spirit of scientific curiosity and of humanism in arts and letters. It was an intellectual movement and spread all over Italy and remained in western Europe from the middle of the fourteenth century to the end of the sixteenth century. It enabled the people of Europe to have a new and rational approach towards life. The Reformation Movement in Europe was primarily aimed at reforming the Roman Catholic Church. Like any other religion, Roman Catholic Church became vulnerable in medieval period. The Pope became so powerful that even the kings of all the countries of the Europe, found it difficult to defy the orders of the church or stop its interference in matters exclusively coming under state jurisdiction. After the Renaissance and Reformation people of Europe felt the need for changing their way of life. They tried to make their life more comfortable. Therefore, they challenged and questioned the authority of Pope, Priest, Kings and rulers alike. Hence, the revolution in different names and forms started in Europe, the prominent among them were the Glorious Revolution of England in 1688, the American war of independence, Industrial Revolution of England, French Revolution 1789 and the Russian Revolution of 1917. The revolution of 1688 in England was called The Glorious Revolution because it was bloodless. The king of the middle ages were helped by the
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History, Grade XII

feudal lords in the task to administration. But gradually the feudal lords became weaker and the Tudor king abolished the feudalism. Afterward the parliament endeavoured to take share in the administration with the king. Therefore, a long struggle began between king and parliament for acquisition of the sovereignty of the state. The result of this struggle was glorious revolution. H.A. Davies in his book entitled "An Outline History of the World' compared the American and French Revolutions like this "Before the eighteenth century ended there were two rebellions: the American Revolution of 1775-83, and the French Revolution of 1789-95 which were both of them severe blows to the theory of absolute monarchy, and which were destined to have a considerable effect upon the subsequent history of the human race." Clarifying the causes of the American war of Independence, H.A. Davies writes "The American Revolution, or the War of American Independence, as it is sometimes called, was a revolt against the autocracy of England which at this time was ruled by a well-meaning but obstinate king George III. Who had a desire to revive the personal power of the Crown. The Revolution was a direct consequence of England's intervention in the seven year's war, and of the ideas which prevailed throughout Western Europe at that time as to the proper way of governing colonies." After the discovery of the new continent, colonies of different European powers such as Spain, England, France, the Netherlands and Sweden had spread everywhere in the world. Spain had established her colony in Florida, French in Northern America which were called as New France (Canada) and Louisiana (USA), the British had thirteen colonies spread in eastern coast of USA. The main reasons for the People of Europe and Britain to emigrate were trade and religion. Jemestown in Virginia was the first British settlement in 1607. It was started as a commercial venture by the
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History, Grade XII

Virginia Company. the Pilgrim Fathers who fled persecution in England, came to America and established colonies. These people questioned the British authority in America which resulted in the American war of Independence. The French Revolution of 1789, was another landmark in the history of modern world. The Revolution began with the meeting of the States-General in May 1789, and the destruction of the Bastille on July 14 the same year and continued until the rise of Napoleon Bonaparte. The social, economic and political situation in most of the countries in Europe were more critical than France. Then the question arises why there was no revolution in other countries before France. Because French people were sufficiently enlightened to realise the evils and absurdities of the system of government under which they suffered. The writings of Voltaire, Montesquieu, Jean Jacques Rousseau, Diderot etc. influenced their lives very much and they were encouraged to raise their voice against despotic rules of King Louis XVI and Queen Marie Antoinette. The western world witnessed many revolutions in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries but Russia which had been made a first rate power by Peter the Great (1672-1725) and Catherine II (1762-96), remained undisturbed. It was not because the people of Russia were in much better condition than the rest of the world. The fact was that the tower ranks of Russian Society were among the most oppressed and exploited people in the world. The Tsars and the nobles could prevent the entry of the ideas of liberalism, nationalism, democracy, freedom and equality, and silence the people for a longer time than their counterparts in other countries. But they could not keep out new ideas permanently for all time and prevent than from making an impact on the mind of the people.
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History, Grade XII

The idea of Karl Marx about communism was gaining ground in the Russian soil. As a result a revolution broke out in 1905. But this revolution was ruthlessly suppressed by the Tsar. The Tsar did not learn anything from the revolution and continued to suppress the people. Naturally there was a big revolution twice in a year viz. February and October 1917. These two revolutions in Russia not only changed the course of Russian history, but also the history of mankind, because the entire set of the old political, social, economic and other principles and values were demolished Russia came to have a new power structure, and a totally new social and economic order. the happenings in Russia since 1917 had a profound effect on the whole human beings. The course of history inevitably changed. The last topics of this unit are related with the two world wars and two world organizations such as League of Nations and United Nations Organization. A great war which the world had never seen or experienced broke out in 1914, and continued for four years, till 1918. It was for the first time in history, almost all the countries in the world were directly or indirectly involved in it, and its impact was felt by the whole world, by all the people, even by those, who were not aware of the war. That is why the great war called the First World War (1914-18). The Second World War broke out on 1 September 1939 before the world had fully recovered from the havoc caused by the First World War (1914-18). This war was longer and more devastating than the First World War. The interval between the two world wars was twenty years and nine months. The first international organization known as the League of Nations to present world was established to avoid any war in the years to come.
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History, Grade XII

Because the horrors of the First World War, loss of life and property, increasing debt burdens, storng conflicting emotions and dreadful sufferings created a great urge among the leading statesmen and even the common people to have a meaningful plan to save mankind from death and destruction of a World War in the future. The purpose behind the establishment of the League of Nations was that the problems of international conflict or War should be settled peacefully at the conference table and not on the bloody battle fields of the world. It was President Woodrow Wilson of the US who took the initiative at the Paris Peace Conference in 1919 in insisting on the establishment of the League of Nations. In 1918 the President put forward his fourteen points to prevent future World War before the end of the First World War. At the Paris Peace Conference, President Woodrow Wilson insisted on the incorporation of the League Covenant in the treaties. He wanted the League to be established at once. The League was to come into existence on the day on which the treaty of Versailles would come into force. President Woodrow Wilson had strong believe that if the establishment of the League would be postponed until after the treaties were put into effect, the League might not be born at all. However, on 10 January 1920 the League of Nations was establish on the same day when the Allies and Germany exchanged the Ratification of the treaty of Versailles with twenty four members. On 15 November 1920, the first Assembly of the League was convened when the number of the members was increased by forty-two. Geneva in Switzerland, a neutral state in World War I became the seat of the League of Nations. It was an international organization of many countries having its own sovereignty. It was not a federation of states or super states or a world government. It had no sovereignty, and could not take action on any state or coerce any state by military might in the same way in which a state can
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History, Grade XII

Coerce its subjects or citizens. Sit did not have any territory. There were no citizens or subjects over whom it could exercise control. Unlike a state it had no army of any kind. The failure of the League of Nations resulted in the Second World War and the establishment of the United Nations Organization. The great statesmen of the world realized during the course of the Second world War (September 1939 to August 1945) that the idea of establishing the UN, an international organization much better than the discredited League of nations. In January, 1941, President Franklin Delano Roosevelt of USA declared that every nationality had the right to nationhood, and the Allies were fighting against the Axis Power to uphold this right. In August 1945, the Second World War ended, and in 1946, the League of Nations was dissolved, though some of its independent agencies were permitted to continue functioning. Since the beginning of the war, people all over the world wanted the democracies to declare and clarify their war aims. President Franklin Delano Roosevelt of USA and Prime Minister Winston Churchill of U.K. declared the war aims of the Allies through the famous Atlantic Charter on August 14, 1918. The Atlantic charter was a significant as the Fourteen Points, which were put forward by President Woodrow Wilson of the USA during World War I. On a January 1942, representatives of Twenty-six governments adopted the United Nations Declaration based on the Principles of the Atlantic Charter. On 25 June 1945, at a plenary session, the charter of the United Nations was unanimously adopted by fifty one nations. The charter came into effect on 24 October 1945 after Japanese surrenders and ending of the Second World War. The UN Charter has a long document consisting of a Preamble and III Articles. John D. Rockfeller Jr. donated land plot in Manhattan, New York, for the UN buildings.
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History, Grade XII

Overall Objectives of the Course After the completion of this course the students will be able to: discuss the social, economic and religious life of the people of Egypt, Mesopotamia, China, Indus Valley, Vedic Era, Greece and Rome. analyse the contributions of Egypt, Mesopotamian, China, Indus Valley Civilization. explain the teaching of Bhagawat Gita, Gautam Buddha, Mahavira Vardhamana, Jesus Christ and Hajrat Muhammad. explore the causes of the rise and the fall of the Feudalism. review the causes, nature and effects of the Renaissance and Reformation. state the causes and the effects of the Glorious Revolution of 1688, American War of Independence 1776-83, Industrial Revolution, French Revolution 1789 and the Russian Revolution of 1917. examine the causes and the effects of the First and the Second World War. justify the need for the establishment of the League of Nations and United Nations Organization. identify the objectives of the League of Nations and United Nations Organization and elucidate the functions of the different organs of these two World Organizations.

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History, Grade XII

Unit One Ancient Civilizations


52 Teaching hours 1. Introduction to the unit This course has been divided into two units and five sub-units. The first unit of this course entitled Ancient Civilization includes first sub-unit and topic like outstanding contributions as well as social, economic and religious life of Egypt, Mesopotamia, China, Indus Valley, Vedic Era, Greece and Roman civilization. the second sub unit and topics of this unit include the teaching of Bhagawat Gita, Gautam Buddha, Mahavira Vardhamana, Jesus Christ and Hajrat Muhammad. 2. Pre-requisites Some knowledge of World Civilization at the Secondary School level. 3. Objectives, instructional materials instructional strategies and period allocated Objectives of the Unit At the end of this Unit the students will be able to : - Examine the contributions of Egypt, Mesopotamia, Indus Valley, Vedic Era, Greece and Rome to modern world. Maps, picture showing the contributions and handouts Demonstration the teacher will demonstration in the class 14 Instructional Materials Instructional Strategies Teaching hours

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- Explain the social economic and religious life of the people of ancient Egypt, Mesopotamia, Indus Valley, Vedic Era, Greece and Rome - Evaluate the teaching of Bhagawat Gita, Gautam Buddha, Mahavir Vardhamana, Jesus Christ and Hajrat Muhammad 4.

Pictures and handouts describing the social, economic and religious life.

Seminar, Each student should be asked to prepare seminar paper

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Pictures and Flash Card describing the teaching of Bhagawat Gita and Gautam Buddha

Discussion Method the teacher will divide the class into five groups and ask each group to discuss and present in the class.

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Description of the Contents of the Unit : Contributions of the Egyptian Civilization

1. Writings The Egyptian Civilization gave the world first form of writings called Heiroglyphics. It was picture writing used for religious purposes. They also developed twenty four letter alphabet.
EGYPTIAN SUMERIAN CHINESE TERRA HEBREW GREEK 2 WRITING, CALENDARS, AND RELIGION HELP MEN WORK TOGETHER XPA

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History, Grade XII

2. Writing Materials Beside Heiroglyphics and alphabet the Egyptians gave the world writing materials such as paper, palette, reed pen Ink and Inkpot Paper was produced by the papyrus plants. the name paper was also derived from the word papyrus. They taught the world to make pen out of pointed reed and make ink out of vegetable gum and soot. 3. Calendars Ancient Egypt gave the World Lunar and Solar Calendars. They developed Lunar calendar and when they found Lunar Calendar inadequate to measure time correctly they evolved a new calendar based on the solar system. They divided the year into three seasons each having four months and thirty days in the month. the last five days in each year were holidays. There were three hundred and sixty five days in a year in Egyptian Solar Calendars. Not only calendar, they also invented devices like sundial, water clock and the Hour-glass to indicate the time. The world learned the value of time from Egypt. Modern watch was the outcome of the devices developed by Egyptians in ancient period. 4. Science and Mathematics Egyptians were much more advanced in science and Mathematics. They had very good knowledge of earth science and medicine. The physicians diagnosed the diseases by investigating their symptom and prescribed remedies. The Egyptian doctors were aware of the science of Surgery. They performed setting of bone fractures and were expert in surgical operation. Egyptians were well acquainted with the knowledge of mathematics. They knew addition, multiplication, division and fraction. They maintain the account properly. They knew Geometry well. The structure of Pyramids
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clearly indicates their knowledge of Geometry. They were trained enough to calculate the area of triangles and rectangles. Modern world has learned many things from Egypt especially in the field of mathematics and medical science. 5 Art and Architecture: Egyptian art and architectures were advance from The pyramid, temples and toms were the examples of their skill of architectural engineering. Some people were well-versed in medical science as well as architectural engineering. Imhotep, the advisor of the king Zoser of ancient Egypt was the example of such talent. He was quite popular as a great physician and architect. He was the architect of the first Pyramid known as the Pyramid of Zoser. Egyptian paintings, beautiful jewelry, pottery, musical instruments, fine linen cloth, weapons and tools, enchanting glassware and excellent vessels had great impact on the art of modern world. Egyptian arts had great influence on Hebrew, Greeks and Phoenicians. Social Life of the Egyptian People Egyptian society was divided into three classes known as High class or aristocratic, the middle class and peasants and slaves. The Pharaoh, the nobles and the priests were regarded as aristocratic who enjoyed much power and wealth. The middle class of Egyptian society included merchants, scribes, artisans, physicians and other professional. This class emerged as the results of the growth of cities and towns in ancient Egypt.

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The condition of the peasants and slaves were miserable. They worked hard but get little for their livelihood. The peasants had to pay taxes to the state. The slaves were taken as captives after the war and brought to Egypt. Their life was hard enough. They had to construct Pyramids and other buildings for Pharaohs and their masters. The woman occupied great prestige and high place in society. They were respected everywhere. They enjoyed freedom and owned property. The Pharaohs married their sisters and daughters to retain the purity of royal blood. Religious life of the Egyptian People The Egyptians were polytheistic. That is why they worshiped many gods. Deities were visualized as animals and other creatures, such as the crocodiles, the bee, the jackal, the bull, the ram, the falcon and others. The creatures themselves were not gods but they were the seats of divinity. The sun God called Ra was worshipped by all Egyptians. It was said that Ra used to sail across the sky in a golden boat daily. He was supposed to destroy the darkness and injustice and make life more happier and comfortable. Osiris, the son of the sun God Ra was equally worshipped by Egyptian because it was he who caused the Nile to overflow to make the soil fertile. The legend says that Osiris was killed by his bad brother but his devoted wife brought him back to life. Osiris became the king of the dead and judge the soul of the dead. They produced the book called the book of the Dead which was used to test the dead to go to heaven. The failure in the test indicated the life in the hell. Egyptians believed that their Pharaoh was an incarnation of god Ra and Osiris. They built temples, tombs and Pyramids to pay homage to their god and goddess. The temples constructed at Karnak, Luxor, Philae and Abu
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Simbel were worth seing. The temple of Karnak took nearly two thousand years to complete and it is nearly quarters of a mile long. Economic Life of the Egyptian People The people of ancient Egypt were mostly dependent on agriculture. They grew crops of wheat, flax, fruits and vegetables. The fertile land of Nile had boost up the agriculture of ancient Egypt. Therefore Hecataeus, the geographer once remarked, "Egypt is the gift of the Nile." The ancient Egyptian also recognized the importance of Nile and exclaimed" Hail to the E O Nile that comes to keep Egypt alive." The Papyrus was made from the stem of the Papyrus plant which grew in marshes and pools near the Nile. The fresco in Theban grave the process of farming by Egyptian Peasants. It represents ploughing, sowing, reaping, carrying and threshing corn. Cattle farming was also common practice in ancient Egypt. A model found in a tomb dating from about 2200 B.C. indicates a nobleman inspecting his many cattle with herdsmen. Beside agriculture Egyptians were involved in many other profession and occupations. There were potters who made vessels of great beauty, weaves of fine linen stuffs, glass workers, makers of tapestry; cabinet maker who made chair and conches for the king and nobles, goldsmiths etc. The Egyptians were also involved in trade and commerce. They built ships and started trading across the Mediterranean as far as Phoenicia. The Pharaohs used to send caravans of donkeys far up the Nile into the Sudan to deal with the black people of the south and bring back ebony, ivory, ostrich, feathers, fragrant gums etc. to Egypt.

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Mesopotamian Civilization The Contributions of Mesopotamian Civilization


1. Sumerian City States Unlike ancient Egyptians who were united under a strong monarchy, the Sumerians developed independent city-states which were governed by priest kings. The most popular among their city-states were Urkish, Karsa, Lagash and Ereth. The Bible mentions the story of Ur as the native city of the Bebrew Prophet, Abraham. 2. Responsibility of the Priest King: Besides their religious functions, the priest kings supervised revenue collection, irrigation, construction of public buildings and tower temple with the help of nobles. The tower temple was also called Ziggurat. The tower temple was market in real sense of term. Its tier-terraces were full of markets, banks, factories and store-house of food grains. 3. The Code of Hammurabi: The Code of Hammurabi had great influence on the legal system and Judiciary of the World. That is why it is called "the world's first great legal genius". Hammurabi was the most popular king of Babylonia. He conquered the whole of Mesopotamia. His popularity was because of his code and justice and human administration. It is said that Hammurabi got the code from the sun God called Shamash. The code includes 285 sections related with civil and criminal laws. Subjects like marriage, property, debts, thefts, wages, contracts, banking, public morality and murder were expressed in a simple language. 4. Assyrian Contribution The Assyrians were warlike people. They believed in power and strength. They had very good knowledge of weapons and warfare. They knew how to
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make weapons and planned for war. The Assure and Nineveh were the chief cities of Assyrians. Their cities were founded on the bank of river Tigris. The Assyrians had extended their empire from the Persian Gulf to Egypt along the Fertile Crescent. Their love of war and capacity to organize the administration took them on the height of the glory of civilization. it was because of their power and glory they were called "Romans of Asia". 5. Contribution in Science: Sumerians in Mesopotamian Civilization has made great contributions in the field of science. they developed lunar calendar. They invented writing. They divided time into hour, hour into sixty minutes and each minute into sixty seconds. Along with astronomy astrology also developed. The Chaldean kings encouraged the development of science by constructing observatories for astronomers. 6. Hanging Garden of Babylon One of the greatest contributions of Babylon was the Hanging Garden built by Chaldean emperor Nebuchadnezzar (604-561 B.C) on the roof of his imperial palace. The Greeks called it one of the Seven Wonders of the World. Social Life of the Mesopotamian People The Babylonian civilization reached its zenith during the time of Hammurabi. He was the first to build an empire Mesopotamia and govern it effectively with his code. His code was too harsh and cruel to some extent. For example, if a house fell down and caused the death of the householder's son, the code directs that the son of the builder shall be put to death. In other word it was the old concept of an eye for an eye and a tooth for a tooth.

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The Babylonian society was divided into three classes. The first class consisted of king and his family, priests, nobles, officers and rich merchants. The middle class included peasant, artisans, shopkeepers and others. The slaves were considered as the third and lowest class in the society. They were brought as the captive of the war. However, the slaves in Babylonia were in better condition in comparing with other parts of the world. They enjoyed the right of property, marriage freemen or women and right to buy their freedom with their savings. The women were enjoying freedom of property and the choice of the profession. They were allowed to divorce their husband in case of dissatisfaction. But the women in general were loyal towards husband and family. Education was common practice in Babylonia. The children used slate of soft clay to write their lesson in school. The children were taught to write on the slate and memorise some three hundred and fifty sign of alphabet. The writing and memorising all the sign were not easy job. Hence, a proverb was written on the wall of the school hour "He who shall excel in tablet writing shall shine like the sun." Religious Life of the Mesopotamian People The prestige of the chief local deity varied with the renown and power of city. Anu of Erah as gods of the sky, Ea of Eridu as god of water, Nanna of Ur as god of the moon were recognised as supreme gods. But the thing changed when Babylon became the capital of the empire. The attempt was made to raise the prestige of the Babylonian god, Marduk. He was promoted from a minor water god to a god of magic, and to a sky god. The priest of the god announced that he was lord of the universe. But this concept was not accepted widely.

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Ishtar, the mother of gods and also goddess of love and Tammuz, the god of vegetation, were also worshiped. Enlil, the supreme god of Sumerians was replaced by Marduk, the supreme god of the Babylonians when they were in power. During the time of the Chaldeans or the new Babylonians, seven main gods came to be worshipped in rotation based on the principle of each god a day like the sun God on first day as Sun day and Moon God on second day as Monday. Economic Life of the Mesopotamian People The primary occupation of the people of Mesopotamia was agriculture. Like in Egypt they produced wheat, barley, spelt, onions, beans, grapes and dates. The dates were widely used for various purposes. They provided flour, fruit, wine, rope, wood etc. Cows and sheep were domestic animal used for milk and meat. A plow was used as farm implement which dropped seeds through a funnel while the earth was prepared to receive them. The trade and commerce were in advanced stage. Mesopotamia had more convenient access to the western end of the Fertile Crescent and to caravans from east than Egypt. The roving nomad population near the land of two rivers Tigris and Euphrates facilitated the exchange of goods. Mesopotamian exports were grain, cloth, dried fish and finished metallic products in exchange of imports of Ores, fine woods such as cedar and walnut, building stone etc. Professional accountants were appointed by the traders to keep the account properly. Mesopotamian seals or duplication of them were found in Fertile Crescent and in Asia Minor. Babylonian contracts were carefully drawn. Contracts for all business transactions were required with death penalty for failure to fulfill. Gold and Silver by weight served as media of exchange. Originally the Ziggurat had been the storehouse for product.

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Slowly it acquired great capital from gift of worshippers. Having acquired so much capital the temple acted as a bank which supplied seed to farmers in the growing season and money or precious metal for various enterprises. The craft and craftsmen were controlled by the temples and priest. But their tradition was challenged by the Code of Hammurabi and it was controlled and supervised by the State. Contributions of the Chinese Civilization Chinese people of ancient ages have made immense contribution to world civilization in the field of science, art, education, music, literature etc. 1. Science China was on the top of progress in ancient period in the field of astronomy, mathematics, agronomy and medicine. The silk technology in ancient period made China world famous. The high way of China linking outside world was also addressed as Silk Road to signify the importance of silk. The manufacture of porcelain ware was so famous that the country itself acquired its name as China. She has taught to the world the method of making paper, printing, gunpowder, compass etc. The Great Wall of China and the imperial palaces and garden building in Beijing represented the achievement of ancient China in the field of Science and Technology. 2. Astronomy In ancient China astronomy developed in order to arrange farm and animal husbandry in accordance with the change of seasons. That is why they badly needed astronomical knowledge in making calendar. Ancient Chinese made great contributions not only to calendar making, but also to the keeping of astronomical records and the manufacturing of astronomical instrument. Another significant contribution of ancient China was the records of sunspots, comets, polar lights, novas and meteorite showers. Ancient China

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recorded more than 90 novas and supernovas which have attracted great attention among modern radio astronomers. 3. Mathematics China made great contribution in the field of mathematics also. The decimal system was for the first time adopted in China. The Chinese were proficient in the use of the decimal system and the fractions for the four arithmetical operations. The ancient Chinese mathematician Jiu Zhang Suan Shu wrote a book entitled "Nine Chapters on the Mathematical Art" in the first Century. This book is not only a Chinese classic of mathematics but also well-known scientific work in the world. 4. Agronomy Ancient China led the world in the practice of agronomy. In the Zhou Dynasty, over 3,000 years ago crops like glutinous millet, broomcorn millet, rice, barley, wheat, soya bean grew in Chinese farmland. The agricultural book of entitled Qi Min Yao Shu (Import Arts of the peoples Welfare) written in the 6th Century, records over eighty six specimens of millet, indicating that Chinese agriculture had reached a very high level of development. 5. Architecture Ancient Chinese architecture has some originality of its own. The Great Wall erected in the 2nd or 3rd Century B.C. and rebuilt continually afterwards has remained an architectural beauty of the world. It is one of the man-made structures that can be seen from satellites. Social Life in Ancient China China has a recorded history of about 3,600 years. The first primitive man so far known to have exited in China is Yuanmou Man, who lived about 1.70

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million years ago. Peking Man was discovered at Zhoukaudian to the south west of Beijing (Peking) lived 400,000 to 5000,000 years ago. The ancient Chinese society consisted of various classes. They were educated elite, the peasants and workers and the merchants. Slavery existed in China. In the 11th Century B.C. The Zhou people (people of modern Shaanxi) under the leadership of King Wu, destroyed, the Shang Dynasty by military force and founded a new slave regime known as western Zhou (11th Century to 770 B.C.). The Zhou kings adopted the system of fiefs in which land and people were awarded to various dukes and princess. All land was belonged to the king and all slaves were compelled to work collectively for the king. Religion and Philosophy Worship of nature was the most primitive way of religious tradition of China. It was followed by ancestor worship. During the warring states, many schools of Philosophy flourished, such as Mohism, Confucianism, Leagalism, Mencius and Taoism. Buddhism was introduced in China in 67 A.D. Mohism Philosophy was propounded by Mo Zi or Mo Di (C. 478 392 B.C.). He advocated Universal love, pacifism, and emphasized on honouring of the virtuous. He had many followers and exercised influence on the society of his time. Confucius (551- 479 B.C.) was a philosopher, educator and the founder of confucianism. His real name was Kong Qill or Kong Zhongxi. He was born in Zhou yi state of Lu.

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Confucius expressed his philosophy on politics, morality, love and education. He proposed that good and capable people should be appointed to official posts. He emphasized the importance of benevolence and regarded it as the highest ideal of morality. He advocated more love for those who were close and less for those who were distant, more for the highly placed and less for the lowly. For education confucius emphasised 'the teaching according to individual talent, learning and relearning and learning about new things by reviewing old things "For learning process he advised," when you know, say you know and when you do not know, say you do not know." Confucius words and works were compiled by his students to form book entitled the Analects of Confucius. He himself edited Book of Odes, Book of History, Book of Change, Spring and Autumn Annals etc. Han Fei (C. 280 233) founded the idea of Legalism. He opposed such concepts as heavenly mandate and questioned the existence of ghosts and spirits. He did like the idea to return to old. He advocated the concentration of all power in the hands of the sovereign, and rule by law. He was the representative of legalist school. It was also called the school of logicians that studied the distinction between name and reality- a school that emphasized the importance of logic and debate. Mencius (C 372 289 B.C.) advocated the ruler to win the hearts of their subjects so as to secure their own rule. He believed that every person should have his own immovable property. There should be schools to teach people to be dutiful towards their parents and respectful towards all elders. He argued if all this was done people would be "friendly towards one another, helping one another in difficulties or in poor health. In that case the people would have no desire to move to other places all their lives. Saying all these
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things Mencius wanted to built a strong Nation. The purpose of having immovable property for everyone, as proposed by Mencius, was to combine tilling with weaving to create a small- scale agricultural economy where labour would be permanently tied to land. Lao Zi (C 604 517 B.C.) was regarded as the founder of Taoism. He believed that there was nothing man could do regarding the change of events which was controlled by the way of heaven. What man could and ought to do was to follow nature, remaining passive and doing nothing in particular. His ideal society was one small in size and spare in population where people had neither desire nor knowledge and do not communicates one another for the entire duration of their liver. Buddhism was introduced in China in 67 A.D. when Buddhist monk Kasyapa Mataeng and Dharmaranya came to Luoyang at the invitation of the Han emissary to their country. Emperor Ming Di ordered the White Horse Monastery built in their honour and asked them to translate Buddhist sutras into Chinese. Economic Life in Ancient China Chinese society in ancient period was primarily based on agricultural economy. Iron Plough and ox farming were popularized and improved. New methods of farming were also introduced such as "alternation method" and "small plot method". In the "alternatives method" the land was ploughed into furrows and the earth turned up to make ridges crops seeds were sown into furrows. To maintain the fertility of the land, the ridges crops seeds were sown into furrows. To maintain the fertility of the land, the ridges and furrows were alternated every year so that the ridges of this year became furrows of the next, and vice versa. In small plot method deep

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ploughing and close planting were applied on small plots, where water and manure were sued effectively. 1. Industry Beside agriculture, the Chinese were heavily involved in industrial activities in ancient period. Cloth-weaving, the main household sideoccupation covered silk, flax, kohemp and woolen fabrics. The silk fabrics used by aristocrats were of fine workmanship and exquisite design. The cotton cloth from the prefecture of Silkman and the silk from Shandong were famous at the time. Chinese brocade which was characteristic of high standards of Chinese textiles, found a brisk market in Rome. The hand operated spinning wheels, weaving looms and figures fabric weaving looms of the time had lasting influence over China's textile. Salt making, iron smelting and cloth weaving were three principal handicraft of ancient China. By the Easter Han Dynasty, iron and steel had replaced bronze in making the weapons. Paper making in China began in the 2nd Century B.C. when people used worn out bast fibres to make rough paper. In the second Century writing paper was invented and the raw materials extended from bast to bark fibres. It is said China's paper making technology spread to Korea in fourth Century and Japan in Tenth Century, Ararb Countries in eight century and Europe after twelve Century. Chinese wood block printing was made between the period six and seven Century. The movable type printing was invented at the beginning of the eleventh century. During the period between second Century B.C. and second Century AD the building of wooden vessels was well developed. Chinese invented Gun-powder in seventh Century and used in fighting war in tenth Century.

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2. Trade Through the Silk Road and the sea routes, Chinese Silk and Silk products were transported to Europe, Asia and Africa where they ere well received. Not long afterward the technology of silk weaving also spread to foreign countries. For several times between the Fifth and Sixteenth Century, figured fabrics weaving looms were transported to Europe. The Eastern Han Periods witnessed a steady rise in the export of Chinese silk to the western world. Chronology of Chinese History Dynasty Primitive Society Slave Society Xia Shang Western Zhou Spring and Autumn Period Feudal Society Warring States Period Qin Western Han Easter Han Three Kingdoms Wei Shu Wu Western Jin Easter Jin Southern and Northern Dynasties Duration 4,000 years ago Around 21st Century 476 B.C. Around 21st - 16th Century B.C. Around 16st - 11th Century B.C. Around 11th - Century 770 B.C. 770 - 476 B.C. 4756-B.C. - A.D. 1840 475 - 221 B.C. 221 - 207 B.C. 206 B.C. - A.D. 24 25 220 220 280 220 265 221 - 263 229 - 280 265 - 316 317 - 420 420 - 589

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Southern Dynasties Song Qi Liang Chen Northern Dynasties Northern Wei Eastern Wei Western Wei Northern Qi Northern Zhou Sui Tang Five Dynasties Song (Northern and Southern) Liao Western Xia Kin Yuan Ming Qing

420 - 589 420 - 479 479 - 502 502 - 557 557 - 589 386 - 581 386 - 534 534 - 550 535 - 557 550 - 577 557 - 581 581 - 618 618 - 907 907 - 960 960 - 1279 916 - 1125 1038 - 1227 1115 - 1234 1271 - 1368 1368 - 1644 1644 - 1911

Greek Civilization Contributions of Greek Civilization


Greek civilization is called the mother of European Civilization. Europe and the World as a whole learned many things from the ancient Greeks. Shallay, the eminent English poet once wrote "We are all Greeks, our laws, our literature, our religion, our arts have their roots in Greece. "Regarding the
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impact of Greek civilization on Italy H.A. Davies Writes, "It was in southern Italy and Sicily that the most famous of the Greek colonies were founded. Southern Italy became a kind of new Greece, and it had its full share of the culture which afterwards came to the Greeks. This is a matter of considerable importance, because it was through the Greeks that literature, art, architecture, and the knowledge of how to write came into Italy, so that the Roman civilization is the debtor of the Greek, just as the Greek is the debtor of Phoenicia, and the Phoenicians the debtor of Egypt." Greek civilization has made great contribution to world in the field of literature, sports, political science, Philosophy and Science. The Greek Scientists made important contributions to the scientific knowledge for which the world is greatly indebted. GREEK HISTORY

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Social Life of the Greeks 1. Society The word "Greeks" came from Latin, the language of the Romans not of the Greeks themselves. They called themselves "Hellenes" which applied to many different Aegean communities. Although Greece was divided into hundred of city states, the people had strong feeling of Patriotism. It is said that no people have ever loved their country more passionately than the ancient Greeks loved their cities. The Athenians during the time of Pedicles did not regard their lives as their own, but as the property of the state. The most prominent among several city-states of Greece were Athens, Sparta, Corinth and Thebes. There was the different system of governance between Athens and Sparta. Athens believed in Democracy. She made significant achievements in the field of politics, laws, literature, art, science and Philosophy. They discarded oligarchy and accepted democracy. In contrast to Athens, Sparta was basically the military state. In Sparta, there were three classes in society known as Peers, Freemen and Helots. The Helots were aggressive. Only Peers were enjoying privileges and citizenship. The remaining two were deprived of the privileges and citizenship. 2. Greek Literature Ancient Greece was rich in Language and Literature. The llliad and Odyssey composed by the blind poet Homer were the sources of the inspiration for the people of Greece. Less than a century after Homer, Hesiod wrote two significant books entitled "Theogony" and 'Works and Days'. The book Theogony gave a systematic account of the genealogy of the gods, and the others Works and Days, dealt with farm life of the period.
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The woman who came up with lyric poetry was Sappho before 500 B.C. The name lyric means verse that was recited and sung to the accompaniment of a lyre. However, the lyric poetry was not new for Greece. Because the epic legends of Homer were also recited and sung. The Periclean age was regarded as the golden age of Greek plays. The Athenian government used to award an annual prize to the best play wright after an open contest. Aeschylus Sophocles and Euripides were the three great tragic poet of ancient Greece. Herodotus (484 - 425 B.C.), the father of History, brought changes by writing authentic history of persian wars. Thucydides (C 455 - 400 B.C.) another Athenian gave the world first scientific history. His history book on Peloponesian War (the great war between Athens and Sparta) introduced scientific approach in writing history, for example, cause and effects relationship. 3. Philosophy Greece produced many famous Philosophers of the world.

Socrates

(469 - 399 B.C.) was one of the greatest philosophers who taught his pupils not to accept any principle without putting it to a severe test of reasoning. The Athenian government found his ideas as dangerous and corrupted the youth. He was given hemlock (poison) to die. Before his death he proclaimed "know thyself, I will rather die having spoken after my manner than to like and speak in your manner". One of the students of Socrates was Plato (C 428 - 347 B.C.) who contained the teaching of his teacher in his book entitled Dialogues. Plato produced another book named Republic in which he described ideal state governed by philosopher king. Another Philosopher of Greece was
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Aristotle (384 - 322 B.C.).

He was one of the students of Plato.

Aristotle was the tutor of Alexander the Great. He wrote on a great variety of subjects such as philosophy, politics, ethics, poetry, physics, biology and medicine. 4. Science Pythagoras was the first and the greatest mathematician, the world ever knew. Hippocrates (460-357 B.C.) was the father of medical science. A Greek, Aristarchus of Samos (250 B.C) was the first person to state that the earth moves round the sun. Anaxagoras (503 - 428 B.C.) was a great Philosopher and geometrician in Athens. Democritus developed the theory of Atoms. Archimedes (C 287 - 12 B.C) is well known to present world for his discovery of the principle of gravity. 5. Greek Art and Architecture The Greeks' primary interest was in people and the preference naturally was reflected in the choice of subject for sculpture. The gods were supermen. The Hellenic treatment of people or of humanized gods, showed a deliberate attempt to represent actual human anatomy. The fifth and early fourth century sculptors perfected anatomical realism. The fifth and early fourth century sculptors added something else to the accurate portrayal of anatomical features. People, ro gods were represented as doing something that was typical. The subjects were caught in a momentary pose or action. Myron's Discus Thrower is in the act of throwing the discuss, Polycleitus' youth is carrying a spear, Praxiteles Faun leans upon a Pedestal, Phidies Athena shows active power and benevolence that were assumed to be consistent with her character. In the centre of Athens there rises a hill known as the Acropolis, a rock table standing well above the rest of the city. Acropolis means high point. On the
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highest peak, the temple of Parthenon was built. The features of the Greek temple that have persisted because of their usefulness are the rectangular shape, columns as support, the porch and the type of roof. Doric, Ionic and Corinthian were the three types of Greek Columns. Economic Life of the Greeks There was not enough fertile soil in Greece to feed her people. Therefore it has to import food and export finished good. Easy access to the sea encouraged the Greeks to make contact with the outside world. The exchange of food and other articles brought fifth century Athenian trade to a new height and this flourishing commerce also contributed to a sense of economic well-being. Athens exported processed goods and some raw materials needed by industries elsewhere. The exports included wine, olive oil, minerals, marble, pottery, arms, books (Scrolls) and works of art. The sources of Athenian imports were spread through out the Mediterranean World, ships from many lands depositing their cargoes at the sea-port of Athens, known as the Piraeus. Wheat came from Syria, Egypt, Italy and Socily, preserved fish from the black sea and iron from its perimeter, copper from Cyprus, tin from Britain, gold from Thrace, timber from Thrace and Cyprus, Wool, flex and dyes from Phoenicia, ivory and spices from North Africa, perfumes and ointments from Arabia, slaves from Lydia, Syria and Scythia. By the fifth century coined money had become the usual medium of exchange, and advance beyond the barter of the Phoenicians. The first banks were temples which, receiving the gifts of the devoted, lent this treasure for various purposes. Fifth Century Athens benefited by certain economic advantages not enjoyed by other Greek City states. The State operated mines of silver that made possible an unchanging content of precious metal in Athenian currency.
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Other cities, without the supply of precious metal, often reduced the percentage of silver in their coins. The dependability of Athenian currency, in comparison with that of other states, caused it to be readily acceptable to the advantage of Athenian merchants. Religious Life of the Greeks Beside language, Greeks also had a religion in common. The practice of religion consisted for the most part of carrying out rituals which would keep the god happy. Like Hindu, Greeks thought of the gods as very much like themselves. The king of god was called Zeus. It has terrible figure which gives hurling thunderbolt. The goddess of love and fertility was called Aphrodite. These deities were involved in human affairs too. They did not stand aloof from men. The god of the sea and earthquakes was called Poseidon. Apollo was the god of the sun and of the art. Athena was the god of the sun and of the art. Athena was recognized by all Greeks as the goddess of wisdom. The Athenians also claimed her as the patron goddess of the city. She was also the virgin goddess of war and wisdom. All the Greeks believed that they had descended from a common ancestor Hellen. In spite of local deities all Greeks accorded deference to the same company f gods and goddesses on Mount Olympus. Olympic Game was also connected with the religion in Greece. The Olympic Games were held every four years in Elis in the South-western parts of Greece. Traditionally the games constituted a religious festival in honour of Zeus. The winner of the game received a great honour. Events were similar
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to those in modern Olympic Games. There were races by men, and by horses throwing the discus and Javelin, wrestling and boxing.

Roman Civilization Chart


1000 B.C. Chronology of Roman History Latins and Etruscans move into Italy Roman Confucius Foundation of Rome, about 753 B.C. Etruscan kings expelled, 509 B.C. Consuls elected to head the republic Tribunes win rights for plebeians, 448 B.C.

800 B.C. 600 B.C. 500 B.C.

EARLY IRON AGE

GOLDEN AGE OF GREECE

400 B.C.

200 B.C.

1 A.D. 200 A.D.

Rome begins conquest of Italy, 323 B.C Italy united, 275 B.C. Sicily ceded by Carthage, 241 B.C. War with Hannibal, 218 B.C. to 202 B.C. Cicero, 106 B.C. to 43 B.C. Caesar elected consul, 59 B.C. Octavian's victory at Actium brings peace in 31 B.C. Rule of Augustus, 31 B.C. to 14 A.D. Nero emperor, 54 A.D. to 68 A.D. The Five Good Emperors, 96 A.D. to 180 A.D. Military despots and civil wars

HELLENISTI C AGE

AGE OF ROMAN EMPERORS

300 A.D. 400 A.D.

Christianity made the official religion of the Empire Barbarian invasions


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Contributions of Roman Civilization


1. Preservation of Greek Civilization Romans have made great contribution in the preservation and spread of Greek civilization in Europe. They acted as agent of the Greek to familiarize the glory of the past. It was true that the Romans took the ideas on religion, philosophy, art and architecture learning and science from Greek. But it is also not untrue to say that Greek civilization would not have been flourished without the help of Romans. Similarly Romans were much more advanced than Greeks in the organizing central and provincial governments, laws, principles of taxation, citizenship rights, construction of public works like the fountains, theatres, baths, bridges, aqueducts arterial roads, hospital and sanitation system. The Roman not only built an empire covering all the peripheral countries of the Mediterranean Sea including Britain and Mesopotamia but also organized the local and provincial governments in such a way as to ensure peace and harmony among the people. They did not inter-fare the local tradition and religion to introduce reform in the administration of the conquered land. Roman Law The most significant contribution of the Roman Civilization to the world was their law. It had made great impact on the law of almost all the civilized nations of the world. The first written code came in the form of Twelve Tables in 150 B.C. which were inscribed on the twelve table of bronze and publicly displayed in the market. This law was classified and codified by the Roman Emperor Justinian and it was called Justinian Code. This code adapted the principle of equality i.e. all are equal before the law.

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2. Architecture and Designing The Romans were highly developed in the construction of all kinds of buildings. They learned the construction of columns or pillar from Greek but the arches and domes were their own inventions. 3. Learning and Literature The Romans learned education from Greeks. But they developed it in their own way. The Greeks taught the Roman children in the beginning but later on they were replaced by the Romans themselves. There is no doubt that the Romans copied literature from Greek but the Latin literature reached its height during the reign of Roman emperor Augustus. Julian Calendar was introduced by Julius Caesar in 45 B.C. 4. Health and Hygiene The Romans were highly advanced in health and hygiene. The Europeans have learned many things from Romans especially in building of hospitals and drainage system. Social Life of the Romans It is said that a group of Indo-European called Italies came to Italy through Alpine passes. One of their Tribes was the Latins settled in Latium, the central plains of Italy lying south of the river Tiber. They constructed houses and small walled village for their protection. They used to speak Latin. Other tribe which came to Italy was Etruscans. Etruscans came from Asia Minor and settled in the north of the River Tiber about 800 B.C. The legend tells that Rome was founded by two brothers named as Romulus and Remus in 735 B.C.

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H.A. Davies mentions "The earliest inhabitants of Italy of whom we have any very definite records were lake dwellers, who probably came from Switzerland and settled on the lakes of the north and over the marshes of the Po Valley." Slavery: There was very large number of slaves in Rome. It is said that there were slaves twice in number than freemen in Italy; and the proportion was still higher throughout the whole empire. The slaves were mainly domestic and not treated cruelty. Life of the People The lives of Romans were both luxurious and hard. The wealthy people lived in very beautiful mansions on the hills, the poorer classes were crowded into poor and thickly populated tenements in the Valleys. But luxury, idleness, and self-indulgence were probably confined to a very small class. The civil servants who carried on the administration of the Empire were extremely industrious, and there was a marked improvement in the treatment of the provinces. Even the worst of the emperors found it to their interest to rule them wisely, and when they were in need of money they generally wrung it from wealthy nobles at Rome not from the provinces. Economic Life of the Romans The main source of the income of ancient Rome was agriculture. The land supplied the substance of life, the basis for wealth and the credentials of social standing small farms existed. As time went on, however, the small farmer was crowded again. The food product most needed from agriculture was grain, for it continued to be the basis of Roman diet. The Romans had subsisted largely on porridge
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or mush, made of coarsely ground wheat. Romans did not grow much food but imported it from outside world such as from Egypt, North Africa and Sicily. Romans gradually shifted to more profitable crops like grapes and olives, and were raising sheep. Romans developed manufacturing more slowly than large-scale farming. In Rome itself very little was manufactured beyond necessities. They made clothes out of wool, implements of clay, wood and metal, flour from grain, wine from grapes, oil from olives, bricks of clay. The only Roman industry, however, which attained a size appropriate to metropolis was the making of bricks for building. Commerce and industry, so largely in the hands of non-Romanas, were facilitated by condition created by Rome. The Roman peace established tranquility in which business functions well. There was a great and a great demand, without benefit of theory. They removed the obstacles between the demand and the theory of benefit. The Romans were directly responsible for markets even if they left to others the business of supply. Old cities in the East expanded, new towns in the West grew. But Rome was the greatest of all. The system of selling and buying was well developed. Upon arrival, the goods were put to government use, purchased by large households, or sold in city stores. The streets were lined with stores and booths. The techniques of banking, initiated in the Hellenite Age, were developed still further to meet the demand for greater mobility of large sums of money. Roman money circulated throughout the Mediterranean region and beyond, but there were other coins as well, and so the money changers flourished Bankers, often freedmen, accumulated and guarded large stores of cash,
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while letters of credit made easy the payment of debts overseas and eventually the employment of similar devices for local use. The Romans contributed the capital and energy of planning necessary for World Commerce and industry. Religious Life of the Romans Roman religion reflected Roman characteristics and reinforced them. Deities at first were merely spirits, or impersonal functional powers, who watched over the farm, the home and the state and whose good will be advisable to secure by following the proper rituals. The lakes watched over the farm, and Saturnus over sown crops, the Penates were spirits of the storeroom, Janus guarded the door way and Vesta the hearth. The Genius of the house-hold, guarding the father and fertility, was a sort of alter ego and was worshipped like other gods. The male Genius was matched by a Juno for the matron of the household. The state gods were household gods promoted with some additions. Janus protected the gates of the city, as well as the door of the private dwelling, and when army was in the field the doors of the temple of Janus remained open until it returned. Vestal virgins were charged with the duty of watching the sacred fire of the city that it should never die. Jupiter, god of the sky was like Zeus in Greek and Juno was Jupiter's Queen. Minerva was goddess of wisdom, Mars was god of war, Dianna was goddess of the moon and of the hunt and Venus of fertility, love and beauty. The Romans sacrificed animals and plants to their deities like Nindus and others. Like the Greeks, the Romans thought of their gods like a heavenly expediters of earthly affairs and did not associate them with a better life in another world. Romans were in the belief that relation with a god were in the nature
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of contact, mortals contributed their share by sacrifice, and the god was expected to do something in return. The Romans like other ancient peoples, attempted to divine the future. No project, private or public, should be begun until the omens were found favourable. Priests wanted the skies, especially for lighting, or they observed the flights of birds, the movements of quadrupeds or the entrails of domestic animals. If anything peculiar was noted in any one of these sources of foreknowledge, it was considered an evil omen, and the project was postponed or abandoned. Even the meetings of the comitia and of the senate could not begin until the omens were consulted and found favourable. Veneration of ancestors was almost a religion. The best families treasured death masks of departed kindred. These images were kept in a scared nook in the home along with the statues of household gods and were displayed in funeral processions of members of the family. The great deeds of the departed were inscribed in the tablets.

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The Vedic Aryans Contributions of the Vedic People


The root of the Hindu philosophy, religion and culture was the vedic civilization. The Vedic literature reflects the different walk of the life of Vedic era. The most important and the earliest among the Vedic literature was Rig Veda. The Rig Veda was followed by other Vedas such as Yajur Veda, Sama Veda and Atharva Veda. The political organization of Vedic civilization had great impact on the lives of the monarchs of Rajans. They were morally bound by the teaching of the Vedas. Even today people follow the teaching of Vedas and act accordingly. The people's representatives called Sabha and Samitee still exist in one or other form. Social Life of the Vedic People 1. Family System Father was the head of the family system. Mother was next to the importance in the family. Everybody had to obey their father and mother alike. The mother looked after the management of household affairs and helped her husband in religious ceremonies and sacrifices. All the members of the family lived in the same house made of wood and bamboos. 2. Education Everybody had the opportunity of education. The girls and boys were equally educated. The girls were highly educated. They had full liberty of choosing their husbands. They composed hymns and sometime rose to the position of Rishis.

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3. Caste System There was division of labour and work but not the system of caste and touchability or untouchability in the beginning of the Vedic civilization. The warriors class known as the Kshatriyas was the result of the continued war and need for permanent class of fighting men. The priests were called Brahman. Vaisyas were engaged in agriculture, trade and commerce and Sudras belonged to the wild tribes. 4. Food and Drinks The people of Vedic era ate meat, vegetable, rice, barley, bean, seasame etc. They sued to take different kinds of fruits and fruit juice. They made sura or liquor from barley and corn and Sama from plant. They offered these alcoholic drink even to the Gods. The people were very much fond of milk and milk product things such as ghee, butter and curds. They prepared bread and cakes out of flour. 5. Dress and Ornament The people of Veic era wore Vasas and Adhivasa. The garment of the lower part of the body was called Vasas and Adhivasa for upper part. Similarly the under garment was called Nivi. Embroidered clothes were worn by the dancers, brides and other wealthy women. The Hermits wore skin clothes especially made of deer. Men and Women both wore different types of ornaments. The ear ornament of man was called Karnasobhana. Kurisa, the head ornament, Khadi, the ring like an armlet and Nishka, the neck ornament were the most popular among the people of the Vedic era. 6. Entertainment Gambling, Chariot racing, dancing, playing dice, wrestling, music were the sources of entertainment of the people. They enjoyed vocal and instrumental music.
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Economic Life of the Vedic People 1. Agriculture The People of Vedic era primarily dependent on agriculture. They cultivated land and grew wheat and barley. They were very much fond of cattle. The wealth of the people could be measured by the size of the cattle. 2. Industry There were many professional groups who engaged in different profit making activities. These were carpenters, blacksmiths, goldsmiths, butchers, potters, barbers, boatmen, hunter etc. They worked in small industry to produce things to meet the demand of the society. Cotton and woolen garments were produced by the industry. They produced utensils house furniture, chariots, carts, boats, ships, sickles, razors, plough, weapons like spears and swords. 3. Trade The trade and commerce were in flourishing stage. The people were engaged in inland and river trade. Inland trade was carried out by cart driven by oxen and river by boat. The people had commercial contact with the different part of the world. The tradesmen were also engaged in seaborn trade. The trade was carried on barter except a few nishka, a small gold piece. Religious Life of the Vedic People The people of Vedic era primarily worshipped nature or the god and goddesses symbolising the nature. These can be classified into three groups viz. terrestrial gods like Prithvi, Agni, Soma and Brihaspati, the atmospheric gods like Indra, Marut, Vayu, Parjanya and Rudra, the celestial gods like Varuna, Dyus (the sky god), Sun god like Mitra, Savitri and Vishnu.
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The people offered prayers and sacrifices in order to please the Gods expecting many things such as birth of children, good harvest, victory in war and prosperity.

Teachings of the Bhagawat Gita The Bhagawat Gita is the teaching of Lord Krishna to the entire world in the form of hymns. Arjuna is the immediate cause for its delivery. When Arjuna refused to fight with his near and dear in the battle field, Krishna said "you grieve over those who should not be grieved for and yet speak like the learned; wise men do not sorrow over the dead or the living." "In fact, there was never a time when I was not, or when you or these kings wee not. Nor is it a fact that thereafter we shall all cease to be" "Just as boyhood, youth and old age are attributed to the soul through this body, even so it attains another body. The wise man does not get deluded about this" "O son of Kunti, the contract between the senses and their objects, which gives rise to the feeling of heat and cold, pleasure and pain etc. are transitory, and fleeting, therefore, Arjuna, ignore tham." "Arjuna, the wise man to whom pain and pleasure are alike, and who is not tormented by these contacts, becomes eligible for immortality." "The unreal has no existence, and the real never ceases to be, the reality of both has thus been perceived by the seers of truth." "Know that alone to be imperishable, which pervades this universe, for no one has power to destroy this indestructible substance."

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"All these bodies pertaining to the imperishable, indefinable and eternal soul are spoken of as perishable." "The soul is never born nor dies, nor does it become only after being born for it is unborn eternal, everlasting and ancient, even though the body is slain, the soul is not." "As a man shedding worn out garments, takes other new ones, likewise the embodied soul, casting off worn-out bodies, enters into others which are new." "Those whom you now regard to be your own came from an unseen state, that is before birth they were unmanifest and they have become unmanifest again. Therefore, in reality, neither are they yours nor are you theirs, what is the occasion, then, for lamentation?" "Arjuna, this soul dwelling the bodies of all can never be slain, therefore, you should not mourn for anyone." "Arjun, happy are the Chhatriyas who get such an unsolicited opportunity for war, which opens the door to heaven." "Die, and you will heaven; conquer, and you enjoy sovereignty of the earth, therefore stand up, Arjuna, determine to fight." "Arjuna, those who are full of worldly desire and devoted to the letter of the Veda, who look upon heaven, as the supreme goal and argue that there is nothing beyond heaven are unwise."

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"Your right is to work only, but never to the fruit, nor let your attachment be to action" "He who has not controlled his mind and senses can have no reason, nor can such an undisciplined man think of God. The unthinking man can have no peace, and how can there be happiness for one lacking peace of mind?" "He who has given up all desire, and moves free from attachment, egoism and thirst for enjoyment attains peace." The teachings of Gautam Buddha Gautam Buddha spent 45 years of his life in teaching, and died at the age of 80. He got Enlightenment at Gaya and started preaching for the first time at Sarnath near Varanasi. His first sermon is called Dharmachakraparivartana or turning of the wheel of dhamma. His four "Noble Truth" (Aryasatya) are the existence of sorrow (Dukkha), the main cause of sorrow is desire (Trisna), the elimination of sorrow and how sorrow and suffering can be eliminated by following the Eight Fold Path (AstangaMarga). The Eight-fold Path (Astangikamarga) 1. Right knowledge: Since suffering originates from a mistaken philosophy of life, salvation begins with right knowledge. 2. Right Aspiration: Having recognized what the real problem is, it is necessary to make up our hearts as to what we really want and resolve to attain it. Right Speech: Our speech is a reflection of our character and a way of changing it. First, we should notice how often we do not tell the truth
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because we do not want to reveal to others, or to ourselves, what we really are. Second, our speech should become more charitable. 4. Right Behaviour: This is classified by Five Precepts: a. Control the passion for anger which makes us injure and kill other living beings. b. c. d. e. Not to steal because this violates the community of which one is a part Self control over sexual desire Refrain from falsehood Refrain from intoxicants and stimulants such as alcohol or drugs because they prevent a person from having perfect mental, moral and physical self-control.

5.

Right livelihood: Buddha condemned slave dealing, prostitution, armaments making and drug pudding. People should seek occupations through which they can serve others. Right Effort: Buddha said, "Work out your own salvation with diligence" spiritual growth depends on the amount of efforts made. To follow the path, a person must, in particular, make an effort to prevent new evil from entering the mind, remove all evil that is there, develop such good as is in ones mind and become better. This requires patience and pacing. Right Mindfulness: "All we are is the result of what we have thought." For this reason, control of mind is very important. Right Concentration: Concentration produces a calm clear mind, which is needed to see and understand reality. The waves of confusion produced by uncontrolled thoughts are stilled. This requires complete
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6.

7.

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self-control over the body so that concentration is not broken by external or internal distractions. The way to calm the mind is to practice meditation. Buddhist teaching on Compassion Compassion is the pre-eminent virtue of a Buddhist. Compassion is the basis of morality for when we feel with and for each other, we become one with each other. We can imagine how others feel because we are all alike. We are all human beings with similar hopes and feelings. If our moral sense develops, we can never harm others because they are extensions of ourselves and we know how we would feel being treated in that way. Instead we sympathise with people and want to help them. People are our brothers and sisters, parents and children. Buddhist attitude to women "Is she old? Regard her as your mother. Is she honourable? Regard her as your sister. Is she of small account? Regard her as your younger sister. Is she child? Treat her reverently and with politeness. The Buddha believed in the Hindu philosophy of karma and rebirth. He did not ask his followers to practice penances or austerities on the one hand nor advocated to lead a life full of pleasure. He chose the Middle Path (Madhyamarga). Even a householder can follow the eight-fold path and attain salvation. Buddha condemned the performance of bloody sacrifices. The Dhamapada Dhamapada means the Path of Truth, truth being the eternal law of the Universe. Following this pat leads to Nirvana. 1. What we are today comes from our thoughts of yesterday, and our present thoughts build our life of tomorrow, our life is the creation of our mind. If a man speaks or act with an impure mind,

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2.

3. 4. 5. 6.

7.

8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13.

suffering follows him as the wheel of the cart follows the beast the draws the cart. What we are today comes from our thoughts of yesterday, and our present thoughts build our life of tomorrow: Our life is the creation of our mind. If a man speaks or acts with a pure mind, joy follows him as his own shadow. 'He insulted me, he hurt me, he defeated me, he robbed me, those who think such thoughts will not be free from hate. For hate is not conquered by hate; hate is conquered by love. This is a law eternal. Many do not know that we are herein this world to live in harmony. Those who know this do not fight against each other. He who lives only for pleasures, and whose soul is not in harmony, who considers not the food the eats, is idle and has not the power of virtue such a man is moved by Mara (Satan) is moved by selfish temptations, even as a weak tree is shaken by the mind. But he who lives not for pleasure, and whose soul is in selfharmony, who eats or fasts with moderation, and has faith and the power of virtue- this man is not moved by temptations as a great rock is not shaken by the wind. If a man puts on the pure yellow robe with a soul which is impure, without self-harmony and truth, he is not worthy of the holy robe. But he who is pure from sin and whose soul is strong in virtue, who has self-harmony and truth, he is worthy of the holy robe. Those who think the unreal is, and think the Real is not, they shall never reach the Truth, last in the path of wrong thought. But those who know the real is, and know the unreal is not they shall indeed reach the Truth, safe on the path of right thought. Even as rain breaks through an ill thatched house, passions will break through an ill guarded mind. But even as rain breaks no through a well-thatched house, passions break no through a well- guarded mind.
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14.

15.

16.

17.

He suffers in this world, and he suffers in the next world, the man who does evil suffers in both worlds. He suffers and mourns when he sees the wrong he has done. He is happy in this world and he is happy in the next world, the man who does good is happy in both worlds. He is glad, he feels great gladness when he sees the good he has done. He sorrows in this world, and he sorrows in the next world, the man who does evil sorrows in both worlds. I have done evil' thus he laments and more he laments on the path of sorrow. He rejoices in this world, and he rejoices in the next world, the man who does good rejoices in both worlds. I have done good, thus he rejoices, and more he rejoices on the path of joy.

Teaching of Mahavira Vardhamana The Jaina tradition says Jaina religion produced twenty-four saints called the Trithankaras. The last two were Parsvanatha and Mahavira. Parsavantha lived 250 years before the birth of Mahavira. He was the son of king Asvasena of Benaras. He became an ascetic at the age of 30 and the sects he founded gathered a large number of followers called Nigranthas. Parsvantha advocated the practice of four great virtues of life: a. Satya (Truth) b. Ahimsa (non-injury to life) c. Aparigraha (non-possess in of property) d. Asteya (non-stealing). Some people consider Mahavira not the founder of Jainism but reformer. Mahavira began his preaching career to reform the sects founded by his predecessor parsvanatha Besides the four vows prescribed by Parsvanatha for his followers, Mahavira added the fifth i.e. the observance of Brahamacharya (chastity). 'Jina' means one who has conquered (from the Sanskrit root, Ji to conquer) and is free. A follower of 'Jina' is Jaina.

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One of the main facets of Jainism is the belief in soul and Karma. Mahavira declared that every element is a combination of material and spiritual factors. The former perishes but the latter does not. An individual is subject to a series of life and death. To liberate the soul from the bondage of Karma, it is necessary to destroy the latter. This can be achieved by an individual by practicing the five virtues such as Satya, Ahimsa, Aprigraha, Asteya and Brahmacharya. Beside these five vows a true Jain should also follow three fold path called Ratnatraya to attain the pure and Blissful abode, Siddha Sila. Ratnatraya includes Right Belief, Right Knowledge, and Right Conduct. Right belief is the belief in Jainism, Right knowledge is the liberation of soul and Right conduct implied the strict observance of vows in the day to day life of a individual. The doctrine of non-injures also one of important tenets of Jainism. Mahavira advocated that not only human beings, bird and beasts have souls but also the plants, metals, water and wood. Therefore an individual should not harm these things. An individual should conquer his senses and lead a life of austerity and self-mortification. Mahavira did not believe that the Universe was created by god but change in natural events. Birth and death are natural and applicable to men and nature. Mahavira did not like bloody sacrifice to god. He was in favour of the freedom of women and allowed them to join his order as Sramini and Sravikas. The teachings of Mahavira are included in fourteen old texts known as Purvas. The Teachings of Jesus Christ A certain ruler asked Jesus Christ "Good teacher, what must I do to inherit eternal life? Why do you call me good? Jesus answered "No one is good except God alone. You know the Commandments: Do not commit adultery, do not murder, do not steal, do not give false testimony, honour your father
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mother. All these I have kept since I was boy "he said. When Jesus heard this he said to him, "you still lack one thing. Sell everything you have and give to the poor, and you will have treasure in heaven. Then come, follow me." Jesus taught that the whole of the Old Testament Law could be summarized by two commandments: "Teacher, which is the greatest Commandment in the Law?" Jesus replied "Love the Lord your God with all your heart and with all your soul and with all your mind. This is the first and greatest Commandment. And the second is like it "Love your neighbor as yourself" All the Law and the prophets honor these two Commandments." Jesus also taught and practiced a high standard of love. He gave his disciples a New commandment. The Old Testament standard was that one should love one's neighbor as one's self. The new standard was different: A new command, I give you. Love one another." Jesus said "Greater love has no one than this, that he lay down his life for his friends." Jesus taught his disciples "Love your enemies, do good to those who hate you, bless those who curse you, pray for those who mistreat you." "You have heard that it was said, Eye for eye, and tooth for tooth. But I tell you, Do not resist an evil person. If someone strikes you on the right cheek, turn to him other also. And if someone wants to use you and take your tunic let him have your clock as well. If someone forces you to go one mile, go with him two miles. Give to the one who ask you and do not turn away from the one who wants to borrow from you. You have heard that it was said 'Love your neighbor and hate your enemy. But I tell you: Love your enemies and pray for those who prosecute you, that you may be sour of your holy Father in Heaven. He causes his son to rise on the righteous and the unrighteous. If you love those who love you, what reward will you get? Are not even the tax collectors, doing that? And if you greet, only your brothers

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what are you doing more than other? Do not even pagans do that; be perfect, therefore, as your heavenly Father is perfect." You have heart that it was said 'Do not commit adultery' But I tell you that anyone who looks at a woman lustfully has already committed adultery with her in his heart." "Therefore everyone who hears these words of mine and puts them into practice is like a wise man who built his house on the rock. The rain came down, the stream rose, and the winds blew and beat against that house, yet it did not fall, because it had its foundation on the rock. But everyone who hears these words of mine and does not put them into practice is like a foolish who built his house on sand. The rain came down, the stream rose, and the winds blew and "

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The Teachings of Hajrat Muhammad The holy Qur'an or Islam (Koran) is a collection of sayings of Hajrat Muhammad, written down by his disciples as they heard them from his lips, and collected into a volume shortly after his death. Unlike the New Testament of which many version exist, there is only one version of the Holy Koran. There is no God but Allah ! (La ilaha, illa Allah !). The Qur'an says, "Allah there is no God but he, the living, the eternal" Like other religions Islam teaches that everyone is responsible for their own spiritual life. "Whoever commits a sin commits it only against his own soul." "Whoever goes astray, he himself bears the whole responsibility of wandering." Qur'an also says, "There should be no compulsion in religion." Regarding the practice of religion Qur'an mentions "And when you have finished the Prayer, remember Allah while standing, and sitting, and lying on your sides." The Five Pillars of Islam are the principles that regulate the private life of a Moslem and clearly explain what is expected of him in his submission to God. The Five Pillars of Islam 1. Confession of Faith: "There is no God but Allah and Muhammad is his prophet." When spoken in Arabic, and with sincere intention, it is a
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commitment to obey God and follow the Prophet. These are the first words whispered into a child's ear at birth, and the lost which a Muslim would with his lying breath. Although a practicing Moslem repeats this phrase many times a day, at least once during his lifetime, he should say this creed correctly, thoughtfully, aloud, with full understanding and with full vigor. 2. Prayer: The Qur'an defines a human beings as a worshiper, and places the individual worshiper in the context of a worshipping community. Through prayer man is reminded that he is not God. He is a creature rather than the creator. uslims pray five times a day upon rising, at noon, in mid afternoon, after sunset and before rising. After gathering together in rows as a community, they prostrate themselves before God and pray facing Mecca. The realization that his brothers and sisters are doing likewise in every corner of the globe, creates a sense of participating in a world wide fellowship even when the Muslim is physically isolated. he content of prayer are based around praising God because he is so wonderful, expressing gratitude to him for all his goddness and supplication, asking God for guidance and forgiveness. 3. Charity: Those who have much should help lift the burden of those who are less fortunate. Muhammad instituted it in the seventh century by prescribing and annual tax. This money should be distributed to slaves buying their freedom, to the poor, to those in debt, to prisoners and to strangers. The attitude of the giver is in fact more important than what he gives. Giving should be discreta and not arrogant.

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4.

Ramadan: Ramadan is the holy month in Islam's calendar, because during it Muhammad received his initial commission as a Prophet and ten years later made his historic Hijrah from Mecca to Medina. To commemorate these two great occasions, all ablebodied Muslims not involved in crisis, fast during Ramdan. From day break to the setting of the sun, they neither eat nor drink anything. After sundown they may partake in moderation. t makes people more sensitive and compassionate since only those who have been hungry can know what hunger means.

5.

Pilgrimage: The final duty of a Muslim, to be fulfilled once in a lifetime if at all possible, is the Hajj or Pilgrimage to Mecca where God's climatic revelation was first disclosed. The purpose of the pilgrimage is to heighten the pilgrim's devotion to God. It is also a reminder of the equality between all men. Upon arrival in Mecca, the pilgrimes removes their usual clothes which carry a clear indication of their social status and don two simple sheet- like garments. Al distinctions of rank and hierarchy are removed, Prince and Paupeer stand before God in their undivided humanity. The first act is to walk around the Ka ba (Cube The sanctuary in Mecca to which all Muslim turn in prayer) followed by other rites. Key Terms and Concept:

6.

Bible: Bible, the Holy text of the Christians. it contains the Jewish scriptures (the old Testament) and Christian writings regarded by the Church as having an equal status to those inherited from Judaism. The catholic, Orthodox and Protestant Church vary on which book they include in the old Testament. After much dispute the content of the New Testament (The Canon) was fixed in 382.
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Regarding the origin of the word Bible. H.A. Davies writes, "The Greeks often called the papyrus which they used 'Byblos' after the Phoenician city of Byblos, which imported it from Egypt and then exported some to Greece and when they wrote their books on such rolls they called them 'Biblia'. Thus we get our word 'Bible." It is worth remembering that not only the Greek alphabet, but all the alphabets of Europe and Western Asia are descended from the Phoenician alphabet." Prophet: One who speaks for or as a mouthpiece of God 1) The Old Testament prophets were social and religious reformers of Israel and Judah. They proclaimed Gods' prospective judgment of Israel; they recalled the people to obedience to God, some offering a hope of a future vindication. 2) In Islam the prophet is Muhammad who brings the word and judgment of God to final utterance. The authority of the prophet is an article of the Muslim confession of faith. Qur'an: In Islam, the word of God, the book of Gods' revelation to Muhammad which was received as a faithful copy of the eternal Qur'an inscribed in heaven. Ka'ba (Cube): The Santuary in Mecca to which all Muslims turn to prayer. it was pre-Islamic holy place, all of whose images were removed in 630 by Muhammad when he purified it to be the central sanctuary of Islam. The Qur'an associates Abraham and Ishmael with the building of the Ka'ba. Set in the eastern corner is the Black stone which tradition asserts, was received by Ishmael from the Archangel Gabriel. Gospel: (1) One of the four accounts of the 'good news' about Jesus in the New Testament (2) The Christian message, proclamation, 'good news'
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referring especially to Jesus' teaching about the kingdom of God and to the preaching of the Church about Jesus. Messiah: A Hebrew word referring to the person chosen by God to be king. After the end of the Israelite monarchy it came to refer to a figure who would restore Israel, gathering the tribes together and ushering in the kingdom of God. Judiasm has many Messiah. The Christians believef that Jesus was the Messiah. Ritual: Religious ceremonial performed according to a set pattern of words, movements and symbolic actions. Ritual may involve the dramatic reenactment of ancient myths performed to ensure the welfare of the community. 5. Evaluation Scheme Short and Long Questions may be asked from this Unit. Short answer questions with marking Scheme Marks 1. Describe the Socio-religious life of the people of ancient Egypt. - Occupational Groups - Slavery - Position of Pharaoh - God and Goddesses - Different belief

1 1 1 1 1 5

2.

Examine the Religious life of ancient Egypt - Egyptian view on religion - Significance of the religion - Phoraoh as the incarnation of God - Relation of God and Goddesses with nature

1 1 2 1 5

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3.

Describe the Economic life of ancient Eghypt - Agriculture - Trade and Commerce - Industry

2 2 1 5

4.

Discuss the significance of the code of Hammurabi - Meaning - Significance

2 3 5

5.

What were the contributions of Mesopotamia in the field of Science ? - Lunar Calendar - Invention of Writing - Division of time - Development of Astronomy

2 1 1 1 5

6.

Describe the Economic activities of ancient China. - Small Plot Method of agriculture - Fertility of the land - Industry - Trade and Commerce 1 1 1 2 5

7.

State the Social life of Indus Valley Civilization. - Town Planning - Food, Dress and Ornaments - Entertainment

2 2 1 5

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8.

Give your acquaintance with social life of Vedic Civilization - Family System Education Caste Food and Drinks Dress and Ornaments Entertainment 1 1 1 1 5

9.

Evaluate the philosophy of Greek Philosophers. - Socrates - Plato - Aristotal

1 2 2 5

10.

Assess the importance of Roman Law - Origin of the Roman Law - Justinian Code - Significance of Roman Law

1 1 3 5

11.

Do you agree with the saying of Bhagawat Gita that wise men do not sorrow over the dead or the living ? Why ? Give your reason - Meaning of the saying - Agree on the saying - Reasons

1 1 3 5

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12.

What were the Eight Fold Paths of Buddhism ? Explain. - Right knowledge - Right aspiration - Right speech - Right behavior - Right livelyhood - Right mindfulness - Right concentration - Right efforts 1 1 5

13.

Assess the importance of the Teaching of Mahavir Vardhamana. - History of Mahavir - His teaching - Importance 1 1 3 5

14.

State the five pillars of Islam - Confession of Faith - Prayers - Charity - Ramadan - Pilgrimage 1 1 1 1 1 5
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History, Grade XII

Long Questions with Answer key 1. Describe the contributions of Egyptian Civilization to the modern World - Writings - Calendar - Science and Mathematics - Art and Architecture 2. Discuss the teaching of ancient Chinese Philosophers - Mohism - Confucianism - Legalism - Menciusism - Taoism 3 3 3 3 3 15 3. Examine the impact of Greek Civilization of human beings - Literature - Sports - Philosophy - Science - Politics 3 3 3 3 3 15 4. Explain the contributions of Roman Civilization - Preservation of Greek Civilization
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3 3 3 3 15

History, Grade XII

- Roman Law - Architecture and Designing - Learning and Literature - Health and Hygiene

3 3 3 3 15

5.

Analyse the teaching of Bhagavat Gita - Do not sorry over dead or living - There was never a time when I was not - Pain and pleasure alike - Unreal has no existence - The soul is never born nor die - Your right is to work only - Control mind and senses

2 2 2 2 2 3 2 15

6.

Examine the teaching of Jesus Christ - Give everything to poor - Love one another - Forgive your enemy - Do not see women lustfully - Put words into practice

3 3 3 3 3 15

7.

Prescribed Books and References

!= sfkm\n], dfofk|;fb, ljZjsf] Oltxf;, e'jg k|sfzg, lj/f6gu/, @)%$ . @= pkfWofo, >L/fdk|;fb, ljZjsf] Oltxf;, /Tg k':ts e08f/, ef]6flx6L, @)%% .
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History, Grade XII

#= dfgGw/, /fdeQm, ljZjsf] Oltxf;, sf7df8f}+, @)%# . $= Davies, H.A., An outline History of the World , Fifth Edition, Oxford
5. 6. 7. 8. 9. University Press, 1968. Godey, Hugh, Roman People, Batsford Academic and Educational Limited, London, 1981. Goyandka, Jayadayal, Srimand Bhagavat Gita, Gita Press, Gorakhapur, India, 1975. Rao, B.V., World History, Sterling Publishers, Pvt. Ltd, New Delhi, 1994. Robert, J.M., The World of Greece andRome. Penguin Books Ltd. London. Shakya, Min Bahadur, A Short History of Buddhism in Nepal, Young Buddhist Publication, Lalitpur, Nepal.

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History, Grade XII

Unit Two The Medieval and Modern World


90 Teaching hours 1. An Introduction to the Unit

The Unit two of this course entitled 'Medieval and Modern World' includes the causes of the rise and the fall of Feudalism, the nature, causes and effects of Renaissance and Reformation, some of the significant revolutions of the world such Glorious Revolution 1688, American War of Independence 177683, Industrial Revolution, French Revolution 1789 and the Russian Revolution of 1917. The years between 1914 to 1939 were troublesome in the history of modern world. Because between these two years mankind faced two great troubles called First and Second World War. The formation of the two great world organization popularly known as the League of Nations and United Nations organization were the outcome of these two wars. Hence these topics are summed up in this Unit as the causes and the effects of the First and Second World War, formation of League of Nations and United Nations Organization. this last topic. 2. Pre- requisite Knowledge of World History in Secondary School.
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The circumstances leading to the formation of these two

organizations, objectives and works of different organs are also included in

History, Grade XII

3.

Objectives, instructional materials instructional strategies and period allocated 3.1 Objectives of the unit - Describe the circumstances leading to the rise and the fall of Feudalism 3.2 Instructional Materials Map of Medieval Europe Chart showing the system of Feudalism Handout the picture of Medieval serf at work and the Fort of the Feudal. Chart showing different aspects of the renaissance Picture showing the works of Renaissance Map showing the spread of Renaissance through out Europe. Map of Europe, Chart showing the movement and the Pictures of some prominent figures
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3.3 Instructional Strategies Discussion Method The teacher will divide the class into two groups and the group will discuss and its conclusion present in the class.

3.4 Periods allocation 5

- Examine the nature, causes and effects of the Renaissance

Demonstration. The teacher will demonstration different aspects of the Renaissance and the students will make comment

- Explain the nature, causes and the effects of the Reformation

Seminar the teacher will ask the students to prepare seminar paper and present in the class. Other students

History, Grade XII

of the movement such as Martin Luther John Wycliff. - Analyse the cause and the effects of Glorious Revolution 1688 Map of England, Picture of the East of Argyll, James II, William of Orange and Marry, Chart of Bill of Rights Map of the World and North America, Pictures showing the War of Independent and the signing of the declaration of American Independence, Chart of Declaration. Handout. Pictures of some of the scientists and Inventors and their Invention, The Chart showing the development in the field of science and
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will make comment on the paper and draw conclusion. Debate. The teacher will ask the students to arrange debate on the Glorious Revolution. The teacher will provide the clue of the debate. Seminar The teacher will ask the students to prepare a seminar paper on American War of Independence and present in the class individually and allow other students to make comment. 9

- Identify the causes and the effect of the American War of Independence 1776-83

- Examine the nature, causes and the effects of the Industrial Revolution

Dramatization. The students will play the role of the scientists and explain the importance of their invention. The player or the actor will also

10

History, Grade XII

technology during Industrial Revolution. - Explain the causes and the effects of the French Revolution 1789. Picture of Louis XVI, Marie Antoinette, Tennis Court at Versailles, The fort o Bastille, Map of France and Europe, Handouts.

answer the questions raised by other students Discussion Method Divide the students into different groups and ask them to discuss in the group about the causes and the effects of the French Revolution and explain in the class. Discussion. The teacher should divide the class into four groups and ask the students to discuss the causes and the effcet of the Russian Revolution and present in the class. 10

- State the causes, and the effects of the Russian Revolution 1917.

Map of Czarist Russia, the pictures of Czar Nicholas II and his wife Czarina Alexandra, Karl Marx the petitioners marching to the Winter Place Under the leadership of Father Gapon, Lenin, Stalin. Map of World during World War I and the Chart showing new
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10

- Examine the causes and the effects of the First World War.

Project Work. The teacher will supply the information and data about the causes of the

10

History, Grade XII

technology used during the War and the peace settlements made after the first World War. Handout. - Explain the causes and the effects of the World War II Map of the World showing the War front. Charts representing aggressive actions openly taken by Japan, Germany and Italy 1931-37 and Berlin, Rome, Tokyo- Aix Handout. World map showing the member countries of these two World Organizations, Charts showing the Organs and Objective of these two organization.

war and loss of life and property and the students will prepare charts and graphs. At the end the students will demonstrate their performance. Question- Answer session. The teacher will divide the class into two groups. One group will ask Question about the causes and the effects of the war and another will answer vice versa. 10

- Discuss the circumstance leading to the formation of League of Nations and United Nations Organization and state the objective and organs of these two world organization.

Seminar. The teacher will ask the student to prepare seminar paper based on the newspaper items and present in the class. There may be report paper for both organizations.

10

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History, Grade XII

4. Description of the Content From Dark Ages to the Modern Period: The Rise and Fall of Feudalism. The Rise of Feudalism The word 'Feudalism' is applied to a mode of Socio-political organization which arose in medieval Europe through the medium of land tenure. Actually feudalism was not originated in medieval Europe. It was there in Ancient Egypt when the old kingdom declined. Among the Romans there was the patron and client relationship in which a wealthy landlrod surrounded himself with a group of dependent followers called clients. The clients received shelter and support from their patron in exchange for certain obligations of an economic nature and a general duty of fidelity. The Germanic tribes also had a somewhat similar institution called Comitatus in which a band of brave and faithful men of good families gathered round a chief of experience and reputation. They were fed and provided shelter. In return they accompanied him to battle in accordance with their sacred oath of allegiance to defend and protect him. The king used to divide the land among his nobles and they were called his vassals. They were also called the tenants in chief. The land granted by the king to his vassal was called a fief, if it was hereditary, if not hereditary, it was called a benefice to be used during the life time of the incumbent but to 74 revert to the king at the vassals death. The king, as lord, bestowed the filf on the vassal in a ceremony in which the vassal did homage to his lord by kneeling before him, putting his hand within that of the lord. In return for bestowal of the fief, the vassal entered into obligations that were specific but also limited. There were military service, the contribution of a certain number of knights to the lord's army, attendance at the lord's court when summoned, hospitality or the provision of supplies and entertainment when the lord was in the territory of the vassal, certain aids such as contributing
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toward the expenses of knighting the Lords' eldest son towards the dowry of the lords eldest daughter at her marriage. The followings were attributed to the rise of feudalism in Europe. 1. Death of Charlemagne in France. 2. Dependency on Lord 3. Weakness of the king 4. Social structure 5. Slavery. The Fall of Feudalism During the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries things started to change. The growth of town, commerce and industry brought the existence of new forces which transformed feudal society. Many towns bought charters of self government from the needy barons and freed themselves from feudal tyranny. The increasing use of money for the personal service was another cause of the fall of feudalism. The barons paid money to the king instead of bringing their sub-vassals for the royal army. The sub vassals also paid money instead of work for their lord especially during sowing and harvest time. The result was that the barons and their vassals became less and less warlike and more and more interested in cultivating their estates. Feudalism was also weakened by a great social upheaval resulting from the Black Death called plague. It caused great loss of human population. There was shortage of labour. They started to bargain their labour and demanded more money. thus their economic condition improved and they were able to buy their freedom from their master. The serf took interest in sheep-farming rather than mere cultivation. The wool produced by them had great market in European trade and industry. Another cause of the fall of feudalism was the change of the method of
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warfare.

The invention of gunpowder made Castle and armour almost

useless. The philosophy and teachings of sages also changed the mind of the people. They came up with the new ideas. They thought feudalism as an evil. The introduction of printing press also enhanced the thinking of the people to go far from feudalism. Feudalism in Europe wiped out. But the legacy of feudalism remained for a long time. In Germany the military side of feudalism survived up to the two World Wars. Even in a democratic country like England, the House of Lords is still composed of hereditary land-owners. The Nature, Causes and Effects of the Renaissance The Nature of the Renaissance Many historians believe that the age between the end of the Medieval period and the beginning of Modern period was the age of Renaissance. Renaissance is the French Word which means rebirth. Actually it is a rebirth of Greco Roman spirit of scientific curiosity and of humanism. the Renaissance in Europe became and intellectual movement and spread all over Italy and all over western Europe from the middle of the fourteenth to the end of the sixteenth century. The nature of Renaissance may be discussed in following ways: Expression of thought Sequence of the events Investigation Achievement in language and literature. Outcome of the learning experiences.
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History, Grade XII

Causes of the Renaissance The capture of Constantinople by the Ottoman Turks in 1453 made Greek scholars flee in panic with their ancient classics and settled in Western Europe. They settled in Italy and come in contact with the Arab traders. They imported Oriental commodities and exported it to other parts of Europe. Hence, Italy became the centre of Greek learning and Oriental goods. Italian city states like Venice, Genoa and Florence grew as a place of interest as well as new ideas. The causes of the Renaissance may be classified into following heads. a. Trade and Hanseatic League b. Development c. Contact with the East through Arabas. d. Crusades e. Scholasticism Renaissance Scholars in Italy were Dante (12651321) Petrarch (130-7 1374) and Boccaccio (1313-1375). f. Influence of Mongolian Empire. g. Fall of Constantinople h. Development of Humanistic School. i. Invention of Printing Press and Paper. Effects of the Renaissance The Renaissance had very positive impact on the art, architecture, language and literature, Philosophy and Science. Florence in Italy became a glorious centre of Renaissance art. A large number of famous artists were employed for art work. The most prominent among these artists were Leonardo da Vinci (1452 -1519). Michelangelo (1475-1564) and Raphael Sanzio (14831520). Leonardo da Vinici was a expert in different aspects of learning such

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History, Grade XII

as painting, sculpture, mathematics, botany, geology and hydraulics. His famous works on painting were 'Monalisa' and 'The Last Supper'. The Renaissance architecture in Italy imitated the classical architecture of the Greeks and Romans. Round arches, tall columns and big domes became the principal features of architecture. Typical of Renaissance architecture in Italy is the St. Peter's Church in Rome. Its dome rises to a height of more than 400 feet above the ground level. The Church music was gradually transferred to humanism during the Renaissance. The Orchestral music became popular. The Italian composer named Palestrina composed hundred music for which he was called the father of modern music. The Renaissance and humanist movement spread to England, France, Spain, Holland and Germany. Geographical discoveries and Reformations were also the outcome of the Renaissance. The Nature, Causes and the Effects of the Reformation or Religious Movement The Nature of the Reformation The Reformation was primarily aimed at reforming the Roman Catholic Church. The glory of Christianity in ancient Europe started to decline in medieval period. The Roman Catholic Church became corrupt. It started to accumulate vast wealth of land and property. The Pope and the priests lived in luxury and did not follow ethics such as celibacy, chastity and exemplary conduct. The Roman Catholic Church dominated whole Europe for its

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vested interest. It was state within the state. This corrupt nature of the Catholic Church was challenged by intellectuals. It is said that Reformation movement started in Germany because of the invention of printing press in movable type which helped to publish and circulate books containing new geographical information and the pure intellectual work of scholars. The printing of cheap pamphlets and books enabled the leaders of the Reformation to make their influence felt among the common people who now began to question things which they had never questioned before. Not only the scholars but the German kings and princes also raised the question against the Church. They did not like any kind of interference from the people. The clergymen also supported the cause of the movement. Martin Luther, the German monk led the movement. He translated the Holy Bible into German. The Lutheran Churches were established in may places. All the Lutheran states and towns in Germany joined the 'Protest'. The Causes of the Reformation Legacy of the Renaissance Political causes conflict between the king and the Church Economic causes change in the pattern of trade Religious causes Translation of Bible in other language rather than Latin, Luthers' protest against the sale of Indulgences. Role of John Wycliff, John Huss, Girolamo Savonarola Desiderus Erasmus and Martin Luther, Ulrich Zwingli and John Calvin. Reformation movement in England.

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History, Grade XII

The Effects of the Reformation The Reformation Movement shook the foundation of the Roman Catholic Church and brought about the birth of the Protestant church. There were Roman Catholic minorities in Protestant States and Protestant minorities living under the Roman Catholic rulers. The rulers wanted all their subjects to conform to the type of Christianity they themselves professed. The disserters were believed to be opponents of the government. This was the principle laid down in the Peace of Augsburg. The Religious peace of Augsburg set an important precedent as the first legal recognition of a Protestant faith. The Reformation served in the long run to create a new set of political and social situation which indirectly helped the cause of religious liberty. The medieval religious tradition was broken for ever and supreme heavenly power was vested in the sovereign who had other interests besides those of the church to consider. In the course of time people came to realise that a state might be strengthened rather than weakened by extending its protection to religious minorities. They also realised that tolerance is essential if men and nations are to live side by side in the same world. At the beginning of the sixteenth century most of the Roman Catholic recognized that there were many abuses within the church. The Council of Trent was the first significant step to reform Catholic Church. It re-stated its
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History, Grade XII

faith in the supremacy of the Pope, and at the same time it condemned the issue of Indulgence for money, the role of Church offices and all worldly pursuits by the bishops. In the movement for reforms the Catholic Church was helped by several religious societies, the most important of which was the Society of Jesus. The members of the Society were called Jesuits. Emperor Charles V and his son Philip II of Spain started war against Protestant. Charles V was strongly attached to the Roman Catholic Church, and he would have uprooted Protestantism from Germany. But whenever he desired to take strong measures against the Protestant he had to face the attacks of Francis I of France who though himself a Catholic, freely joined hands with the German Protestant and with the Ottoman Turks. Philip II also wanted to wipe out Protestant from the world. He tried to put down the Protestant Dutch in the Netherlands, sent military and to the French Catholics of France in their struggle against the Huguenots (French Protestants) and to the Holy Roman Emperor to Crush Lutherans and Calvinists in Germany, and attempted in various ways to reestablish the Catholic Church in England. The Causes and the Effects of Glorious Revolution 1688 The political revolution in England in 1688 was called glorious because it was bloodless. It was the battle between the king and the parliament. The Causes of the Revolution of 1688 Followings were the causes of the Revolution of 1688. a) Divine Right of Stuart Period: James I was the first Stuart king of England. He believed in divine right theory of the king. All the kings
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History, Grade XII

of Stuart dynasty believed in this theory and wanted to rule arbitrarily. James II also followed the same policy. b) Advocacy of Catholicism: James II was a staunch Catholic and tried to restore Catholicism in England. But the majority of the people of England were Protestant. Loyalty of the Court: English Court was loyal to James II and not to the people in general. He established Court of Ecclesiastical Commission to impose Catholicism to the people. Friendship with the French Monarch: James II established friendship with Catholic Monarch in France which was regented by the people in general. Permanent Army: James II wanted to form permanent army against the will of the parliament. Act Against Test Act: Test act was favourable to the cause of Protestant. But James II abolished it in the interest of Catholicism. Birth of the Son of James II: James II had no son in the beginning. People thought that there would be Protestant king after his death. But when the son of James II was born, people were disappointed. Invitation to William and Mary: William of Orange and Mary was invited by the parliament to be the king and queen of England.

c)

d)

e)

f)

g)

h)

The effects of the Glorious Revolution The Glorious Revolution was not only the revolution of English people but it was the revolution of whole mankind.
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History, Grade XII

Supremacy of parliament was maintained. It was believed that the king within the parliament is better than out of the parliament. Declaration of Bill of Right Downfall of Roman Catholic Church Religious Tolerance Law of rule was established Impact on Foreign Relation. The Causes and the Effects of the American War of Independence New colonies of different Europeans powers such as Spain, England, France, the Netherlands and Sweden came out after the discovery of new continent. Spain established her colony in Florida, France in New France (Canada) and Louisiana (USA), England in eastern sea-coast of USA with thirteen colonies. The British settlement were chartered and approved by the British crown. The main reason of the settlement was trade and religion. The Jamestown settlement started as a commercial venture by the Virginia Company. The people who fled persecution in England for religion were also responsible for the settlement. Besides, these followings were the causes of the war of independence: Cultural cause: Different people having different cultural background. Intellectual cause: Contribution of Samuel Adams (1772 1803), John Adams (1735 1826), Thomas Paine (1737 1809). The writing of Thomas Paine ignited common sense. Seven Years War (1756 1763): England and Prussia on the one hand and France, Austria, Russia, Sweden on the other hand fought in the seven years

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History, Grade XII

war. France took the revenge of the defeat of the seven years war with England in the war of American independence. Economic cause: British mercantile policy, Navigation Act, Monopoly of the trade, Sugar Act (1764) duties on the import of myolasses. Stamp Act (1765): British Prime Minister George Grenvilla introduced a new measure, the Stamp Act, by which the colonists were required to register various legal documents Bills and licences by affixing revenue stamps. 'No taxation without representation'. Townshend Act : The Chancellor of Exchequer, Charles Townshend proposed duties on colonies imports of glass, lead, point, paper and tea. At the same time, he ordered the suspension of the New York Assembly for not enforcing the Mutiny Act of 1765. Immediate Cause : Boston Tea Party (December 16, 1773). The Effects of the American War of Independence The American War of Independence ended the long struggle of the colonists against royal tyranny. The Americans chose a Republic in the place of monarchy and built a truly democratic state. Delimitation of the territory: The British Government signed the treaty of Paris by which she recognized the independence of the thirteen colonies. it fixed the territory from the southern boundary of Canada to the northern boundary of Florida and from the Atlantic to the Mississippi. Impact on British Policy: British Government changes its policy, towards her colonies.
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History, Grade XII

Influence on the revolution of 1789 in France : French army led by General La Fayethe returned France from America took part in the French Revolution of 1789. Self rule in Australia: Fearing with the events in America British Government gave the power of self rule in Australia. Religious reform in Canada: British Government introduced Quebec Act which allowed Canadians to follow French law. Loss of French Power in India: After the war of American Independence British Government paid its attention towards India. Ultimately there was loss of French Power in India after Anglo- Myssore War. America Became an Example: American war of Independence became example for Latin American and other nations. Causes and the Effects of the Industrial Revolution Introduction During the second half of the eighteenth century and the first half of the nineteenth century British industry underwent great changes Changes so remarkable in character and so extensive that the term Industrial Revolution has been applied to them. The word 'revolution' implies a fundamental change, a political revolution is an entire rearrangement of international alliances, an agrarian revolution is a change in the technique and organization of agriculture, a social revolution is a change in the relative importance of certain social classes. Similarly, the Industrial Revolution was a change in industrial method, from hand-work to work done by machines driven by power, and in industrial organization, from work at home to work in factories.
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History, Grade XII

There were two main phases of the Industrial Revolution. The early phase took place in England between the years 1750 and 1830, and in Continental Europe after 1800. The later phase, sometimes called the New Industrial Revolution, began after the Franco-Prussian War when Germany and United States of America took up position of leadership along with England. Causes: Just as the Renaissance began in Italy, and the Protestant reformation in Germany so the Industrial Revolution had its beginnings in England. Then the question may arise why Industrial Revolution started in England. Political stability: While the countries of continental Europe were suffering from the disorder arising out of the French Revolution and the Nepoleonic Wars, England remained protected from foreign invasion and comparatively free from internal disturbances. British Imperialism: After the end of the seven years war the English acquired commercial and colonial supremacy which nobody could challenge. They had an abundance of capital to be invested, and a worldwide market for the sale of their manufactured goods. Skilled manpower: England had a good number of skilled workers, mostly French of Flemish Protestants who had come to England to escape from religious persecution. Natural resources: England had great natural resources of iron and coal, abundant water power to drive machinery, and a great commercial fleet to carry her manufactured products to all parts of the world.

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History, Grade XII

Agrarian revolution: Agrarian revolution helped Industrial Revolution in England. The first important improvement in the early eighteenth century was Jethro Tull's Seed Drill. Charles Townshend experimented in the rotation of crops so that no land would lie fallow and useless for an entire year. Effects of the Industrial Revolution Invention of new machine: John Kay invented the Flying Shuttle (1733), by which weaving could be done twice as fast as before. "The Spinning Jenny" by James Hargreaves spun eight threads at one and the same time. Richard Arkwright invented a spinning frame called a 'water frame' which was modified by Samuel Crompton and Revered Edmund Cartwright inventing Spinning Mule and Power loom respectively. Fall of cottage industry: Growth of big industries caused fall of Cottage Industry. Economic development: Expanded Trade and Income generated activities. Development of town and cities: The town and cities like Liverpool, Birmingham, Manchester, Bristol etc. developed because of the wide spread of the industries. Unemployment: Cottage industries were replaced by big industries which created unemployment. The employment of women and children in the factories and mines created the problem of unemployment for men and sometime all workers- men, women and children were thrown out of employment when there was over production followed by business depression.
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History, Grade XII

Changes in social structure: European society was changed into two groups known as capitalist and worker class. Problems of the workers: All men, women and children who worked in industries got little wages. They had to work longer hours and could not complain for fear of being dismissed. Socialism: Karl Marx introduced the doctrines of Scientific Socialism. With Frederick Engels he wrote the Communist Manifesto which called for the workers to unite. The Causes and the Effects of the French Revolution of 1789 The French Revolution is the greatest event in the history of mankind. It replaced Bourbon monarchy with a Republic. Causes of the French Revolution Social Causes: Basically French society was divided into two classes viz. privileged and unprivileged. Privileged class included priests, nobles, royalist and unprivileged were middle class including teachers, doctors, lawyers, writers, peasants etc. The privileged class enjoyed luxurious life whereas unprivileged spent miserable life. Montesquieu who himself was noble wrote. A great noble is a man who sees the king, speaks to his ministers and who possess ancestors debts and pension. This discrimination in the French society created tension. That is why it is said "The Revolution of 1789 was much less a rebellion against despotism than a rebellion against inequality".

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History, Grade XII

Economic Causes: Because of the involvement in series of war France was facing economic crises. The nobility and the clergymen who were owned forty percent of the total property of the country did not make any contribution towards the state exchequer. The national monarch Louis XVI appointed many finance ministers one by one to improve the situation. Intellectual Causes: The thinking of the philosophers like Montesquieu (1689 1755), Voltaire (1694 1778), Rousseau (1712 78), Diderot (1713 1784), Quesnay (1694 1744) contributed lot for the encouragement of French people to start revolution against despotic rule. Administrative Causes: French King Louis XVI and his wife Marie Antoinette did not care for the development of the country. They wanted to spend luxurious life. It was said about Louis XVI that had he been born earlier, when people accepted the authority of kings without question, he might have died in bed instead of by the guillotine. Meeting of Estates General: Louis XVI called the meeting of Estate General consisting of three estates to improve the deplorable economy of France. But the member of the Third Estate composed of the peoples' representative demanded equal right of casting vote and sitting with other estates. Their demands were rejected, Therefore they started revolution against despotic rule of the monarch. The Effects of the French Revolution The French Revolution of 1789 had various effects on the history of the world. It has taught the people to be courageous to fight against despotism in country.

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History, Grade XII

The French revolution of 1789 was completed in two phases. The first in 1789 with the summoning of the Estates-General to pass financial laws. The Third Estate proclaimed the National Assembly, abolished the old Regime, issued the Declaration of the Rights of Man, but retained the Monarchy. The National Assembly came to an end after formulating the Constitution of 1791. From 1791 to 1792 a New Body, the Legislative Assembly elected in accordance with the constitution met in Paris. The second revolution occurred in 1793 when the National Convention abolished the Monarchy and set up a republic in its place. The republic government conducted successful wars and carried on a Reign of Terror which ended in the execution of Robespierre (1794). The Directory was set up in 1796 and lasted till 1799 when a Coup d'etate, Nepoleon Bonaparte placed himself at the head of government called the Consulate. He became the first Consul. In 1804 he proclaimed himself Emperor and remained emperor till his downfall in 1815. Other effects of the French Revolution were as follows: Lesson for the people of the World: The people of the world learned the principle of liberty, equality and fraternity from the French Revolution. End of Feudalism : The power of the Priest, Noble and Clergy was abolished. All the people became equal in the eyes of law. Declaration of Human Right: Lord Acton wrote, "The Declaration of Rights of man was stronger than all the armies of Napoleon". Religious Freedom: The state was made free from the control of the Church People got freedom to choose their religion.
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History, Grade XII

Beginning of Socialism: Socialism to the people.

The French Revolution gave the message of Jacobin Party was the symbol of Socialism.

Robespeire and Babeuf always worked for the welfare of poor people. Rise of Nepoleon Bonaparte: Napoleon Bonaparte brought many changes in French Society by introducing his code. He made compromise with Pope called the Concordate. Impact on the World Politics: All the revolutions of the world were the impact of the French Revolution of 1789. The Chinese Revolution 1911, the Russian Revolution of 1917, the Indian National Movement 1947, Nepalese Revolution of 1950 were the outcome of the French Revolution. The Causes and the Effects of the Russian Revolution of 1917 The Russian Revolution of 1917 was the land mark in the history mankind. Causes of Russian Revolution In the beginning Russia was landlocked country with no access to the sea. But in due course of time Peter the Great and Queen Catherine extended Russian territory to Baltic region on the north west and Black sea in the south. Although Russian gained large tracts of territories in northern Asia and her eastern border touched the Pacific Ocean, she was not making progress as her western counterparts. Therefore the people were unhappy with the existing government and they wanted change. There were also other causes of the Revolution: Autocratic Rule of Czar: Russification could not work in big Russia having different races.
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of

History, Grade XII

Oppression of the Working Class:

Russia made some progress in the

construction of roads and railways, introduction of new industries, and tapping of her natural resources, Russia remained as feudal as she was before. the government headed by Czar Nicholas II (1894 1917) continued to remain as oppressive as the earlier one. The conditions of the working class remained as hopeless as before. Influence of Rasputin: Czar Nicholas II and his wife Czarina Alexandra were very much influenced by a reactionary monk named Rasputin who did not want any kind of development in Russia. Russo Japanese War 1904: On 22 January 1905, a crowd of 20,000 workers led by Father Gapon tried to present to Nicholas II a petition letter demanding better wages and working conditions. But the Russian soldiers fired at the crowed and killed 500 people and thousands wounded. Failure of the Russian Revolution of 1905: The people of Russia tried to revolt against the rule of the Czar in 1905. But it was suppressed by the government. Hence the people wanted another big revolution. Impact of First World War: Because of the involvement in the first World War, Russia economy began to collapse. February Revolution: This revolution compelled Czar Nicholas II to

abdicate in favour of his brother Grand Duke Michael. But the offer was refused and Russia was declared a republic and provincial government was established.

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History, Grade XII

The Effects of the Russian Revolution of 1917 October Revolution: The revolution started by Bolshevik was called October Revolution of 1917. Communism in Russia: Bolshevik party led by Lenin overthrew the Provincial Government and established Communism in Russia. Russia was the first country in the world to apply Karl Marx's theory of communism in practice. Soviet Government: On 8th November 1917 Lenin declared "We shall have Soviet government, without the participation of a bourgeoisie of any kind. The oppressed masses will themselves form a government." Third International (Commenter): The success of the October Revolution provided a model to Socialist Revolution showed on how the proletariat could seize power. In 1919 Lenin set up the Third International to promote worldwide communist revolution. Leninism or Marx-Leninism became the new doctrines of a World Communist Movement. Rise of Dictators: The birth of Soviet government in Russia divided the World into two power block Communist and Capitalist. The Western powers were worried about the spread of communism into Europe. They set up independent states in the Baltic Coast and Eastern Europe as a buffer Zone to stop Russian expansion. The hostility between communism and capitalism became a new source of tension in the modern World. After 1919, the fear of communism was very strong among Europeans. They supported dictators communism was very strong among Europeans. They supported dictators against communist. This led to the rise of Facists in Italy and Nazis in Germany.

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History, Grade XII

China became strong communist country in Asia: Other countries in the east Europe also followed communism. The Causes and Effects of the World War (1914-18) The twenty-first century witnessed a great war in which all the countries with some exception involved directly or indirectly was called First World War. It was called First because none of the war before this included so many countries and devasted so much during four years war (19141918). It was the first time in human history that a war was faught at such a large scale involving thirty-one nations and causing about forty million casualties. England, France, Italy, Belgium, America, China and Japan were in one side and Germany, Austria, Hungary, Turkey etc. were on other side in the war. Causes Nationalism: Bismarck. Secret Alliances: German Chancellor started the system of Secret Alliance in Europe which caused distrust among the Nations. Newspaper: Newspapers of one country was causing propaganda against other countries creating misunderstanding. Imperialism: England, France, Germany, Italy were trying to expand more and more colonies in Asia and Europe. Too much nationalism disturbed the peace of the World.

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History, Grade XII

Militarism: For fear of attacked by others each country was developing her military strength and war technology. Immediate Cause: Austrian. Murder of Archduke Frances Ferdinand, heir to the Therefore and his wife Sophie by Gavrilo Princip, a Bosnian

student and member of Serbian Black Hands on 28 June 1914 at Sarajevo, the Capital of Bosnia. The Effects of the World War I After the Great War, Europe found it difficult to recover its pre-war position in world trade and industrial production. During the war, the European nations lost their overseas markets to the United States and Japan. After the war they had to reconstruct the War damage and to satisfy the home market first. Due to inflation and higher cost of production, European goods were less demanding. At the same time, the United States and the new European States introduced tariff barriers to protect their own industries. As a result, it became more difficult for countries to earn money from their exports. The decline in trade led to limited industrial growth, which in turn caused unemployment. Inflation became a serious problem in the post-War years. The huge war debts forced the European governments to tax the people and to print large amounts of paper money to cover their debts. The gold standard was abolished and the currencies were allowed to fluctuate. In 1922, the German currency collapsed completely. Bank notes of a thousand million marks appeared.

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History, Grade XII

Loss of life during the First World War British Empire I Million France 1.5 million Germany 2 million Russia 2 million Austria Hungary 1.5 million U.S.A. 115,000 Turkey 375,000 Italy 450,000 Civilian Death: 5 million Wounded and Crippled 21 million The figures above show a devastating effect of the war. The deadly weapons and massive campaigns cost heavy casualties. About five thousand five hundred soldiers were killed every day and a total of seven million soldiers lost their lives. Millions of civilians died from food shortages and bombing. The Treaty of Versailles signed between victorious power and vanquished Nations. By the treaty of Verssailles Germany lost 13 percent of her territory and six million people.
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History, Grade XII

The United States emerged as the world's richest country and also the greatest creditor. In the Far East Japan was ready to build a large empire. Unable to tackle post-war economic and social problems, democratic governments in 'Germany, Italy, Spain and Portugal were soon replaced by totalitarian governments under Nazism and Fascism. The greatest social impact of the war was the emancipation of women. In USA and many European countries, voting right was granted to women. Many professions were opened to them and more women worked in industry or in offices than before. Class distinction was also reduced. Most countries had introduced universal adult suffrage. Very few aristocrats occupied important ministerial posts in the government. The League of Nations was formed to avoid wars in the future. The Causes and the Effects of the World War II (1939 - 45) On September, 1939, before the world had fully recovered from the devastation caused by the World War I, the World War II broke out. The war was longer and more destructive than the World War I. The interval between the two World Wars was 20 years and 9 months. All the countries of the World except six took part in the War. Japan and Italy fought in favour of Germany. Ireland, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and Turkey were neutral. Like World War I, World War II was broke out because of the several reasons. Failure of the League of Nations: The League of Nations failed in its mission to prevent war between two blocks. Treaty of Versailles: Germany was not happy with the terms of the treaty of Versailles. She violated the terms of the treaty. Adolf Hitler united his countrymen against the treaty.
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History, Grade XII

Japanese Imperialism: Japan was becoming strongest power on East Asia. She wanted more and more land for her colony. Groupism: The world was divided into two power blocks: Germany, Italy, Japan etc. in one and England, France, Russia etc. in the other group. Policy of Appeasement: Instead of crushing the power of Hitler and other dictators, England which had a dominant voice in the League of Nations, followed a cowardly policy and went out of the way to appease Hitler. The Immediate Cause: The immediate cause of the War was the refusal of Poland to surrender. Germany gave an ultimatum to Poland to surrender the port of Danzing, and to grant the right of establishing a said link between Germany and East Prussia through the Polish Corridor. These two demands were rejected by Poland. So Germany invaded Poland on 1 September 1939. As Britain and France were under obligations to aid Poland war was declared against Germany on 3 September 1939. On one side were Germany, Italy and Japan called Axis Powers, and in the other were Britain, Russia, France, USA etc. called the Allies. The Effects of the World War II Germany had to face defeat once again. Hitler, Goebbels and Himmler committed suicide and their successors surrendered unconditionally on 7 May 1945. After the fall of Germany, the United States and Britain concentrated their forces against Japan. On 6 August 1945, an atom bomb was dropped on the city of Hiroshima and it was estimated that more than one hundred thousand persons were killed. Japan was asked to surrender and when she refused another bomb was exploded on 9 August on the City

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History, Grade XII

of Nagasaki. On 14 August Japan surrendered unconditionally, and the war came to an end. Destruction: The destruction of War could not be calculated accurately. The total number of people killed was between 40 to 50 million. Cities and fields were bombed to ruins. There were shortages of basic necessities - food, clothing, and shelters. 25 million European became homeless. Peace Settlement: After about 15 months of preparatory work peace treaty was signed by 21 participating countries of February 1947 in Paris. Germany was divided into two parts East and West. Formation of European Economic Community: To reconstruct the ruins of Europe the need for the formation of economic union was felt in East and West Europe. The formation of European Economic community (the common market) in 1957 was one of the beginning. It was based on free movement of goods and people among its members. Welfare State: After the World War II, the idea of the Welfare State which had developed in the year of the Great Depression, came into reality. Lesson from the result of Nuclear War: The World War II also taught the World what a nuclear holocaust was like. The atomic bombs dropped on the two Japanese cities killed 100,000 people in short moment. Another 96,000 people were injured and died painfully later. The two cities were simply melted by a ball of fire with a temperature of 100,000. The heat was followed by a burning wind with a speed of 800 kilometers per hour, tearing everything down within its reach and killing more people.
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History, Grade XII

League of Nations Establishment After the horrors of the World War I, the need for an international organization was widely felt. The formation of the League of Nations was the outcome of the need. The initiative of the formation of the League was taken by President Woodrow Wilson of America. Formally, the League of Nations was established on 10 January 1920 with 24 member countries. The first Assembly was convened on November 15, 1920, when the number of members rose to 42 nations. Geneva in Switzerland was the seat of the League of Nations. Aims and Objectives 1. 2. The main aim of the League was to prevent war. The second aim was to encourage international cooperation.

Regarding the first aims and objectives Article II of the League's Covenant (constitution) stated that any war or threat of war is a matter of concern to the whole. It made the provision that the League could take any action for the safeguard of the peace of nations. It clearly indicated that member nations would act collectively to punish any nation that took aggressive action against another nation. Economic sanctions would involve the cutting of trade with the aggressor. Military sanctions would involve sending troops to enforce the League's decision.

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History, Grade XII

Major Organs Structure and Functions of the League of Nations GENEVA LEAGUE OF NATIONS THE ASSEMBLY Member nations met at Geneva once a year to decide the budget an vote for important decisions on a one country, one vote basis THE COUNCIL It consisted of four permanent members (Britain, France, Italy and Japan) and four non-permanent members elected by the Assembly for three years. It met every three months to carry out the real running of the League THE SECRETARIAT It drew up resolutions and reports for the League SPECIAL THE PERMANENT SPECIAL COMMISSIONS COURT OF COMMISSIONS The mandates INTERNATIONAL The epidemics commission looked after JUSTICE commission helped those colonies put This was an reduce the spread of under temporary rule of international law court in epidemic diseases in Britain and France by the Hague. It consisted backward countries. the Paris Peaceof 15 judges and settle Treaties legal disputes between countries

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History, Grade XII

United Nations Organization (UN)


Establishment of the UN The UN was established after the failure of League of Nations and widespread destruction of World War II. (Subject teachers must note that these days the shorter form UN is used instead of UNO). The UN Charter came into force on October 24, 1945. The General Assembly of the UNO had its opening session in London on January 10, 1946. John D. Rockefellar Jr. donated the land in Manhattan, New York, for the UN building. With the birth new nations after 1945 its members increased from the original 51 founding states to over 181 countries. Aims and Objectives The aims and objective of the UN are given in the preamble to the United Nations Charter are as follows: 1. to maintain international peace and security. 2. to develop friendly relations among nations. 3. to cooperate internationally in solving international economic, social, cultural and humanitarian problems and promoting respect for human rights and humanitarian freedoms. 4. to function as a centre for harmonising the action of nations in attaining these common ends. Main Organs of the UN The UN has six principal organs:

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History, Grade XII

1.

The General Assembly: The largest of all the organs of the UN. It consists of all the member states. Each members states can send not more than five representatives; but each state whatever its size has only one vote. Normally the Assembly has to meet regular session once a year but more on the request of Security Council.

2.

The Security Council : This is a small but powerful organ of UN. It has eleven members, five permanent and six non-permanent. Non permanent members are elected by the Assembly, three each year to serve for two years. The major powers, Britain, France, the USA, Russia and China are the permanent members of the Security Council. The Economic and Social Council: The Economic and Social Council is composed of 18 members elected by the General Assembly, 6 members are elected each state is 3 years, one third retiring every year. This Council exercises jurisdiction over the UNESCO, WHO, FAO, UNRRA, the World Bank and other specialised Agencies. The major share of the expenditure by the USA (30 percent), USSR (14 percent) the Britain (7 percent).

3.

4.

The Trusteeship Council: This council is composed of permanent members of the Security Council, except those administering trust territories, and other states elected by the General Assembly. It meets at least twice a year. It elects at each regular session a President. The International court of Justice: The permanent International court of justice sits at the Hague in the Netherlands. It is composed of 15 Judges, who are elected independently by the Assembly and the Security Council for a period of three years.
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5.

History, Grade XII

6.

The Secretariat: The routine work of the UN is done by the Secretariat, which works according to the instruction of the Secretary General. The Secretariat has nine Departments, each under an Assistant Secretary. The Secretary-General is the chief the Secretariat.

7.

Specialized Agencies of UN: International Labour Organization (ILO), Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO), United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), International Bank of Reconstruction and Development (IBRD), International Monetary Fund (IMF), World Health Organization (WHO), International Development Association (IDA), International Finance Corporation (IFC), International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO), Universal Postal Union (UPU), International Telecommunication Union (ITU), World Meteorological Organization (WMO), United Nations Children's Emergency Fund (UNICEF), InterGovernment Maritime Consultative Organization (IMCO), International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Special UN Fund for Economic Development (SUNFED) etc. are the specialized agencies of the UN. Beside these, there are more than three hundred nongovernmental organizations under the UN. Key Terms and Concepts

5.

Feudalism The term Feudalism is related with the word fief and Latin word 'Fidelitas' meaning faithfulness. The Land granted by the king to his vassal was called fief and promise made by him was called oath of Fidelity. At the beginning of the ninth Century there was an attempted revival of the Roman Empire under the Frankish King. Charlemagne (Charles the Great), who claimed

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that universal supremacy which the Romans had at one time imposed, and which to most medieval minds was quite a reasonable proposition. Henseatic League German cities formed alliances for trade with fifty cities. The capital city of this trading association Liibeck, imposed penalties on member cities that violated Hansa (Henseatic League) rules. 6. Evaluation Long and Short questions with Marking Scheme Long Questions Marks What were the causes of the rise of Feudalism ? Explain - Death of Charlemagne in France - Dependency of Land - Weakness of the King - Social Structure - Slavery "The Reformation was primarily aim at reforming the Roman Catholic Church" Discuss with examples. - Meaning of Reformation - Legacy of Renaissance - Political causes - Economic Causes - Religious Causes - Role of the Reformers - Reformation movement Examine the Causes of the Glorious Revolution of 1688 - Divine Right of Stuart Kings
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3 3 3 3 3 15

3 2 2 2 2 2 2 15 2

3.

History, Grade XII

- Advocacy of Catholicism - Loyalty of the Court to the King - Friendship with France - Permanent army - Test Act - Birth of James II's son - William and Mary 4. Critically analyse the causes of the American War of Independence - Intellectual Causes - Cultural background - Administrative weakness - Seven Years War - Mercantile Policy - Stamp and Townshend Act

2 2 2 2 2 2 1 15

2 2 2 2 2 5 15

5.

Compare and Contrast the impact of the First and Second World War - Loss of life and Property - Technology of War - Personalities - Alliances a Treaties - Social Changes - League of Nations and UN - Friendship and Cooperation

3 2 2 2 2 2 2 15

Short Questions 1. State the nature of Renaissance - Expression of thought


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Marks 1

History, Grade XII

Sequence of Events Investigation Achievement in language and Literature Outcome of the learning experience

1 1 1 1 5

2.

How do you assess the importance of Industrial Revolution in England ? - Life became much easier - Growth of Town and Cities - Changes in Social Structure

2 2 1 5

3.

"The Revolution of 1789 was much less a rebellion against despotism than a rebellion against inequality. " Explain with illustrations. - Meaning - Social Structure - Montesquieu Writing

2 1 2 5

4.

Describe the impact of Bloody Sunday on the Politics of Czarist Russia. - The Event of Bloody Sunday - Autocracy of Czar - Russian Revolution of 1917

2 1 2 5

5.

Discuss the purposes of Third International - The purposes - The contribution of Lenin
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3 2 5

History, Grade XII

6.

Draw a Chart of the loss of Human life in the World War I - Design of the Chart - Accuracy

2 3 5

7.

Describe the Immediate causes of the World War II - Invasion of Poland - Germans Demand - Britain and France to help

1 2 2 5

8.

What were the aims and objectives of the League of Nations ? - Two objectives - Explanation of objectives

2 3 5

Prescribed Books and References

!=

sfkm\n], dfofk|;fb, ljZjsf] Oltxf;, e'jg k|sfzg, lj/f6gu/, @)%$ . @= >]i7, lzjs'df/, ljZjsf] Oltxf;, /Tg k':ts e08f/, ef]6flx6L, @)%# . #= dfgGw/, /fdeQm, ljZjsf] Oltxf;, sf7df8f}+, @)%# .
Ganjoo Satish, Dictionary of History, Anmol Publication, New Delhi. Gokhale, B.R., Modern Europe, Himalaya Publishing House, New Delhi, 1987. Ray, M.R. A Brief Survey of World History (UP to the Year 1950), Orient Longmans, New York, 1967. Julian Leung Yat, Ying Yan Wai, The Modern World Since 1800, Vol. 2, Longman Asia Limited, Hong Kong, 1996.
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4. 5. 6. 7.

History, Grade XII

Unit Three International Treaties and Organizations


15 Teaching hours Introduction This unit has been designed to give a brief picture of the world history after the Second World War through some important international treaties and organizations with an objective to make an outline study of the six different areas viz. United States, Soviet Union, South-east Asia, South Asia, Africa and Europe. The six treaties and organizations to be studied in this unit are North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), Warsaw Pact, South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC), Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN), European Union (EU), and Organization for African Unity (OAU). The NATO was founded in 1949 by the United States and other eleven countries mostly from Europe; whereas the Warsaw Pact was established in 1955 by the Soviet Union and East-European countries as a rival organization to the NATO. The ASEAN was founded in 1967 by the countries of Southeast Asia to develop mutual cooperation among themselves and the SAARC was established by seven nations of South Asia in 1985 to help each other in different socio-economic sectors and the work for the welfare of the people thereof. Though the European Union was founded only in 1994, it has a long history since 1957 under different forms such as the European Common Market, European Economic Community, and European Community. Similarly, the OAU was established in 1963 by the African states with its 52 member states. The organization is committed to mutual cooperation among the African states to ensure them sovereignty, independence, and regional integrity.
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The study of these international organizations will enable the students to know in brief the political development in the world after the Second World War. Pre- requisite General knowledge of the recent history of the world is required in order to fully grasp the content of this unit. However, no formal pre-requisite is recommended. Instructional Materials a. b. Separate maps of United States, Europe, Africa, South-East Asia, Soviet Union, and South Asia. Basic documents related to these organizations (specially for the teachers)

Teaching methods (a) Lecture method:- The teacher gives lectures on the prescribed international treaties and organizations, and the students ask questions to clarify different terms, issues, and contents. Discussion method:- Students should be encouraged to take part in discussions to understand clearly the basic concepts and also to express their own views on the contents. Note giving method:- As the unit has been recently inserted in the curriculum, the teacher should give some notes on each international treaty or organization, so that the students may be in an easier position to understand the theme in a proper way.
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(b)

(c)

History, Grade XII

(d)

Visit to relevant offices:- If possible, the students should be taken to secretariat of the SAARC and other relevant offices situated in Kathmandu, to get first hand information from the concerned officials. Guest speaker: Teachers can also invite special guests, experts to give talks on some topics. This is important but this is possibly only in some areas, not everywhere.

(e)

Key-concepts, terms, and words The teachers should give brief introduction to the regions like Europe, Africa, South Asia, South East Asia, Soviet Union etc. and then explain the terms like Cold War, Division of Germany, Marshall Plan, Preamble, Military Committee, Standing Group, Red China, Eastern Europe, European Economic Community, Common Market, Arbitration, Mediation, Assembly Council, etc. Course Description This unit is devoted to the study of six different international organizations. The teacher should explain at least the following points in relation to each organization 1. Circumstances leading to the formation of the organization 2. Objections or aims of the organization 3. Major achievements or failures of the organization 4. Present position of the organization 1. North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO): The NATO was established in 1949 by the United States and 11 other countries, mostly from Europe, as a defense against the war- kike policy of the Soviet Union in the post-war period. The parties agreed to support each other, in case there is an armed attack against any one of them with the end

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History, Grade XII

of cold war in the early 1990s, the NATO took a new shape, by giving admission to Russia and other former Soviet Republics. 2. Warsaw Pact:It was founded in 1955 after a conference of eight European nations under the leadership of the Soviet Union. It successfully intervened in the Hungarian affairs in 1956 and Czechoslovakian affairs in 1968. The Warsaw Pact was dissolved in 1991 after the collapse of communism in Eastern Europe with the disintegration of Soviet Union. 3. Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN): It was established in 1967 by five countries of South East Asia. Later on other countries of South East Asia also joined the Association. It intends to develop mutual cooperation among member-states in social, economic, cultural, health, scientific, information, and technical sectors. 4. European Union (EU):Though the EU established in 1993, it was in operation since 1958 with different names viz European Economic Community and European Community. At present it has 15 members all from Europe. The Union intends to promote European trade and bring uniformity in commercial and financial issues. The main organs of EU are European Council, European Commission, European Court and European Parliaments. Now the organization also has its currency called the Euro. 5. Organization of African Unity (OAU):It was founded in 1963 with an objective to promote unity and cohesion among the independent African states, to advance their economic development, and to accelerate the liberation movement of those nations that are still under the colonial rule. As of now it has 52 members-states- all from Africa. But it should be mentioned that OAU has shown little capacity to intervene affectively in any current crisis affecting Africa and the African.

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History, Grade XII

Evaluation Scheme Model Questions Long Answer Questions 1. What led to the formation of NATO? How did it change its shape after 1991? 2. What are the objectives of SAARC? How far was it successful in achieving them? 3. How did the Warsaw Pact intervene in Hungary (1956) and Czechoslovakia (1968)? 4. Analyse the main features of the European Union as an organization. Short Answer Questions 1. What do you mean by the term 'European Common Market'? 2. What led to the formation of OAU? 3. Why did NATO change its shape after 1991? 4. What led to the dissolution of Warsaw Pact in 1991? 5. What are the objectives of ASEAN? 6. Under what circumstances was SAARC established? 7. What do you mean by Cold War? Prescribed Books:1. Mahajan, V.D. Delhi: S.Chand & Co. (Latest Edition) 2. 3.

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History, Grade XII

Evaluation Committee: 1. Mr. Rshikesh Upadhyay 2. Mr. Narayan Prasad Sharma 3. Mr. Rajendra Gopal Shrestha 4. Mr. Dev Raj Dahal 5. Dr. Shreekrishna Yadav. Revised by Prof. Dr. Triratna Narayan Manandhar, Central Dept of History, T.U. Prof. Prem Kumar Khatry, Central Dept. of NeHCA. T.U.

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History, Grade XII

History Curriculum Grade: XII Full Marks: 100 Teaching hours: 150 Introduction to World History Introduction This course is designed to introduce to the students the follow of events that shaped human history and civilization through the ages up to the first half of the twentieth century. It commences with the dawn of civilization in the Indian sub-continent and European Scholastic Culture of the Middle Ages and steps into the world of revolutions whose impacts are seen in national awakening, leading to ultra nationalism that was primarily responsible for the two world wars and its consequences. General Objectives The general objectives of this study is to familiarize the students with the evolution of human culture and civilization and the major events from the dawn of history to the 20th century and to provide them a general overview of the world; post-war political and historical scenario. Specific Objectives The specific objectives of this course are: 1. To make the students understand the early civilization of the Indian subcontinent, Egypt, Mesopotamia, China and identify their impacts on Europe, especially Greece and Rome. To acquaint them with the teachings of Bhagawad Geeta as well as the teaching of prominent social and religious thinkers like Gautam Budedha, Vardhamana Mahavir, Jesus Christ and Prophet (Hajrat) Mohammad, To make them see the history of the Medieval period as a vital link between the Ancient and the Modern civilizations, and
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2.

3.

History, Grade XII

4.

To make them assess the era of revolution in Europe and America from 1688 to 1917 which had its impact on the growth of nationalism in Europe and its positive and negative impacts on the present social, political and economic institutions worldwide.

Course Scheme: Units 1 2 3

Chapters Ancient Civilizations Medieval and Modern World International Treaties and Organizations Total

Teaching Hours 45 90 15 150

Course Contents Unit 1: Ancient Civilizations 45 teaching hrs Outstanding contributions of the following civilizations as well as social, economic and religious life of the people Contributions of Egyptian civilizations 5 hrs Contributions of Mesopotamian civilizations 5 hrs Contributions of Chinese Civilizations 5 hrs Contributions of Greek civilizations 5 hrs Contributions of Roman civilizations 5 hrs 4 hrs 3 hrs 2 hrs 2 hrs 2 hrs 90 teaching hrs 4 hrs 8 hrs 6 hrs

Teaching of Bhagwat Gita Gautam Buddha Mahavir Vardhamana Jesus Christ Muhammed Hajrat Unit 2: Medieval and Modern World From the Dark Ages to the Modern Period The rise and Fall of Feudalism Renaissance-causes, nature and effects Reformation- causes, nature and effects
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History, Grade XII

Revolutionary age (Green)- causes, nature and effects Glorious Revolution 1688 A.D. American War of Independence 1775-83 A.D. Industrial Revolution French Revolutions of 1789 A.D. Russian Revolution of 1971 A.D. World Wars: causes and effects First World War- causes and effects Second World War- causes and effects League of Nations- establishment and objectives UNO- establishment, Objectives and organs

6 hrs 6 hrs 6 hrs 6 hrs 8 hrs 6 hrs

8 hrs 8 hrs 6 hrs 12 hrs

Unit 3: International Treaties and Organizations 15 teaching hrs General introduction to: North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) 2 hrs WARSAW Pact 2 hrs South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) 4 hrs Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN) 3 hrs European Union (EU) 3 hrs Organization for African Unity (OAU) 1 hrs Prescribed Textbooks H.A. Davies- An Outline History of The World.

1.

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Reference Books 1. Jawaharlal Nehru, Glimpses of World History 2. J.M. Roberts, The Pelican History of the World 3.

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History, Grade XII

4.

8f= ;"o{dl0f clwsf/L, ljZj Oltxf;sf] ?k/]vf .

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History, Grade XII

A note to the subject teacher


The History and Culture Subject Committee of HSEB strongly feels that there is an urgent need to upgrade the existing syllabi, teaching/instructional materials and methods of using them in the course of teaching at this level. There is a growing tendency at the moment to judge the popularity of a discipline on the basis of the crowd at the entry, (not at the exit) point. What percentage of the crowd actually gets through the final test, what portion of this lucky lot excels and how many of them remain behind to 'stage agitation' against the 'low pass percentage of the regularity and quality seeking' departments is a matter of serious assessment. But this does not seem to be happening. So, the history repeats as a regular course. Our two subjects, on the other hand, have fared unsatisfactorily in terms of the present day scale of popularity. We cannot point our fingers at anyone else for the situation. Even at a time when HSEB has been demonstrating extra liberal attitude towards the proposed Higher Secondary schools whose gross number keeps growing almost linearly, History and Culture are not among the favored subjects. This situation should be taken with concern by all the stake-holders, viz. HSEB, Subject Committee, concerned schools, the guardians and the students themselves. Is the basic knowledge of Nepali history and culture an obsolete phenomenon? While participating in the race of building a new Nepal, can we afford to dump all the past in a dustbin? Can't the knowledge of history and culture be a base for the so-called 'hot' disciplines such as sociology-anthropology or, for that matter, the RD (Rural Development), or Women's Studies, for example? It is high time we gave serious thought to reorganize our efforts to create an atmosphere that is conducive for History and Culture learning at higher secondary level, and gradually at higher levels. There are 100 plus ways of earning a piece of bread for an individual's regular calorie intake. But there is only one good way of being interested and
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History, Grade XII

to some extent well conversant on the history of one's nation through proper guidance and learning with motivation. We as Subject Committee members and Subject teachers must accept the challenge of the deteriorating status of history and culture study mechanism in our higher secondary institutions. The reasons for this sorry state of affairs should not be too far and too complicated to seek. We don't need the Buddha's 'third eye' to see it. So, what needs to be done? First and foremost, we need to revamp our course structure and make timely changes to make the content well balanced in terms of objectivity and subjectivity. At intermediate level, not all the subjects taught can guarantee a job. Far from that. Some subjects can just open up the learner's horizon of understanding and help shape up the academic personality. Others do provide some skill to earn and survive, to make a living, that is. Second, our collective responsibility is to produce quality texts and reading and inculcate the habit of reading and debating in the class situation. Straight lectures or note-taking is not what is expected of us as teachers because it has been observed that note-taking virtually becomes 'dictating'. This method limits the creativity of the students and we all know this. Devising more interesting and practical methods and applying them properly helps develop interest in any subject under the sun. We like to see the younger generation more creative than our generation. So we have no right to spoil their habit and make them dependent on 'spoon feeding'. To some extent, this manual seeks to direct and guide our colleagues towards the fulfillment of this objective The present manual is a revised form of the earlier version. It is so because we have inserted few new units in the existing syllabus. This is a simple guide. It may have inconsistencies as it was prepared by different hands in different time periods. But the whole idea behind this book is to provide some useful tips to the subject teacher. We trust that the teacher naturally
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History, Grade XII

consults and develops more quality materials to be used in the class, organizes the lessons in a planned manner, and sees to it that there is active participation from the students. For some units there are long lists of model questions. But the models often change. So we have kept the list as they were in the first edition. They may be helpful for the students to be aware of the contents and the way a question may be asked from them. We have also recommended few field visits and guest speakers for some units. Students want something 'new' and 'different' in terms of style of teaching and it is within our sphere of responsibility and capacity to do things differently. Not all units have list of model questions and units in tabular form. Teachers are encouraged to do so following the examples provided here. The whole idea is to invest the labor in clarifying the concept and the subject matter according to the course objectives. If we think seriously and communicate with each other about the possible revitalization of our disciplines, we may not be facing scarcity of history and culture learners in our classrooms. The main mantra is: Collective effort is bound to bring the desired result we all want to have at this time in the history of our disciplines.

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