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ELECTRONIC SYSTEM DESIGN MANUAL

1. DESIGN OF AC/DC VOLTAGE REGULATOR USING SCR. AIM: To construct and plot the AC/DC regulator using SCR. APPARATUS REQUIRED: S.NO 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 THEORY: Rectification is a process of converting an AC to DC. The fully controlled converter uses thyristors as the rectifying elements and the Dc output as function of amplitude of the Ac supply voltage and the point at which the thyristors are triggered. During the positive half cycle of the input voltage SCR 1, SCR 2, are forward biased and are simultaneously triggered at the firing angle . The supply voltage appears across the load resistance R. The load voltage is 0 from to +, until the SCR 3 and SCR 4 are triggered in negative half cycle. The load current now flows from the supply, SCR 3,Load and SCR 4.thus the direction of current through the load is the same in both half cycles. The output voltage is given by the expression. DESIGN: Ac supply = 21 V ; RL = 15 ohm ; SCR triggered between gate trigger current = 10 microA Triggered voltage = 0.5 V At 5 C, ei = 21 sin 5 = 1.83 V At 90 C, ei = 21 sin 90 = 21 V When SCR triggered, VT = Vg + V01 + IaR1 = 0.5 + 0.7 + (10 * 10^ (-6) * 15) VT = 1.2 V Once SCR triggered at ei = 1.83 V R2 must be at the top VR2 + VR3 = VT =1.2v SCR Resistor Potentiometer Diode Step-down transformer Trainer kit CRO APPARATUS RANGE 2P4M 540ohm,8.2kohm,15o hm 10kohm In4001 (18-0-18)v (0-30)MHZ QUANTIT Y 1 Each 1 1 1 1 1 1

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ELECTRONIC SYSTEM DESIGN MANUAL

VR1= ei - VT = 1.83 -1.2 = 0.63 V Then R1= VR1 / I1 = 0.63 / (1.2 * 10^(-3)) = 540ohm Imin >> Ig At ei = 1.83 Let I1(min) =1.2 mA I1 becomes VR1/R1 =0.63/540 =1.17 mA CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

MODEL GRAPH:

SYMBOL:

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ELECTRONIC SYSTEM DESIGN MANUAL

Ei = 21 V ; I1 = 21 / (R1 + R2 + R3) 1.17 * 10^(-3) = (21/ (540 + 10 * 10^(3) + R3)) R3 = 17.95 * 10 ^(3) 10.540 = 7.41 R3 = 8.2 k ohm PROCEDURE: 1. Connections are given as per the circuit diagram. 2. Apply AC voltage to step down transformer. 3. Vary the potentiometer value at resistance potential output waveforms of SCR is noted.

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ELECTRONIC SYSTEM DESIGN MANUAL

RESULT: Thus the operation of fully controlled converter with R load has been studied and the waveforms are observed.

2. Process Control Timer


AIM : To count the clock signal using UP and DOWN counter. APPARATUS REQUIRED: Process Control Timer Kit 8085 Microprocessor Trainer Kit THEORY : 74F269 IC is synchronous Up/Down 8 - bit counter. We can make 8-bit counter into 16 bit by connecting serially. The port lines (Port A) is connected to the counter Up (or) down counting. High voltage level is given, the counter is configured up counter. The voltage level is given, the counter is configured as an down counter. The counter frequency is approximately equal to 115MH2. CEP pin used to enable to trickle input. TC is a terminal count output. The Q0 - Q7 is a counter - output, it will be connected to the leds and it will be connected to the port lines via buffer 74LS244. The detail information of the 74F269 counter IC is given below. PROCEDURE: 1. Keep switch SW2 in internal mode. 2. Keep switch SW1 in up counter mode. 3. Execute the program.

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ELECTRONIC SYSTEM DESIGN MANUAL

4. Press the push button to generate the clock signal and load the count value in the counter. 5. Press NEXT key to enable the count. 6. Press the push button continuously, read the counter value in 7 seven segment 8085 kit and also see the LED display. Result : Thus the Process Control timer is used for counting the clock signal using Up counter and Down Counter.

3.VOLTAGE MEASUREMENT USING LDR


AIM : To study the response of Distance versus Voltage in Light Dependent Resistors (LDR). APPARATUS REQUIRED: LDR characteristics trainer kit - ITB 27 Coaxial Bulb Carrier with Scale Digital multi meter Power Chord THEORY : Electrical conduction in semiconductor materials occurs when free charge carriers, e.g. electrons, are available in the material when an electric field is applied. In certain semiconductors, light energy falling on them is of the correct order of magnitude to release charge carriers which increase flow of current produced by an applied voltage.

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ELECTRONIC SYSTEM DESIGN MANUAL

The increase of current with increase in light intensity with the applied voltage remaining constant means that the resistance of semiconductors decreases with increase in light intensity. Therefore, these semiconductors are called photoconductive cells or Photo Resistors or sometime Light Dependent Resistors (LDR), since incident light effectively varies their resistance. PROCEDURE: 1. Position the pointer at 0 on the scale, when the bulb is at maximum distance away from the sensors. 2. Switch ON the supply to the unit. 3. To set 8V across T1, T2 terminals by adjusting the (0-12)VDC potentiometer. 4. To measure the voltage output across T5, T6 terminals at that time the switch is in V position. 5. Gradually move the bulb towards the sensor in steps of 5cm distance and note the corresponding voltage. 6. Repeat the steps 4 and 5 for 10V and 12V adjustments. 7. Tabulate the readings and plot the graph between distance and voltage. TABULATION:

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ELECTRONIC SYSTEM DESIGN MANUAL

MODEL GRAPH:

RESULT: Thus the response of Distance versus Voltage in Light Dependent Resistors (LDR) was studied.

4. RESISTANCE MEASUREMENT USING LDR


AIM : To study the response of Distance versus Resistance in Light Dependent Resistors (LDR). Apparatus Required LDR characteristics trainer kit - ITB 27 Coaxial Bulb Carrier with Scale Digital multi meter Power Chord Theory :

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ELECTRONIC SYSTEM DESIGN MANUAL

Electrical conduction in semiconductor materials occurs when free charge carriers, e.g. electrons, are available in the material when an electric field is applied. In certain semiconductors, light energy falling on them is of the correct order of magnitude to release charge carriers which increase flow of current produced by an applied voltage. The increase of current with increase in light intensity with the applied voltage remaining constant means that the resistance of semiconductors decreases with increase in light intensity. Therefore, these semiconductors are called photoconductive cells or Photo Resistors or sometime Light Dependent Resistors (LDR), since incident light effectively varies their resistance. PROCEDURE: 1. Position the pointer at 0 on the scale, when the bulb is at maximum distance away from the sensors. 2. Switch ON the supply to the unit. 3. To set 8V across T1, T2 terminals by adjusting the (0-12)VDC potentiometer. 4. To Measure the resistance output across T3, T4 terminals at that time the switch in R position. 5. Gradually move the bulb towards the sensor in steps of 5cm distance and note the corresponding resistance. 6. Repeat the steps 4 and 5 for 10V and 12V adjustments. 7. Tabulate the readings and plot the graph between distance and resistance. TABULATION:

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ELECTRONIC SYSTEM DESIGN MANUAL

MODEL GRAPH:

RESULT: Thus the response of Distance versus Resistance in Light Dependent Resistors (LDR) was studied.

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ELECTRONIC SYSTEM DESIGN MANUAL

5. VOLTAGE MEASUREMENT USING PHOTO DIODE AIM : To study the response of Distance versus Voltage in Photodiode. APPARATUS REQUIRED: Photo Diode trainer kit - ITB 27 Coaxial Bulb Carrier with Scale Digital multi meter Power Chord THEORY : Photodiodes are semiconductor light sensors that generate a current or voltage when the P-N junction in the semiconductor is illuminated by light. The term photodiode can be broadly defined to include even solar batteries, but it usually refers to sensors used to detect the intensity of light. PROCEDURE: 1. Position the pointer at 0 on the scale, when the bulb is at maximum distance away from the sensors. 2. Switch ON the supply to the unit. 3. To set 8V across T1, T2 terminals by adjusting the (0-12)VDC potentiometer. 4. To measure the voltage output across T7, T8 terminals. 5. Gradually move the bulb towards the sensor in steps of 5cm distance and note the corresponding voltage. 6. Repeat the steps 4 and 5 for 10V and 12V adjustments. 7. Tabulate the readings and plot the graph between distance and voltage.

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ELECTRONIC SYSTEM DESIGN MANUAL

TABULATION:

MODEL GRAPH:

RESULT: Thus the response of Distance versus Voltage in Photodiode was studied.

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ELECTRONIC SYSTEM DESIGN MANUAL

6.TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT USING THERMOCOUPLE.


Aim:
To study the characteristics of thermocouple.

Apparatus required:
i. ITB-05CE ii. Thermocouple iii. Water bath iv. Thermometer v. Digital multi meter vi. Power chord

Theory:
The thermocouple is one of the simplest and most commonly used methods of measuring process temperatures. The operation of a thermocouple is based upon seebeck effect which states that when heat is applied to junction (hot junction) of two dissimilar metals, an emf is generated which can be measured at the other junction(cold junction).

Procedure:
1. Patch the two terminals of the thermocouple across T1&T2. 2. Insert the thermocouple and Thermometer into the water bath.

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ELECTRONIC SYSTEM DESIGN MANUAL

3. Switch on the water bath and note the temperature in Thermometer and time
4. Tabulate the readings temperature Vs time and plot the graph.

Model graph

Tabulation

S.No

Time in Sec

Temprature in(C)

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ELECTRONIC SYSTEM DESIGN MANUAL

Result :
Thus the characteristics of thermocouple was studied and graph is plotted. 7. DESIGN OF RESISTOR TEMPERATURE DETECTOR (RTD) TRANSMITTER. AIM: To design a Temperature transmitter circuit using RTD, for transmitting a temperature range in to an [4-20]m A output range. APPARATUS REQUIRED: S.N o 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8 THEORY: Design of RTD Transmitter consist of the the major parts are Bridge Network, Instrumentation amplifier and V/I Converters as shown in the block diagram. The Pt100 type of RTD is used to measure temperature in terms of resistance. Platinum sensor is preferred , because of it highly stable, resist Components RTD Trainer Kit Resistors for setting gain RG RTD Pt 100 Mini Furnace/ Water bath Patch Chord Power Chord Thermometer Multimeter Quantity 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

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ELECTRONIC SYSTEM DESIGN MANUAL

corrosion and oxidation, it is malleable and has high melting point and also has high degree of sensitivity compared to otherRTD sensors. BRIDGE NETWORK: In design of RTD Transmitter the Bridge Network construction is similar to wheat stone bridge. The bridge network consist of four arm of variable resister in order to balance the bridge. Out of 4 arm, 3 are variable resistor and one is RTD, according to design constitution, we will get the output at 0 of 0V and 100 of maximum millivolt. The difference in output millivoltage can able to see by connecting multimeter across the Vin1 and Vin2 terminals. Bridge Network output is amplified using Instrumentation Amplifier to a standard range (0V to 5V). Proper protection is provided to prevent over voltages. The output instrumentation amplifiers are terminated to V/I converter board. INSTRUMENTATION AMPLIFIER: Most of the transducers output is very small range in nature. For controlling the process, the small signal should be amplified and signal conditioned for the industrial CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

R 1

R 2

Vi n1

U 1 + O U T O P A M P R 1 O P A M P I NS TR UMEN TA TI ON AM P LI FI ER R G R 2 + U 3 O P A M P O U T + U 2 R 4 1 k +Vcc R 8 1 k O U T Vo ut V/I C ON VE RTER R 5 U 4 + 1 k R 1 O U T O P A M P R 7 R 6 1 k U 5 + O U T B C 1 07A O P A M P Q 1 I1 R 3 1 k

V 1 5 V dc

B RI DG E N ETWO R K

R 3

R TD

Vi n2

- V cc

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ELECTRONIC SYSTEM DESIGN MANUAL

standard. For normal amplification will cause noise due to small signal. Moreover in order to avoid impedance miss matching between sensor and signal conditioner unit. In instrumentation rejects the noise and amplifies the signal to the desired range. It is nothing but a differential amplifier specially designed to amplify the outputs of sensors and transducers. The main function of the instrumentation amplifier is to amplify very small signals that are hiding under large common mode signals. It has high Common Mode Rejection Ratio(CMRR). A typical instrumentation amplifier consists of 3 operational amplifiers. Two op-amp is used as buffer amplifiers and third op-amp being used as differential amplifier of user definable gain. It is a differential voltage gain device that amplifies the difference between the voltage existing at its two input terminals. It has following features are High input impedance, High CMRR, Low output offset and Low output impedance. They are commonly used in environments with high common mode noise such as in data acquisition systems and where sensing of input variables is required. PROCEDURE: 1. Select the input and output ranges of temperature and current. 2. Proceed calculation in reference with model calculation which explained in calculation section. 3. Set POT1, POT2 to maximum value and POT 3 to calculated value by making switch position in measure mode. 4. Now note down the RTD resistance by making RTD sections switch position in measure mode. 5. Connect power supply terminal into Bridge network terminal T1 and T2. 6. Ensure that the bridge output is balanced, at minimum temperature [using designed values of resistors set on the specified pot] 7. Keep all the switches in loop mode and Calibrate the output of Instrumentation amplifier to 0V using offset adjustment at bridge balance condition. 8. Now switch on the heater and note down the corresponding increase in temperature and output current and tabulate the reading. 9. Plot the graph and clarify that the current is in the specified span.

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ELECTRONIC SYSTEM DESIGN MANUAL

RESULT: Thus the design of Temperature transmitter circuit using RTD, for transmitting a temperature to an [4-20]m A output range was performed.

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ELECTRONIC SYSTEM DESIGN MANUAL

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ELECTRONIC SYSTEM DESIGN MANUAL

8. DATA ACQUSITION AND STORAGE OF SIGNALS THROUGH PARALLEL PORT TO PC (a) A/D conversion AIM: To study the working of A/D converter by using internal analog inputs to be given to channel. APPARATUS REQIURED: (i) Trainer Kit (ii) Pactch cards (iii) (iv) (4-20) ma Input Software and PC

PROCEDURE: (i) Give the connections as in the figure. (ii) Enable the software (iii) (iv) Select f1 in the software and go on with the procedure given for the data acquisition system. Switch on the power supply for unit and observe the output in system.

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ELECTRONIC SYSTEM DESIGN MANUAL

RESULT: Thus the A/D conversion is performed and the output hasbeen sent to the PC through parallel port.

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ELECTRONIC SYSTEM DESIGN MANUAL

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ELECTRONIC SYSTEM DESIGN MANUAL

8.(b) D/A conversion AIM: To study the working of D/A converter when digital signal is been given from the software. APPARATUS REQUIRED: (i) Trainer Kit (ii) Software and PC (iii) A CRO or a Multimeter PROCEDURE: (i) Enable the software and select F2 for giving the input. (ii) Connect the CRO or the multimeter at DAC output in AD/DA converter block. (iii) View the output.

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ELECTRONIC SYSTEM DESIGN MANUAL

RESULT: Thus the D/A conversion is performed and the output hasbeen sent to the PC through parallel port. 9. DC MOTOR SPEED CONTROL USING MICROPROCESSOR AIM: To run a stepper motor in different speeds in two directions. APPARATUS REQUIRED: S.NO COMPONENTS 1. Trainer kit 2. 3. 4.
MEMORY ADDRESS 4100 4103 4105 4106 4108 410B 410C 410D 410E 410F 4112 4113

Power supply Stepper motor interfacing card Stepper Motor


MACHINE CODE OPCODE 21 06 7E D3 11 00 1B 7B B2 C2 23 05 0B,41 C0 03,03 OPERAND 1A,41 04 REPT

SPECIFICATION 8085-EB2 I/P:230,50Hz, O/P:5V DC MACHINE CODE OPCODE START LXI H, MVI B, MOV A,M OUT LXI D, DELAY NOP DCX D MOV A,E ORA D JNZ INX H DCR B DELAY CO 0303

QUANTITY 1 1 1 1

INTERFACING OF STEPPER MOTOR:


LABEL OPERAND LOOK UP 04 H COMMENTS Load HL pointer Move no of counts Load acc with 1st data Output to stepper motor Introduce delay No operation

Point to next data

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4114 4117 411A

C2 C3 09,05

05,41 00,41 06,0A LOOK UP

JNZ JMP DB

REPT START 09,05,06,0A Repeat 4 times Initialize pointer and start again

RESULT: Thus the programs to run a stepper motor in different speeds in two directions are performed successfully. 10. DTMF GENERATION AND DETECTION USING MATLAB AIM: To write a mat lab program for the simulation of DTMF generation and detection. APPARATUS REQUIRED: 1. Personal Computer 2. MATLAB 6.0 Software PROCEDURE: 1. Select MATLAB 6.0 from Programs menu. 2. Select File-New-MFile. 3. Type the program in the new file. 4. Save the file using .m extension. 5. Select debug-run. 6. Any errors if present can be viewed by selecting windows-0 command window. 7. If no error, the signal appears in the screen. 8. The output signal thus viewed. PROGRAM: %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% %% % DTMF Generator % %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% %% function varargout = dtmfgen(varargin) % Begin initialization code

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gui_Singleton = 1; gui_State = struct('gui_Name', mfilename, ... 'gui_Singleton', gui_Singleton, ... 'gui_OpeningFcn', @dtmfgen_OpeningFcn, ... 'gui_OutputFcn', @dtmfgen_OutputFcn, ... 'gui_LayoutFcn', [] , ... 'gui_Callback', []); if nargin && ischar(varargin{1}) gui_State.gui_Callback = str2func(varargin{1}); end if nargout [varargout{1:nargout}] = gui_mainfcn(gui_State, varargin{:}); else gui_mainfcn(gui_State, varargin{:}); end % End initialization code % --- Executes just before dtmfgen is made visible. function dtmfgen_OpeningFcn(hObject, eventdata, handles, varargin) handles.output = hObject;

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DTMF GENERATOR OUTPUT WAVEFORM _Callback(hObject, eventdata, handles) flow=697; fhigh=1336; % Standard frequencies for key 2 textstring= get(handles.detbox,'string'); textstring= strcat(textstring,'2'); set(handles.detbox,'string',textstring) % Displays 2 in the Detection Box update % Reads the file update.m title ('Digit "2" (697,1336)'); % Title value guidata(hObject, handles); function varargout = dtmfgen_OutputFcn(hObject, eventdata, handles) varargout{1} = handles.output; % Function for Key 1 function pushbutton1_Callback(hObject, eventdata, handles) flow=697; fhigh=1209; % Standard frequencies for key 1 textstring= get(handles.detbox,'string'); textstring= strcat(textstring,'1'); set(handles.detbox,'string',textstring) % Displays 1 in the Detection Box update % Reads the file update.m title ('Digit "1" (697,1209)'); % Title value % Function for Key 2 function pushbutton2 % Function for Key 3 function pushbutton3_Callback(hObject, eventdata, handles) flow=697; fhigh=1477; % Standard frequencies for key 3 textstring= get(handles.detbox,'string'); textstring= strcat(textstring,'3'); set(handles.detbox,'string',textstring) % Displays 3 in the Detection Box update % Reads the file update.m title ('Digit "3" (697,1477)'); % Title value % Function for Key 4 function pushbutton4_Callback(hObject, eventdata, handles) flow=770; fhigh=1209; % Standard frequencies for key 4

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ELECTRONIC SYSTEM DESIGN MANUAL

textstring= get(handles.detbox,'string'); textstring= strcat(textstring,'4'); set(handles.detbox,'string',textstring) % Displays 4 in the Detection Box update % Reads the file update.m title ('Digit "4" (770,1209)'); % Title value % Function for Key 5 function pushbutton5_Callback(hObject, eventdata, handles) flow=770; fhigh=1336; % Standard frequencies for key 5 textstring= get(handles.detbox,'string'); textstring= strcat(textstring,'5'); set(handles.detbox,'string',textstring) % Displays 5 in the Detection Box update % Reads the file update.m title ('Digit "5" (770,1336)'); % Title value % Function for Key 6 function pushbutton6_Callback(hObject, eventdata, handles) flow=770; fhigh=1477; % Standard frequencies for key 6 textstring= get(handles.detbox,'string'); textstring= strcat(textstring,'6'); set(handles.detbox,'string',textstring) % Displays 6 in the Detection Box update % Reads the file update.m title ('Digit "6" (770,1477)'); % Title value % Function for Key 7 function pushbutton7_Callback(hObject, eventdata, handles) flow=852; fhigh=1209; % Standard frequencies for key 7 textstring= get(handles.detbox,'string'); textstring= strcat(textstring,'7'); set(handles.detbox,'string',textstring) % Displays 7 in the Detection Box update % Reads the file update.m title ('Digit "7" (852,1209)'); % Title value % Function for Key 8 function pushbutton8_Callback(hObject, eventdata, handles) flow=852; fhigh=1336; % Standard frequencies for key 8 textstring= get(handles.detbox,'string'); textstring= strcat(textstring,'8'); set(handles.detbox,'string',textstring) % Displays 8 in the Detection Box

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update % Reads the file update.m title ('Digit "8" (852,1336)'); % Title value % Function for Key 9 function pushbutton9_Callback(hObject, eventdata, handles) flow=852; fhigh=1477; % Standard frequencies for key 9 textstring= get(handles.detbox,'string'); textstring= strcat(textstring,'9'); set(handles.detbox,'string',textstring) % Displays 9 in the Detection Box update % Reads the file update.m title ('Digit "9" (852,1477)'); % Title value % Function for Key * function pushbutton_star_Callback(hObject, eventdata, handles) flow=941; fhigh=1209; % Standard frequencies for key * textstring= get(handles.detbox,'string'); textstring= strcat(textstring,'*'); set(handles.detbox,'string',textstring) % Displays * in the Detection Box update % Reads the file update.m title ('Digit "*" (941,1209)'); % Title value % Function for Key 0 function pushbutton0_Callback(hObject, eventdata, handles) flow=941; fhigh=1336; % Standard frequencies for key 0 textstring= get(handles.detbox,'string'); textstring= strcat(textstring,'0'); set(handles.detbox,'string',textstring) % Displays 0 in the Detection Box update % Reads the file update.m title ('Digit "0" (941,1336)'); % Title value % Function for Key # function pushbutton_hash_Callback(hObject, eventdata, handles) flow=941; fhigh=1477; % Standard frequencies for key # textstring= get(handles.detbox,'string'); textstring= strcat(textstring,'#'); set(handles.detbox,'string',textstring) % Displays # in the Detection Box update % Reads the file update.m title ('Digit "#" (941,1477)'); % Title value

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function amp_input_Callback(hObject, eventdata, handles) function amp_input_CreateFcn(hObject, eventdata, handles) if ispc && isequal(get(hObject,'BackgroundColor'), get(0,'defaultUicontrolBackgroundColor')) set(hObject,'BackgroundColor','white'); end function phase_input_Callback(hObject, eventdata, handles) function phase_input_CreateFcn(hObject, eventdata, handles) if ispc && isequal(get(hObject,'BackgroundColor'), get(0,'defaultUicontrolBackgroundColor')) set(hObject,'BackgroundColor','white'); end % Silder Movement function slider1_Callback(hObject, eventdata, handles) sliderValue = get(handles.slider1,'Value'); %obtains the slider value from the slider component set(handles.noise_power,'String', num2str(sliderValue)); %puts the slider value into the edit text component guidata(hObject, handles); % Update handles structure function slider1_CreateFcn(hObject, eventdata, handles) % Hint: slider controls usually have a light gray background. if isequal(get(hObject,'BackgroundColor'), get(0,'defaultUicontrolBackgroundColor')) set(hObject,'BackgroundColor',[.9 .9 .9]); end function slider_editText_CreateFcn(hObject, eventdata, handles) if ispc && isequal(get(hObject,'BackgroundColor'), get(0,'defaultUicontrolBackgroundColor')) set(hObject,'BackgroundColor','white'); end % --- Executes on button press in clear. function clear_Callback(hObject, eventdata, handles) set(handles.detbox,'String','') ; % Clears the data in the Detection Box set(handles.no_samples,'String','1024') ; % Sets the no of sample value to 1024(default)

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set(handles.amp_input,'String','1') ; % Sets amplitude value to 1(default) set(handles.phase_input,'String','0') ; % Sets phase value to 0(default) set(handles.snr,'String','Inf') % Sets snr value to default. It is only effective if the noise power is used within the signal set(handles.noise_power,'String','0') % Sets noise power value to '0'(default) cla(handles.dtmf,'reset') % Clears the plot % --- Executes on button press in about. function about_Callback(hObject, eventdata, handles) msgbox('Department of ECE Module: DTMF Decoding using FFT & Goertzel Algorithm 'About', 'none') % Displays the information entered, Use to define author or equivalent % --- Executes on button press in exit. function exit_Callback(hObject, eventdata, handles) close; % Closes the window and return back to MATLAB command window function snr_Callback(hObject, eventdata, handles) function snr_CreateFcn(hObject, eventdata, handles) if ispc && isequal(get(hObject,'BackgroundColor'), get(0,'defaultUicontrolBackgroundColor')) set(hObject,'BackgroundColor','white'); end function detbox_Callback(hObject, eventdata, handles) function detbox_CreateFcn(hObject, eventdata, handles) if ispc && isequal(get(hObject,'BackgroundColor'), get(0,'defaultUicontrolBackgroundColor')) set(hObject,'BackgroundColor','white'); end function no_samples_Callback(hObject, eventdata, handles) function no_samples_CreateFcn(hObject, eventdata, handles) if ispc && isequal(get(hObject,'BackgroundColor'), get(0,'defaultUicontrolBackgroundColor')) set(hObject,'BackgroundColor','white');

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end function noise_power_Callback(hObject, eventdata, handles) %get the string for the editText component sliderValue = get(handles.noise_power,'String'); %convert from string to number if possible, otherwise returns empty sliderValue = str2num(sliderValue); %if user inputs something is not a number, or if the input is less than 0 %or greater than 100, then the slider value defaults to 0 if (isempty(sliderValue) || sliderValue < 0 || sliderValue > 10) set(handles.slider1,'Value',0); set(handles.noise_power,'String','0'); else set(handles.slider1,'Value',sliderValue); end function noise_power_CreateFcn(hObject, eventdata, handles) if ispc && isequal(get(hObject,'BackgroundColor'), get(0,'defaultUicontrolBackgroundColor')) set(hObject,'BackgroundColor','white'); end %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% % DTMF Detection % %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% function varargout = dtrmfdec(varargin) % Begin initialization code gui_Singleton = 1; gui_State = struct('gui_Name', mfilename, ... 'gui_Singleton', gui_Singleton, ... 'gui_OpeningFcn', @dtrmfdec_OpeningFcn, ... 'gui_OutputFcn', @dtrmfdec_OutputFcn, ... 'gui_LayoutFcn', [] , ... 'gui_Callback', []); if nargin && ischar(varargin{1}) gui_State.gui_Callback = str2func(varargin{1}); end if nargout [varargout{1:nargout}] = gui_mainfcn(gui_State, varargin{:});

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ELECTRONIC SYSTEM DESIGN MANUAL

else gui_mainfcn(gui_State, varargin{:}); end % End initialization code function dtrmfdec_OpeningFcn(hObject, eventdata, handles, varargin) % Update handles structure guidata(hObject, handles); function varargout = dtrmfdec_OutputFcn(hObject, eventdata, handles) varargout{1} = handles.output; % Function for Key 1

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ELECTRONIC SYSTEM DESIGN MANUAL

function pushbutton1_Callback(hObject, eventdata, handles) flow=697; fhigh=1209; % Standard frequencies for key 1 textstring= get(handles.detbox,'string'); textstring= strcat(textstring,'1'); set(handles.detbox,'string',textstring) % Displays 1 in the Detection Box update % Reads the file update.m % Function for Key 2 function pushbutton2_Callback(hObject, eventdata, handles) flow=697; fhigh=1336; % Standard frequencies for key 2 textstring= get(handles.detbox,'string'); textstring= strcat(textstring,'2'); set(handles.detbox,'string',textstring) % Displays 2 in the Detection Box update % Reads the file update.m % Function for Key 3 function pushbutton3_Callback(hObject, eventdata, handles) flow=697; fhigh=1477; % Standard frequencies for key 3 textstring= get(handles.detbox,'string'); textstring= strcat(textstring,'3'); set(handles.detbox,'string',textstring) % Displays 3 in the Detection Box update % Reads the file update.m % Function for Key 4 function pushbutton4_Callback(hObject, eventdata, handles) flow=770; fhigh=1209; % Standard frequencies for key 4 textstring= get(handles.detbox,'string'); textstring= strcat(textstring,'4'); set(handles.detbox,'string',textstring) % Displays 4 in the Detection Box update % Reads the file update.m % Function for Key 5 function pushbutton5_Callback(hObject, eventdata, handles) flow=770; fhigh=1336; % Standard frequencies for key 5 textstring= get(handles.detbox,'string'); textstring= strcat(textstring,'5'); set(handles.detbox,'string',textstring) % Displays 5 in the Detection Box update % Reads the file update.m % Function for Key 6 function pushbutton6_Callback(hObject, eventdata, handles)

VVCET/ECE Department

ELECTRONIC SYSTEM DESIGN MANUAL

flow=770; fhigh=1477; % Standard frequencies for key 6 textstring= get(handles.detbox,'string'); textstring= strcat(textstring,'6'); set(handles.detbox,'string',textstring) % Displays 6 in the Detection Box update % Reads the file update.m % Function for Key 7 function pushbutton7_Callback(hObject, eventdata, handles) flow=852; fhigh=1209; % Standard frequencies for key 7 textstring= get(handles.detbox,'string'); textstring= strcat(textstring,'7'); set(handles.detbox,'string',textstring) % Displays 7 in the Detection Box update % Reads the file update.m % Function for Key 8 function pushbutton8_Callback(hObject, eventdata, handles) flow=852; fhigh=1336; % Standard frequencies for key 8 textstring= get(handles.detbox,'string'); textstring= strcat(textstring,'8'); set(handles.detbox,'string',textstring) % Displays 8 in the Detection Box update % Reads the file update.m % Function for Key 9 function pushbutton9_Callback(hObject, eventdata, handles) flow=852; fhigh=1477; % Standard frequencies for key 9 textstring= get(handles.detbox,'string'); textstring= strcat(textstring,'9'); set(handles.detbox,'string',textstring) % Displays 9 in the Detection Box update % Reads the file update.m % Function for Key * function pushbutton10_Callback(hObject, eventdata, handles) flow=941; fhigh=1209; % Standard frequencies for key * textstring= get(handles.detbox,'string'); textstring= strcat(textstring,'*'); set(handles.detbox,'string',textstring) % Displays * in the Detection Box update % Reads the file update.m % Function for Key 0 function pushbutton11_Callback(hObject, eventdata, handles) flow=941; fhigh=1336; % Standard frequencies for key 0 textstring= get(handles.detbox,'string'); textstring= strcat(textstring,'0'); set(handles.detbox,'string',textstring) % Displays 0 in the Detection Box

VVCET/ECE Department

ELECTRONIC SYSTEM DESIGN MANUAL

update % Reads the file update.m % Function for Key # function pushbutton12_Callback(hObject, eventdata, handles) flow=941; fhigh=1477; % Standard frequencies for key # textstring= get(handles.detbox,'string'); textstring= strcat(textstring,'#'); set(handles.detbox,'string',textstring) % Displays # in the Detection Box update % Reads the file update.m function detbox_Callback(hObject, eventdata, handles) function detbox_CreateFcn(hObject, eventdata, handles) if ispc && isequal(get(hObject,'BackgroundColor'), get(0,'defaultUicontrolBackgroundColor')) set(hObject,'BackgroundColor','white'); end % --- Executes on button press in about. function about_Callback(hObject, eventdata, handles) msgbox('Department of ECE Module: DTMF Decoding using FFT & Goertzel Algorithm ,'About', 'none') % Displays the information entered, Use to define author or equivalent % --- Executes on button press in exit. function exit_Callback(hObject, eventdata, handles) close; % Closes the window and return back to MATLAB command window % --- Executes during object creation, after setting all properties. function axes2_CreateFcn(hObject, eventdata, handles) function noise_power_Callback(hObject, eventdata, handles) %get the string for the editText component sliderValue = get(handles.noise_power,'String'); %convert from string to number if possible, otherwise returns empty sliderValue = str2num(sliderValue); %if user inputs something is not a number, or if the input is less than 0 %or greater than 100, then the slider value defaults to 0 if (isempty(sliderValue) || sliderValue < 0 || sliderValue > 10) set(handles.slider1,'Value',0); set(handles.noise_power,'String','0');

VVCET/ECE Department

ELECTRONIC SYSTEM DESIGN MANUAL

else set(handles.slider1,'Value',sliderValue); end function noise_power_CreateFcn(hObject, eventdata, handles) if ispc && isequal(get(hObject,'BackgroundColor'), get(0,'defaultUicontrolBackgroundColor')) set(hObject,'BackgroundColor','white'); end % --- Executes on slider movement. function slider1_Callback(hObject, eventdata, handles) sliderValue = get(handles.slider1,'Value'); %obtains the slider value from the slider component set(handles.noise_power,'String', num2str(sliderValue)); %puts the slider value into the edit text component guidata(hObject, handles); % Update handles structure function slider1_CreateFcn(hObject, eventdata, handles) if isequal(get(hObject,'BackgroundColor'), get(0,'defaultUicontrolBackgroundColor')) set(hObject,'BackgroundColor',[.9 .9 .9]); end % Function for Reset function reset_data_Callback(hObject, eventdata, handles) set(handles.detbox,'String','') ; % Clears the data in the Detection Box set(handles.noise_power,'String','0') % Sets noise power value to '0'(default) cla(handles.y1,'reset') % Clears the Time Domain plot cla(handles.y2,'reset') % Clears the Frequency Domain plot cla(handles.goertzel,'reset') % Clears the Goertzel plot

VVCET/ECE Department

ELECTRONIC SYSTEM DESIGN MANUAL

RESULT: Thus the mat lab program for the simulation of DTMF generation and detection was done and the output signal was viewed.

11. MULTIRATE PROCESSING AIM: To write a matlab program for the simulation of multirate processing. APPARATUS REQUIRED: 1. Personal Computer 2. MATLAB 6.0 Software PROCEDURE: 1. Select MATLAB 6.0 from Programs menu. 2. Select File-New-MFile. 3. Type the program in the new file. 4. Save the file using .m extension. 5. Select debug-run. 6. Any errors if present can be viewed by selecting windows-0 command window. 7. If no error, the signal appears in the screen. 8. The output signal thus viewed. PROGRAM: UP SAMPLING: clear all N=10; %sequence length n=0:1:N-1; x=sin(2*pi*n/10)+sin(2*pi*n/5) %Input Sequence L=3 %Upsampling factor x1=[zeros(1,L*N)]; n1=1:1:L*N

VVCET/ECE Department

ELECTRONIC SYSTEM DESIGN MANUAL

j=1:L:L*N; x1(j)=x; subplot(2,1,1),stem(n,x) xlabel('n'),ylabel('x') title('input sequence') subplot(2,1,2),stem(n1,x1) xlabel('n'),ylabel('x1') title('Upsampled Sequence') DOWN SAMPLING: clear all N=50; % Sequence LENGTH n=0:1:N-1; x=sin(2*pi*n/20)+sin(2*pi*n/15) %Input sequence M=2 %

Down

sampling factor x1=x(1:M:N);

VVCET/ECE Department

ELECTRONIC SYSTEM DESIGN MANUAL

Up sampling Output Waveform

Down sampling Output Waveform n1=1:1:N/M; subplot(2,1,1),stem(n,x) xlabel('n'),ylabel('x1') title('input sequence') subplot(2,1,2),stem(n1-1,x1)

VVCET/ECE Department

ELECTRONIC SYSTEM DESIGN MANUAL

xlabel('n'),ylabel('x1') title('Down sampled sequence')

RESULT: Thus the mat lab program for the simulation of multirate processing was done and the output signal was viewed. 12. ECHO CANCELLATION AIM: To write a matlab program for the simulation of echo cancellation.

VVCET/ECE Department

ELECTRONIC SYSTEM DESIGN MANUAL

APPARATUS REQUIRED: 1. Personal Computer 2. MATLAB 6.0 Software PROCEDURE: 1. Select MATLAB 6.0 from Programs menu. 2. Select File-New-MFile. 3. Type the program in the new file. 4. Save the file using .m extension. 5. Select debug-run. 6. Any errors if present can be viewed by selecting windows-0 command window. 7. If no error, the signal appears in the screen. 8. The output signal thus viewed. PROGRAM: clear all; mule = .01; % Larger values for fast conv max_run = 200; for run=1:max_run; taps = 20; %Adaptive Filter Taps # freq = 2000;%Signal Freq w = zeros(1,taps);%state of adaptive filter time = .2;%lenght of simulation (sec) samplerate = 8000;%samples/sec samples = time*samplerate; max_iterations = samples-taps+1; iterations = 1:max_iterations;%Vector of iterations t=1/samplerate:1/samplerate:time; rand('state',sum(100*clock));%Reset Randome Generator noise=.02*rand(1,samples);%noise added to signal s=.4*sin(2*pi*freq*t);%Pure Signal x=noise+s;%input to adaptive filter echo_amp_per = .4; %Echo percent of signal %rand('state',sum(100*clock));%Reset Randome Generator echo_time_delay = .064; echo_delay=echo_time_delay*samplerate; echo = echo_amp_per*[zeros(1,echo_delay) x(echo_delay+1:samples)]; %LMS for i=1:max_iterations; y(i)=w*x(i:i+taps-1)';

VVCET/ECE Department

ELECTRONIC SYSTEM DESIGN MANUAL

Echo Cancellation Output Waveform

e(run,i)=echo(i)-y(i); %mule(i) = .5/(x(i:i+taps-1)*x(i:i+taps-1)'+ .01); w = w + 2*mule*e(run,i)*x(i:i+taps-1); end end %%Mean Square Error mse=sum(e.^2,1)/max_run; b=x+echo;

VVCET/ECE Department

ELECTRONIC SYSTEM DESIGN MANUAL

%Ouput of System out=b(1:length(y))-y; subplot(3,1,1),plot(b); title('Signal and Echo'); ylabel('Amp'); xlabel('Time sec'); subplot(3,1,2),plot(out); title('Output of System'); ylabel('Amp'); xlabel('Time sec'); subplot(3,1,3),semilogy(mse); grid title('LEARNING CURVE mu=.01 echo delay=64ms runs=200'); ylabel('Estimated MSE, dB'); xlabel('Number of Iterations'); %subplot(3,1,2),semilogy(iterations,e(1,:).^2); %grid %subplot(3,1,3),semilogy(iterations,e(2,:).^2); %grid

RESULT: Thus the matlab program for the simulation of echo cancellation was done and the output signal was viewed.

VVCET/ECE Department

ELECTRONIC SYSTEM DESIGN MANUAL

10. PCB LAYOUT DESIGN USING CAD. AIM: To design a PCB layout for the given circuit diagram and check its connections. TOOLS REQUIRED: 1. Orcad 2. Desktop computer PROCEDURE: Simulation: 1. Open orcad release and open new project. 2. Create a new folder at a particular path and select analog and mixed circuit wizard option. 3. Select components from PSPICE library. 4. Place components in appropriate locations on schematic page, then make routing between the components. 5. Save the content and create net list. 6. Open new simulation option in the PSICE tool and give run time details. 7. Place the markers and run the PSPICE model. 8. End of the process. CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

VVCET/ECE Department

ELECTRONIC SYSTEM DESIGN MANUAL

0
V 3

1.
3 V 1 4m V dc 2

1 5 V dc

U1 7 + uA 741 4

V + OUT V 6 1 R7 1 k 2 1 R2 1 k 2

2.

1 5 V dc V 4

0
1 2 R8 1 k 1 R 6 5 00k

R3 2 5 00k 3 U1 7 + uA 741 4 V + OUT V 6 2 R 4 1 k 1 V + R5 OUT V 1 6 1 1 k 2 2 R1 1 k


V

2 2

0
V 5 1 5 V dc

3.

U1 7 3 + uA 741 2 4

V 2 6m V dc

1 5 V dc V 6

4.

Select the *.dsn file in the left panel Select the create net list menu in the tools menu bar Select layout tag (PCB Foot print) Browse the

location to save the *.mnl file then click OK 5. Open the layout application 6. Click new menu in file menu bar 7. Load the template file (default.tch) in the working directory(C:\Program files\orcad\layout\data\default.tch) then click open 8. Load the text list source file where you have stored *.mnl file then click open 9. Save the board file *.max 10. Rearrange the components as you like 11. Select the obstacle tool from the tool bar 12. Draw space to cover all the footprints. 13. Go to auto menu-choose place board then click auto route board 14. Save the file. LAYOUT:

VVCET/ECE Department

ELECTRONIC SYSTEM DESIGN MANUAL

RESULT: Thus the PCB layout for the given circuit diagram drawn and checked its connections.

VVCET/ECE Department