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CHUYN THNG TIN V TUYN

Nhm 25 - LP L10CQVT11-B

CC THUT NG VIT TT .......................................................................................................... 2 DANH MC HNH V, BNG BIU ............................................................................................... 3 BNG PHN CNG THC HIN TI ..................................................................................... 4 LI M U ..................................................................................................................................... 5 PHN NI DUNG .............................................................................................................................. 6 CHNG 1: TIN TRNH PHT TRIN CA CC H THNG THNG TIN DI NG T 1G LN 4G...................................................................................................................................... 6 1.1.Mng thng tin di ng 1G :.................................................................................................. 6 1.2.Mng thng tin di ng 2G:................................................................................................... 7 1.3.Mng thng tin di ng 2,5 G................................................................................................ 9 1.4.Mng thng tin di ng 3G :................................................................................................ 10 1.5.Mng thng tin di ng th h 3.5G : .................................................................................. 12 1.6.Mng thng tin di ng 4G :................................................................................................ 12 CHNG 2 : GII THIU V CNG NGH V MC TIU THIT K LTE ...................... 15 2.1. Gii thiu v cng ngh LTE: ............................................................................................ 15 2.2. Mc tiu thit k LTE :....................................................................................................... 16 2.3. L trnh pht trin cng ngh LTE v cc cng ngh khc: ............................................... 18 2.3.1.WiMAX ........................................................................................................................ 18 2.3.2.So snh cng ngh k thut dng trong WiMAX v 3G LTE:..................................... 20 2.3.3.Dch v, ng dng v tng lai khng xa cho cng ngh LTE: ................................... 22 CHNG 3 : KIN TRC GIAO THC CA 4G-LTE ............................................................ 25 3.1. PDCP: Packet Data Convergence Protocol - Giao thc hi t s liu gi......................... 27 3.2. RLC: radio link control - iu khin lin kt v tuyn ...................................................... 28 3.3. iu khin truy nhp mi trng MAC(Medium Access Control) .................................. 30 3.3.1 Cc knh logic v cc knh truyn ti ......................................................................... 30 3.3.2 Hoch nh ng ln.................................................................................................. 32 3.3.3 Hoch nh ng xung.............................................................................................. 34 3.3.4 Hybrid ARQ ................................................................................................................. 37 3.4 PHY: physical layer - lp vt l ........................................................................................... 41 KT LUN ....................................................................................................................................... 45 TI LIU THAM KHO: ................................................................................................................ 45

GVHD: NGUYN VIT M

CHUYN THNG TIN V TUYN

Nhm 25 - LP L10CQVT11-B

CC THUT NG VIT TT
AMPS Advanced Mobile Phone Sytem H thng in thoi di ng tin tin BCCH BCH DCCH Broadcast Control Channel Broadcast Channel Dedicated Control Channel Knh iu khin qung b Knh qung b Knh iu khin dnh ring Knh chia s ng xung Tc s liu tng cng pht trin GSM

DL-SCH Downlink Shared Channel EDGE Enhanced Data Rates for GSM Evolution

GPRS HSCSD

General Packet Radio Service High Speed Circuit Switched Data

Dch v v tuyn gi chung S liu chuyn mch knh tc cao Truy nhp gi ng xung tc cao iu khin truy cp mi trng Knh iu khin multicast Knh multicast a nhp a xut Knh lu lng multicast Knh iu khin tm gi Knh tm gi Giao thc hi t s liu gi n v d liu giao thc Lp vt l Knh lu lng dnh ring
2

HSDPA

High Speed Downlink Package Access

MAC MCCH MCH MIMO MTCH PCCH PCH PDCP PDU PHY DTCH

Medium Access Control Multicast Control Channel Multicast Channel Multiple input Multiple Output Multicast Traffic Channel Paging Control Channel Paging channe Packet Data Convergence Protocol Protocol Data Unit Physical layer Dedicated Traffic Channel

GVHD: NGUYN VIT M

CHUYN THNG TIN V TUYN RLC SDU TACS Radio Link Control Service Data Unit Total Access Communication Sytem UL-SCH Uplink shared channel

Nhm 25 - LP L10CQVT11-B iu khin lin kt v tuyn n v d liu dch v H thng giao tip truy cp tng hp Knh chia s ng ln

DANH MC HNH V, BNG BIU


Hnh 1: L trnh pht trin thng tin di ng t 1G ln 4G 12 Hnh 2.1: Kin trc m hnh LTE theo TR 23.822 .15 Hnh 2.2: L trnh pht trin thng tin di ng t 1G ln 4G. 18 Hnh 2.3: L trnh pht trin thng tin di ng t 1G ln 4G. 19 Hnh 3.1 Kin trc giao thc LTE (ng xung) 25 Hnh 3.2: S m t cc thnh phn ca phn mm PDCP:..26 Hnh 3.3: Phn on v hp on RLC 27 Hnh 3.4:Th d v sp xp cc knh logic ln cc knh truyn ti .31 Hnh 3.5 : Vic la chn inh dng truyn dn trong ng xung (bn tri ) v ng ln ( bn phi ).......32 Hnh 3.6 Giao thc hybrid-ARQ ng b v khng ng b...38 Hnh 3.7 : Nhiu tin trnh hybrid ARQ song song...38 Hnh 3.8 M hnh x l lp vt l n gin cho DL-SCH.41 Hnh 3.9 M hnh x l lp vt l n gin cho UL-SCH .. 42

Bng 2 : So snh cng ngh k thut dng trong WiMAX v 3G LTE19 Bng 3. Dch v v ng dng ca LTE .21

GVHD: NGUYN VIT M

CHUYN THNG TIN V TUYN

Nhm 25 - LP L10CQVT11-B

BNG PHN CNG THC HIN TI

STT

H V TN

LP

PHN THC HIN + Chng 1

GHI CH NT 0947266518

M THO PHNG

L10CQVT11B + Chng 2 + Hon thin slide. + M u chng 3 v

PHM TH THUN

L10CQVT11B

3.1 + 3.2 + Hon thin bn text. + Chng 2 : 3.3 v

0944582179

TRN S KHON

L10CQVT11B

3.4 + In n

0947266484

GVHD: NGUYN VIT M

CHUYN THNG TIN V TUYN

Nhm 25 - LP L10CQVT11-B

LI M U
Hin nay ngnh vin thng c nhng bc pht trin rt nhanh, hnh thnh mi trng cnh tranh ln gia cc nh khai thc mng phc v nhu cu v thng tin cho con ngi ngy cng i hi cao hn. Cht lng cc dch v ngy cng tr thnh cha kha c th dn ti thnh cng. Song song vi xu th ny, nhu cu ngy cng gia tng i vi cc dch v truyn thng mi, kh nng p ng vic cung cp dch v hoc tng tnh cnh tranh. ITU cng b chun IMT-2000 cho h thng 3G nm 1992, tuy nhin sau 4G mi l ch n ca truyn ti d liu khng dy. LTE c xem nh ngi k tha xut sc ca th h cng ngh mng 3G hin ti, da trn nn tng WCDMA, HSDPA, HSUPA, v HSPA. LTE cp nht cng ngh UMTS ci thin mt cch ng k tc truyn d liu hai chiu. Nhn thy cng ngh LTE l cng ngh mi trin vng nht cho vic tin ln 4G nn nhm chng em chn ti tm hiu v LTE : Kin trc giao thc ca 4G LTE . Ni dung bo co gm c: Chng 1: Tin trnh pht trin ca cc h thng thng tin di ng t 1G ln 4G.
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GVHD: NGUYN VIT M

CHUYN THNG TIN V TUYN

Nhm 25 - LP L10CQVT11-B

Chng 2: Gii thiu v cng ngh v mc tiu thit k LTE. Chng 3: Kin trc giao thc 4G-LTE Chng em xin trn thnh cm n s hng dn tn tnh ca thy Nguyn Vit m, khoa Vin thng 1, Hc vin Cng ngh Bu chnh Vin thng! Trong qu trnh lm ti do cn nhiu hn ch v kin thc nn nhm chng em khng trnh khi nhng thiu st, mong thy c v cc bn gp ti nhm chng em c tt hn. Chng em xin trn thnh cm n! H Ni, ngy 10/06/2012 Nhm sinh vin thc hin : ( Nhm 25)

PHN NI DUNG
CHNG 1: TIN TRNH PHT TRIN CA CC H THNG THNG TIN DI NG T 1G LN 4G.
1.1.Mng thng tin di ng 1G : L mng thng tin di ng khng dy c bn u tin trn th gii. N l h thng giao tip thng tin qua kt ni tn hiu analog c gii thiu ln u tin vo nhng nm u thp nin 80s. N s dng cc ng-ten thu pht sng gn ngoi, kt ni theo tn hiu analog ti cc trm thu pht sng v nhn tn hiu x l thoi thng qua cc module gn trong my di ng. Chnh v th m cc th h my di ng u tin trn th gii c kch thc kh to v cng knh do tch hp cng lc 2 module thu tn hin v pht tn hiu. Mc d l th h mng di ng u tin vi tn s ch t 150MHz nhng mng 1G cng phn ra kh nhiu chun kt ni theo tng phn vng ring trn th gii: NMT (Nordic Mobile Telephone) c s dng cc nc Bc u, Ty u v Nga. Mt s cng ngh khc nh AMPS (Advanced Mobile Phone Sytem h thng in thoi di ng tin tin) c s dng M v c; TACS (Total Access
6

GVHD: NGUYN VIT M

CHUYN THNG TIN V TUYN

Nhm 25 - LP L10CQVT11-B

Communication Sytem h thng giao tip truy cp tng hp) c s dng Anh, C-45 Ty c, B o Nha v Nam Phi, Radiocom 2000 Php; v RTMI Italia. Nhng im yu ca th h 1G l dung lng thp, xc sut rt cuc gi cao, kh nng chuyn cuc gi khng tin cy, cht lng m thanh km, khng c ch bo mtdo vy h thng 1G khng th p ng c nhu cu s dng .

1.2.Mng thng tin di ng 2G: Nm 1982, hi ngh qun l bu in v vin thng Chu u (CEPT European Conference of Postal and Telecommunications ad minstrations) thnh lp 1 nhm nghin cu, GSM Group Speciale Mobile, mc ch pht trin chun mi v thng tin di ng Chu u. Nm 1987, 13 quc gia k vo bn ghi nh v ng gii thiu mng GSM vo nm 1991. Nm 1988, Tr s chun vin thng Chu u (ETSI European Telecommunication Standards Institute ) c thnh lp, c trch nhim bin i nhiu tin c k thut GSM thnh chun European. Th h th hai 2G ca mng di ng chnh thc ra mt trn chun GSM ca H Lan, do cng ty Radiolinja (Nay l mt b phn ca Elisa) trin khai vo nm 1991. S pht trin k thut t FDMA -1G, 2G - l kt hp FDMA v TDMA.Tt c cc chun ca th h ny u l chun k thut s v c nh hng thng mi, bao gm: GSM, iDEN, D-AMPS, IS-95, PDC, CSD, PHS, GPRS, HSCSD, WiDEN v CDMA2000 (1xRTT/IS-2000). Trong khong 60% s mng hin ti l theo chun ca chu u. Mng 2G chia lm 2 nhnh chnh: TDMA (Time Division Multiple Accessa truy cp phn chia theo thi gian) v CDMA ( a truy cp phn chia theo tn s) cng nhiu dng kt ni mng tu theo yu cu s dng t thit b cng nh h tng tng phn vng quc gia:

GVHD: NGUYN VIT M

CHUYN THNG TIN V TUYN

Nhm 25 - LP L10CQVT11-B

GSM (TDMA-based), khi ngun p dng ti Phn Lan v sau tr

thnh chun ph bin trn ton 6 Chu lc. V hin nay vn ang c s dng bi hn 80% nh cung cp mng di ng ton cu.

CDMA2000 tn s 450 MHZ cng l nn tng di ng tng t

GSM ni trn nhng n li da trn nn CDMA v hin cng ang c cung cp bi 60 nh mng GSM trn ton th gii.

IS-95 hay cn gi l cdmaOne, (nn tng CDMA) c s dng rng

ri ti Hoa K v mt s nc Chu v chim gn 17% cc mng ton cu. Tuy nhin, tnh n thi im ny th c khong 12 nh mng ang chuyn dch dn t chun mng ny sang GSM (tng t nh HT Mobile ti Vit Nam va qua) ti: Mexico, n , c v Hn Quc.

PDC (nn tng TDMA) ti Japan iDEN (nn tng TDMA) s dng bi Nextel ti Hoa K v Telus IS-136 hay cn gi l D-AMPS, (nn tng TDMA) l chun kt ni

Mobility ti Canada.

ph bin nht tnh n thi im ny v c cung cp hu ht ti cc nc trn th gii cng nh Hoa K. * Thun li v kh khn ca 2G : cng ngh 2G tn hiu k thut s c s dng trao i gia in thoi v cc thp pht sng, lm tng hiu qu trn 2 phng din chnh : - Th nht, d liu s ca ging ni c th c nn v ghp knh hiu qu hn so vi m ha Analog nh s dng nhiu hnh thc m ha, cho php nhiu cuc gi cng c m ha trn mt di bng tn. - Th hai, h thng k thut s c thit k gim bt nng lng sng radio pht t in thoi. Nh vy, c th thit k in thoi 2G nh gn hn; ng thi gim chi ph u t nhng thp pht sng. - Hn na, mng 2G tr nn ph bin cng do cng ngh ny c th trin khai mt
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GVHD: NGUYN VIT M

CHUYN THNG TIN V TUYN

Nhm 25 - LP L10CQVT11-B

s dch v d liu nh Email v SMS. ng thi, mc bo mt c nhn cng cao hn so vi 1G. Tuy nhin, h thng mng 2G cng c nhng nhc im, v d, nhng ni dn c tha tht, sng k thut s yu c th khng ti c cc thp pht sng.Ti nhng a im nh vy, cht lng truyn sng cng nh cht lng cuc gi s b gim ng k. 1.3.Mng thng tin di ng 2,5 G 2,5G chnh l bc m gia 2G vi 3G trong cng ngh in thoi khng dy. Khi nim 2,5G c dng miu t h thng di ng 2G c trang b h thng chuyn mch gi, bn cnh h thng chuyn mch knh truyn thng.Trong khi cc khi nim 2G v 3G c chnh thc nh ngha th khi nim 2,5G li khng c nh vy. Khi nim ny ch dng cho mc ch tip th.

Trong : HSCSD = High Speed Circuit Switched Data: s liu chuyn mch knh tc cao GPRS = General Packet Radio Service: dch v v tuyn gi chung: H thng GPRS - bc u tin hng ti 3G. M rng kin trc mng GSM. Truy cp tc cao v hiu qu ti nhng mng chuyn mch gi khc (tng ti 115kbps) EDGE = Enhanced Data Rates for GSM Evolution: tc s liu tng EDGE c th pht nhiu bit gp 3 ln GPRS trong mt chu k. y l l do chnh cho tc bit EDGE cao hn. ITU nh ngha 384kbps l gii hn tc d liu cho dch v thc hin chun IMT-2000 trong mi trng khng l cng pht trin GSM:

GVHD: NGUYN VIT M

CHUYN THNG TIN V TUYN

Nhm 25 - LP L10CQVT11-B

tng. 384kbps tng ng vi 48kbps trn mi khe thi gian, gi s mt u cui c 8 khe thi gian.

2,5G cung cp mt s li ch ca mng 3G (v d chuyn mch gi), v c th dng c s h tng ang tn ti ca 2G trong cc mng GSM v CDMA. GPAS l cng ngh c cc nh cung cp dch v vin thng GSM s dng. V giao thc, nh EDGE cho GSM, v CDMA 2000 1x-RTT cho CDMA, c th t cht lng nh cc dch v 3G (v dng tc truyn d liu 144Kb/s), nhng vn c xem nh dch v 2,5G bi vn chm hn vi ln so vi dch v 3G tht s.

1.4.Mng thng tin di ng 3G : L th h truyn thng di ng th ba, tin tin hn hn cc th h trc . N cho php ngi dng di ng truyn c d liu thoi v d liu ngoi thoi ( ti d liu, gi email, tin nhn nhanh, hnh nh, m thanh, video clips Vi 3G, di ng c th truyn ti d liu trc tuyn, online, chat, xem tivi theo knh ring...Trong s cc dch v ca 3G, in thoi video thng c miu t nh l l c u. Gi tn s cho cng ngh 3G rt t ti nhiu nc, ni m cc cuc bn u gi tn s mang li hng t Euro cho cc chnh ph. Bi v chi ph cho bn quyn v cc tn s phi trang tri trong nhiu nm trc khi cc thu nhp t mng 3G em li, nn mt khi lng vn u t khng l l cn thit xy dng mng 3G. Nhiu nh cung cp dch v vin thng ri vo kh khn v ti chnh v iu ny lm chm tr vic trin khai mng 3G ti nhiu nc ngoi tr Nht Bn v Hn Quc, ni yu cu v bn quyn tn s c b qua do pht trin h tng c s IT quc gia c t ln lm vn u tin nht. V cng chnh Nht Bn l nc u tin a 3G vo khai thc thng mi mt cch rng ri, tin phong bi nh mng NTT DoCoMo. Tnh n nm 2005, khong 40% cc thu bao ti Nht Bn l thu bao 3G, v mng 2G ang dn dn i vo lng qun trong tim thc cng ngh ti Nht Bn.

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GVHD: NGUYN VIT M

CHUYN THNG TIN V TUYN

Nhm 25 - LP L10CQVT11-B

Cng ngh 3G cng c nhc n nh l mt chun IMT-2000 ca T chc Vin thng Th gii (ITU). Ban u 3G c d kin l mt chun thng nht trn th gii,nhng trn thc t th gii 3G b chia thnh 4 phn ring bit:

UMTS (W-CDMA)

UMTS (Universal Mobile Telecommunication System), da trn cng

ngh truy cp v tuyn W-CDMA, l gii php ni chung thch hp vi cc nh khai thc dch v di ng (Mobile network operator) s dung GSM, tp trung ch yu chu u v mt phn chu (trong c Vit Nam). UMTS c tiu chun ha bi t chc 3GPP, cng l t chc chu trch nhim nh ngha chun cho GSM, GPRS v EDGE.

FOMA, thc hin bi cng ty vin thng NTT DoCoMo Nht Bn

nm 2001, c coi nh l mt dch v thng mi 3G u tin. Tuy l da trn cng ngh W-CDMA, nhng cng ngh ny vn khng tng thch vi UMTS (mc d c cc bc tip hin thi thay i li tnh th ny). CDMA 2000

L th h k tip ca cc chun 2G CDMA v IS-95. Cc xut ca

CDMA2000 c a ra bn tho v p dng bn ngoi khun kh GSM ti M, Nht Bn v Hn Quc. CDMA2000 c qun l bi 3GPP2 mt t chc c lp vi 3GPP. V c nhiu cng ngh truyn thng khc nhau c s dng trong CDMA2000 bao gm 1xRTT, CDMA2000-1xEV-DO v 1xEV-DV.

CDMA 2000 cung cp tc d liu t 144 kbit/s ti trn 3 Mbit/s. Ngi ta cho rng s ra i thnh cng nht ca mng CDMA-2000 l

Chun ny c chp nhn bi ITU.

ti KDDI ca Nhn Bn, di thng hiu AU vi hn 20 triu thu bao 3G. K t nm 2003, KDDI nng cp t mng CDMA2000-1x ln mng CDMA20001xEV-DO vi tc d liu ti 2.4 Mbit/s. Nm 2006, AU nng cp mng ln tc 3.6 Mbit/s. SK Telecom ca Hn Quc a ra dch v CDMA2000-1x u tin nm 2000, v sau l mng 1xEV-DO vo thng 2 nm 2002.
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GVHD: NGUYN VIT M

CHUYN THNG TIN V TUYN

Nhm 25 - LP L10CQVT11-B

TD-SCDMA :Chun c t c bit n hn l TD-SCDMA, c pht trin ring ti Trung Quc bi cng ty Datang v Siemens. Wideband CDMA: H tr tc gia 384 kbit/s v 2 Mbit/s. Giao thc ny c dng trong mt mng din rng WAN, tc ti a l 384 kbit/s. Khi n dng trong mt mng cc b LAN, tc ti a ch l 1,8 Mbit/s. Chun ny cng c cng nhn bi ITU.

1.5.Mng thng tin di ng th h 3.5G : 3,5G l nhng ng dng c nng cp da trn cng ngh hin c ca 3G. Cng ngh ca 3,5G chnh l HSDPA (High Speed Downlink Package Access). y l gii php mang tnh t ph v mt cng ngh, c pht trin trn c s ca h thng 3G W-CDMA. HSDPA cho php download d liu v my in thoi c tc tng ng tc ng truyn ADSL, vt qua nhng cn tr c hu v tc kt ni ca mt in thoi thng thng. HSDPA l mt bc tin nhm nng cao tc v kh nng ca mng di ng t bo th h th 3 UMTS. HSDPA c thit k cho nhng ng dng dch v d liu nh: dch v c bn (ti file, phn phi email), dch v tng tc (duyt web, truy cp server, tm v phc hi c s d liu), v dch v Streaming 1.6.Mng thng tin di ng 4G : Hay cn c th vit l 4-G, l cng ngh truyn thng khng dy th h th t, cho php truyn ti d liu vi tc ti a trong iu kin l tng ln ti 1 1,5 Gbit/s. Cch y khng lu th mt nhm gm 26 cng ty trong c Vodafone (Anh), Siemens (c), Alcatel (Php), NEC v DoCoMo (Nht Bn), k tha thun cng nhau pht trin mt tiu ch cao cp cho TD, mt th h th 4 trong kt ni di ng chnh l nn tng cho kt ni 4G sp ti y. Cng ngh 4G c hiu l chun tng lai ca cc thit b khng dy. Cc nghin cu u tin ca NTT DoCoMo cho bit, in thoi 4G c th nhn d liu vi tc 100 Mbit/s khi di chuyn v ti 1 Gbit/s khi ng yn, cng nh cho php
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GVHD: NGUYN VIT M

CHUYN THNG TIN V TUYN

Nhm 25 - LP L10CQVT11-B

ngi s dng c th ti v truyn ln cc hnh nh, video clips cht lng cao. Vi cch nhn nhn ny, 4G s chnh l mng 3G LTE, UMB hay WiMAX 802.16m. : cho php ngi dng truyn ti cc d liu HD, xem tivi tc cao, tri nghm web tin tin hn cng nh mang li cho ngi dng nhiu tin li hn na t chnh chic di ng ca mnh.

Hnh 1: L trnh pht trin thng tin di ng t 1G ln 4G. LTE (Long Term Evolution - S tin ha trong tng lai xa) miu t cng vic chun ha ca 3GPP xc nh phng php truy nhp v tuyn tc cao mi cho cc h thng truyn thng di ng. LTE l bc tip theo dn n h thng thng tin di ng 4G. Xy dng trn cc nn tng k thut ca h cc h thng mng t bo 3GPP (bao gm GSM, GPRS v EDGE, WCDMA v HSPA), LTE cung cp mt con ng tin ha n cc tc cao hn v tr thp hn. Cng vi s hiu qu hn trong s dng ph tn hu hn ca cc nh khai thc, LTE cho mt mi trng dch v di ng hp dn v phong ph hn. UMB (Ultra Mobile Broadband- Mng thng tin di ng siu bng rng), l th h mng thng tin di ng tip ni ca CDMA2000 c pht trin bi 3GPP2 m ch lc l Qualcomm. UMB c snh ngang vi cng ngh LTE ca 3GPP. UMB s dng OFDMA, MIMO, a truy cp phn chia theo khng gian cng nh cc k thut angten hin i tng kh nng ca mng, tng
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GVHD: NGUYN VIT M

CHUYN THNG TIN V TUYN

Nhm 25 - LP L10CQVT11-B

vng ph v tng cht lng dch v. UMB c th cho tc d liu ng xung ti 280Mbit/giy v d liu ng ln ti 75Mbit/giy. WiMAX 802.16m (hay cn gi l WiMAX II) c pht trin t chun IEEE 802.16e, l cng ngh duy nht trong cc cng ngh tin 4G c xy dng hon ton da trn cng ngh a truy nhp phn chia theo tn s trc giao OFDMA (k thut a truy cp vo knh truyn OFDM). Cng ngh WiMAX II s h tr tc truyn d liu ln ti 100 Mb/s cho cc ng dng di ng v c th ln ti 1Gb/s cho cc ngi dng tnh. Khong cch truyn ca WiMAX II l khong 2 km mi trng thnh th v khong 10 km cho cc khu vc nng thn.

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GVHD: NGUYN VIT M

CHUYN THNG TIN V TUYN

Nhm 25 - LP L10CQVT11-B

CHNG 2 : GII THIU V CNG NGH V MC TIU THIT K LTE


2.1. Gii thiu v cng ngh LTE: LTE l th h th t, tng lai ca chun UMTS do 3GPP pht trin. UMTS th h th ba da trn WCDMA c trin khai trn ton th gii. m bo tnh cnh tranh cho h thng ny trong tng lai, thng 11/2004 3GPP bt u d n nhm xc nh bc pht trin v lu di cho cng ngh di ng UMTS vi tn gi Long Term Evolution (LTE). 3GPP t ra yu cu cao cho LTE, bao gm gim chi ph cho mi bit thng tin, cung cp dch v tt hn, s dng linh hot cc bng tn hin c v bng tn mi, n gin ha kin trc mng vi cc giao tip m v gim ng k nng lng tiu th thit b u cui.

GERAN Internet Gi Li SGSN

Gb
Iu UTRAN PCFR2 S3 S4 S5a S5b Neo 3GPP IASA Li gi pht trin Neo SAE S7 SGi Rx+ Cc server IP ty chn (IMS, PSS,

HSS
S6 E- RAN S1

MME UPE

Internet S2 Truy nhp IP ca WLAN 3GPP S2

S7

Rx+
PCFR2

Hnh 2.1: Kin trc m hnh LTE theo TR 23.822

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GVHD: NGUYN VIT M

CHUYN THNG TIN V TUYN

Nhm 25 - LP L10CQVT11-B

2.2. Mc tiu thit k LTE : Tng tc truyn d liu : Trong iu kin l tng dung lng truyn trn knh ng xung (downlink) c th t 100 Mbps v trn knh ng ln (uplink) c th t 50 Mbps i vi bng thng 20MHz , khi lm vic cc gii tn khc th dung lng truyn cng t l tng ng. Ti xung gp 3 n 4 ln; Ti ln gp 2 n 3 ln. di bng thng linh hot: c th hot ng vi cc bng 1.25MHz,

1.6 MHz, 2.5 MHz, 5 MHz, 10 MHz, 15 MHz, 20 Mhz c chiu ln v xung. H tr c 2 trng hp di bng ln v bng xung bng nhau hoc khng. Gim thi gian chuyn i trng thi trn mt phng iu khin : + Gim thi gian mt thit b u cui ( UE - User Equipment) chuyn t trng thi ngh sang ni kt vi mng, v bt u truyn thng tin trn mt knh truyn.Thi gian ny phi nh hn 100ms. V chnh thi gian chuyn i ny lm cho ngi dng c th cm nhn c tr khi truy cp mt dich v trn internet sau mt khong thi gian khng hot ng. LTE c th h tr t nht 200 thit b u cui di ng trng thi ni kt khi hot ng di tn 5 MHz. Trong mi bng tn rng hn 5 MHz, th t nht c 400 thit b u cui c h tr. S lng thit b u cui trng thi ngh trong cell khng ni r l bao nhiu nhng c th l cao hn mt cch ng k. + Gim tr mt phng ngi dng: Nhc im ca cc mng t ong (cell) hin nay l tr truyn cao hn nhiu so vi cc mng ng dy c nh. iu ny nh hng ln n cc ng dng nh thoi v chi game ,v cn thi gian thc. Yu cu i vi LTE l tr trn giao tip v tuyn phi khong chng 5 ms tr truyn t UE ny n UE kia tng ng vi tr cc mng ng dy c nh. S khng cn chuyn mch knh : Tt c s da trn IP. Mt trong nhng tnh nng ng k nht ca LTE l s chuyn dch n mng li hon ton da trn IP vi giao din m v kin trc n gin ha. Su xa hn, phn ln cng vic chun ha ca 3GPP nhm n s chuyn i kin trc mng li ang tn ti sang h thng ton IP. Trong 3GPP.Chng cho php cung cp cc dch v linh hot hn v s lin hot ng n gin vi cc mng di ng phi 3GPP v cc mng c
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nh. EPC da trn cc giao thc TCP/IP ging nh phn ln cc mng s liu c nh ngy nay- v vy cung cp cc dch v ging PC nh thoi, video, tin nhn v cc dch v a phng tin. S chuyn dch ln kin trc ton gi cng cho php ci thin s phi hp vi cc mng truyn thng khng dy v c nh khc.VoIP s dng cho dch v thoi. ph sng t 5-100km : Trong vng bn knh 5km LTE cung cp ti u v lu lng ngi dng, hiu sut ph v di ng. Phm vi ln n 30km th c mt s gim nh cho php v lu lng ngi dng cn hiu sut ph th li gim mt cch ng k hn nhng vn c th chp nhn c, tuy nhin yu cu v di ng vn c p ng. B gii hn trong cc cell c bn knh ln n 100km. Dung lng th khong hn 200 ngi/cell (vi bng thng 5MHz) Kin trc mng s n gin hn so vi mng 3G hin thi. Tuy nhin mng LTE vn c th tch hp mt cch d dng vi mng 3G v 2G hin ti. iu ny ht sc quan trng cho nh cung cp mng trin khai LTE v khng cn thay i ton b c s h tng mng c. OFDMA ,SC-FDMA v MIMO c s dng trong LTE thay v Gim chi ph : Yu cu t ra cho h thng LTE l gim thiu c chi CDMA nh trong 3G. ph trong khi vn duy tr c hiu sut nhm p ng c cho tt c cc dch v.Cc vn ng truyn,hot ng v bo dng cng lin quan n yu t chi ph,chnh v vy khng ch giao tip m vic truyn ti n cc trm gc v h thng qun l cng cn xc nh r, ngoi ra mt s vn cng c yu cu nh l phc tp thp,cc thit b u cui tiu th t nng lng. Cng tn ti vi cc chun v h thng trc: H thng LTE phi cng tn ti v c th phi hp hot ng vi cc h thng 3GPP khc .Ngi s dng LTE s c th thc hin cc cuc gi t thit b u cui ca mnh v thm ch khi h khng nm trong vng ph sng ca LTE. Do , cho php chuyn giao cc dch v xuyn sut, tri chy trong khu vc ph sng ca HSPA, WCDMA hay GSM/GPRS/EDGE. Hn th na, LTE h tr khng ch chuyn giao trong h thng, lin h thng m cn chuyn giao lin min gia min chuyn mch gi v min chuyn mch knh.
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LTE c 3GPPS nghin cu v pht trin vi s hu thun ca cc i gia trong lng vin thng th gii nh Alcatel-Lucent, Ericsson, Motorola, Nokia, Nokia Siemens Networks, Huawei, LG Electronics, Samsung, NEC, Fujitsu

2.3. L trnh pht trin cng ngh LTE v cc cng ngh khc: Hin nay, cng ngh truyn thng pht trin nh v bo to thnh nhng cuc chin cnh tranh cc cng ngh. Trong ni tri l cuc cnh tranh gia cng ngh LTE v cng ngh WiMax.

Hnh 2.2 : L trnh pht trin LTE v cc cng ngh khc 2.3.1.WiMAX WiMAX l tn thng dng thng dng ch cng ngh truy nhp khng dy bng rng s dng giao din ca chun IEEE 802.16. Gn y WiMAX c ITU-R chnh thc cng nhn l mt chun 3G trong h IMT-2000. iu ny c
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GVHD: NGUYN VIT M

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ngha rt ln i vi tng lai ca WiMAX v n s thc y s trin khai rng khp ca WiMAX, c bit trn bng tn 2.5-2.69GHz, cung cp dch v Internet bng rng, bao hm c VoIP v nhiu dch v thng qua kt ni Internet. Trong h IEEE 802.16 ni bt nht l chun 802.16e-2005 vi kh nng p ng c cc ng dng c nh cng nh cc dch v di ng, nn cn c gi l WiMAX di ng. Chun ny v ang c th nghim nhiu nc. Hin ti, WiMAX di ng "Wave 2" dng 2 ng-ten pht v 2 ng-ten thu cho tc ti a tm 75Mbps. Bn cnh , nhm lm vic IEEE 802.16 ang pht trin phin bn 802.16j trong nghin cu trin khai cc trm relay (tip sc) bn cnh cc trm pht sng BS s dng knh truyn mt cch hiu qu, tng tc truyn dn v m rng vng ph sng. Nhm IEEE 802.16 cng ang nghin cu phin bn 802.16m vi mc ch y tc d liu ca WiMAX ln hn na trong khi vn tng thch vi WiMAX c nh v di ng v ang c trin khai. Phin bn ny theo d kin s c hon thin vo cui nm 2009, nh l mt bc tin vt tri hn LTE. Phin bn 802.16m s vn da trn k thut ng-ten MIMO trn nn cng ngh a truy nhp OFDMA vi s lng ngten pht v thu nhiu hn WiMAX di ng Wave 2 . 802.16m trang b 4 ng-ten pht v 4 ng-ten thu s c th y tc truyn ln ln hn 350Mbps. Theo d kin, WiMAX Release 2 vi s hon thin ca 802.16m s hon thnh vo cui nm 2009 v c th bt u trin khai dch v t 2010 (xem hnh 3).

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Hnh 2.3 : S pht trin ca cng ngh WiMax Ni ti WiMax , ngi ta c th ngh ti rt nhiu gii php thay th m cng ngh ny c th mang li. chnh l kh nng thay th ng xDSL gip tip cn nhanh hn cc i tng ngi dng bng rng m khng cn phi u t ln. c bit WiMAX rt hu ch cung cp dch v bng thng rng nhng vng xa xi m gii php ADSL hoc cp quang l rt tn km. Bn cnh cc dch v c nh, WiMAX cn cung ng cc dch v di ng ging nh nhng dch v ca mng 3G : thoi VoIP, internet di ng, TV di ng. 2.3.2.So snh cng ngh k thut dng trong WiMAX v 3G LTE: 3GPP LTE RAN1 Tnh nng Ghp knh Bng tn d kin Tc ti a ( Download/ Upload) Di ng 350km/h 120km/h 350km/h
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802.16e / Mobile WiMax R1

802.16e/ Mobile WiMax R2 TDD, FDD 2,3GHz; 2,5GHz; 3,3- 3,8GHz

TDD, FDD 700MHz 2,6 GHz

TDD 2,3GHz; 2,5GHz; 3,3- 3,8GHz

300Mbps / 100Mbps

70Mbps / 70Mbps 300Mbps/100Mbps

GVHD: NGUYN VIT M

CHUYN THNG TIN V TUYN Phm vi ph sng S ngi dng VoIP ng thi Thi im hon tt chun Cui nm 2008, u 2005 nm 2009 5/30/100km 80

Nhm 25 - LP L10CQVT11-B 1/5/30km 50 1/5/30km 100

2009

Bng 2 : So snh cng ngh k thut dng trong WiMAX v 3G LTE Hin ti WiMAX di ng Rel 1 (802.16e) c sc cnh tranh v mt cng ngh so vi LTE. Tuy nhin, nu nhn k trn bng so snh th ta thy cng ngh LTE vn vt hn 802.16e v c tnh nng di ng v tc truyn d liu. Song, i vi nhng nh pht trin WiMAX th h khng chp nhn so snh LTE vi 802.16e m phi l 802.16m (ct th 3 trn bng 1). Nhn vo y ta thy WiMAX di ng Rel 2 ha hn nhng tnh nng vt tri so vi LTE. Ngy nay tt c u ng vi nhau rng t c tc d liu cao ch c th nh vo cng ngh ngten MIMO v k thut a truy cp OFDMA. LTE ra i mun hn WiMAX v n cng khng th no khng dng MIMO v OFDMA. Do vy, nu xt trnh bnh din k thut truyn thng khng dy (wireless communication) th LTE khng c bt c mt k ngh c bn no vt tri so vi WiMAX di ng. Nu nhn li bng so snh trn s thy im khc nhau ni bt l LTE s dng k thut a truy nhp SC-FDMA cho ng ln thay v OFDMA nh trong WiMAX. Song, theo nhiu chuyn gia th s khc bit ny li l mt im yu ca LTE. Thc t SC-FDMA cho php ci tin PAR (Peak-to-Average power Ratio) tm 2 dB my pht. Tuy nhin n li gy mt tm 2-3 dB v hiu sut (performance) truyn thng trn knh truyn nhiu phading u my thu. Nhiu nghin cu gn y cho thy SC-FDMA thc t cho mt hiu sut trn knh ln thp hn so vi OFDMA. Nhn chung v mt k thut, hai cng ngh WiMAX v LTE dng nh ngang ti ngang sc vi nhau. Song, cng ngh mnh nht, vt tri nht i khi
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khng phi l cng ngh ginh chin thng m mt cng ngh thnh cng l mt cng ngh ph hp nht, ha hp nht. Li th dnh cho LTE khi LTE c cc nh khai thc GSM ( GSM Asociation ) chp nhn l cng ngh bng rng di ng tng lai ca h di ng hin ang thng tr th trng di ng ton cu vi khong 2,5 t thu bao ( theo Informa Telecoms & Media ) v trong 3 nm tip theo c th chim th phn ti 89% ( theo Gartner) nhng con s trong m i vi WiMax.Hn na, LTE cho php tn dng h tng GSM c sn ( tuy vn u t thm thit b ) trong khi WiMax phi xy dng t u . Nhn thy li th ca LTE, nhiu nh khai thc mng cn nhc li vic trin khai WiMax v chuyn sang LTE, ng k trong s c 2 tn tui ln nht ti M l AT&T v Verizon Wireless. Theo mt kho st do RCR Wireless News v Yankee Group thc hin gn y, c n 56% nh khai thc di ng chn LTE, ch c 30% i theo 802.16e. Kho st cho thy cc nh khai thc di ng Bc M v Ty Auu nghing v LTE, trong khi cc nc mi pht trin ( c bit khu vc chu Thi Bnh Dng ) th ng h WiMax. Trong cuc ua 4G, WiMax v LTE hin l hai cng ngh sng gi nht.Liu hai cng ngh ny c th cng tn ti c lp hay s st nhp thnh mt chun chung? Hiu nng ca WiMax v LTE tng ng nhau, do vy vic quyt nh hin nay ph thuc vo yu t sn sng v kh nng thm nhp th trng.

2.3.3.Dch v, ng dng v tng lai khng xa cho cng ngh LTE: Cc dch v LTE : Tc truyn ng xung (v ng ln) rt cao vi s linh hot hn, hiu qu s dng ph tn v gim tr gi, LTE ha hn tng cng vic phn phi cc dch v bng rng di ng v thm tnh nng cho cc dch v gi tr gia tng mi ang tn ti.

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GVHD: NGUYN VIT M

CHUYN THNG TIN V TUYN Ch mc dch v Thoi Audio thi gian thc Mi trng hin ti

Nhm 25 - LP L10CQVT11-B Mi trng LTE

VoIP, hi tho video cht lng cao

Nhn tin P2P

SMS, MMS, email vi quyn Tin nhn hnh nh, IM, u tin thp email di ng, tin nhn video

Trnh duyt

Truy nhp n cc thng tin Duyt web siu nhanh, dch v trc tuyn cho nhng ti ni dung ln cc ngi s dng no chi tr gi trang mng x hi. mng chun. Hin ti gii hn vic duyt WAP trn cc mng GPRS v 3G.

Thng tin tr trc

Ni dung cho ngi s dng Bo in t, lung audio no tr trn cc mng chun. cht lng cao. Phn ln l thng tin da trn vn bn

C nhn ha

Phn ln l nhc chung

m thc (bn ghi gc ca cc ngh s), cc trang web di ng c nhn ha

Tr chi in t

Tr chi in t trc tuyn v Tri nghim tr chi c th ti v. in t nh nhau c mng di ng v c nh.

TV/Video theo yu Ni dung video c th ti v Cc dch v truyn hnh cu v theo lung. qung b, truyn hnh theo yu cu thc, lung
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Nhm 25 - LP L10CQVT11-B video cht lng cao.

m nhc

Dch v radio tng t v ti Lu tr v ti xung m v ton b bi. nhc cht lng cao.

Tin nhn ni dung Nhn tin peer to peer nh Phn b trn phm vi v phng tin s dng ni dung bn th ba rng cc on video, cng nh l tng tc vi dch v karaoke, qung phng tin khc. co di ng da trn video. M-thng mi t cc giao dch (bao gm c in thoi di ng nh nh bc) v phng tin chi tr trn mng di ng l thit b chi tr, vi chi tit v s chi tr c ti trn cc mng tc cao cho php hon thin cc giao dch tc cao. Mng s liu di Truy nhp cc mng Internet ng ni b v c s d liu cng nh l s dng cc ng dng nh CRM. Truyn tp P2P, cc ng dng kinh doanh, chia s ng dng, truyn thng M2M, mng Internet ni b/mng ni b m rng di ng Bng 3. Dch v v ng dng ca LTE

Vo ngy 19/12/2007, hng Nokia Siemens Networks cng b th nghim thnh cng cng ngh LTE vi tc ln n 173 Mb/s trong mi trng th vi nhiu thu bao cng lc. Trn bng tn 2,6 GHz vi 20MHz bng thng, tc ny vt xa tc yu cu l 100 Mbps. Gim c k thut ca hng, ng Stephan Scholz pht biu: Khi th gii tin gn n con s 5 t thu bao vo nm 2015, theo tin on ca chng ti, cc nh cung cp dch v di ng s phi s dng tt c cc bng tn vi mt cu trc mng
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Nhm 25 - LP L10CQVT11-B

n gin nht v hiu qu chi ph cao nht phc v lu lng lin lc cao hn 100 ln. Cuc th nghim thc t ny l mt chng minh ban u quan trng cho khi nim v LTE. Cuc gi thoi u tin gia 2 in thoi LTE c trnh din vo Hi ngh Th gii di ng (Mobile World Congress) c t chc vo thng 2/2008 ti Barcelona, Ty Ban Nha. Vo thng 3 va qua, mng NTT DoCoMo th nghim LTE t n tc 250Mbps.Ti cc trin lm vin thng quc t gn y, cc nh sn xut Huawei, Motorola, Ericsson cng biu din LTE vi cc ng dng nh xem tivi cht lng cao HDTV, chi game online Cc cuc th nghim v trnh din ny chng t kh nng thng mi ha LTE n rt gn.

CHNG 3 : KIN TRC GIAO THC CA 4G-LTE


Tng quan v kin trc giao thc LTE cho ng xung c minh ha trong hnh 3.1. Kin trc giao thc LTE lin quan n ng ln tng t vi kin trc ng xung ,v cng c mt s s khc bit v s la chn nh dng truyn ti (transport format selection) v truyn dn a anten (multi-antenna transmission). D liu c truyn trn ng xung di dng cc gi IP trn mt trong nhng ti tin SAE (SAE bearers). Trc khi truyn i qua giao din v tuyn, nhng gi IP n (incoming IP packets) s i qua nhiu phn t.

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Hnh 3.1 Kin trc giao thc LTE (ng xung) Giao thc hi t s liu gi (Packet Data Convergence ProtocolPDCP): thc hin vic nn tiu IP (IP header) lm gim s lng bit cn thit cho vic truyn dn thng qua giao din v tuyn. C ch nn tiu da trn ROHC, mt thut ton nn tiu tiu chun c s dng trong WCDMA cng nh l trong cc tiu chun thng tin di ng khc. PDCP cng m nhim vic m ha v bo v tnh ton vn ca d liu c truyn i. Ti pha thu, giao thc PDCP s thc hin cng vic gii nn v gii m thng tin. Ch c mt phn t PDCP trn mt ti tin v tuyn c cu hnh cho mt thit b u cui di ng. iu khin lin kt v tuyn (Radio Link Control - RLC): m nhim vic phn on / ghp ni, iu khin vic truyn li v phn pht ln cc lp cao hn theo th t. Khng ging nh WCDMA, giao thc RLC c nh v trong eNodeB v. ch c mt loi node n trong kin trc mng truy nhp v tuyn LTE (LTE radio access network architecture).RLC cung cp cc dch v cho PDCP di dng cc ti tin v tuyn.Ch c mt phn t RLC trn mt ti tin v tuyn c cu hnh cho mt thit b u cui di ng. iu khin truy cp mi trng (Medium Access Control - MAC): iu khin vic truyn li hybrid-ARQ v hoch nh ng ln, ng xung. Chc nng hoch nh c nh v trong eNodeB, v n ch c mt phn t MAC cho mt t bo, cho c ng ln v ng xung.Phn giao thc hybrid ARQ c
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GVHD: NGUYN VIT M

CHUYN THNG TIN V TUYN

Nhm 25 - LP L10CQVT11-B

mt trong c u cui pht v thu ca giao thc MAC. Khi MAC cung cp cc dch v cho RLC di dng cc knh logic. Lp vt l (Physical layer PHY): iu khin vic m ha / gii m,iu ch / gii iu ch, nh x a anten (multi antenna mapping), v cc chc nng lp vt l. tiu biu khc. Lp vt l cung cp dch v cho lp MAC di dng cc knh chuyn ti (transport channels).Nhng phn sau s cung cp nhng m t chi tit hn v cc giao thc RLC v MAC ca LTE cng nh l tng quan v lp vt l khi c nhn t lp MAC. 3.1. PDCP: Packet Data Convergence Protocol - Giao thc hi t s liu gi Hnh 3.2: S m t cc thnh phn ca phn mm PDCP:

Giao thc hi t s liu gi (Packet Data Convergence Protocol-PDCP): thc hin vic nn tiu IP (IP header) lm gim s lng bit cn thit cho vic truyn dn thng qua giao din v tuyn. C ch nn tiu da trn ROHC, mt thut ton nn tiu tiu chun c s dng trong WCDMA cng nh l trong cc tiu chun thng tin di ng khc. PDCP cng m nhim vic m ha v bo v tnh ton vn ca d liu c truyn i. Ti pha thu, giao thc PDCP s thc hin cng vic gii nn v gii m thng tin. Ch c mt phn t PDCP trn mt ti tin v tuyn c cu hnh cho mt thit b u cui di ng.
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Nhm 25 - LP L10CQVT11-B

3.2. RLC: radio link control - iu khin lin kt v tuyn RLC LTE m nhim vic phn on (nn tiu ) cc gi IP t PDCP thnh nhng n v nh hn. RLC LTE iu khin vic truyn li cc PDUs b nhn nhm, cng nh l xa b nhng PDUs b nhn i (duplicate removal) v ghp ni cc PDUs nhn c. Cui cng, RLC s m bo vic phn pht theo trnh t cc RLC SDUs ln cc lp bn trn. C ch truyn li RLC c trch nhim cung cp d liu phn pht khng b li cho cc lp cao hn. Mt giao thc truyn li hot ng gia cc phn t RLC ti u thu v u pht, bng vic gim st cc s th t i n (incoming sequence numbers), RLC thu c th pht hin ra nhng PDUs b thiu. Cc bo co trng thi s c phn hi tr v RLC pht, yu cu truyn li cc PDUs b thiu. Khi phn hi mt trng thi bo co c cu hnh, mt bo co c trng ch cha thng tin v PDUs v c truyn i. Da trn bo co trng thi thu c, phn t RLC ti u pht c th a ra nhng hnh ng thch hp v truyn li nhng PDUs b thiu nu c yu cu. Khi RLC c cu hnh yu cu truyn li cc PDUs b thiu, n ang hot ng trong ch bo nhn (Acknowledged Mode - AM). Thng thng AM c s dng cho cc dch v da trn TCP nh khi truyn tp tin m yu t phn pht d liu khng b li c t ln hng u.

Hnh 3.3: Phn on v hp on RLC RLC cng c th c cu hnh theo ch khng bo nhn (Unacknowledged Mode - UM) v ch trong sut (Transparent Mode - TM). Trong ch UM, RLC s cung cp vic phn pht ng th t ln cc lp cao hn, nhng s khng truyn li cc PDUs b thiu. Thng thng UM c s dng cho nhng dch v nh VoIP khi m vic phn pht khng li khng quan trng bng thi gian phn pht ngn. TM, mc d c h tr, nhng ch s dng cho nhng mc ch ring bit nh truy cp ngu nhin. RLC c kh nng kim sot li truyn dn do nhiu, s bin i knh truyn khng th d on (unpredictable channel variations), nhng trong hu ht trng hp nhng li ny c kim sot bi giao thc hybrid-ARQ da trn MAC. Vic s
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GVHD: NGUYN VIT M

CHUYN THNG TIN V TUYN

Nhm 25 - LP L10CQVT11-B

dng c ch truyn li trong RLC c th v vy m tr nn khng cn thit. Tuy nhin, khng phi trng hp no cng vy v vic s dng c hai c ch truyn li da trn MAC v RLC trn thc t cng c mt tch cc khi m c s khc nhau trong vic truyn tn hiu phn hi. RLC cung cp kh nng kim sot li v kim sot nng lng chc nng ti lp lin kt gia cc trm di ng MS v b iu khin trm gc BSC trong cc mng WCDMA. Ty thuc vo mng cu hnh, s tr gia MS v BSC thng thay i t 30100ms. Khi RLC hot ng trong ch Tha nhn (RLC-AM), RLC nhn gi bo co tnh trng pht RLC kim sot lung d liu. Cc bo co ny cha s th t ca cc gi tin nhn c v mt tch (ACKs v NACKs). Cc bit thm d kin nm trong tiu RLC-AM. Cc my pht c th thit lp cc cuc thm d nh k khi n truyn ti PDU mi nht trong b m truyn ti, hoc khi b m thi gian cuc thm d ht hn v mt bo co trng thi khng nhn c. Khi mt bo co trng thi c gi bi ngi nhn , bo co tip theo khng nn c gi trc t nht mt RTT (Round Trip Time-thi gian tr vng). iu ny l do mi bo co tnh trng c cha NACKs tng ng vi tt c cc gi tin b thiu, truyn li gi mo c th c kch hot nu c thi giani cho php cho truyn li. RLC s dng mt c ch trng thi cm iu chnh vic truyn ti cc bo co tnh trng, b m thi gian trng thi cm c thit lp mt gi tr di hn RTT trung bnh. iu ny cho php cc RLC thc hin truyn li trc khi mt NACK mi c to ra. Phng php ny c hai nhc im ln. Mt l vic tr hon thng bo NACK cho cc gi d liu b mt c xc nh sau khi bo co trng thi cui cng c gi, lm tng thi gian phc hi li. Phi mt mt thi gian nht nh gia cc pht hin ca mt gi d liu b mt v truyn NACK tng ng, thi gian ch i ny hon ton d tha v s c thm vo thi gian phc hi li. Nhc im th hai l vic tr hon thng bo v cc gi tin nhn c (ACK) c th lm ngng vic truyn PDU mi. Trong n lc gii quyt cc vn lin quan n c ch bo co tnh trng RLC, Qualcom trnh ngh tiu chun ha 3GPP RAN WG2. V c bn, cc tng chnh l tch ACK v NACK, khi nhn thng bo mt PDU mt tch, mt tin nhn NACK c gi cho pha pht cha ch s th t c th ca PDU ny. Lm nh vy, thi gian phc hi li c gim xung. RLC cng chu trch nhim vic phn on v ghp ni. Da trn quyt nh ca scheduler (scheduler decision), mt lng d liu no c la chn truyn i t b m RLC SDU v cc SDUs s c phn on/ghp ni to thnh RLC PDU. i vi LTE, kch thc RLC PDU thay i mt cch ng (varies
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dynamically), Khi tc d liu cao, kch thc PDU ln dn n phn mo u nh hn tng ng, khi tc d liu thp, i hi kch thc PDU nh nu khng th ti trng s tr nn qu ln. V vy, khi tc d liu nm trong khong t mt vi kbit/s ti trn mt trm Mbit/s, kch thc PDU ng (dynamic PDU sizes) s c iu chnh bi LTE.

3.3. iu khin truy nhp mi trng MAC(Medium Access Control) -Lp iu khin truy nhp mi trng MAC c nhim v: + X l ghp knh logic. +Cc pht li HARQ . +Lp biu ng ln v ng xung. 3.3.1 Cc knh logic v cc knh truyn ti a)Knh logic MAC cung cp dch v cho RLC trong dng cc knh logic.Knh logic c nh ngha bi kiu thng tin n mang;c nhim v truyn dn thng tin iu khin v cu hnh cn thit vn hnh h thng LTE. Cc knh logic ca LTE bao gm: Knh iu khin qung b (Broadcast Control Channel - BCCH): c s dng cho vic truyn dn thng tin iu khin h thng t mng ti tt c cc thit b u cui di ng trong mt t bo. Trc khi truy nhp vo h thng, mt thit b u cui di ng cn phi c nhng thng tin c truyn trn knh BCCH tm ra cch thc h thng c cu hnh, v d nh bng thng ca h thng. Knh iu khin tm gi (Paging Control Channel PCCH): c s dng cho vic tm gi ca cc thit b u cui di ng m mng khng bit c v tr ca n v mc t bo (cell level) v v vy tin nhn tm gi cn c truyn trong nhiu t bo. Knh iu khin dnh ring (Dedicated Control Channel DCCH): c dng cho vic truyn dn thng tin iu khin ti hoc t thit b u cui di ng. Knh ny c s dng cho vic cu hnh ring l tng thit b u cui di ng v d nh nhng tin nhn chuyn giao khc nhau.

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Knh iu khin multicast (Multicast Control Channel - MCCH): c dng cho vic truyn dn thng tin iu khin c yu cu cho vic tip nhn ca MTCH. Knh lu lng dnh ring (Dedicated Traffic Channel - DTCH): c dng cho vic truyn d liu ngi dng n hoc t mt thit b u cui di ng. y l 1 loi knh logic c dng truyn d liu ngi dng ng ln v ng xung phi-MBMS (non-MBMS). Knh lu lng multicast (Multicast Traffic Channel MTCH): c dng cho truyn dn ng xung nhng dch v MBMS. b)Tp cc knh truyn ti c nh ngha trong LTE bao gm: Knh qung b (BCH:Broadcast Channel) c mt nh dng truyn ti c nh, c cung cp bi cc c tnh k thut. N c dng cho vic truyn dn nhng thng tin trn knh logic BCCH. Knh tm gi(PCH Paging channe): c dng cho vic paging thng tin trn knh logic PCCH. Knh PCH h tr vic thu nhn khng lin tc (discontinous reception DRX) nhm cho php thit b u cui di ng tit kim nng lng pin bng cch ng (sleeping) v ch thc (wake up) khi nhn PCH ti nhng thi im xc nh trc. C ch paging c m t c phn chi tit hn trong chng 5. Knh chia s ng xung Downlink Shared Channel (DL-SCH): l knh truyn ti c dng cho truyn dn d liu ng xung trong LTE. N h tr nhng c tnh ca LTE nh c ch thch ng tc ng (dynamic rate adaption) v hoch nh ph thuc knh truyn (channel-dependent scheduling) trong min thi gian v tn s, hybrid ARQ, v ghp knh khng gian (spatial multiplexing). N cng h tr DRX nhm lm gim nng lng tiu th thit b u cui di ng trong khi vn cung cp tri nghim lun m (always-on experience), tng t nh c ch CPC trong HSPA. DL-SCH TTI l 1 ms. Knh multicast Multicast Channel (MCH): c dng h tr MBMS v c c trng bi nh dng truyn ti bn tnh v hoch nh bn tnh (semi-static transport format and semi-static scheduling). Trong trng hp truyn dn nhiu t bo (multi-cell transmission) s dng MBSFN, cu hnh nh dng truyn ti v hoch nh c iu phi gia nhng t bo lin quan trong truyn dn MBSFN. Knh chia s ng ln Uplink shared channel (UL-SCH): l ng ln tng ng vi DL-SCH.

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Hnh 3.4:Th d v sp xp cc knh logic ln cc knh truyn ti 3.3.2 Hoch nh ng ln. Chc nng c bn ca scheduler ng ln th tng t vi ng xung, c th l vic quyt nh ng (dynamically determine) cho mi khong thi gian 1 ms, lc nhng thit b u cui di ng truyn d liu trn knh UL-SCH ca n thuc ti nguyn ng ln (uplink resources). Hoch nh ng ln cng c dng cho HSPA, nhng v c s khc nhau gia nhng s a truy nhp c s dng (the different multiple-access schemes), cho nn v kha cnh ny th HSPA v LTE c mt vi s khc bit ng k.

Hnh 3.5 : Vic la chn inh dng truyn dn trong ng xung (bn tri ) v ng ln ( bn phi )

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Trong HSPA, ti nguyn chia s ng ln chnh l giao thoa cho php ti trm gc. Scheduler ng ln HSPA ch thit lp mt gii hn pha trn cho s lng giao thoa ng ln m thit b u cui di ng c php to ra. Da trn s gii hn ny, thit b u cui di ng s t ng la chn mt nh dng truyn dn thch hp. Chin thut ny r rng to ra s nhy cm cho ng ln khng trc giao m trong trng hp ny l HSPA. Mt thit b u cui di ng khng s dng tt c ti nguyn m n c cp s truyn ti mc nng lng thp hn, bng cch y c th lm gim c nhiu ni t bo (intra-cell interference). Do , ti nguyn chia s khng c s dng bi mt thit b u cui di ng c th c khai thc bi mt thit b u cui di ng khc thng qua vic ghp knh theo thng k (statistical multiplexing). V c ch la chn nh dng truyn ti c kt hp trong thit b u cui di ng i vi ng ln HSPA, cho nn cn phi c bo hiu ngoi bng khai bo cho eNodeB bit v s la chn c to ra. i vi LTE, ng ln th trc giao v ti nguyn chia s c iu khin bi scheduler eNodeB l nhng n v ti nguyn thi gian tn s. Mt ti nguyn c ch nh m khng c s dng trit bi mt thit b u cui di ng no th phn ti nguyn cn li cng khng th cung cp cho mt thit b u cui di ng khc s dng. V th, do ng ln trc giao, m li gim i ng k trong vic cho thit b u cui di ng la chn nh dng truyn ti khi c so snh vi HSPA. Cho nn, ngoi vic cp pht ti nguyn thi giantn s cho thit b u cui di ng, scheduler eNodeB cn chu trch nhim vic iu khin nh dng truyn dn (kch thc ti trng, s iu ch) m thit b u cui di ng s s dng. Khi scheduler bit c nh dng truyn ti m thit b u cui di ng s dng lc n pht i th khng cn phi bo hiu ngoi bng t thit b u cui di ng ti eNodeB. Li nhun c c t phi cnh vng ph sng (coverage perspective) khi tnh n chi ph trn mi bit pht i ca thng tin iu khin ngoi bng c th cao hn ng k so vi chi ph truyn d liu khi tn hiu iu khin cn c thu vi mt tin cy cao hn. Mc d s tht l scheduler eNodeB s quyt nh nh dng truyn ti cho u cui di ng, nhng c mt iu quan trng cn lu l quyt nh hoch nh ng ln c a ra cho mi u cui di ng ch khng phi cho mi ti tin v tuyn (radio bearer). Nh vy, mc d scheduler eNodeB iu khin ti trng ca mt u cui di ng c hoch nh, th u cui vn chu trch nhim la chn t nhng ti tin v tuyn no m d liu c mang theo. Cho nn, u cui di ng s t ng iu khin vic ghp knh logic (logical-channel multiplexing). iu ny c minh ha trong phn bn phi ca hnh 3.4, ni m scheduler eNodeB iu khin nh dng truyn ti cn u cui di ng iu khin vic ghp knh logic. so snh, trong tnh hung ng
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xung tng ng, khi m eNodeB iu khin c nh dng truyn dn v ghp knh logic, c miu t bn tri hnh v. Ghp knh ti tin v tuyn (radio-bearer) trong u cui di ng c thc hin theo nhng quy tc, thng qua cc thng s m c th c cu hnh bi bo hiu RRC t eNodeB. Mi ti tin v tuyn c ch nh s u tin v tc bit u tin (prioritized bit rate). Sau u cui di ng s thc hin ghp knh sng mang v tuyn, nh vy cc sng mang v tuyn c x l theo th t u tin ty tc bit u tin ca chng. Nhng ti nguyn cn li, nu c, sau khi hon thnh tc bit u tin s c a n nhng sng mang v tuyn theo th t u tin. tr gip cho scheduler ng ln trong mi quyt nh ca n, u cui di ng c th pht i thng tin hoch nh (scheduling information) ti eNode bng cch s dng mt tin nhn MAC. R rng, thng tin ny ch c th c truyn i nu u cui di ng va c cp mt chn nhn hoch nh hp l (a valid scheduling grant). i vi nhng trng hp khc, mt ch th khi m u cui di ng cn ti nguyn ng ln s c cung cp nh mt phn ca kin trc bo hiu iu khin ng ln L1/L2 (the uplink L1/L2 control-signaling structure), Hoch nh ph thuc knh truyn thng c s dng cho ng xung. Trn l thuyt, k thut ny cng c th c s dng cho ng ln. Tuy nhin, vic nh gi cht lng knh truyn ng ln th khng n gin nh trng hp i vi ng xung. Tnh trng knh truyn ng xung c th c o lng bi tt c u cui di ng trong t bo ch n gin bng vic theo di tn hiu tham kho c truyn bi eNodeB v tt c cc u cui di ng c th chia s cng tn hiu tham kho cho mc ch nh gi cht lng knh truyn. Tuy nhin vic nh gi cht lng knh truyn ng ln li yu cu mt tn hiu tham kho thm d (a sounding reference signal) c truyn i t mi u cui di ng cho nhng eNodeB no mun nh gi cht lng knh truyn. Mt tn hiu tham kho thm d nh vy c h tr bi LTE s c m t thm trong chng 4, nhng iu ny li i km vi vn tng chi ph. V vy, nhng phng php c cung cp cho phn tn ng ln s tr nn quan trng nh l mt phn b sung hoc thay th cho k thut hoch nh ph thuc knh truyn ng ln. 3.3.3 Hoch nh ng xung.
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Mt trong nhng nguyn l c bn ca truy nhp v tuyn LTE l vic truyn dn chia s knh truyn trn DL-SCH v UL-SCH, ngha l ti nguyn thi gian v tn s c chia s ng gia nhng ngi dng trong c ng ln v ng xung. Scheduler l mt phn ca lp MAC v n iu khin vic phn b ti nguyn ng ln v ng xung. Hoch nh ng ln v ng xung c tch ri trong LTE v nhng quyt nh phn b ng ln, ng xung c th c a ra c lp ln nhau (trong nhng gii hn c thit lp bi s phn chia UL/DL i vi hot ng TDD). Hoch nh ng ln s c bn n trong mc 3.3.2, trong khi phn cn li ca mc ny s tp trung vo hoch nh ng xung. Nguyn tc c bn cho scheduler ng xung l quyt nh ng (dynamically determine), trong mi khong thi gian 1 ms, nhng thit b u cui no c php thu truyn dn DL-SCH v trn nhng ti nguyn g. Nhiu thit b u cui c th c hoch nh song song, trong mi trng hp ch c 1 DLSCH trn mi thit b u cui c hoch nh, v n s c nh x ng (dynamically mapped) ti mt tp hp ti nguyn tn s duy nht. n v thi gian-tn s c bn trong scheduler cn c gi l khi ti nguyn (resource block). Cc khi ti nguyn c m t chi tit hn trong chng 4 cng vi vic nh x d liu ti ti nguyn vt l, nhng v nguyn tc c bn th mt khi ti nguyn l 1 n v rng 180 kHz trong min tn s. Trong mi khong thi gian hoch nh 1ms, scheduler s phn b cc khi ti nguyn cho mt thit b u cui tip nhn vic truyn dn DL-SCH, mt s phn b c s dng bi tin trnh lp vt l s c m t trong phn sau. Scheduler cng m trch vic la chn kch thc khi truyn ti (transport-block). Nh l mt h qu ca vic scheduler iu khin tc d liu, m s phn on RLC v ghp knh MAC cng s b nh hng bi quyt nh phn b (scheduling decision). u ra t scheduler ng xung c th c nhn thy trong hnh 3.1. Mc d chin lc hoch nh (scheduling strategy) l mt c trng b sung v khng c ch nh bi 3GPP, mc tiu chung ca hu ht nhng scheduler l li dng s thay i knh truyn gia nhng thit b u cui di ng v u tin hoch nh truyn dn cho thit b u cui di ng trn nhng ti nguyn c iu kin knh truyn thun li. V mt ny, hot ng ca scheduler LTE v c bn th tng t vi scheduler ng xung trong HSDPA. Tuy nhin, v s dng s truyn dn ng xung OFDM, LTE c th khai thc s bin i knh truyn trong c min thi gian v tn s, trong khi HSDPA ch c th
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khai thc s bin i trong min thi gian. iu ny c cp n trong chng 2 v c minh ha qua hnh 2.1. i vi nhng bng thng ln hn c h tr bi LTE, khi m lng fading la chn tn s (frequency-selective fading) s thng xuyn xy ra, kh nng khai thc s bin i knh ca min tn s ca scheduler s tr nn cng quan trng khi so vi vic ch khai thc s bin i trn min thi gian. c bit ti nhng tc thp, khi m s bin i trong min thi gian l tng i chm so vi yu cu v tr c t ra bi nhiu dch v, lc ny kh nng khai thc c s bin i min tn s s tr nn c li. Thng tin v trng thi knh truyn ng xung, cn thit cho vic hoch nh ph thuc knh truyn, c phn hi t thit b u cui di ng ti eNodeB thng qua nhng bo co cht lng knh truyn (channel-quality reports). Bo co cht lng knh truyn, cn c bit nh B ch th cht lng knh truyn (Channel-Quality Indicator), bao gm nhng thng tin khng ch v cht lng knh truyn hin thi trong min tn s, m cn nhng thng tin cn thit cho vic a ra nhng quyt nh x l anten thch hp trong trng hp phn knh khng gian. C s cho nhng bo co CQI l vic o lng nhng tn hiu tham chiu ng xung (the downlink reference signals). Tuy nhin, nhng ngun ph v hin trng knh truyn, v d nh s trao i knh truyn trong hot ng TDD, cng c khai thc bng cch ci t mt scheduler ring bit nh mt s b sung cho nhng bo co CQI. Ngoi cht lng knh truyn, mt scheduler hiu nng cao cng phi cn nhc n tnh trng b m (buffer status) v mc u tin trong quyt nh phn b (decision scheduling). C nhng khc nhau v loi dch v cng nh l loi thu bao (subscription type) c th gy nh hng n u tin khi hoch nh. V d, mt ngi dng voice-over-IP vi mt ng k thu bao t tin phi lun c duy tr cht lng dch v cho d ti trng h thng ang mc cao, trong khi mt ngi dng ng k thu bao chi ph thp (a low-cost subscription) ang ti v mt file c th phi c tha mn vi nhng ti nguyn m khng c yu cu h tr cho nhng ngi dng khc. S iu phi nhiu, s thc hin vic iu khin nhiu lin t bo trn c s chm (slow basis) c cp n trong chng 2, cng l mt phn ca scheduler. Khi chin lc hoch nh khng c y nhim bi nhng c tnh k thut, s iu phi nhiu (nu c s dng) l c th ca nh khai thc v c th nm trong phm vi t nhng trin khai ti s dng bc cao n gin (simple higher-order reuse deployments) ti nhng s tin tin hn.
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3.3.4 Hybrid ARQ Hybird ARQ vi kt hp mm trong LTE p ng mt mc ch tng t vi c ch hybird-ARQ trong HSPA l cung cp sc chu ng chng li cc li truyn dn. N cng l mt cng c nng cao nng sut. Khi m nhng c ch truyn li hybird-ARQ l nhanh, nhiu dch v cho php mt hoc nhiu s truyn li, bng cch thit lp mt c ch iu khin tc n (vng lp kn) (an implicit (closed loop) rate-control mechanism). Tng t vi phng php trong HSPA, giao thc hybrid-ARQ l mt phn ca lp MAC, trong khi hot ng kt hp mm c iu khin bi lp vt l. R rng, hybrid ARQ khng c p dng cho tt c cc dng lu lng. V d, truyn dn broadcast, khi m nhng thng tin ging nhau c dnh cho nhiu ngi dng, thng thng khng ph thuc vo hybrid ARQ. V vy, hybrid ARQ ch c h tr cho DL-SCH v UL-SCH. Giao thc hybrid ARQ trong LTE ging vi giao thc tng ng c s dng cho HSPA, l vic s dng nhiu tin trnh stop-and-wait song song. Trong lc tip nhn nhng khi truyn ti, u thu s tm cch gii m khi truyn ti v khai bo cho u pht v kt qu ca hot ng gii m thng qua mt bit n ACK/NAK ch th vic gii m c thnh cng hay khng hoc truyn li khi truyn ti nu c yu cu. Nhng chi tit khc v truyn dn ACK/NAK trong ng xung v ng ln s c tm thy trong chng 4. ti thiu ha chi ph, mt bit n ACK/NAK c s dng. R rng, u thu phi bit bit ACK/NAK thu c c lin kt vi tin trnh hybid-ARQ no. Hn na, iu ny c gii quyt bng cch s dng cng mt phng php nh trong HSPA khi thi im ca ACK/NAK c s dng kt hp ACK/NAK vi mt tin trnh hybrid-ARQ no . iu ny c minh ha trong hnh 3.6. Ch rng, i vi trng hp hot ng TDD, mi quan h v thi gian gia vic tip nhn d liu trong mt tin trnh hybrid-ARQ no v vic truyn dn ACK/NAK th khng b nh hng bi s phn b ng ln/ng xung. Tng t vi HSPA, mt giao thc khng ng b l c s cho hot ng hybrid-ARQ ng xung. V vy, s truyn li ng xung c th xy ra ti mi thi im sau khi vic truyn dn c khi to v mt con s tin trnh hybrid-ARQ tng minh (an explicit hybrid-ARQ process number) c s dng ch th tin trnh no ang c nh a ch (addressed). S truyn li ng ln, mt khc, li da trn mt giao thc ng b v s truyn li xy ra ti mt
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thi gian xc nh trc sau khi khi to qu trnh truyn dn v s tin trnh (process number) c th nhn c hon ton. Hai trng hp c minh ha trong hnh 3.5. Trong giao thc hybrid-ARQ khng ng b, s truyn li trn l thuyt c hoch nh tng t vi vic khi to qu trnh truyn dn. Mt khc trong giao thc ng b, thi im truyn li c c nh mt ln khi khi u qu trnh truyn dn c hoch nh, phi c tnh n cho hot ng hoch nh. Tuy nhin, ch rng scheduler s phn bit t phn t hybrid-ARQ trong eNodeB u cui di ng no s thc hin truyn li hay khng.

Hnh 3.6 Giao thc hybrid-ARQ ng b v khng ng b.

Hnh 3.7 Nhiu tin trnh hybrid-ARQ song song.


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Vic s dng nhiu tin trnh hybird-ARQ song song, c minh ha trong hnh 3.6, cho mi ngi dng c th dn n s khng lin tc v d liu c phn phi t c ch hybrid-ARQ. V d, khi truyn ti th 5 trong hnh c gii m thnh cng trc khi truyn ti th 3, khi m vic truyn li c yu cu. V vy, i hi phi c mt vi dng c ch sp xp li (some form of reordering mechanism). Sau khi gii m thnh cng, khi truyn ti c phn knh thnh cc knh logic thch hp v thc hin vic sp xp li trn mi knh logic bng cch s dng cc s th t (sequence numbers). Ngc li, HSPA dng mt con s th t MAC ring bit cho vic sp xp li. Nguyn nhn ca vic ny l do s ph tr cho WCDMA v nhng l do v vn tng thch ngc, kin trc RLC hoc MAC vn c gi nguyn khi gii thiu HSPA. Mt khc, i vi LTE, cc lp giao thc c thit k ng thi, dn n c t gii hn hn trong

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thit k. Tuy nhin, nguyn l ng sau s sp xp li th tng t i vi cc h thng, ch c s th t c s dng l khc nhau. C ch hybrid-ARQ s sa nhng li truyn dn do nhiu hoc do nhng bin i knh truyn khng d on c (noise or unpredictable channel variations). Nh c tho lun trn, RLC cng c kh nng yu cu truyn li, m khi mi nghe ln u th c v l khng cn thit. Tuy nhin, mc d s truyn li RLC him khi cn thit khi m c ch hybrid-ARQ da trn MAC c kh nng sa hu ht cc li truyn dn, nhng hybrid-ARQ i khi c th tht bi trong vic phn phi cc khi d liu m khng b li ti RLC, gy ra mt khong trng (gap) trong th t ca cc khi d liu khng li (error-free data blocks) c phn phi ti RLC. iu ny thng xy ra do tn hiu phn hi b sai, v d, mt NAK c th hin sai thnh mt ACK bi u pht, l nguyn nhn ca vic mt mt d liu. Xc sut xy ra iu ny c th trong khong 1%, mt xc sut li rt cao i vi nhng dch v da trn TCP yu cu vic phn phi cc gi TCP gn nh l khng c li. Mt cch c th hn, ngha l i vi nhng tc d liu c duy tr trn 100 Mbit/s th xc sut mt gi d liu chp nhn c phi thp hn 10-5. V c bn, TCP xem tt c cc li v gi d liu l do s tt nghn. Cc li v gi d liu v vy s kch hot c ch trnh tc nghn, vi mt s tng ln tng ng v tc d liu, v duy tr cht lng tt ti nhng tc d liu cao, RLC-AM s p ng mt mc tiu quan trng cho vic m bo phn phi d liu khng b li ti TCP. V vy, t nhng tho lun trn, l do c hai c ch truyn li nh trn c th c hiu r trong phn tn hiu phn hi. Tuy c ch hybrid-ARQ thc hin vic truyn li rt nhanh, n cng cn thit phi gi mt bit bo co tnh trng ACK/NAK ti u pht cng nhanh cng tt mt ln cho mi chu k TTI. Mc d trn l thuyt c th t c mt xc sut li thp theo mong mun v phn hi ACK/NAK, nhng nhng xc sut li rt thp li i km vi chi ph tng i cao v mt cng sut truyn dn ACK/NAK. Vic gi chi ph ny mt cch hp l thng thng dn n mt t l li phn hi (a feedback error rate) trong khong 1% v nh vy s quyt nh n t l li d hybrid-ARQ (the hybrid-ARQ residual error rate). Tuy nhng bo co trng thi RLC c pht i t thng xuyn ng k so vi ACK/NAK hybrid-ARQ, nhng chi ph ca vic t c tin cy 10-5 hoc thp l kh nh. V vy, vic phi hp hybrid ARQ vi RLC mang li mt s kt hp tt gia thi gian kh hi (roundtrip time) nh v chi ph phn hi va phi khi m hai
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V RLC v hybrid ARQ c nh v trong cng mt node, cho nn kh nng tng tc gia chng tr nn cht ch hn. V d, nu c ch hybrid-ARQ pht hin c mt li khng th phc hi, vic truyn mt bo co trng thi RLC c th ngay lp tc c kch hot thay v phi i pht i mt bo co trng thi theo nh k. iu ny s khin cho RLC truyn li cc PDUs b mt nhanh hn. Cho nn, trong mt mc no , vic kt hp hybrid ARQ v RLC c th xem nh l mt c ch truyn li vi hai c ch phn hi trng thi. Trn l thuyt, c cng mt s tranh lun c to ra i vi trng hp tng ng trong HSPA. Tuy nhin, vic RLC v hybrid ARQ c nh v ti nhng node khc nhau trong HSPA nhn chung s lm cho s tng tc gia chng tr nn khng cht ch.

3.4 PHY: physical layer - lp vt l Chc nng ca lp vt l l chu trch nhim cho vic m ha, x l hybrid-ARQ lp vt l (physical-layer hybrid-ARQ processing), iu ch, x l a anten (multiantenna processing), v nh x tn hiu ti nhng ti nguyn thi gian-tn s vt l thch hp. Mt ci nhn n gin v vic x l DL-SCH c a ra trong hnh 3.7.Cc khi lp vt l c iu khin ng (dynamically controlled) bi lp MAC c th hin bng mu xm, cn nhng khi vt l c cu hnh bn tnh c th hin bng mu trng.

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Nhm 25 - LP L10CQVT11-B

Hnh 3.8 M hnh x l lp vt l n gin cho DL-SCH Khi mt u cui di ng c hoch nh trong mt chu k TTI trn knh DLSCH, lp vt l s nhn mt khi truyn ti (hai khi truyn ti trong trng hp ghp knh khng gian) mang d liu truyn i. Vi mi khi truyn ti, mt CRC s c nh km v mi khi truyn ti c nh km CRC nh vy c m ha ring bit vi nhau. Tc m ha knh, bao gm tc ph hp cn thit, hon ton c quyt nh bi kch thc khi truyn ti, s iu ch (the modulation scheme), v lng ti nguyn c cp pht cho vic truyn dn. Tt c nhng i lng ny c la chn bi scheduler ng xung. Phin bn d tha (redundancy version) c dng c iu khin bi giao thc hybrid- ARQ v n s tc ng n qu trnh x l thch ng tc (the rate matching processing) to ra tp hp cc bit c m ha chnh xc. Cui cng, trong trng hp ghp knh khng gian, vic nh x anten cng c iu khin bi scheduler ng xung.

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GVHD: NGUYN VIT M

CHUYN THNG TIN V TUYN

Nhm 25 - LP L10CQVT11-B

Hnh 3.9 M hnh x l lp vt l n gin cho UL-SCH u cui di ng c hoch nh thu tn hiu c pht i v thc hin tin trnh lp vt l ngc li. Lp vt l ti u cui di ng cng thng bo cho giao thc hybrid-ARQ bit vic truyn dn c c gii m thnh cng hay khng. Thng tin ny c s dng bi mt phn ca chc nng MAC hybrid-ARQ trong u cui di ng quyt nh c yu cu truyn li hay khng. Vic x l lp vt l i vi knh UL-SCH gn ging vi vic x l DL-SCH. Tuy nhin, ch rng scheduler MAC trong eNodeB chu trch nhim la chn nh dng truyn ti cho u cui di ng v ti nguyn c s dng cho truyn dn ng ln nh c miu t trong mc 3.2.3. Vic x l lp vt l UL-SCH c th hin di dng n gin qua hnh 3.8. Cc knh truyn ti ng xung cn li cng da trn cng mt quy trnh x l lp vt l chung nh DL-SCH, mc d c mt s gii hn trong tp hp nhng tnh nng c s dng. i vi vic qung b thng tin h thng trn knh BCH, mt u cui di ng phi c kh nng thu c knh thng tin ny nh l mt trong nhng bc u tin trc khi truy cp vo h thng. Do , nh dng truyn ti phi
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GVHD: NGUYN VIT M

CHUYN THNG TIN V TUYN

Nhm 25 - LP L10CQVT11-B

c u tin gi ti cc thit b u cui, v s khng c mt s iu khin ng t ng (dynamic control) no ti cc tham s truyn dn t lp MAC trong trng hp ny. i vi truyn dn cc thng ip nhn gi (paging messages) trn knh PCH, s thch ng ng ca cc tham s truyn dn c th c s dng trong mt vi phm vi. Ni chung, vic x l trong trng hp ny th tng t vi vic x l DL-SCH thng thng. MAC c th iu khin vic iu ch, lng ti nguyn, v nh x anten. Tuy nhin, trong trng hp ng ln cha c thit lp khi mt u cui di ng c tm gi, th hybrid ARQ khng th c s dng v lc ny u cui di ng khng th pht i mt thng bo ACK/NAK. Knh MCH c dng cho truyn dn MBMS, in hnh l nhng hot ng mng n tn s bng vic truyn t nhiu t bo trn cng ti nguyn vi nh dng ging nhau ti cng 1 thi im. V vy, vic hoch nh truyn dn MCH phi c iu phi gia nhng t bo lin quan v c ch la chn t ng tham s truyn dn bi MAC l khng th thc hin c.

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GVHD: NGUYN VIT M

CHUYN THNG TIN V TUYN

Nhm 25 - LP L10CQVT11-B

KT LUN
Cng ngh LTE v ang c tip tc nghin cu v trin khai trn ton th gii vi kh nng truyn d liu tc cao, kin trc mng n gin, s dng bng tn hiu qu v hon ton tng thch vi cc h thng trc (GSM & WCDMA ) v da trn mt mng ton IP. LTE c th tr thnh h thng thng tin di ng ton cu trong tng lai. LTE pht trin sau so vi WiMax, nhng vi cc c tnh tuyt vi m n mang li, hin nay c rt nhiu cc nh mng ln trn th gii la chn trin khai. Ti Vit Nam, cc nh mng cng tin hnh th nghim cng ngh LTE v t nhng kt qu kh quan. V vy vic tm hiu v nm bt cng ngh LTE l vic lm ht sc cn thit trong ngnh vin thng hin nay.

TI LIU THAM KHO:


o o o o

Gio trnh Thng tin di ng tc gi Nguyn Phm Anh Dng Bi ging truyn dn v tuyn s - tc gi Nguyn Vit m Bi ging Tin trnh pht trin h thng thng tin di ng t 1G ln 4G tc gi Nguyn Phm Anh Dng Cc trang web : http://www.tapchibcvt.gov.vn/News/PrintView.aspx?ID=22272 http://www.vienthongdanang.com.vn/dichvu.php?id_dichvu=120&iddv=26 http://www.thongtincongnghe.com/article/2745 Cng 1 s ngun ti liu cc n , chuyn vin thng trn internet khc.

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GVHD: NGUYN VIT M