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INTRODUCTION:Production management is concerned with the transformation of inputs into goods and/or services. Traditionally materials, men and machinery were considered to be the resource. But present trends show that technology is an important into resource to production. Technology breakthroughs can control both capital and labor. Modern production management is a multidisciplinary approach which integrates the knowledge of science, technology, engineering and management. This integration is possible only through the innovative and creative spirit of man. Modern technology is immensely complex and knowledge-based requiring manpower of a very high level of scientific and technical capability. Rapid changes in technology will not only make competition severe but also uncertain. Successful managers can convert such challenges into opportunities, by their creative thoughts and innovative actions. The success stories of Japan, Korea and Taiwan have defied many myths of the conventional concepts of production management. Many people have a very limited understanding of production. They believe that production means consuming or combining various inputs, mainly material, labor, machine to manufacture another value added product. This view of production is incomplete. If this idea about production is accepted, a very big segment of economy, i.e. service sector is kept out of the scope of Production. Hence a Russian writer Alexander Solzhenitsyn in his novel August 1914 gives another comprehensive modern definition: In relation to physical goods, Production means manufacturing an object using various inputs like raw material, power, labor, capital & machines. In relation to services, production means discharge of any function which has got some utility. Now what is production management? Everett Adams has defined production management as A management of conversion process in which various inputs like material, labor, machine, & technical knowledge are converted in value added goods & services.

To say about the scope of production management it is wide. Production management is applicable to Manufacturing sector Service sector Retailing & trading Agriculture To understand demand forecast of finished goods. To prepare MPS, MRP & CRP. To help in capital purchase decision. To help the management in taking strategic decisions. To inter-act with other heads of department.

Productivity can be increased by optimum utilization of resources. A high level of productivity yields more goods at lower costs. This will lead to a lowering in the prices of goods, and in general improve the quality of life.


Production planning in an organization is referred as an involvement of an overall manufacturing and operating system into finished product. In KRISHNA GARMENTS, several activities of production department go on. Raw material cloths receipt at factory Raw material cloths inspection Accepted Raw material cloths sent for Processing after Doing necessary formalities Actual Processing Processed garments dispatch


MATERIAL RECEIPT AND MATERIAL ISSUE PROCEDURE:All the textiles industries are having a same procedure and very simple procedure for material receipt. At first big textiles industries are getting R.M., Raw materials for Krishna garments are as follows:DESIGNED CLOTH RAW MATERIAL: The raw material required in Krishna garments to make their products are the plain cloths or designed cloths for shirt and t-shirts and the raw jeans cloth for making pants. These raw materials are ordered from outside. So it is necessary for the company to keep its stock as the supply may gets delayed and at that time at least they can use stored raw material , so that the production doesnt stop. The company keeps it stock up till the limit of 15 days. If there is delay in supply of raw material then they can work on with the stored raw material. The company purchases the raw material on the basis of the quality of the raw material, its price and ccording to the latest trend.


In this point we can just write that for material receipt documents related to the receipt of material is prepared and maintained and in issue documents related material issue is prepared carefully so that at the time of any other problem it can be presented as the evidences for all the parties participating in the business. Documents are prepared orally by the top mgt., and it is not to be shown to the strangers or anyone who is an outsiders.

PURCHASE PROCEDURE:Purchase procedure is quite same to that of material receipt procedure but only the difference is that in material receipt procedure we do not need to give orders related to receipt, only receipt related documents are prepared. But in the purchase procedure we have to place the purchase orders and purchase request to the providers and then after our deal becomes final. All other documents related to the purchase is prepared to keep records and for evidences also.


Material Handling is defined as control movement of material, from receipt, through storage and production and up to shipment of finished product. For which things material handling is necessary As definition suggests it is concern with storage and internal movement of following types of material. Raw Material Work in progress inventory Finished Products Surplus & Waste Capital Equipments

Types & Classes of Material Handling Equipments in the company :People or manager who design plant layout or material handling system should be aware of material handling equipments available in the market.


Classification on the basis of sources of power:-

Equipments can be eclectically, can be powered, powered by any fuel manually, driver or may be using natural forces like Gravity. There are certain special production operation which puts restrictions on selection on source of power For e.g. on the day of power staggering or at the time of shortage of electric power, the firm is using diesel operated generators.

(b) Classification on the basis of purpose of handing :There are two broad objectives of handling namely storage and transportation. Storage device like racks and cupboards to store materials, documents and books etc.

The production process of Krishna garments is the simplest in all production process. The company consists of nearly 75 sewing machines on which the raw materials that are the cloths are stitched and designed in different different patterns. There are 80 people hired to stitch the clothes. They work according to the patterns and designs provided to them.

When the raw material is received the sewing of clothes starts as per the given design and the pattern. Then these clothes, when prepared in to a final product that is shirt or tshirt or pants are packed and covered in to plastics and then in to cardboard boxes.


If the finished goods send to the party without packing, this involves great risk of goods being damaged during transportation or due to some other reason. & it is also possible that the party may ask to pack the goods & send. Hence packing is very important. This firm also packs their goods & sends to the party. To pack their finished goods, this firm uses plastic bags. These bags are strong & reliable. This can be said as strong & hard plastic bag.


After packing, dispatching is done. In the folding department there is a huge window facing outside passage of the factory. There the tempo stands. Then the labor put the finished goods in the tempo through the window. In the mean time the bill is prepare at account office. This bill is prepared in three copies, one for the party (original), one for the firm which is signed & returned by the party (duplicate) & last one for the companys record (triplicate). This bill is passed to dispatcher & then the final good is transported to partys business place.

QUALITY:Quality is measure of sum totality of attributes properties/characteristics of a product or service which impart if functional or aesthetic value so as to satisfy the needs of end users/customers for a given price paid payable by them.

QUALITY CONTROL:Quality Control is system of policies, procedures and guide lines which establish and maintain the specified standards of quality, it includes all aspects of quality such as R&D (Research and Development), design parameters, inspection and analysis of current quality levels, future trends and also competitors quality levels, feedback from field performance of quality, choice of machines, tools, processes, technology etc., selection and training of production and inspection staff, corrective action and follow up etc.

IN PROCESS QUALITY CONTROL GUIDELINES:During its manufacturing process various strict instructions and quality guidelines is given to the employees related to the quality and quality standards. For this purpose, garments are to be observed frequently by quality control peoples to see the half-finished or semi-finished products.

DOCUMENTS RELATED TO QUALITY CONTROL:Documents related to quality and quality standards are prepared by quality assurance people generally. Quality standards are decided when orders come from the buyers that what kind of quality they demand and they want for the garment. Documents related to following things are prepared shortly.

Colour chart of garments Cut of raw material cloth. Clarity of design of raw materials. Design of dress materials.

Related documents are prepared and maintained very well.

INVENTORY VALUATION METHODS:Most of the garments values are decided by its color chart, clarity, fabrics, cut and design. Because most of the garments value depends on color, chart, clarity, fabrics, cut and design and these 3cs are decided by quality assurance department at raw material level or at finished products level. Only this valuation method is used at everywhere in the textiles industries because if the manager wants to decide the value. In some rare cases quality standards are also taken into consideration and after that price or value of dress material is determined.

For this, in small scale factories only top mgt., is doing maintenance planning by observing the various tools and techniques of producing the garments and technical machine of producing the different types of garments and if any damage or any problem is seen then repairs is done on weekly basis and oiling is also done on half monthly basis so that maintenance can be done very well of tools and techniques. In the Krishna garments special supervisors are appointed to observe the tools and techniques of printing and if damage is seen or problem is found then it are to be repaired and problem is solved. Apart from that weekly or monthly or daily basis repair is provided to the machines and tools whether there is a problem or not. Strict observations and employees complain is taken into consideration.


Since it is a textiles industry accept raw-material of cloth and other tools which are very few in numbers no extra tools and equipments are required. So fewer inventories of raw-material and tools are required to prepare the garments. And also there is no any benefit or advantage of keeping huge inventory as compared to the other industries because hardly it occurs that prices of cloyh R.M. goes up and it also does not make any difference if prices of diamonds goes up because according at higher price the finished products of the suits will be sold also at that proper control of inventories and proper restrictions on consumption become useless because of the above reasons given. But still it can be said that it depends on managers experience and skills otherwise implementation of ABC inventory control system is better than other system because it is only the inventory control system which can also be implemented garments material. Krishna garments is following this system. The storage department of Krishna garments in company area not far from the company. There are two godowns in the storage department. First is for raw material , Second is for finished goods.

The wastage occurred in the Krishna garments production process is generally of the cut cloths which are removed from the raw materials and those which are removed whole making the product. These wastage is disposed by burning it in some open place.