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TRNG I HC BCH KHOA H NI Vin in t Vin thng

B mn :Mch v x l tn hiu

ti:

KHUCH I QUANG BN DN
ThS.Nguyn Bch Huyn Nguyn nh Chng Nguyn Vn Thnh

Gio vin hng dn: Sinh vin thc hin:

Lp:

H thng thng tin v truyn thng K s cht lng cao K52

Tiu lun khuch i quang bn dn SOA

MC LC
Li ni u........2

I.

Tng quan v khch i quang...3

I.1. Gii thiu khuch i quang3 I.2. Phn loi khch i quang...........7

II.

Nguyn l c bn.9

II.1. II.2. II.3.

M t c bn....9 Nguyn l khuch i...10 Cc thng s k thut.11

III.

Cu trc v nguyn l hot ng ca SOA..16

III.1. III.2. III.3.

Cu trc c bn ca SOA.16 Nguyn l hot ng..16 c tnh b khuch i FPA v TWA.18

IV.

ng dng c bn ca SOA....22

IV.1. IV.2. IV.3.

B khuch i tng cng.23 B tin khuch i.25 B khuch i ng dy v cc tng khuch i.27

V.

ng dng chc nng ca SOA..28

V.1. V.2.

S phi tuyn ca SOA...28 Cc ng dng chc nng ca SOA.31

Kt lun...40 Ti liu tham kho..41


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Tiu lun khuch i quang bn dn SOA

Li ni u

Th k 21 chng kin s pht trin vt bc ca cng ngh thng tin v vin thng c bit l cc h thng v cng ngh thng si tin quang trong hn hai mi lm nm qua. S nhy vt ny c c l nh s pht trin ca cng ngh quang in t hc c s dng khai thc bng thng cc k tim nng ca si quang. Ngy nay, cc h thng c vn hnh vi t s bit vt qua 100Gb/s nh cc k thut nh dn knh chia theo bc sng (WDM). Cng ngh quang l trung tm ca vic hin thc ha cc h thng tng lai nhm p ng c nhu cu thng tin ca con ngi.Nhng kh nng ny bao gm di thng khng gii hn ti cc dch v thng tin km theo v s trong sut hon ton cho php cc nn cp dung lng v s linh hot nh tuyn ca knh truyn.Nhng cn nhn mnh rng, khuch i quang ng vai tr quan trng trong s tin trin ca thng tin quang. Ni chung, cc b khuch i quang c hai loi: khuch i quang si (OFA) v khuch ai quang bn dn (SOA). OFA c s dng rt rng ri lm b khuch i ng truyn b suy hao si quang. Tuy nhin, vi cc u im trong k thut ch to v thit k linh kin quang, SOA cho thy kh nng ng dng rt cao. Ngoi ng dng lm phn t khuch i, SOA cn c nhiu ng dng khc nh chuyn mch quang v chuyn i bc sng. Nhng chc nng ny rt cn thit cho mng quang trong sut v khng cn chuyn i tn hiu quang thnh tn hiu in. Mc ch ca bi bo co ny l cung cp mt s hiu bit tng quan v nguyn l, cu trc v ng dng ca SOA, c bit lin quan n vic s dng n trong cc h thng thng tin quang. Nhn dp ny, chng em xin gi li cm n chn thnh ti ThS Nguyn Bch Huyn v nhit tnh gip , cung cp ti liu gip chng em hon thnh bi bo co ny.

Bch Khoa, ngy 01 thng 11 nm 2011

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Tiu lun khuch i quang bn dn SOA

I. Tng quan v khuch i quang


1.1 Gii thiu khuch i quang
Thng tin s dng si quang gp hai hn ch chnh l: suy hao v tn sc. suy hao dn n s suy gim nng lng tn hiu v do lm gim khong cch truyn tin. V th suy hao si l vn quan trng nht trong thit k, n xc nh b lp v khuch i ca h thng sng nh sng c ly xa. Trong khi tn sc li sinh ra s m rng xung quang v v vy nhiu giao thoa lin k hiu (intersymbol interference l mt dng ca mo tn hiu trong mt cc i ph giao thoa vi cc i ph con) lm tng t s li (BER bit error rate) ca h thng. Nu cc xung quang m rng ngoi bit slot ca chng th tn hiu s suy gim rt ln v dn n khng th khi phc vi chnh xc cao. tn sc ch yu lm hn ch di thng ca si quang. Hnh 1.1, suy hao ca si quang silic kiu n nh nht trong vng bc sng 1.55m(0.2dB/Km).Suy hao cao hn mt cht trong vng 1.3m (0.5dB/Km).

Hnh 1.1 Ph suy hao c trng ca si quang silic kiu n t suy hao Ph tn sc ca si silic kiu n c minh ha trong hnh 1.2, nh nht trong vng bc sng1.3m v kh ln trong vng bc sng gn 1.5m.Do gi tr ca ph suy hao v tn sc l nh cc ca s 1.55m v 1.3m. Cho nn chng l vng bc sng chnh c s dng
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Tiu lun khuch i quang bn dn SOA trong cc h thng thng tin si quang thng mi hin nay. Cc h thng thng tin quang cng s dng vng 830nm, ch yu trong cc ng dn c khong truyn ngn vi t s bit trung bnh m khng yu cu khuch i quang.

Hnh 1.2 Ph tn sc c trng ca si quang silic kiu n Khi c ly truyn dn si quang tng, suy hao tn hiu v tn sc cng tng ln, do ti mt s im trong ng dn thng tin si quang, tn hiu quang s cn c phc hi li.Vic phc hi bao gm vic pht hin bin i photon electron, khuch i in, dch thi gian, iu chnh dng xung v truyn li.Suy hao c khc phc bng cc b lp quang in.Trong cc trm lp quang in ny (hnh 1.3), qu trnh khuch i tn hiu quang c thc hin qua nhiu bc.

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Tiu lun khuch i quang bn dn SOA

Hnh 1.3

Cu trc mt trm lp quang in

Hot ng ca trm lp: Tn hiu quang s c bin i thnh dng in bi cc b thu quang (optical receiver) s dng linh kin tch sng quang nh PIN hay APD. Dng quang in thu c s c ti to li dng xung, nh thi v khuch i bi cc mch phc hi tn hiu v mch khuch i.Sau , tn hiu in s c bin i thnh tn hiu quang thng qua cc ngun quang trong b pht quang (optical transmitter) v c truyn i trong si quang.Nh vy, qu trnh khuch i tn hiu c thc hin trn min in. Cc trm lp quang in c s dng ph bin trong cc h thng truyn dn quang mt bc sng nh h thng truyn dn quang SDH.Tuy nhin, khi s dng cho cc h thng truyn dn quang a bc sng nh h thng WDM, rt nhiu trm lp quang in cn c s dng khuch i v ti to cc knh quang c bc sng khc nhau. iu ny lm tng phc tp cng nh tng gi thnh ca h thng truyn dn quang WDM. Mt gii php c th khc phc cc nhc im trn ca trm lp quang in, l s dng cc b khuch i quang (Optical Amplifier).Trong cc b khuch i quang ny, tn hiu nh sng c khuch i trc tip trong min quang m khng thng qua vic bin i sang min in. So vi cc trm lp, cc b khuch i quang c cc u im sau: Khuch i trc tip tn hiu quang, khng c mch ti to thi gian hay mch phc hi (b bin i E/O hoc O/E). Do khuch i quang s tr nn linh hot hn. Khng ph thuc vo tc bit v phng thc iu ch tn hiu nn nng cp h thng n gin hn. Phng php ny c mt s nhc im. u tin, n tham gia vo vic lm t ng dn quang v v th khng trong sut v mt quang (tc l ph thuc vo tnh cht ca tn hiu quang u vo). Th hai, qu trnh ti sinh ph thuc vo dng iu ch tn hiu v t s bit nn
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Tiu lun khuch i quang bn dn SOA n khng trong sut v in.iu ny to nn nhiu kh khn khi cn nng cp ng dn. Mt cch l tng, nng cp ng truyn phi bao hm cc s thay i hoc thay th cc thit b u cui (my pht, my thu). Th ba, khi cc b khi phc l cc h thng phc tp v c iu khin t xa hoc kh truy cp ti v tr ca n nh cc ng truyn di bin th an ton ca h thng d b h hi.V vy, trong cc h thng m suy hao si quang l nhn t hn ch th mt b khuch i quang ni tip s c s dng thay th b khi phc.Thc cht, n l thit b tin cy v t t tin hn. Hn na, b khuch i quang ni tuyn cng rt c li nh my khuch i cng sut (power booster).Bn cnh , nhng ng dng h thng c bn ca khuch i quang cn hu ch nh cc khi khuch i quang chung nhm s dng trong cc h thng ln hn.S ci thin ca cc h thng thng tin quang c thc hin bng vic s dng cc b khuch i quang ngy cng cung cp thm cc c hi mi nhm khai thc di thng si. C hai loi khuch i quang: SOA v OFA. Tuy nhin, trong thi gian gn y, SOA thu ht nhiu mi quan tm hn trong vic s dng chng nh cc b khuch i quang c bn v nh cc thnh phn chc nng trong cc h thng thng tin quang v cc thit b x l tn hiu quang.

1.2 Phn loi khuch i quang


Cu to ca b khuch i quang c miu t trong hnh 1.4:

Hnh 1.4

M hnh tng qut ca b khuch i quang

Trong mt b khuch i quang, qu trnh khuch i nh sng c din ra trong mt mi trng c gi vng tch cc (active medium). Cc tn hiu quang c khuch i trong vng tch cc vi li ln hay nh ty thuc vo nng lng c cung cp t mt ngun bn ngoi gi chung l ngun bm (Pump Source). Cc ngun bm ny c tnh cht nh th no ty thuc vo loi khuch i quang hay ni cch khc ph thuc vo cu to ca vng tch cc. Ty theo cu to ca vng tch cc, c th chia khuch i quang thnh hai loi chnh:
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Tiu lun khuch i quang bn dn SOA Khuch i quang bn dn SOA (Semiconductor Optical Amplifier) Khuch i quang si (Optical Fiber Amlplifier)

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Tiu lun khuch i quang bn dn SOA

II Nguyn l c bn
Phn ny s trnh by cc nguyn l c bn ca cc b khuch i quang bn dn.Qu trnh khuch i quang hc v nhiu cng vi cc tham s thit b c bn bao gm rng ca li, nhy phn cc, cng sut u ra bo ha v h s tp nhiu.

2.1.

M t c bn

SOA l mt thit b quang in t m cc iu kin hot ng thch hp, n c th khuch i tn hiu nh sng u vo. Di y l s khi c bn ca SOA:

Vng hot tnh trong thit b truyn li cho tn hiu vo.Mt dng in bn ngoi cung cp ngun nng lng lm cho qu trnh khuch i xy ra.Mt ng dn sng c tnh hp sng lan truyn vo vng hot tnh.Tuy nhin, sng quang hc b giam cm ny yu nn mt s tn hiu s lt qua vng bao bc mt mt xung quanh. Tn hiu u vo c nhiu km theo do qu trnh khuch i v vy khng th trnh khi hon ton. Cc mt b khuch i phn x to ra cc gn sng trong ph khuch i hay li. Cc SOA c chia thnh hai loi chnh c biu din hnh 2.2 : SOA Fabry perot (FP-SOA) trong s phn x t cc mt cui l ng k (ngha l, tn hiu i qua b khuch i nhiu ln) v SOA sng chy (TW-SOA) trong s phn x c th c b qua (ngha l tn hiu ch i qua b khuch i mt ln). Cc lp ph chng phn x c dng to ra SOA vi h s phn x b mt nh hn 10-5. TWSOA khng nhy bng FP SOA i vi s dao ng trong dng phn cc, nhit v s phn cc tn hiu.

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Tiu lun khuch i quang bn dn SOA

2.2.

Nguyn l khuch i

Nguyn l khuch i quang trong cc b khuch i quang c thc hin da trn hin tng pht x kch thch v khng c s cng hng xy ra trong qu trnh khuch i. Hin tng pht x kch thch (stimulated emission) l mt trong ba hin tng bin i quang in c ng dng trong thng tin quang.Cc hin tng ny c minh ha trn hnh 2.3.

Hnh 2.3

Cc hin tng bin i quang in: a. Hp th x kch thch

b. Pht x

c. Pht

Hin tng pht x kch thch, hnh 2.3.c, xy ra khi mt in t ang trng thi nng lng cao E2 b kch thch bi mt photon c nng lng h12 bng vi chnh lch nng lng gia trng thi nng lng cao v trng thi nng lng thp ca in t (Eg= E2 E1). Khi , in t s chuyn t trng thi nng lng cao xung trng thi nng lng thp hn v to ra mt photon c nng lng bng vi nng lng ca photon kch thch ban u. Nh vy, t mt photon ban u sau khi khi xy ra hin tng pht x kch thch s to ra hai photon (photon ban u v photon mi c to ra) c cng phng truyn, cng phn cc, cng pha v
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Tiu lun khuch i quang bn dn SOA cng tn s (tnh kt hp, coherent, ca nh sng). Hay ni cch khc, qu trnh khuch i nh sng c thc hin. Hin tng ny c ng dng trong cc b khuch i quang bn dn (OSA) v khuch i quang si (OFA). Hin tng pht x kch thch cng c ng dng trong vic ch to laser. Tuy nhin, im khc bit chnh gia laser v cc b khuch i quang l trong cc b khuch i quang khng xy hin tng hi tip v cng hng. V nu xy ra qu trnh hi tip v cng hng nh trong laser, b khuch i quang s to ra cc nh sng kt hp ca ring n cho d khng c tn hiu quang ng vo. Ngun nh sng ny c xem l nhiu xy ra trong b khuch i. Do vy, khuch i quang c th lm tng cng sut tn hiu nh sng c a vo ng vo b khuch i nhng khng to ra tn hiu quang kt hp ca ring n ng ra. Hin tng hp th (absorption) trong hnh 2.3(a), xy ra khi mt photon c nng lng hf12 b hp th bi mt in t trng thi nng lng thp.Qu trnh ny ch xy ra khi nng lng hf12 ca photon bng vi chnh lch nng lng gia trng thi nng lng cao v trng thi nng lng thp ca in t (Eg = E2 E1).Khi xy ra hin tng hp th, in t s nhn nng lng t photon v chuyn ln trng thi nng lng cao.Hay ni cch khc, hin tng hp th l nguyn nhn gy suy hao cho tn hiu quang khi i qua b khuch i quang.Qu trnh ny xy ra ng thi vi hai hin tng pht x t pht v pht x kch thch trong mi trng tch cc (active medium) ca b khuch i. Hin tng pht x t pht (spontaneous emission), hnh 2.3.b, xy ra khi mt in t chuyn trng thi nng lng t mc nng lng cao E2 xung mc nng lng thp E1 v pht ra mt nng lng Eg= E2 E1 di dng mt photon nh sng.Qu trnh ny xy ra mt cch t nhin v trng thi nng lng cao E1 khng phi l trng thi nng lng bn vng ca in t.Sau mt khong thi gian c gi l thi gian sng (life time) ca in t mc nng lng cao, cc in t s t ng chuyn v trng thi nng lng thp hn (trng thi nng lng bn vng).Ty theoloi vt liu khc nhau, thi gian sng ca in t s khc nhau. Cho d hin tng pht x t pht to ra photon nh sng, nhng trong khuch i quang, pht x t pht khng to ra li khuch i. Nguyn nhn l do hin tng ny xy ra mt cch t pht khng ph thuc vo tn hiu nh sng a vo b khuch i. Nu khng c nh sng tn hiu a vo, vn c nng lng nh sng c to ra ng ra ca b khuch i. Ngoi ra, nh sng do pht x t pht to ra khng c tnh kt hp nh hin tng pht x kch thch. Do vy, pht x t pht c xem l nguyn nhn chnh gy nhiu trong cc b khuch i quang. Loi nhiu ny c gi l nhiu pht x t pht c khch i ASE (Amplified Spontaneous Emission noise).nh hng ca loi nhiu ny i khuch i quang v h thng thng tin quang s c trnh by chi tit trong phn sau ca chng ny.

2.3.

Cc thng s k thut

a. li - Gain li ca mt b khuch i quang l t s gia cng sut quang ng ra chia cho cng sut quang ng vo:
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Tiu lun khuch i quang bn dn SOA

Trong : G: li tn hiu ca b khuch i quang Pin, Pout: cng sut tn hiu nh sng ng vo v ng ra ca b khuch i quang (mW).

li l mt thng s quan trng ca b khuch i.N c trng cho kh nng khuch i cng sut nh sng ca b khuch i.Tuy vy, li ca mt b khuch i b gii hn bi cc c ch bo ha li.iu ny lm gii hn cng sut quang ra cc i ca b khuch i. b. Bng thng li Gain Bandwith li ca b khuch i quang khng bng nhau cho tt c cc tn s ca tn hiu quang vo.Nu o li G ca cc tn hiu quang vi cc tn s khc nhau, mt p ng tn s quang ca b khuch i G(f) s t c. y chnh l ph li ca b khuch i quang. Bng thng li ca b khuch i quang Bo c xc nh bi im -3dB so vi li nh ca b khuch i.Gi tr Bo xc nh bng thng ca cc tn hiu c th c truyn bi mt b khuch i quang.Do , nh hng n hot ng ca cc h thng thng tin quang khi s dng chng nh cc b lp hay b tin khuch i. c. Cng sut ng ra bo ha Khi hot ng ch tn hiu nh, cg sut quang ng ra s tng tuyn tnh vi cng sut quang ng vo theo h s li G: Pout = G.Pin. Tuy nhin, cng sut ng ra khng th tng mi c.Bng thc nghim, ngi ta thy rng trong tt c cc b khuch i quang, khi cng sut ng vo Pin tng n mt mc no , li G bt u gim. Kt qu l cng sut ng ra khng cn tng tuyn tnh vi tnh hiu ng ra na m t trng thi bo ha.S thay i ca tn hiu quang ng ra so vi cng sut quang ng vo c minh ha trong hnh 2.4.a.

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Tiu lun khuch i quang bn dn SOA

Hnh 2.4-b biu din s bin i ca li tn hiu G theo cng sut quang ng ra Pout. Cng sut ng ra ti im li gim i 3 dB c gi l cng sut ra bo ha Psat, out. Cng sut ra bo ha Psat, out ca mt b khuch i quang cho bit cng sut ng ra ln nht m b khuch i quang c th hot ng c.Thng thng, mt b khuch i quang c li cao s c cng sut ra bo ha cao bi v s nghch o nng cao c th c duy tr trong mt di cng sut vo v ra rng. d. H s nhiu Noise figure Ging nh cc b khuch i in, cc b khuch i quang u to ra nhiu. Ngun nhiu chnh trong cc b khuch i quang l do pht x t pht. V s pht x t pht l cc s kin ngu nhin, pha ca cc photon pht x t pht cng ngu nhin. Nu photon pht x t pht c hng gn vi hng truyn ca cc photon tn hiu, chng s tng tc vi cc photon tn hiu gy nn s dao ng v pha v bin . Bn cnh , nng lng do pht x t pht to ra cng s c khuch i khi chng truyn qua b khuch i v pha ng ra. Do , ti ng ra ca b khuch i cng sut quang thu c Pout bao gm c cng sut tn hiu c khuch i v cng sut nhiu pht x t pht c khuch i ASE (Amplified Spontaneous Emission). Pout = G.Pin + PASE nh hng ca nhiu i vi b khuch quang c biu din bi h s nhiu NF (Noise Figure), m t s suy gim t s tn hiu trn nhiu SNR (Signal to Noise Ratio) do nhiu ca b khuch i thm vo. H s NF c cho bi cng thc sau:

Trong , SNRint, SNRout l t s tn hiu trn nhiu ti ng vo v ng ra ca b khuch i.H s nhiu NF ca b khuch i cng nh th cng tt.Gi tr nh nht ca NF c th t c l 3dB.Nhng b khuch i tha mn h s nhiu ti thiu ny c gi l ang hot ng gii hn lng t.
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Tiu lun khuch i quang bn dn SOA Ngoi bn thng s k thut chnh c nu trn, cc b khuch i quang cn c nh gi da trn cc thng s sau: e. Xuyn nhiu ca SOA Nhiu xuyn m xy ra khi cc tn hiu quang khc nhau c khuch i ng thi trong cng mt b khuch i. C hai loi nhiu xuyn m xy ra trong SOA: nhiu xuyn knh (interchannel crosstalk) v bo ha li (cross saturation). Nhiu xuyn knh xy ra l do hiu ng trn bn bc sng FWM (Four Wave Mixing).

Nhiu xuyn knh gy nn do hin tng bo ha li xy ra trong SOA c minh ha trn hnh 2.8.Xem xt u vo b SOA l tng ca hai tn hiu quang cc bc sng khc nhau. Gi thit rng c 2 bc sng nm trong bng thng ca SOA. S c mt ca tn hiu th hai s lm suy gim mt in t vng nng lng cao do qu trnh bc x kch thch lm dn n s nghch o nng c quan st tn hiu th nht gim xung. Do , tn hiu th nht s khng c khuch i ging nh tn hiu th hai, v nu mt in t vng nng lng cao khng ln th tn hiu th nht c th b hp th.Qu trnh ny xy ra ng thi i vi c hai tn hiu. Do , trn hnh 2.8 ta thy, khi mc 1 ca hai tn hiu 1 v 2 xy ra ng thi, li ca mi tn hiu s nh hn so vi bnh thng.Hin tng xuyn m ph thuc vo thi gian sng ca in t trng thi nng lng cao.Nu thi gian sng ln so vi tc dao ng ca cng sut trong cc tn hiu vo, cc in t khng th chuyn t trng thi nng lng cao xung trng thi nng lng thp do s dao ng ny.Do , khng c xuyn m xy ra.i vi cc SOA, thi gian sng ny mc ns. Do , cc in t d dng phn ng li s dao ng trong cng sut ca cc tn hiu c iu ch tc Gb/s, dn n mt s suy yu h thng chnh do xuyn m.Ngc li, thi gian sng pht x t pht trong EDFA l khong 10ms. Do , xuyn m ch c mt nu tc iu ch ca cc tn hiu vo t hn vi kiloHertz, iu ny thng t gp trong thc t. Do , EDFA ph hp hn khi c s dng trong cc h thng WDM hn SOA. Ngoi bn thng s k thut chnh c nu trn, cc b khuch i quang cn c nh gi da trn cc thng s sau:

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Tiu lun khuch i quang bn dn SOA nhy phn cc (Polarization sensitivity) l s ph thuc ca li ca b khuch i vo phn cc ca tn hiu. nh hng ca nhit i vi li v bng thng li. Cu trc

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Tiu lun khuch i quang bn dn SOA

III Cu trc v nguyn l hot ng ca SOA


Cu trc ca SOA c nh hng ln n hot ng ca n v vy ty theo ng dng c th cu trc ca SOA s c la chn tha mn mt c tnh c bit no hoc tim cn vi cc tnh cht l tng.

3.1 Cu trc c bn ca SOA


Cu trc ca SOA tng t nh laser bn dn.Ngha l da trn h thng hai di nng lng ca cht bn dn v cc qu trnh bin i quang in: hp thu (absorption), pht x t pht (spontaneous emission) v pht x kch thch (stimulated emission). Trong , tn hiu quang c khuch i da trn hin tng pht x kch thch xy ra trong vng tch cc ca SOA nh hnh 3.1.1

3.1.1 Cu trc ca mt SOA Vi cu trc ny vng hot tnh nm gia hai vng bao bc loi p v loi n.Gia ni tip xc ca vng hot tnh v cc vng bao bc l mt phn cch c gi l d tip xc.Trong cc vng ca mt SOA th vng vng bao ph c nng lng cm cao hn nhng chit sut thp hn vng hot tnh

3.2 Hot ng ca SOA


Cc ht ti c bm vo vng hot tnh ca SOA t 1 dng phn cc c t vo.Cc ht ti phi to ra ng i v i xuyn qua vng bao ph trc khi ti c vng hot tnh .Khi khng c s giam cm cc ht ,cc ht ti in s khuch tn ra ton b thit b, mt khc so vi tng th vng hot tnh l tng i nh do vy ch c mt phn t cc ht ti in c bm cung cp li cho mt tn hiu nh sng lan truyn.iu ny lm cho thit b hot ng km hiu qu. khc phc nhc im ny ngi ta s dng cc bin php giam cm cc ht trong
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Tiu lun khuch i quang bn dn SOA vng hot tnh trnh khuch tn i cc ni khc.Trong cu trc ca SOA t c iu ny nh s chnh lch rng vng cm gia cc vng hot tnh v vng bao ph.Nh c cu trc d tip xc cc ht ti in s c giam cm vo vng gia cc hng ro.

Trong cu trc ca SOA vng hot tnh c chit sut cao hn vng bao ph v vy no c vai tr nh mt ng dn sng in mi tit din hnh ch nht, chnh iu ny gip giam cm nh sng truyn qua thit b vo vng hot tnh truyn qua thit b vo vng hot tnh.Lng dn sng c c trng bi h s giam cm quang hc , c nh ngha l phn nng lng ca mt mode dn sng no c giam cm vo vng hot tnh. Cc mode l nghim ca phng trnh Maxwell i vi cc trng in v t trong ng dn sng tun theo cc iu kin bin ca ng dn sng. rng ca vng hot tnh c nh hng trc tip n kh nng hot ng ca mode.Nu ng dn sng hp ,s ch c mt mode ngang vi hai ch phn cc ,mode in ngang (TE) trong in trng c phn cc dc theo mt phng d tip xc (dc theo trc x trong hnh 3.1) v mode t ngang (TM) trong t trng c phn cc dc theo trc x. Mode l ngang bi v cc trng in v t ng vi n u vung gc vi hng truyn. Hot ng n ca mode ngang gip gim s ph thuc li vo mode v h s giam cm ph thuc vo mode, ng thi cng ci tin hiu sut ghp t thit b quang. Vi SOA d tip xc kp tn ti mt chit sut nhy bc theo hng y gia vng hot tnh v vng bao ph, iu ny khng xy ra theo hng x.S dn sng theo hng x t c qua cc ht ti in c bm vo, n lm thay i chit sut ca vng hot tnh.Qu trnh ny c gi l dn li.S thay i ca chit sut theo hng x nh hn theo hng y.iu ny c ngha l ph thuc vo s phn cc, tng khi chiu dy vng hot tnh tng.Tuy nhin, nu vng hot tnh qu rng, hot ng ca cc mode n ngang s dng. Yu t phn x b mt ca hai mt phn x ca lp tch cc c nh hng trc tip n vic t c hot ng sng chy trong mt OA.Da trn h s phn x c th chia SOA lm hai loi chnh: - Khuch i Fabry-Perot (FPA): c im ca loi ny l c h s phn x b mt cao (khong 30%) .S d c iu ny v do cc vt liu bn dn thng c chit sut cao.Mt khc
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Tiu lun khuch i quang bn dn SOA cng thc tnh h s phn x b mt i vi tia ti vung gc ti mt phn cch c th hin nh sau

Trong n1, n2 ln lt l chit sut ca cc lp in mi. Vi cu trc hc cng hng c h s phn x cao ,qu trnh hi tip ,chn lc tn s xy ra.Kt qu l ,FPA c li cao nhng ph li khuch i nhp nh,khng u.iu ny lm gim bng thng khuch i ca FPA gim h s phn x b mt ta c th s dng cc lp chng phn x (AR-anti reflection) c h s phn x R = 0, c t ti hai u ca vng tch cc khng cho qu trnh phn x xy ra bn trong b khuch i.Khi , tn hiu vo SOA s c khuch i khi ch i qua mt ln (c gi l single pass) xuyn qua vng tch cc ca b khuch i m khng c hi tip v. y l cu trc ca loi SOA th hai: khuch i sng chy TWA (Traveling Wave Amplifier). Trn thc t, h s phn x hai u ca vng tch cc ca TWA khng hon ton bng 0 m c gi tr rt nh t 0.1% n 0.01%

Sng phn cc ngang (TE) c xt.Vng hot tnh c chit sut na chiu dy d.Cc vng bao ph xung quanh c chit sut nc v c gi s m rng ra v cng

3.3 c tnh b khuch i FPA v TWA


Xt mt b khuch i FPA c h s phn x cng sut hai mt phn x lp tch cc l R1 v R2 ,vi b khuch i TWA th ta c th coi nh R1 =R2 =0 .Do cc cng thc sau ny
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Tiu lun khuch i quang bn dn SOA c th p dng cho c FPA v TWA.B qua suy hao khi nh sng truyn qua mi mt phn x,ta c h s xuyn qua ca sut nh sng i qua mt phn x ln lt l 1- R1 v 1- R2 .Do vy h s phn x v h s xuyn qua ca cng in trng ti hai mt phn x l Gi Gs l li n thng (single-pass gain) ca SOA khi tn hiu i qua vng tch cc m khng c s hi tip ( h s phn x R=0) Ta c

Trong : g: li trn mt n v chiu di ca vng tch cc : Suy hao trn mt n v chiu di ca vng tch cc :H s tp trung biu din mc tp trung ca lung nh sng bn trong vng tch cc L:Chiu di ca vng tch cc Pin , Pout :Cng sut tn hiu ng vo v ra ca b khuch i

Qu trnh khuch i tn hiu nh sng c th gii thch nh sau in trng ca tn hiu quang Ei c a vo hc cng hng ca FPA c chiu di L ti mt phn x R1 .Sau khi xuyn qua mt phn x R1 ,tn hiu ban u s c khuch i bi vng tch cc v t cng i bi vng tch cc v t cng t1 s Ei e jkL ti mt phn x R2 (k l h s truyn dn ca mi trng khuch i).Ti y ,mt phn nng lng nh sng s truyn ra ngoi vi cng t1 t2 s Ei e jkL.Phn cn li s phn x ngc tr li pha R1 vi cng t1 s 2 Ei e-jkL.Ti R1 ,in trng thu dduocj l t1 Gs Ei e-2jkL s phn x ngc v R2 , phn cn li s i ra ngoi hc cng hng. Sau khi i qua khong cch L ca vng tch cc, tn hiu thu c ti R1 t gi tr t1 Gs Ei e-3jkL.Qu trnh phn x v truyn xuyn qua mt phn x R2 tip tc din ra.Phn tn hiu xuyn qua c in trng t2t1Gs Ei e-3jkL Phn cn li s phn x ngc v pha R1.C nh vy qu trnh phn x trong vng tch cc tip tc tip din. in trng tng cng thu c ti ng ra ca b khuch i s bng tng ca cc thnh phn in trng i xuyn qua R2. Nu gi s rng thi gian truyn trong hc cng hng nh hn chu k ca in trng ti Ei, ta c in trng thu c ti ng ra
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Tiu lun khuch i quang bn dn SOA

Vi|

Gs |<1 biu thc trn c th bin i thnh

Hm truyn cng sut ca b khch i FPA c biu din nh sau:

Mt khc sin2(kL)=sin2(L/v)=sin2( (-0)L/v ) vi v l vn tc nh sng truyn trong mi trng khuch i .Do vy ta c th vit li biu thc trn nh sau

Ta s c mi quan h gia li G(f) ca FPA thay i theo tn s vi 3 gi tr khc nhau ca h s phn x R=0.3 ,R=0.03 v R=0

Gi s li n thng Gs, tng ng vi R=0 (TWA), c dng Gauss. Khi h s phn x ca hai lp phn x ca vng tch cc ln R=0.3, li G() khng bng phng theo tn s m c dng gn sng ln do chc nng lc tn s ca hc cng hng. Ti cc tn s cng hng =(2fN)/(2L) vi N l s nguyn, li ca FPA t gi tr cc i.Gia cc tn s cng
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Tiu lun khuch i quang bn dn SOA hng, li ca FPA gim nhanh chng. Do , bng thng li (c xc nh ti v tr 3dB so vi li nh) ca FPA nh so vi bng thng li ca TWA.V vy, FPA khng thch hp vi cc ng dng khuch i trong h thng thng tin quang. Khi h s phn x R=0.03, G() tin gn ti Gs nhng vn cn gn sng nh. gn sng ny c th c loi b bng cch gim h s phn x hn na b khuch i tr thnh TWA.

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Tiu lun khuch i quang bn dn SOA

IV-ng dng c bn ca SOA


Cc ng dng c bn ca cc SOA trong cc h thng truyn thng quang hc c th c chia thnh ba lnh vc chnh: Postamplifier hoc b khuch i tng cng tng cng sut laser ca b truyn, khuch i ng dy b cho s mt mt trong si quang hoc do qu trnh lan truyn khc trong mi trng v cc ng truyn ti xa v cc b tin khuch i ci tin nhy b thu. S hp nht cc b khuch i quang hc vo cc lin kt truyn thng quang hc c th ci tin tnh nng ca h thng v gim gi thnh. Cc SOA cng c th c dng thc hin cc chc nng khc chng hn nh chuyn mch quang hc vn tc cao, chuyn i bc sng v pht hin ng dy. Nhiu ng dng chc nng nh th c tho lun trong phn tip theo. Trong phn ny chng ta tp trung vo nhng ng dng truyn thng ca SOA trong cc ng truyn v cc mng truyn thng quang hc.Chng ta bt u vi mt s tng quan ngn gn v cc vn c bn ca pht hin quang hc trc tip v kt hp ri n ngun gc ca l thuyt pht hin tn hiu nh sng khuch i. ng dng tip theo ca cc SOA nh mt b khuch i tng cng, b tin khuch i, b khuch i ng dy cng c xem xt.Cc tnh cht ca SOA ng dy xp tng c phn tch.Tnh nng ca cc SOA trong cc mng WDM c tho lun cng vi cc k thut c tn dng gim nhiu xuyn knh v mo gia cc ln iu ch.Cui cng l mt s ch lin quan n vic s dng SOA trong cc h thng truyn tng t. 4.1.

Cc khi li trong cc mng quang hc

Ch rng chng ta phn tch cc tnh cht ca nh sng khuch ai c pht hin, chng ta ang v tr khm ph ng dng ca SOA nh nhng khi li c bn trong cc h thng truyn thng quang hc. Nhng ng dng ny c biu din trong hnh 4.1 l postamplifier hoc b khuch i tng cng, b khuch i ng dy v b tin khuch i.i hi chnh ca cc b khuch i quang hc cho cc ng dng nh th c lit k trong bng 4.1.

Hnh 4.1 ng dng ca SOA trong khuch i tng cng, b khuch i ng dy v b tin khuch i trong cc ng truyn quang hc Bng 4.1 Cc yu cu i vi b khuch i quang hc trong cc ng truyn quang hc
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4.2.

B khuch i tng cng

Chc nng ca b khuch i tng cng l tng tn hiu u vo cng sut tng i cao trc khi truyn. Cc ng dng chnh ca b khuch i tng cng c lit k trong bng 4.2. S tng cng cng sut laser trong b truyn quang hc lm cho c th xy dng cc ng dy di trung bnh vi khong cch truyn tng.Nhng ng dy nh th n gin bao gm mt si quang gia b truyn v b thu.Bi v iu ny khng lin quan n cc thnh phn tch cc trong ng truyn, tin cy v hiu sut c ci tin. Trong cc ng truyn di, vic dng cc b khuch i tng cng c th tng lng cng sut ng truyn v c th gim s b khuch i ng dy hoc s b ti sinh cn thit.Cc b khuch i tng cng cng c ch trong cc mng phn b nh c biu din trong hnh 4.2, y c nhng s mt mt tch ln hoc s dy l ln (taps). Cc b khuch i tng cng cng cn thit khi i hi khuch i ng thi mt s tn hiu u vo ti cc bc sng khc nhau, nh trng hp truyn WDM. Ti tc bit cao (thng thng ln hn 2.5 Gb/s), cc laser bn dn c iu bin trc tip d b chirp bc sng. y bc sng dao ng laser thay i vi dng kch thch. Chirp tng rng ph hiu dng ca laser. iu ny tng tn sc si quang dn n tng ISI v s suy hao ca h thng BER. trnh hiu ng ny, ti tc bit cao, cc laser thng c iu bin ngoi. Tn hao do chn bn trong ca cc b iu bin ngoi c c b bng vic s dng cc b khuch i tng cng quang hc. Bng 4.2. ng dng ca cc b khuch i tng cng quang hc

Hnh 4.2. ng dng khuch i tng cng trong cc mng phn phi quang

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Tiu lun khuch i quang bn dn SOA Bi v cng sut tn hiu u vo ca b khuch i tng cng thng cao, b khuch i phi c cng sut b o ha u ra , Po,sat cao. iu ny lm cho c th t c cng sut tn hiu u ra ca b khuch i cao v cng gim cc hiu ng vn do bo ha li. Cc hiu ng vn tng d di khi cng sut tn hiu u vo ca b khuch i v tc bit tng. Mt Po,sat cao cng cn cho cc ng dng ca b khuch i tng c ng trong h thng truyn WDM.Trong trng hp ny, c tuyn bo ha ca b khuch i c xc nh bi cng sut u v o ton phn. iu ny l do bn cht ng nht ca mi trng li khuch i. Mt Po,sat cao gim nhiu xuyn knh.Ph li b khuch i rng cng cn cho s khuch i knh a bc sng.Cc cu trc SOA c th c dng thc hin cng sut u ra bo ha cao c m t trong phn trc. Mt m un SOA tng cng in hnh c biu din trong hnh. M un bao gm mt chip SOA MQW ng dn sng b vut c dn trn mt nn c th iu khin nhit v ghp quang hc vi cc thu knh Aspheric cng vi b cch li u ra, b ly mu chm v photodiode iu khin cng sut u ra. Si quang duy tr s phn cc (PMF) v si quang n mode tiu chun c dng cho cc kt ni u ra v u vo tng ng.

Hnh 4.3 Cu trc module tng cng V d v vic s dng b khuch i tng c ng quang hc tng khong cch ng truyn trung bnh c biu din trong hnh 4.4. Trong php th h thng, b truyn bao gm mt laser DFB c iu bin trc tip bi mt chui bit gi ngu nhin di (PRBS) 231 - 1 ti 10Gb/s. Bc sng pht laser l 1310nm, tng ng vi vng tn sc trong vt liu cc tiu ca si quang n mode tiu chun.Mt module khuch i tng cng quang hc tip theo laser. SOA c dng trong module l mt thit b MQW vi bn ging lng t ko cng. li chirp l 21dB vi cng sut u ra bo ha l 3dB ca 20 dBm. cc tiu ha cc nh hng ca nhng phn x bn ngoi, cc b cch ly quang hc c dng c hai pha SOA.Cc b cch ly ch cho qua mt trng thi phn cc n.B cch ly u ra cng chia i ASE t b khuch i. Trong m un, nh sng u vo c tp trung ln b cch ly bng cc thu knh aspheric n lm ny sinh s mt mt do ghp nh hn 2dB. M un cng cha b lm lnh nhit in v mt in tr nhit c th iu khin nhit ca chip SOA. Cc th nghim dng laser v m un tng cng ni trn vi b thu photodiode p-i-n cho lng cng sut cc i
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Tiu lun khuch i quang bn dn SOA khong 26.8dB i vi mt cng sut u ra khuch i tng cng trung bnh 15.8dB. Lng cng sut ny bc cu 70km si quang n mode. Trong th nghim th ny, ngi ta thy rng li nhy b thu do b khuch i tng cng nh hn 1dB nu cng sut u ra tng cng trung bnh c gi thp hn so vi cng sut bo ha 1dB ca n khong 15dBm. Lng cng sut cc i thu c ti cng sut u ra cao hn gn 1dB. S mo dng xung in h nh do bo ha li ng lc hc ti cng sut hot ng n y c biu din trong hnh 6.7. Kh b tin khuch i quang hc c s dng trc khi thu nhn , lng phn phi cng sut tng 39.4dB cho mt chiu di khng lp li tim nng 100km ti 10Gb/s.

Hnh 4.4 Th nghim truyn khuch i tng cng

4.3. B tin khuch i


Chc nng ca b tin khuch i quang hc l tng mc cng sut ca tn hiu n trc khi nhn hoc gii iu bin thng thng. Tng mc cng sut c th tng ng k nhy b thu v v vy tng lng cng sut ng truyn. iu ny cho php cc cc ng truyn khng lp li di hn c xy dng. Cc b thu IMDD dng b tin khuch i quang hc nhy hn nhiu so vi b thu IMDD truyn thng dng cc photodiode p-i-n hoc APD. So vi mt APD , n b khuch i quang hc phn phi mt li ln hn v bng thng rng hn. Khng c li ch trong vic dng b tin khuch i quang hc trong mt b thu kt hp v tn hiu dao ng cc b c th tng n mc m hiu sut gii hn nhiu ht c th t ti. S ca b thu quang hc s tin khuch i c biu din trong hnh 4.5. B thu bao gm mt b tin khuch i quang hc vi li ng u G , mt b lc quang hc bng thng Bo , mt photodiode p-i-n vi hiu sut lng t v tip theo l mt mch gi pht hin bng thng in Be v mt mch quyt nh.Cc b lc in v quang phi c bng thng rng t nht bng bng thng tn hiu iu bin trnh mo tn hiu.B lc quang hc gim pht x t pht n detector dn n gim s ph thuc ca ASE vo dng nhiu. Nu trng thi phn cc ca tn hiu nh sng n c bit, knh phn cc c th c chn vo gia b tin khuch i v detector. Knh phn cc cho tn hiu khuch i i qua nh ng loi b ASE phn cc vung gc. iu ny ci tin nhy b thu 3 dB trong gii hn nhiu phch tn hiu - t pht. Tuy nhin
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Tiu lun khuch i quang bn dn SOA trng thi phn cc ca tn hiu nh sng thng khng bit c.Cc mch gi-pht hin khuch i v x l dng quang in t detector.

Hnh 4.5 B thu quang hc tin khuch i Trong mt b thu quang hc khng c b tin khuch i, dng nhiu quang in chim u th l nhiu mch. Nhiu ny thng ln hn mt n hai bc v ln so vi gii hn nhiu ht ca b thu. Trong mt b thu quang hc IMDD tin khuch i vi bng thng quang hc di hp, dng nhiu quang in chim u th l nhiu phch tn hiu t pht. Gi s rng li khuch i G>>1, t s tn hiu trn nhiu ca b thu l:

Nhng ci tin in hnh trong SNR so vi b thu truyn thng ln hn 10dB. Dng biu thc ch ra rng, trong gii hn nhiu phch tn hiu - t pht, b thu SNR khng ph thuc vo c li khuch i v bng thng b lc quang hc.Cng c mt s suy hao trn ng truyn L gia b tin khuch i v detector. iu ny ch yu l do s mt mt b lc quang hc v hiu sut ghp n detector quang hc. S mt mt do ghp n y s khng dn n bt k s suy hao no trong hiu sut ca b thu min l tch 1 G >> 1. iu ny ph hp tt vi b thu truyn thng trong li cng sut bng vi s mt mt do ghp

4.4. B khuch i ng dy v cc tng khuch i


Trong cc h thng truyn thng quang hc hn ch mt mt, cc b khuch i ng dy c dng b mt mt trong si quang do khc phc c nhu cu ti to quang hc. u im chnh trong cc SOA ng dy l: trong sut vi tc d liu v hnh thc iu bin (trong ch khng bo ho v ti tc bit cao), tnh hai chiu, kh nng WDM, ch hot ng n gin, tiu tn cng sut thp v rn chc. Hai u im sau c bit quan trng i vi cc thnh phn quang hc c t t xa.

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Hnh 4.6 Th nghim truyn 89km dng 2 b tin khuch i SOA v hiu sut BER ca b thu tin khuch i SOA 10Gb/s 1310nm. Gin biu din cng sut quang thu c.

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V-ng dng chc nng ca SOA


Bn cnh nhng chc nng c bn cc SOA c th c dng thc hin cc chc nng c bit trong mng ton quang.Nhng chc nng c bit ny c th khc phc c nhc im c chai in t ,trong x l tn hiu c thc hin trong min in. Sau y ta s xt n mt s ng dng chc nng c th c vi cc SOA, lin quan n vic thc thi PIC (mch tch hp photonic) ca chng. Rt nhiu ng dng ca SOA da trn s phi tuyn SOA v vy trc tin ta s tm hiu khi qut v s phi tuyn ca SOA 5.1-S phi tuyn ca SOA S phi tuyn ca SOA da vo s thay i mt ht ti in b cm ng bi cc tn hiu u vo b khuch i.Bn loi hin tng phi tuyn chnh l : -Bin iu li cho (Cross gain modulation XGM) -Bin iu cho pha (Cross phase modulation XPM) -S t iu ch pha (Self phase modulation SPM) -S trn bn sng (four-wave mixing FWM) a) Bin iu li cho (Cross gain modulation XGM) Ph h s khuch i ca SOA m rng mt cch ng u.S thay i mt ht ti trong b khuch i s nh hng ti tt c cc tn hiu u vo.Do , mt tn hiu mnh ti mt bc sng c th nh hng ti h s khuch i ca mt tn hiu yu mt bc sng khc.C ch phi tuyn ny c gi l iu ch h s khuch i cho XGM. B tr th nghim bin iu li cho c thc hin nh sau.

Hnh 5.1:B chuyn i bc sng dng XGM trong mt SOA Mt nh sng u d ch yu v mt nh sng bm mnh, vi bin iu hi tn hiu nh tn s c tim vo SOA.Bin iu li cho trong b khch i s phi chu bin iu trn u d .iu ny c ngha l b khch i s ng vai tr nh b chuyn i bc sng hay c ngha l chuyn tn hiu ti mt bc sng ny sang tn hiu ti mt bc sng khc. b) S t iu pha v s iu pha cho (Cross phase and self phase modulation XPM & SPM)

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Tiu lun khuch i quang bn dn SOA Chit sut ca vng hot tnh ca mt SOA khng phi l mt hng s m ph thuc vo mt ht ti in v v vy cng ph thuc vo li vt liu. Ni cch khc, bo ho h s khuch i to ra mi quan h gia pha v h s khuch i ca sng quang khi truyn qua b khuch i .Cng ca s ghp ny c lin quan n h s tng cng rng vch ph l (c gi nh vy bi v nh hng ca n n rng vch ph ca laser bn dn) ca vt liu cho bi cng thc

y 0 l bc sng khng gian t do, ne l chit sut hiu dng ng dn sng b khuch i,gm l h s li vt liu v n l mt ht ti in . th ca l theo 0 vi mt ht ti in nh mt tham s c biu din trong hnh sau:

Hnh 5.2 Biu din mi quan h gia h s tng cng rng vch ph v nng lng photon l tng nhanh khi nng lng photon gn nng lng vng cm do nhy ca h s li vt liu vi mt ht ti in trong vng ny, l cng l hm theo mt ht ti in.Khi mt xung tn hiu c tim vo truyn qua mt SOA n gy ra s thay i mt ht ti in, v vy thay i h s truyn ca n (qua chitsut hiu dng). Bi v thi gian sng ca ht ti in l xc nh, sn trc ca xung chu mt s dch pha khc so vi sn sau (lagging edge).S t iu pha ny (SPM) s thay i hnh dng xung cng nh ph ca n.Hin tng ny c th c dng to ra mt b b tn sc s lm hp xung SPM c dng b s m rng xung do s tn sc trong si quang. Thit b ny c tim nng ln trong vic tng sc cha ca cc ng truyn si quang tm xa tc cao.

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Tiu lun khuch i quang bn dn SOA Nu nhiu hn mt tn hiu c tim vo SOA, s c s iu pha cho (XPM) gia cc tn hiu. XPM c th dng to ra b chuyn i bc sng v cc thit b chc nng khc . Tuy nhin bi v XPM ch gy ra s thay i pha, SOA phi c t trong mt s dng cu hnh giao thoa chuyn s thay i pha trong tn hiu th nh s thay i cng dng s giao thoa tng cng hoc trit tiu . Ba loi giao thoa k c biu din nh sau

Trong giao thoa k Mach-Zehnder (MZI), chm u vo b tch thnh hai chm truyn theo phng ngang vi quang l khc nhau trc khi chng ti kt hp ti u ra ca giao thoa k. Ph thuc vo hiu quang l,cc chm quay li s giao thoa tng cng hoc trit tiu. Giao thoa k Michelson (MI) ging vi MZI nhng ch i hi b tch chm duy nht.Trong giao thoa k Sagnac, chm u vo tch thnh hai chm truyn theo phng ngang vi cng khong cch nhng ngc hng trc khi ti kt hp. Trong cu hnh giao thoa k dng cc SOA , cc b khuch i c t trong mt hoc nhiu cn giao t hoa k thay i mt cch ch ngpha ca tn hiu lan truyn . c) Trn bn sng (four-wave mixing FWM) Trn bn sng l qu trnh phi tuyn kt hp c th xy ra trong SOA gia hai trng quang, mt tn hiu bm mnh ti tn s gc 0 v mt tn hiu yu hn ti tn s gc 0 - , hai tn hiu ny c cng phn cc. Cc tn hiu quang i vo s lm cho h s khuch i b iu ch ti tn s . Ngc li, vic iu ch h s khuch i s to ra trng tn hiu mi tn s 0 + . Trng mi c gi l lin hp bi v pha ca n ngc vi pha ca tn hiu.iu ny c ngha l ph ca ca tn hiu lin hp b dch chuyn v b o ngc kiu so vi tn hiu u vo. S trn bn sng c to ra trong cc SOA c th c s dng trong nhiu ng dng bao gm cc b chuyn i bc sng, b b tn sc v b tch knh quang hc .S trn bn sng trong cc SOA ny sinh t nhng hin tng vt l khc nhau. Ti tn s thp, c ch chim u th l s iu bin mt ht ti in do phch bm-tn hiu.y l mt hiu ng lin vng v n lin quan n s ti hp ht ti in - l trng gia cc vng dn v vng ha tr ca vt liu.Bi v thi gian c trng ca qu trnh ny l thi gian sng ca ht ti in. N vo bc
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Tiu lun khuch i quang bn dn SOA vi trm pico giy.iu ny c ngha l c ch c bit ny s ch hin ra i vi cc tn s lch hng vo c vi chc.

C hai c ch na gy ra trn bn sng trong SOA : t chy l quang ph (SHB) v t nng ht ti in (CH) . SHB xy ra l do tn hiu bm c tim vo to ra mt l trng trong phn b ht ti in ni vng. iu ny iu bin mt cch hiu qu xc sut chim ca cc ht ti in trong mt vng hng n iu bin li nhanh. CH xy ra do pht x cm ng v hp th ht ti in t do. Pht x cm ng tr cc ht ti in lnh hn trung bnh trong khi hp th ht ti in t do di chuyn cc ht ti in n mc nng lng cao hn trong vng. Dn n tng nhit gim li . C hai thi gian c trng gn vi CH. u tin l thi gian tn x ht ti in phonon l , n l thi gian trung bnh m cc ht ti in cn lnh dui nhit mng . Th hai l thi gian tn x ht ti in - ht ti in 2, n l thi gian trung bnh cho mt ht ti in t n trng thi cn b ng nhit t trng thi khng cn bng nhit ban u. C SHB v CH u c thi gian c trng vo bc vi trm femto giy. 5.2-Cc ng dng chc nng ca SOA 5.2.1. B chuyn i bc sng B chuyn i bc sng ton quang c hy vng ng mt vai tr quan trng trong cc mng bng rng tng lai.Chc nng quan trng nht ca chng s l trnh kha bc sng trong cc kt ni cho quang hc trong mng WDM. B chuyn i bc sng cng tng tnh linh hot v sc cha ca mt mng dng tp hp cc bc sng c nh. S chuyn i bc sng cng c th c dng tp trung qun l mng v cho php kch hot bo v d rng hn.Trong cc mng chuyn mch nn, cc b chuyn i bc sng iu chnh c c th c dng phn gii s tranh chp nn v gim cc i hi v m quang hc. Mt danh sch cc tnh cht ng quan tm ca b chuyn i bc sng c lit k trong bng sau

B chuyn i bc sng c th da trn cc cu trc khai thc s phi tuyn ca SOA,v vy ta c cc b chuyn i bc sng sau:
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Tiu lun khuch i quang bn dn SOA -B chuyn i da trn XGM -B chuyn i da trn XPM -B chuyn i da trn FWM Sau y ta s i chi tit vo b chuyn i bc sng da trn XPM: Nhng b chuyn i bc sng ny c hiu sut cng sut cao hn so vi nhng thit b XGM .Chng cng c s thay i tn s theo thi gian thp hn do s iu bin li b gim . tn dng c XPM , mt hoc nhiu SOA phi c t trong cu hnh giao thoa k . Cc loi giao thoa k ph bin nht dng c dng trong XPM da trn cc b chuyn i bc sng l .Trong b chuyn i bc sng MZI khng i xng u vo lin tc ti bc sng 2 b tch mt cch khng i xng ti mi phn ca MZI bi mt b ghp . Tn hiu c iu bin cng ti bc sng 1 lm bo ha mi SOA mt cch khng i xng cm ng nhng dch pha khc nhau. Trong tn hiu u vo lin tc qua mt ht ti in b cm ng bi s thay i chit sut b ghp u ra kt hp cc tn hiu lin tc b tch, chng c th giao thoa tng cng hoc trit tiu. Trng thi giao thoa thc s ph thuc vo s lch pha tng i gia cc cn giao thoa k , n ph thuc vo c dng phn cc SOA v cc cng sut quang hc u vo . B chuyn i bc sng MZI i xng c nguyn tc hot ng tng t. N cn thm mt b ghp nhng c th dng cc b ghp vi t s tch bng nhau . Tng t tn hiu u vo ch c cho vo mt trong cc SOA .Nu cc cng sut ca cc tn hiu lin tc cc cn cao hn v thp hn ca giao thoa k ngay trc khi giao thoa ti b ghp ti kt hp tng ng l Pu v P1 th cng sut P0 ca tn hiu u ra l:

y l lch pha gia cc sng giao thoa . V c bn biu thc trn l hm truyn giao thoa tn hiu chuyn i c b o ngc so vi tn hiu u vo d liu hay khng ph thuc vo h s gc ca hm truyn giao thoa xung quanh im hot ng c chn nh c biu din trong hnh sau:

Sau y l s ca cc b chuyn i bc sng MZI i xng v khng i xng


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B chuyn i bc sng MZI khng i xng

B chuyn i bc sng MZI i xng Cng vi s thay i pha s chuyn i tn hiu cng dn n s nn li , n c khuynh hng khng cn bng bin trong cc cn ca giao thoa k . S khng cn bng bin ny gim t s tt quang ca b chuyn i . C th ci tin tnh cht chuyn i ca giao thoa k bng cch thm vo phn dch pha ch ng trong cn giao thoa k, ti u ha hiu sut chuyn i .Ngi ta chng minh rng b chuyn i bc sng giao thoa k c th c xp tng vi hiu sut rt tt . S chuyn i bc sng cng c th t c m khng dng giao thoa k bng cch dng XPM trong mt SOA c gn tip theo bi b lc cch t Bragg si quang.Trong s ny, ph tn hiu lin tc c chirp bi XPM c cm ng bi tn hiu bm truyn song song. Bn sao khng nghch o ca tn hiu d liu u vo c thu bng cch chn thnh phn dch v pha bc sng ca ph lin tc dng b lc .B chuyn i bc sng giao thoa chu trch nhim cho s tch hp quang in t.S thc hin PIC ca mt b chuyn i b c sng MZI c biu din trong hnh sau. PIC cha mt ngun laser DFB c tch hp ton khi v hai u vo do i xng v mi khi cn nhng b tin khuch i b nhng s bin i trong cng sut u vo.

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5.2.2. Cc cng quang hc SOA Cc mng truyn thng quang hc TDM v WDM vn tc cao trong tng lai i hi cc chuyn mch quang hc (hoc cng) vn tc cao c th c iu khin bng quang hc hoc bng in.Nhng chuyn mch nh th cng hnh thnh nn c s cho cc thnh phn quang hc ci tin chng hn nh b ghp knh xen r, b tch knh v cc cng logic. Nhng tnh cht ng quan tm nht ca mt chuyn mch quang hc l: vn tc chuyn mch cao, tng phn tt m cao v kh nng xp tng.C th to ra nhng chuyn mch quang hc nh th dng SOA. C nhiu cu hnh cng SOA, ci n gin nht trong s chng bao gm mt thit b n c biu din trong hnh sau .

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Tiu lun khuch i quang bn dn SOA Cc cng iu khin quang hc c bn Trong trng hp ny trng thi chuyn mch c xc nh hoc bng dng iu khin in thit lp li khuch i hoc bng cng sut bm quang hc dng XGM.Thi gian chuyn mch ring ca SOA c xc nh bi thi gian sng ti kt hp ca ht ti in.S tim ca mt bm lin tc vo b khuch i c th c dng tng vn tc chuyn mch bng cch gim thi gian sng ca cc ht ti in qua ti kt hp cm ng . Cng c th tng s cng c xp tng. S a dng ca cc cng c iu khin quang hc dng cc sng truyn i lp trong hai SOA c biu din trong bng s nh sau .

Cng tc ton quang dng hot ng truyn i lp trong cc SOA ghp tng Trong chuyn mch da trn trng thi cng sut tn hiu iu khin thp v vy li ca SOA 1 cao dn n cng sut tn hiu u ra cao. Trong trng thi ngt cng sut tn hiu iu khin cao lm cho SOA 1 bo ha.ng thi bi v cng sut u ra d liu t SOA 1 thp hn, li ca SOA 2 tng dn n cng sut tn hiu iu khin cao hn . iu ny c ngha l mt s tng tng i nh trong cng sut u vo iu khin to ra mt s thay i ln trong cng sut u ra d liu, v vy cho mt t s tng phn chuyn mch ci tin .Cc mng cng SOA c th c dng xy dng cc nt chuyn theo gi ton quang gi d liu ti c th c gi n cng u ra quan tm . Mng cng c th c tch hp hon ton vi cc ng dn sng u vo v u ra v cc b ghp. K thut ny gim bt s khng khp s lch gia cc SOA v cc ng dn sng th ng . Tuy nhin, n i hi nhiu qu trnh nui cy v x l epitaxial nhiu bc phc tp . Mt phng php thay th l s dng mt cu trc lai ha dng ng dn sng th ng c sp thng hng vi mng SOA nh c biu din nh hnh v sau y . Trong module cng tc 2x2 cho thy mt gi d liu c th c gi ti bt k cng u ra no bng cch kch hot trn SOA thch hp .

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5.2.3. Logic quang Logic quang hc c th hu dng cho cc ng dng x l quang hc tn hiu ton quang . Trong cc mng quang hc vn tc cao . Trong phn ny chng ta xt mt s SOA da trn cc cu hnh thc hin cc logic ton quang c bn , ba trong s chng c biu din trong hnh sau

Mt cng XOR mi da trn XPOM trong SOA gia hai tn hiu d liu u vo cng cng sut , phn cc ging nhau v bc sng ging nhau. Mt b b v knh phn cc c t pha sau SOA v c iu chnh kha nh sng i qua . Khi c hai u vo m th u ra tt , khi c hai u vo tt th u ra tt . Tuy nhin khi mt trong hai u vo tt th s phn cc tn hiu u ra khc nhau vi nhng g n vn d khi c hai u vo cao . Trong trng hp ny knh phn cc khng kha hon ton tn hiu u ra v u ra m . Tnh cht ny tng ng vi tnh cht XOR . Cng c th thu c hot ng XOR dng FWM trong cc SOA v tng t trong giao thoa k Sagnac si quang . Cng OR da trn giao thoa k Michelson vi hai tn hiu d liu c ghp vo cng mt v nh sng ch lin tc c ghp vo cng hai. Cng sut tn hiu u vo ton phn iu khin sdch pha do u vo ch lin tc, khi to ra mt vng trn t cng hai n u phn x ca cn thp hn ca giao thoa k v tr li cng hai, giao thoa xut hin gia cc tn hiu quay li v u vo lin tc . MI c thit k sao cho giao thoa trit tiu xut hin
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Tiu lun khuch i quang bn dn SOA khi khng c cng sut tn hiu u vo v giao thoa tng cng khi cng sut tn hiu u vo c mt . Cng sut c a vo cn cao hn ca MI ph thuc vo tng cng sut ca hai tn hiu u vo,v vy mc cng sut ca ci c nh du cao hn so vi mt ci c nh du v mt ci trng . S khc nhau ny c th c chn dng giao thoa k hm truyn hnh sn trong u ra OR c kp mt cch hiu qu i vi cc cng sut tn hiu u vo ln. Cng NOR n gin da trn XGM trong mt SOA gia hai tn hiu d liu u vo v mt u d lin tc u vo. Khi khng c cc tn hiu u vo tn hiu d u ra cao bi v khng c s bo ha li . Khi mt trong cc tn hiu u v o cao b khuch i bo ha lm cho u d u ra thp. iu ny tng ng vi hot ng ca NOR . 5.2.4. To xung v khi phc ng h SOA a)To xung Cc xung bc sng iu chnh c t l tc lp li cao l cn thit trong cc lin kt truyn thng OTDM WDM tc cao . Ti cc tn s cao (ln hn 10GHz) rt l kh v tn km to ra cc xung nh th v phng din in t . Mt k thut quang hc s dng mt laser vng si quang kha mode thch hp vi mt SOA nh c biu din nh sau

S to ng thi bn knh bc sng iu chnh c mi ci truyn cc xung 12ps ti 2.5GHz c minh ha dng laser bn dn b kha mode da trn SOA v cch t nhiu x Trong hnh trn laser Fabry Perot c kch hot li qua s iu bin dng sin ti 10GHz . Sau khi truyn qua hn 150m si quang tn sc cao mi mode ph trong cc xung kch hot li b tr hon 25ps , i vi mode gn nht ca n . V vy mi xung b tn sc to ra mt chui xung vi cc bc sng khc nhau cch nhau 25ps v t s lp li hiu dng l 40GHz . Tuy nhin, xung bin i bc sng tng ng vi cc mode Fabry-Perot ca laser. iu ny c th lm ny sinh s tn sc ng k khi xung c truyn xung mt lin kt si quang. Cc xung c th c chuyn thnh cc xung c bc sng ging nhau ( c th iu chnh c ) bng cch dng mt laser vng si quang vi mt SOA nh mt yu t tch cc . Laser c th dao ng theo nhiu mode dc . Nhng mode ny c th c ghp vi nhau bng cc phng tin bn ngoi , n kha pha ca chng vi nhau . Do nhng mode ny c xem nh l nhng thnh phn ca khai trin chui Fourier ca hm iu ha (trong trng hp ny l chui xung) vi tn s c bn l c/2Lnr y nr l chit sut ca laser v L l chiu di ca n . Trong hnh minh ha chiu di ca vng l 15.7m cho mt tn s c bn fc l 12.31MHz. Dng xung quang hc
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Tiu lun khuch i quang bn dn SOA 40GHz c chn vo trong dng bng mt b chuyn i tn hiu , lm cho li ca SOA c th c iu bin quang hc . Bng cch chn mt tn s iu bin ca laser thch hp 10.188GHz , c th kha mode laser ti 40.752 GHz (hi th 3310 ca fc ). Bc sng u ra ca laser si quang c chn dng b lc Fabry-perot si quang . Cng sut u ra c ghp t vng si quang dng mt b ghp si quang . b) Phc hi Trong cc h thng OTDM phc hi xung ng h c i hi trong cc b thu quang hc v cc b ti sinh 3R . Ti cc vn tc cao phc hi xung ng h t c tt nht dng phng php quang hc . Cc k thut khng da trn SOA bao gm cc laser c kha bng cch tim v cc laser DFB hai phn t kch xung . Cc k thut phc hi xung ng h da trn SOA lin quan n vic dng b b pha da trn SOA FWM , s t iu pha SOA cc TOAD v cc MZI i xng . Tt c s chia xung ng h quang hc c th t c bng cch dng mt gng vng SOA.

K thut khc , c biu din trong hnh 7.34 dng mt vng kha pha vi mt SOA da trn chuyn mch giao thoa k . Trong cu hnh ny tn hiu d liu OTDM c ghp vi gng vng SOA, n c iu khin bng mt chui xung iu khin quang hc c to ra bi mt laser kha mode iu chnh c (TMLL) , tn s lp li ca n c xc nh bng b dao ng iu khin in p (VCO). Tn hiu u ra t gng vng c pht hin bng mt photodiode chm . Mt phn ca tn hiu u vo c chuyn t gng vng ti t s lp li ca cc xung iu khin . Khi tn s VCO bng vi tn s c bn ca tn hiu u vo , cc thnh phn ca chuyn mch tn hiu u vo c pha khng i trong mt khe thi gian .Trong trng hp ny tn hiu ra t photodiode tr thnh tn hiu mt chiu m bin ca n t l vi hiu pha gia cc xung tn hiu u vo v chui xung iu khin , ngha l cng tc quang hc ng vai tr nh mt b b pha . Tuy nhin , tn hiu li ny ch c mt chiu phn cc v vy khng c s phn bit gia cc lch pha m v dng. Vn ny c th c khc phc bng cch pht hin tn hiu d ng mt photodiode chm th hai .Tn hiu u ra t photodiode ny c tr vi tn hiu li . Tn hiu cui cng c gi n VCO qua b lc thng thp . iu ny ng vng v kha tn s VCO n tn s c bn ca tn hiu d liu u vo . Do cc xung ng h quang hc c th c ly t u ra ca TMLL dng mt b ghp .
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Tiu lun khuch i quang bn dn SOA Ngoi ra SOA cng c dng trong cc ng dng nh : tch ghp knh xen r,b tn sc,cc detector SOA.Cc ng dng ny u da trn s phi tuyn ca SOA

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Kt Lun
Trn y l phn trnh by nhng hiu bit ca nhm em v h thng khuch i quang bn dn (SOA).Trc tin nhm em xin chn thnh cm n c gio Nguyn Bch Huyn to iu kin cho chng em tm hiu v hon thnh bi bo ny. y l mt c hi v cng hu ch cho chng em. Qua chng em c thm nhng kin thc c bn v khuch i bn dn ,nguyn l hot ng cng nh nhng ng dng vo thc t. y l nhng kin thc ht sc quan trng s gip ch nhiu cho chng em khi lm vic sau ny. Chng em xin chn thnh cm n c

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Ti liu tham kho


1. Semiconuctor Optiacal Amplifiers (Michael J.Connelly- Kluwer Accademic Publishers) 2. Fiber-Optic Communications Systems (Third Edition. Govind P. Agrawal) 3. K thut thng tin quang (Hc vin cng ngh bu chnh vin thng) 4. http://www.tapchibcvt.gov.vn/News/PrintView.aspx?ID=17264 5. Cc ngun ti liu khc trn Internet

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