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MC LC MC LC..................................................................................................1 BNG CC CH VIT TT...................................................................3 LI NI U............................................................................................6


I. GII THIU CHUNG................................................................................................7 II. C IM CA TNG I IN T SPC........................................................7 III. NHIM V V CC TIU CHUN T RA I VI TNG I IN T SPC S....................................................................................................................9 3.1 Nhim v.............................................................................................................9 3.2. CC TIU CHUN C BN.........................................................................10 1. tin cy.............................................................................................................10 2. Cht lng tng i..............................................................................................10 3. Mi trng lm vic.............................................................................................14 4. Cc giao din........................................................................................................15 5. Cc dch v cung cp...........................................................................................15 6. Ch tiu v truyn dn. ........................................................................................16 7. Yu cu v ng h v ng b...........................................................................17 IV. CC DCH V CA TNG I SPC................................................................17 4.1. Chn s a tn:..................................................................................................17 4.2. Thu bao u tin:...............................................................................................17 4.3. Hn ch gi ra: (kho gi ra)............................................................................17 4.4. n cuc gi:....................................................................................................17 4.5. Quay s tt - Rt ngn thi gian chn s:........................................................18 4.6. Chuyn gi:.......................................................................................................18 4.7. Ngn quy ry:..................................................................................................18 4.8. Gi hi ngh:......................................................................................................18 4.9. Ch ri:..............................................................................................................18 4.10. Gi xen:...........................................................................................................18 4.11. Ti lp cuc gi:..............................................................................................18 4.12. Hi a ch:......................................................................................................18 4.13. u tin cuc gi cnh bo:.............................................................................18 4.14. Tnh cc ti nh:...........................................................................................19 4.15. Lp ho n tc th:........................................................................................19 4.16. Bt gi:............................................................................................................19 4.17. Dch v thng bo:..........................................................................................19 4.18. Lin lc trc tip.............................................................................................19 4.19. Nghip v ng dy t: (Host line)..............................................................19 4.20. Bo thc t ng:............................................................................................19 4.21. T chi cuc gi:............................................................................................19 4.22. Kho thit b:...................................................................................................20 4.23. Gi min cc:................................................................................................20

CHNG II. GII THIU V TNG I IN T SPC S............20


I. S NGUYN L CHUNG:..............................................................................20 II. NHIM V CA CC KHI CHC NNG CA TNG I SPC:..............21 2.1. Thit b giao tip:..............................................................................................21 2.2. Thit b chuyn mch:.......................................................................................22 2.3. B iu khin trung tm:...................................................................................23 2.4. Thit b ngoi vi chuyn mch:.........................................................................24

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2.5. Thit b ngoi vi bo hiu:................................................................................25 2.6. Thit b trao i ngi - my:...........................................................................26 2.7. Khi cung cp ngun:.......................................................................................26 2.8. Bus chung:.........................................................................................................26 III. X L GI............................................................................................................27 3.1. Phn tch mt cuc gi......................................................................................27 3.2. Cc chng trnh x l gi trong tng i SPC...............................................31 3.3. S liu thu bao.................................................................................................34 3.4. Phn tch phin dch v to tuyn.....................................................................35 3.5. Thit lp cuc gi ni ht.................................................................................36 3.6.Tnh cc............................................................................................................36

CHNG III: H THNG CHUYN MCH S................................39


I. GII THIU CHUNG V K THUT CHUYN MCH S............................39 II. H THNG CHUYN MCH S........................................................................39 2.1. Chuyn mch khng gian..................................................................................41 2. 2. chuyn mch thi gian.....................................................................................42 2.2.1.Chuyn mch iu khin u vo...................................................................42 2.2.2.Chuyn mch iu khin u ra......................................................................45 2.3.Chuyn mch s ghp hp.................................................................................47 2.3.1.Trng chuyn mch TST..............................................................................48 2.3.2. Chuyn mch S - T - S...................................................................................50

CHNG IV: H THNG TNG I RLU-AXE 810.......................51


I.TNG QUAN V H THNG AXE.......................................................................51 1.1. Lch s pht trin ca h thng AXE...............................................................51 1.2. c im ca h thng AXE............................................................................52 1.3. ng dng ca tng i AXE.............................................................................53 II. CU TRC CA H THNG AXE.....................................................................54 III. KIN TRC PHN CNG..................................................................................55 3.2. H thng iu khin APZ.................................................................................67 IV. H THNG TNG I V TINH RLU AXE 810............................................77 4.1 Gii thiu v khi thu bao RLU ca AXE 810................................................78 4.2 Chuyn mch trong SSS .............................................................................79 V. H THNG KHAI THC V BO DNG.....................................................81 5.1. Khi chc nng HW. ........................................................................................81 5.2. Khi module ng dy LUM.........................................................................82 5.3. B chuyn i VSA.4.......................................................................................82 5.4. Giao din cnh bo ALI....................................................................................82 5.5. Thit b lu tr..................................................................................................83 5.6. Mng kt ni (inter platform network-IPN).....................................................83 VI. CC U IM V NG DNG CA H THNG AXE 810........................84

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BNG CC CH VIT TT
ALU (Arithmetic and Logic Unit) Khi s hc v logic AML (Automatic Maintenance Link) Lin kt t ng bo dng - MAU c kt ni vi c hai CP thng qua AML(-bus). ANSA (Analogue Subscriber Access) Khi thu bao truy nhp APT Telephony part in AXE. H thng ng dng trong AXE APZ Control part in AXE H thng iu khin AST (Announcement Service Terminals) Thit b dng cho dch v bn tin thng bo t ng. BT (Bothway Trunk): Trung k hai chiu. C7ST (Signa lling Terminal) Thit b bo hiu . CAS (Channel Associated Signalling) H thng bo hiu knh ring. CCD Conference Call Device) Thit b dch v ng dng hi ngh. CCM (Cesium Clock Module) - ng h Cesium(nguyn t). CCS (Common Channel Signalling Subsystem) -H thng bo hiu knh chung CHS (Charging Subsystem)- H thng tnh cc. CLM (Clock Module) Module ng h CP (Central Processor) B x l trung tm CP-A (Central Processor sida A) CP mt A Mt lm vic CP-B (Central Processor sida B) CP mt B Mt Standby CPS (Central Processor Subsystem) Phn h x l trung tm CR (Code Receiver) Khi nhn m CAS CS (Code Sender) Khi gi m CSR (Code Sender/Receiver) Khi nhn v gi m DCS (Data Communication Subsystem) Phn h truyn thng DL (Digital Link ) Kt ni s DTMF (Dual Tone Multi Frequencie) EM (Extension Module) Khi module m rng EMB (Extension Module Bus) EMRP (Extension Module Regional Processor) EMRPB (EMRP Bus) EMRPB-A (EMRP Bus A-side) EMRPB-B (EMRP Bus B-side) EMTS (Extension Module Time Switch) l chuyn mch thu bao nh. ETC (Exchange Terminal Circuit) FMS (File Management Subsystem) -Phn h qun l file

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GSS (Group Switch Subsystem) Phn h chuyn mch ICM (Incoming Clock) - ng h vo. ISDN (Integrated Services Digital Network) KR2 (Keyset code Reciever, digital) B nhn m DTMF KRC (Keyset code Receiver Circuit) -Mch nhn m DTMF LIC (Line Interface Circuit) Giao din thu bao. LSM (Line Switch Module) Module chuyn mch. MAS (Maintenance Subsystem) Phn h bo dng. MAU (Maintenance Unit) Khi bo dng c dng khi CP fault MCS (Man-Machine Communication Subsystem)Phn h giao tip ngi my MUX (Multiplexer) NT (Network Termination) Thit b mng. OMC (Operation and Maintenance Center) Trung tm vn hnh bo dng OMS (Operation and Maintenance Subsystem) Phn h vn hnh bo dng PABX (Private Automatic Branch Exchange) Tng i c quan PCM (Pulse Code Modulation) - iu xung m. PLEX (Programming language for exchanges) Ngn ng lp trnh cho tng i. RCM (Reference Clock Module) - ng h tham chiu RP (Regional Processor) B iu khin vng. RPB-B (RPB, B-side) RPS (Regional Processor Subsystem) Phn h iu khin vng. RSM (Remote Subscriber Multiplexer) B ghp ni thu bao. RSS (Remote Subscriber Switch) Chuyn mch xa RT (Remote Terminal) Thit b xa. SCS (Subscriber Control Subsystem) Phn h iu khin thu bao. SE (Special Equipment) Thit b c bit SNT (Switching Network Terminal) Thit b kt ni vo mng chuyn mch SNTP (Switching Network Terminal Point) - im kt ni vo mng chuyn mch SP (Signal Point) - im bo hiu. SPM (Space Switch Module) Chuyn mch thi gian SSA (Speech Store A) B lu d thoi SSB (Speech Store B) SSS (Subscriber Switching Subsystem) Phn h chuyn mch thu bao STC (Signalling Terminal Central) Trung tm bo hiu iu khin thit b.

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STP (Signal Transfer Point) im chuyn tip o hiu. STR (Signalling Terminal Regional) Vng bo hiu iu khin thit b. SULT (Subscriber Line Test) SW (Software) TCS (Traffic Control Subsystem) Phn h iu khin kt ni. TSB (Time Switch Bus) TSB-A (Time Switch Bus, plane A) TSB-B (Time Switch Bus, plane B) TSM (Time Switch Module)

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LI NI U
Trong nhng nm gn y, s bng n thng tin v ang nh du mt bc ngot v i trong s pht trin chung ca x hi. Trong s pht trin , k thut tng i gp mt phn khng nh. Ti Vit Nam hin nay cng vi chin lc s ho mng vin thng em li s thay i r rt v quy m cng nh cht lng. Th h tng i in t s SPC khng inh c v th v tnh u vit ca n nh : Tng i AXE 810 ca hng ERICCSON (Thy in), NEAX ca hng NEC (Nht Bn), EWSD ca hng SIEMENS (c), E10 ca hng ALCATEL (Php),5ESS ca hng AT&T (M). Cng vi nhiu i hi cho mng thng tin, bao gm p ng nhanh v a vo hnh thc a dch v, thch ng nhanh v mm do vi s tin trin ca mi trng a phng din vi tc cao v bng tn rng hn cho cc ng truyn vin thng hng ERICCSON ca Thu in a ra mt h thng tng i i mi AXE 810, loi tng i ny c rt nhiu u vit, n c th iu khin cho chuyn mch vi dung lng rt ln cc thu bao, c tin cy v chnh xc cao, hot ng mt cch t ng nh nhng chng trnh ghi sn trong b nh, n c kh nng cung cp nhiu loi dch v vin thng vi tnh nng mm do trong cu trc phn mm. Trong thi gian lm n tt nghip em c thy gio Nguyn Quc Trung hng dn tm hiu v tng i in t s SPC v tng quan v h thng tng i RLU-AXE 810. Do trong n tt nghip ny em xin trnh by cc phn sau: - Chng I: Tng quan v tng i in t SPC s. - Chng II: Gii thiu v tng i in t SPC s. - Chng III: H thng chuyn mch s. - Chng IV: H thng tng i RLU-AXE 810. Do kinh nghim thc t cng nh thi gian cn hn ch nn trong n ny em s khng trnh khi nhng sai st, em rt mong s ng gp kin v s gip , ch bo ca cc thy c . Em xin chn thnh cm n thy gio Nguyn Quc Trung v cc thy c trong khoa Cng Ngh-Trng i Hc Vinh gip em c th hon thnh bi bo co tt nghip ny. Em xin trn trng cm n! Vinh, ngy......thng.....nm 2009. Sinh vin: Nguyn ng Hi

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CHNG I: TNG QUAN V TNG I IN T SPC. I. GII THIU CHUNG.


Tng i in t s SPC (Stored Program Control) l tng i iu khin theo chng trnh ghi sn, ngha l n s dng b x l ging nh my tnh iu khin hot ng ca tng i. Tt c cc chc nng iu khin c c trng bi mt lot lnh ghi sn trong b nh. V vy cc s liu trc thuc tng i nh : cc s liu v thu bao, cc bn phin dch v a ch, cc thng tin to tuyn, tnh cc, thng k cc cuc gi... cng c lu sn trong b nh s liu. Qua mi bc x l gi s nhn c cc quyt nh tng ng vi mi loi nghip v, s liu ghi sn a ti cc loi thit b x l nghip v . Cc chng trnh ghi sn c th thay i khi cn thay i nguyn tc iu khin hay tnh nng ca h thng. Nh vy, ngi qun l c th linh hot trong qu trnh iu hnh tng i. Cc tng i th h trc, c bit l tng i c in, cc chc nng bo hiu, iu khin c thc hin bng cc mch tng hp v thc hin u ni cc phn t logic l cc rle in, nh tc dng ca cc tip im rle m cc chc nng logic nh trc c thc hin, nu thay i cc s liu thay thay i qu trnh iu khin th vic thc hin rt vt v v kh khn. Khi tng i in t s ra i vi s pht trin ca cc cng ngh in t tin tin, my tnh. Cng vi vic s dng b x l ngoi th ngoi vic iu khin chuyn mch n cn c kh nng thc hin cc chc nng khc. Cc chng trnh iu khin cng nh cc s liu c th thay i nn cng vic iu hnh p ng nhu cu thay i ca thu bao tr nn d dng. Vic a dch v ti thu bao v thay i cc dch v c d dng thc hin qua trao i ngi my. Cc s liu trong cc b nh d thay i khi ta thay i cc dch v c thng qua cc lnh ca thit b ngoi vi trao i gia ngi v my. Mt s dch v c bit c th thc hin bng cc thao tc t my thu bao. iu khin theo chng trnh ghi sn c nhiu u im nh khi thay i chc nng no ch cn thay i phn mm ca h thng. Vi mch iu khin th s dng b nh iu khin iu hnh ton b mng chuyn mch nn to ra cc lnh v chuyn lnh n gin hn. V vy cc tng i in t hin nay u lm vic theo nguyn l iu khin bng chng trnh ghi sn (SPC).

II. C IM CA TNG I IN T SPC

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Trong cc tng i in t hot ng theo nguyn l iu khin bi cc chng trnh ghi sn (Stored Program Control: SPC), ngi ta s dng cc b vi x l nh my tnh iu khin hot ng ca tng i, tt c cc chc nng iu khin c c trng bi mt lot cc lnh ghi sn trong cc b nh. Ngoi ra cc s liu trc thuc tng i nh s liu v thu bao, cc bng phin dch a ch, cc thng tin v to tuyn, tnh cc, thng k... cng c ghi sn trong cc b nh s liu. Qua mi bc x l gi s nhn c mt s quyt nh tng ng vi loi nghip v, s liu ghi sn a ti thit b x l nghip v . Nguyn l chuyn mch nh vy gi l chuyn mch iu khin theo chng trnh ghi sn. Cc s liu chng trnh v s liu ghi trong cc b nh c th thay i c khi cn thay i nguyn tc iu khin hay tnh nng ca h thng. Nh vy ngi qun l c th linh hot trong qu trnh iu hnh tng i p ng c cc yu cu ca thu bao, vic a cc dch v mi cho cc thu bao v thay i cc dch v c u c d dng thc hin thng qua cc lnh trao i gia ngi v my. Vic s dng my tnh hay b x l s vo chc nng iu khin tng i th ngoi chc nng iu khin chuyn mch th cng mt b x l c th iu khin cc chc nng khc. Bi vy tng i in t SPC p ng c y cc yu cu ca thu bao vi tc nhanh v c hiu qu. Nh c trung tm iu hnh v bo dng c trang thit b trao i ngi - my, cng vi h thng x l m cng vic iu hnh v bo dng cm tng i trong mt vng mng c thc hin d dng. Ngoi ra cc trung tm ny cn bao qut c cng vic qun l mng nh lu lng cc tuyn x l ng vng... Cc php o kim tra cng c thc hin ti cc cng nh pht i cc lnh. Nhng s thay i v dch v cng c th to ra nh cc trung tm x l tin kiu ny, ti y cng nhn c cc thng tin v cc, hng hc s c... t cc tng i khu vc. Nh vy cc cng tc iu hnh mng li tr nn c hiu qu hn do cc b x l c kh nng hon thnh cng vic tc cao nn c thi gian chy cc chng trnh th vng pht hin li t ng, khng cn phi chi ph thi gian v nhn lc cho php o th ny

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III. NHIM V V CC TIU CHUN T RA I VI TNG I IN T SPC S.


3.1 NHIM V Nhim v quan trng nht ca mt tng i l cung cp mt ng truyn dn tm thi truyn dn ting ni ng thi theo hai hng gia cc loi ng dy thu bao sau, t ta c cc loi chuyn mch. - Chuyn mch ni ht: L chuyn mch to tuyn ni cho cp thu bao trong cng mt tng i. - Chuyn mch gi ra: L chuyn mch to tuyn ni cho cc thu bao ca tng i ti cc ng trung k dn ti cc tng i khc. - Chuyn mch gi vo: L chuyn mch to tuyn ni cho cc ng trung k t cc tng i khc ti cc ng dy thu bao ca tng i. - Chuyn mch chuyn tip: L chuyn mch to tuyn ni cho cc ng trung k vo t mt tng i ti cc ng trung k ra ti mt tng i khc. Cc nhim v trn ca mt tng i c thit b chuyn mch ca tng i thc hin thng qua qu trnh trao i bo hiu vi mng ngoi. Mt tng i no thc hin ba loi chuyn mch 1, 2, 3 trn c gi l mt tng i ni ht. Cn loi tng i ch thc hin thao tc chuyn mch th 4 nu trn gi l tng i chuyn tip. Ngoi 2 loi tng i trn cn c tng i c quan (PABX) v tng i ca quc t. Tng i c quan PABX dng t chc lin lc in thoi trong mt c quan (lin lc ni b) v u ni cho cc thu bao ca n ra mng cng cng. Tng i ca quc t (cn gi l tng i gateway) dng to tuyn cho cc cuc gi ca cc thu bao trong nc ra mng quc t. * Nhim v chung ca mt tng i: - Nhim v bo hiu: y l nhim v trao i bo hiu vi mng ngoi thu bao gm cc ng dy thu bao v trung k u ni ti cc my thu bao hay cc tng i khc. - Nhim v x l thng tin bo hiu v iu khin thao tc chuyn mch: Thit b iu khin chuyn mch nhn cc thng tin bo hiu t cc ng dy thu bao v trung k, x l cc thng tin ny v a ra cc thng tin iu khin hoc cp bo hiu ti cc ng dy thu bao hay trung k hoc iu khin thit b chuyn mch v cc thit b ph tr to tuyn ni. - Tnh cc: Nhim v ny l to ra cc s liu cc ph hp vi tng loi cuc gi sau khi mi cuc gi kt thc. S liu cc ny s c x l thnh cc bn tin cc phc v cng tc thanh ton cc.

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Tt c cc nhim v trn c thc hin c hiu qu nh s dng my tnh iu khin tng i. 3.2. CC TIU CHUN C BN

1. tin cy
Vn chung: tin cy ca tng i l i lng quan trng nh gi cht lng ca tng i. Cc khi nim v tin cy s dng c coi l kh nng cung cp ca tng i trong iu kin hot ng ng vi ch dn khai thc bo dng ca nh cung cp thit b. C s tnh ton v tin cy v kh dng l c s thng k.

2. Cht lng tng i.


2.1.Cht lng tng i trong iu kin bnh thng a.Ti chun - Ti chun A: Th hin mc trn trung bnh ca cc hot ng m nh khai thc mong mun cung cp cho cc khch hng v gia cc tng i. - Ti chun B: Th hin mc tng qu mc hot ng bnh thng d kin. - Ti chun trn cc knh trung k gi vo: + Ti chun A: 0,7E (Earlang) trung bnh trn tt c cc knh trung k gi vo + Ti chun B: 0,8 E trung bnh trn tt c cc knh trung k gi vo, vi s lng cuc gi trong 1 gi gp 1,2 ln so vi ti chun A. - Ti chun trn cc dy thu bao + Ti chun A: Mt lu lng trung bnh 0,03E 0,06E 0,10 E 0,17E BHCA trung bnh 1,2 2,4 4,0 6,8

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+ Ti chun B: Mt lu lng BHCA trung bnh S gi trung bnh trong 1 trung bnh trn knh trn knh B giy trn knh B B 0,05 E 2 0,05 (Bo hiu)+ S gi d liu 0,1 E 0,55 E 4 2 0,1 (Bo hiu)+ S gi d liu 0,05 (Bo hiu)+ S gi d liu

2.1.1. S lng cuc gi khng tho ng Xc sut xut hin cuc gi x l khng tho ng: Kiu kt ni Cuc gi ni i Khi pht Kt cui Chuyn tip Ti chun A 10-2 5x 10-3 5x10-3 10-3 Ti chun B 4x10-2 3x10-2 3x10-2 10-2

2.1.2. Xc sut tr trong mi trng phi ISDN v mi trng hn hp gia ISDN v phi ISDN - Tr tr li n Ti chun A Gi tr trung bnh 300 ms Ti chun B 400 ms 600 ms

Xc xut 95% khng 400 ms vt qu -

Tr yu cu cuc gi tng i ni ht kt ni lu lng ni i v lu lng i xut pht:

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+ i vi thu bao tng t Ti chun A Gi tr trung bnh Xc xut 95% khng vt qu 400 ms 600 ms Ti chun B 800ms 1000 ms

+ i vi thu bao s: Tr yu cu cuc gi i vi thu bao s gi Overlap Ti chun A Gi tr trung bnh Xc sut 95% khng vt qu 400 ms 600ms Ti chun B 800 ms 1000 ms

Tr yu cu cuc gi i vi thu bao s gi En-bloc Ti chun A Gi tr trung bnh 600 ms Xc sut 95% khng vt 800 ms qu
-

Ti chun B 900 ms 1200 ms

Tr thit lp cuc gi - kt ni lu lng chuyn tip v lu lng i xut pht + i vi kt ni chuyn tip: Ti chun A Ti chun B 400 ms 600 ms 250 ms

Gi tr trung bnh

Xc sut 95% khng vt qu 300ms + i vi lu lng xut pht i Xut pht t thu bao tng t: Ti chun A Gi tr trung bnh Xc sut 95% khng vt qu Thu bao s gi Overlap 300 ms 400ms

Ti chun B 500 ms 800 ms

Xut pht t thu bao s:

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Ti chun A Gi tr trung bnh 400 ms Xc sut 95% khng vt qu 600ms


Thu bao s gi En-bloc

Ti chun B 600 ms 1000 ms

Gi tr trung bnh Xc sut 95% khng vt qu Tr ngt tn hiu chung

Ti chun A 600 ms 800ms

Ti chun B 800 ms 1200 ms

Ti chun A Gi tr trung bnh Xc sut 95% khng vt qu 100 ms 150ms

Ti chun B 150 ms 200 ms

Tr gii phng cuc gi ca tng i: Ti chun A Ti chun B 400 ms 700 ms

Gi tr trung bnh Xc sut 95% khng vt qu

250 ms 300ms

Tr truyn bo hiu tng i khng phi tn hiu tr li: Ti chun A Ti chun B 150 ms 300 ms

Gi tr trung bnh Xc sut 95% khng vt qu

100 ms 150ms

Tr gi tn hiu tr li: i vi kt ni ni b

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Ti chun A Gi tr trung bnh Xc sut 95% khng vt qu Thi gian bt u tnh cc: Ti chun A Gi tr trung bnh Xc sut 95% khng vt qu 100 ms 200ms 250 ms 350ms

Ti chun B 350 ms 700 ms

Ti chun B 170 ms 350 ms

2.1.3. Cht lng tng i trong iu kin qu ti. - Cht lng x l cuc gi trong iu kin qu ti. - Kim sot qu ti. - Pht hin qu ti. - Bo v qu ti. - Cc mc dch v khi qu ti. - Gim st cht lng trong c ch kim sot qu ti.

3. Mi trng lm vic.
Tng i phi m bo hot ng trong cc iu kin v mi trng nh qui nh di y: 3.1. Kh nng p ng ca tng i vi ng dy thu bao a. in tr mch vng trn 2 dy a, b: in tr mch vng phi nh hn 2000. b. in tr cch in dy - dy, dy - t nh nht cho php Rein, min 10K c. in dung k sinh ln nht cho php Cmax 0.5 F 3.2. iu kin nhit v m. Tng phi hot ng bnh thng trong iu kin mi trng nh sau: - Nhit ( C): 15 - 25. - m (%): 30 -70. a. Vt liu sn phng tng i. Tr khng cch in nh nht: 25 x 103 Tr khng cch in ln nht: 106 (sn mi); 1010 (sn c) b. Cc iu kin khc. Kh nng chng ng t: Chu c iu kin ng t 5,66 Richter

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3.3. Cc m nghe c. - Tng i phi c kh nng cung cp c cho bt c cuc gi no c kh nng ti tin ting ni hay m thanh 300 n 3400 Hz trong iu kin tng ng. - Cc m tng ng phi tho mn yu cu nh trong iu khon 3.6.1 ca tiu chun ny v khuyn ngh E. 180, E. 182 ca ITU - T

4. Cc giao din.
Tng i khng nht thit phi bao gm tt c cc loi giao din nh lit k trong phn di y nhng nu c th phi tho mn cc tiu chun k thut c qui nh trong tiu chun ny. - Giao din thu bao Truy nhp tng t: Giao din Z l giao din tng t c bn c nh ngha ti pha ca ng dy thu bao tng t s dng kt b thu bao. in p ng dy thu bao trong khong 37V 48V. Truy nhp s V: Giao din V1 c s dng ti im chun V1 kt ni vo on truy nhp s nhm cung cp n v truy nhp c bn. c im chc nng: + Knh 2B + D: cung cp kh nng truyn hai hng trn 2 knh B v mt knh D tc 16 Kbit/s theo khuyn ngh I.412. + nh thi bit: Cung cp nh thi bit mt on s c kh nng ti to li thng tin t mt lung bit lin tc.

5. Cc dch v cung cp.


5.1. Dch v c bn. Tng i phi c kh nng cung cp cc dch v c bn sau y: - Thu bao quay s t ng khng hn ch theo yu cu. - H tr cuc gi. - Gi ti cc m thng bo ghi trc. - Gi cc s c bit. - Cp xung 16 KHz. - Cp o cc ng dy thu bao. - Bt cuc gi. - S liu. + Truyn FAX trn knh tng t, truyn FAX nhm IV trn knh s. + Truyn s liu trn knh s. - Hnh nh. + Videotex + in thoi thy hnh VieoPhone.

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+ Hi ngh truyn hnh tc 2B + B v tc 6B + D. 5.2. Cc dch v ph. Tng i c kh nng cung cp cc dch v ph nh sau: - Cc dch v lin quan a ch. - Cc dch v hon thnh cuc gi. - Cc dch v chuyn cuc gi - Cc dch v nhn dng s. - Cc dch v hng dn cc ph. - Cc dch v hi ngh. - Cc dch v hn ch. - Cc dch v khc.

6. Ch tiu v truyn dn.


6.1. Cc ch tiu truyn dn. a. Cc ch tiu truyn dn cho giao din tng t: - Cc ch tiu v tr khng: Cc ch tiu v tr khng cho giao din Z + Tr khng tng i 600 + 10%. + Tr khng mt cn bng so vi t: Nm trong phm vi cho php trn ng cong suy hao chuyn i theo chiu dc LCL. - Cc ch tiu chung: + Ch tiu suy hao truyn dn: Gi tr nh nht ca suy hao truyn dn: Gia u vo giao din tng t v in v im o: NLi = 0 n 2dB Gia im o tng i v u ra giao din tng t: NLo = 0 n 8dB Dao ng cho php i vi suy hao truyn dn: -0,3 n +0,7 dB + Ch tiu tr nhm. + Ch tiu suy hao phn x. + Ch tiu tp m tn s: Khng vt qu 50 dBm0. + Ch tiu xuyn m. 6.2. Cc ch tiu truyn dn cho giao din s. - Cc ch tiu cho giao din A: + Cc ch tiu sai s cho php i vi jitter v Wander ti u vo tng i: Tho mn iu 3.1.1 khuyn ngh G.823 + Tri pha u ra (MTIE): Tho mn gii hn trong Khuyn ngh G.823 v G.824.

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- Cc ch tiu cho giao din V1: Tho mn cc ch tiu trong khuyn ngh I.430, I.431.

7. Yu cu v ng h v ng b.
- Xung nhp: 2Mbit/s theo tiu chun TCN 68 - 172: 1998 2MHz theo tiu chun TCN 68 - 1972: 1998 - Knh truyn: Tng i c kh nng tch tn hiu ng b t bt c lung 2Mbit/s kt ni n tng i v phi c kh nng s dng mt trong cc knh s ny lm knh iu khin. - Chuyn i ngun ng b: Tng i c kh nng chuyn i ngun ng b trong trng hp cn thit m khng nh hng n lu lng. - Rung pha v tri pha: Tng i phi c hm truyn rung pha v tri pha tho mn iu 4, khuyn ngh Q.551.

IV. CC DCH V CA TNG I SPC


So vi tng i tng t th tng i in t k thut s c u im hn nh tc chuyn mch, thi gian x l cuc gi... Ngoi ra n cn c cc dch v c bit i vi cc thu bao, cc dch v l:

4.1. Chn s a tn:


Cc thu bao ca tng i in t s c th s dng my in thoi kiu n phm c phng thc chn s a tn pht i cc ch s a ch. Theo phng thc ny ta c th pht i 11 ch s a ch trong 1 giy. V vy c th tng tc thit lp ni.

4.2. Thu bao u tin:


Tng i in t SPC c th cung cp cho thu bao cc mch dy u tin, cc thu bao ny c ch ti tu thuc mc u tin. Mc u tin ca cc thu bao c b x l trung tm xc nh. Trong trng hp c (qu ti mng) hoc c bt trc thit b cc thu bao ny c u tin x l.

4.3. Hn ch gi ra: (kho gi ra).


Cc cuc gi ra (cuc gi ng di) u b t chi, ch c th nhn cc cuc gi vo. iu ny c thc hin d dng bng m ho gi ra thng qua s liu lu h s thu bao.

4.4. n cuc gi:


Cc cuc gi vo n mt thu bao no c th c n chuyn ti tng i hoc ti thit b thng bo t ng trong trng hp thu bao b gi vng mt. Tng i tr li cuc gi v chuyn ni dung thng bo cho thu bao.

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4.5. Quay s tt - Rt ngn thi gian chn s:


a ch thu bao ch gm mt ch s ch th m dch v (hoc k hiu m) v hai ch s a ch ca thu bao b gi.

4.6. Chuyn gi:


C th t my ch gi khi thu bao vng mt. Lc ny cc cuc gi n c chuyn n thu bao khc do thu bao ci t.

4.7. Ngn quy ry:


Dch v ny m bo cho thu bao thoi mi, ngn nga s quy ry do phi quan tm ti cc cuc gi vo. Trong trng hp ny, cc cuc gi vo c chuyn ti bn in thoi vin hoc ti thit b tr li t ng. T thu bao b gi tm thi khng tip nhn cc cuc gi vo.

4.8. Gi hi ngh:
Nh nghip v ny m thu bao c th thit lp tuyn ni ti vi thu bao (c th ti 4 thu bao) ng thi to cuc gi hi ngh. ch hi ngh mt thu bao ni cc thu bao khc trong nhm c th nghe c.

4.9. Ch ri:
Nh dch v ny m c th lu thng tin gi, tuyn ni c thit lp trnh thi gian lng ph phi gi li thu bao bn cho thu bao ch gi.

4.10. Gi xen:
Dch v ny thng bo cho cc thu bao ang trng thi hi ngh bit c mt thu bao khc ang gi ti n. Thu bao ny c cp m thanh gi xen (m c bit) trong lc thu bao ang hi thoi. Lc thu bao c th tip tc duy tr cuc hi thoi d hoc ngng v tin hnh hi thoi vi thu bao th 3 gi xen vo. Sau tuyn ni cho cuc gi hi thoi d vn c duy tr.

4.11. Ti lp cuc gi:


Dch v ny c th thay i cho dch v ch ri thu bao ch gi, c th t t hp sau khi nhn m bo bn, trng thi thu bao b gi c theo di thng xuyn khi trng thi c xc lp th tuyn ni mi c thit lp, dng chung c cp cho c hai thu bao.

4.12. Hi a ch:
Cho php hi thm v chuyn gi ti mt thu bao khi s hi thm bng vic chn s ti my tr li a ch. Sau khi nhn c a ch chn s ti thu bao cn gi nhng khng xo ting ni trc.

4.13. u tin cuc gi cnh bo:

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Dch v ny c x l u tin trc cc dch v khc nh tn hiu cu thng, cu ho... a ch cuc gi thng ngn hai hoc ba ch s.

4.14. Tnh cc ti nh:


cc h thng tng i in t s SPC cc thu bao c th p ng dch v tnh cc ti nh nh b ch th cc t v tr thu bao. B ch th cc ny c tc ng bi dy xung cc t h thng cc ca tng i qua mch dy thu bao. Nh vy thu bao c th bit c cc tng cuc gi m h thc hin.

4.15. Lp ho n tc th:
Cung cp cc dng bn tin nh a ch thu bao b gi, ngy gi v thi gian... Cc ph cuc gi.

4.16. Bt gi:
Vic pht hin cc cuc gi quy ri c tin hnh tc thi nh m bt c qui nh ring pht i t my thu bao b gi. Lc thng tin v thu bao ch gi s c in ra ngay.

4.17. Dch v thng bo:


Trong cc trng hp sau thng bo c th c t ng chuyn ti thu bao ch gi: - Thay i a ch thu bao. - Gi m s khng xc nh. - Gi m a ch thu bao khng kh nng tip nhn. - tuyn gi hoc c s c. - Thu bao tm thi b ct lin lc do s c hoc khng thanh ton cc.

4.18. Lin lc trc tip


Dch v ny cho php thu bao c th thit lp lin lc ngay sau khi nhc t hp m khng cn chn s. Nu thu bao mun u ni ti mt thu bao khc th tin hnh chn s trong mt khong thi gian nh trc sau khi nhc t hp, thng thng l 5s hoc 10s. Nghip v ny cn gi l Warm line.

4.19. Nghip v ng dy t: (Host line).


Cho php to tuyn gi ti mt thu bao xc nh m khng cn chn s, khng cho php cuc gi ti cc thu bao khc bng phng php chn s.

4.20. Bo thc t ng:


Cho php thu bao t ci t tham s thi gian cn bo thc, t hp m lnh gia tng i vi tham s thi gian 2 ch s ch gi, 2 ch s ch pht.

4.21. T chi cuc gi:

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Dch v ny t chi cc cuc gi n, trong tng i s pht cho thu bao ch gi m bo bn vi mi cuc gi.

4.22. Kho thit b:


Dch v ny cho php my khng tip nhn cc cuc gi vo khi khng tun th mt qui c s dng ring, thng dng t hp m kho thit b.

4.23. Gi min cc:


Tng i in t SPC cp cho mt thu bao quyn gi min cc. Ngoi ra tt c cc thu bao thc hin cc cuc gi nghip v nh bo hng thit b, thng bo in bo, gi cnh bo, u c min cc.

CHNG II. GII THIU V TNG I IN T SPC S I. S NGUYN L CHUNG:


Tuy c khc nhau nhiu gia cc tng i in t hin ang s dng trn th gii nhng tt c cc h thng u ging nhau v c cu phn b cc khi chc nng. S khi n gin ca mt tng i SPC nh sau:

+ Thit b giao tip: Bao gm cc mch in thu bao, mch trung k, thit b tp trung v x l tn hiu... + Thit b chuyn mch: Bao gm cc tng chuyn mch thi gian khng gian hoc ghp hp.

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+ Thit b ngoi vi v knh ring hp thnh thit b ngoi vi bo hiu. Thng thng thit b bo hiu knh chung dng x l thng tin bo hiu lin tng i theo mng bo hiu knh chung. Cn thit b bo hiu knh ring x l thng tin bo hiu knh ring. + Ngoi vi chuyn mch: Cc thit b phn phi bo hiu, thit b o th, thit b iu khin u ni hp thnh thit b ngoi vi chuyn mch. y l thit b ngoi vi cho h thng iu khin. + Thit b iu khin trung tm: B x l trung tm cng vi cc b nh ca n. + Thit b trao i ngi my: L cc loi my hin hnh c bn phm, my in... trao i thng tin vo ra, v ghi li cc bn tin cn thit phc v cng tc iu hnh v bo dng tng i. Ngoi ra cc tng i khu vc ca mng cng cng, cc tng i chuyn tip v cc tng i quc t cn c cc khi chc nng nh tnh cc, thng k, ng b mng, trung tm x l, thit b giao tip thu bao xa... II. NHIM V CA CC KHI CHC NNG CA TNG I SPC:

2.1. Thit b giao tip:


Thit b giao tip gm cc mch in kt cui thu bao, kt cui trung k tng t v kt cui trung k s. + Khi mch kt cui bao gm: - Mch in ng dy thu bao lm by nhim v: BORSCHT tc l; B: (Batteryfeed): cp ngun cho ng dy thu bao theo cng thc cp ngun i xng. O: (Overvoltage protection): Bo v qu p cho thit b, bo m cho in p trn ng dy khng vt qu ngun cung cp. R (Ring): Thc hin cp tn hiu rung chung cho thu bao b gi. S (Supervision): Gim st cc trng thi thu bao. C (Codec): Thc hin m ho v gii m trc v sau b tp trung phn phi thoi (Chuyn i A D). a s cc ng dy thu bao hin l nhng ng dy tng t bi vy trc khi a vo trng chuyn mch s th cc tn hiu tng t phi c m ho thnh lung s PCM v khi a ra phi chuyn i t lung PCM thnh tn hiu tng t. H (Hybrid): B sai ng thc hin chuyn i 2/4 dy, pha bn thu bao ngoi theo hai hng, mt hng pht mt hng thu, mi hng hai dy. T (Text): o th v kim tra to s liu cho vic qun l v bo dng h thng.

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Ngoi ra khi giao tip thu bao cn c mch nghip v nh mch phi hp bo hiu, mch in thu pht xung quay s dng m thp phn v m a tm. cc tng i s, mch in thu bao cn lm nhim v bin i qua li A/D (Analog - Digital) cho tn hiu thoi. + Khi mch giao tip trung k tng t: Khi mch ny cha cc mch in trung k dng cho cc cuc gi ra, gi vo v gi chuyn tip. Chng lm nhim v cp ngun, gim st cuc gi, phi hp bo hiu. + Khi mch kt cui trung k s: Nhim v c bn ca khi mch ny l thc hin cc chc nng GAZPACHO, bao gm: - To khung (Gerieration of Frame): Tc l nhn dng tn hiu ng b khung phn bit tng khung ca tuyn s liu PCM a n t cc tng i khc. - ng b khung (Aligment of Frame): sp xp khung s liu mi ph hp vi h thng PCM. - Nn dy bt 0( Zero string suppression): V dy tn hiu PCM c nhiu qung cha nhiu bt 0 s kh phc hi tn hiu ng b pha thu nn nhim v ny l thc hin nn cc qung tn hiu c nhiu bt 0 lin tip pha pht. - o cc tnh: (Polar conversion): nhim v ny nhm bin i dy tn hiu n cc t h thng a ra thnh dy tn hiu lng cc trn ng dy v ngc li. - X l cnh bo (Alarm Processing): x l cnh bo t ng PCM. - Phc hi dy xung nhp (clock recovery): khi phc xung nhp t dy tn hiu thu c. - Tch thng tin ng b: (Hunt during reframe): Tch thng tin ng b t dy tn hiu thu. - Bo hiu (Ofice Signalling): Thc hin chc nng giao tip bo hiu phi hp cc bo hiu gia tng i ang xem xt v cc tng i khc qua cc ng trung k.

2.2. Thit b chuyn mch:


cc tng i in t, thit b chuyn mch l mt trong cc b phn ch yu v c kch thc ln. N c cc chc nng chnh sau: - Chc nng chuyn mch: thc hin thip lp tuyn ni gia hai hay nhiu thu bao ca tng i hoc gia tng i ny v tng i khc. - Chc nng truyn dn:

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Trn c s tuyn ni thit lp, thit b chuyn mch thc hin truyn dn tn hiu ting ni v tn hiu bo hiu gia cc thu bao vi tin cy chnh xc cn thit. + C hai loi h thng chuyn mch: a. H thng chuyn mch tng t: Loi ny c chia lm hai loi: * Phng thc chuyn mch khng gian (Space division Switching mode). phng thc ny i vi mt cuc gi mt tuyn vt l c thit lp gia u vo v u ra ca trng chuyn mch. Tuyn ny l ring bit cho mi cuc ni v duy tr trong sut thi gian tin hnh cuc gi. Cc tuyn ni cho cc cuc gi l c lp vi nhau. Ngay sau khi mt tuyn c u ni, cc tn hiu c trao i gia hai thu bao. * Phng thc chuyn mch thi gian: Phng thc ny cn gi l phng thc chuyn mch PAM (Pule Amplitude Modulation), tc l chuyn mch theo phng thc iu bin xung. b. H thng chuyn mch s (Digital Switching System). Phng thc chuyn mch ny cn gi l chuyn mch PCM ( Pulse Code Modulation). h thng chuyn mch ny mt tuyn vt l c s dng chung cho mt s cuc gi trn c s phn chia theo thi gian. Mi cuc gi s dng tuyn ny trong khong thi gian xc nh v theo chu k vi mt tc lp thch hp. i vi tn hiu thoi tc lp l 8KHz, tc l c mi 125 s li truyn i ting ni mt ln. Ting ni trong mi ln chuyn i gi mu v c m ho theo phng thc PCM.

2.3. B iu khin trung tm:


B iu khin trung tm gm mt b x l c cng sut ln cng cc b nh trc thuc. B x l ny c thit k ti u x l cuc gi v cc cng vic lin quan trong mt tng i. N phi hon thnh cc nhim v kp thi hay cn gi l x l thi gian thc hin cc cng vic sau y: - Nhn xung hay m chn s (cc ch s a ch). - Chuyn cc tn hiu a ch i cc trng hp chuyn tip cuc gi. - Trao i cc bo hiu cho thu bao hay cc tng i khc. S khi mt b x l chuyn mch tng qut c m t nh sau:

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B x l chuyn mch bao gm mt b x l trung tm, cc b nh chng trnh, s liu v phin dch cng thit b vo/ra lm nhim v phi hp a cc thng tin vo v ly cc lnh ra. B x l trung tm l mt b x l hay vi x l tc cao v c cng sut x l tu thuc vo v tr x l chuyn mch ca n. N lm nhim v iu khin thao tc cu thit b chuyn mch. B nh chng trnh: Dng ghi li cc chng trnh iu khin cc thao tc chuyn mch. Cc chng trnh ny c gi ra v x l cng vi cc s liu cn thit. B nh s liu dng ghi li tm thi cc s liu cn thit trong qu trnh x l cc cuc gi nh cc ch s a ch thu bao, trng thi bn - ri ca cc ng dy thu bao hay trung k... B nh phin dch cha cc thng tin v loi ng dy thu bao ch gi v b gi, m to tuyn, thng tin cc... B nh s liu l b nh tm thi cn cc b nh chng trnh v phin dch l cc b nh bn c nh. S liu hay chng trnh trong cc b nh bn c nh khng thay i trong qu trnh x l cuc gi. Cn thng tin b nh tm thi (Nh s liu) thay i lin tc t lc bt u ti lc kt thc cuc gi.

2.4. Thit b ngoi vi chuyn mch:


Cc thit b o th trng thi ng dy thu bao v cc ng trung k, thit b phn phi bo hiu, thit b iu khin u ni to thnh thit b ngoi vi chuyn mch. + Thit b o th trng thi ng dy (Scanner).

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Nhim v ca khi ny l pht hin v thng bo cho b x l trung tm tt c cc bin c bo hiu v cc tn hiu ng dy thu bao v trung k u ni ti tng i. Cc tn hiu ny c th l lin tc hoc ri rc. Ta c th chia cc thit b ny thnh hai nhm: * Thit b dnh ring cho tng nhm ng thu bao v trung k. * Thit b dng chung nh thit b thu - pht hin chn s, thit b thu pht tn hiu bo hiu lin tng i. pht hin cc cuc gi mi, mi ng dy cn c o th (qut) c 300ms mt ln. + Thit b phn phi bo hiu (Signalling Distributor). Thit b ny l tng m gia b x l trung tm c cng sut tn hiu iu khin nh nhng tc cao v cc mch tn hiu ng dy c cng sut ln nhng tc thp. N c nhim v iu khin thao tc hay phc hi cc rle cung cp cc dng tn hiu mch ng dy hay mch nghip v di s iu khin ca b x l trung tm. + Thit b iu khin u ni (Market): Thit b ny c nhim v chuyn giao cc lnh thit lp v gii phng cc tuyn vt l qua trng chuyn mch t b x l trung tm. Cc tuyn vt l ny ch c thit lp hay gii phng khi c chuyn sn trong b nh ca b x l trung tm. Tu thuc vo kiu chuyn mch thi gian hay khng gian m b iu khin chuyn mch hoc l ghi tin vo b nh iu khin (nu l chuyn mch thi gian) hoc l thao tc cc tip im chuyn mch (nu l chuyn mch khng gian).

2.5. Thit b ngoi vi bo hiu:


Gm c thit b bo hiu knh ring v thit b bo hiu knh chung. + Thit b bo hiu knh ring lm nhim v x l v phi hp cc loi bo hiu kiu m thp phn hay a tn c truyn theo knh hay gn lin vi knh truyn ting ni cho cuc gi t cc tng i. + Thit b bo hiu knh chung th tt c cc tn hiu cho tt c cc cuc gi gia tng i no c truyn i theo mt tuyn bo hiu c lp vi mch in truyn tn hiu ting ni ln tng i. (Bo hiu knh chung l bo hiu lin tng i. Phng thc ny c th kt hp cc dng thng tin bo hiu x l gi vi cc dng thng tin iu hnh v bo dng k thut cho ton mng. Thit b bo hiu knh chung ng vai tr phi hp v x l cc loi bo hiu cho cc mc ch iu khin tng i.

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2.6. Thit b trao i ngi - my:


tt c cc tng i in t SPC ngi ta s dng thit b trao i ngi my iu hnh, qun l v bo dng tng i trong qu trnh khai thc. Cc thit b ny bao gm cc thit b Display c bn phm iu khin, cc my in t ng (teleprinter), cc thit b o th ng dy v my thu bao... chng c dng a cc lnh qun l v bo dng vo thit b x l thao tc v bo dng ca tng i. Ngoi cc thit b nu trn, tng i SPC trung tm cn c thit b ngoi vi nh s liu. Thit b ny bao gm cc khi iu khin bng t, a t. Chng c tc lm vic cao, dung lng ln v dng np phn mm vo cc b x l, ghi cc thng tin tnh cc, thng k...

2.7. Khi cung cp ngun:


Khi cung cp ngun c phn theo cc nhm thu bao ca tng i v bao gm nhiu mc v ngun in khc nhau. Cc tng i u dng c - qui m bo cung cp lin tc khng ph thuc vo mng in v hot ng khng ngt qung khi ngt in hay mng b mt in. Mi b ngun c cu ch bo v ring. Ngun phi n nh trnh c nhiu cc khe mch khng chuyn sang trng thi gy ri lon trong chng trnh hot ng chung. Ngun cung cp cho chung c thit k lp t ring m bo dng cho nhiu thu bao cng s dng m khng nh hng ti n nh ca cc khi ngun khc.

2.8. Bus chung:


Cc n v ngoi vi c th lin h vi b x l hoc b nh chung thng qua bus chung, cc loi thng tin iu khin t b vi x l hoc cc s liu t b nh cng c qua bus ny ti cc thit b ni trn. * Tm li: Cc tng i in t ngy nay u lm vic theo nguyn l iu khin theo chng trnh ghi sn (SPC). Thi k u ca tng i in t SPC c thit k theo kiu mt x l. Sau ny, ngi ta sn xut tng i SPC theo kim module c nhiu cp x l. Vi cu trc nh vy tng i c th d dng m rng dung lng v nng cao an ton ca h thng v hiu qu s dng cc b x l cng cao hn. Cc b x l ngoi vi c trang b cc b x l thch hp.

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III. X L GI 3.1. Phn tch mt cuc gi.


m t h thng chuyn mch, tin trnh ca mt cuc gi xem nh tri qua mi tng. 3.1.1. Tn hiu nhc my (off - hook) Mt thu bao mun thc hin mt cuc gi trc ht phi nhc ng nghe. Th tc cn thit ny pht ra tn hiu nhc my cn gi l tn hiu truy cp ng truyn, n thng bo vi tng i chun b iu khin cuc gi. Vic nhc ng nghe lm gii phng mt tip im, iu ny to thnh mt mch vng gia tng i v in thoi. Khi mch ny hnh thnh, mt thit b bn trong tng i c kch hot v mt lot cc tn hiu hng n cc phn thch hp ca tng i c khi pht. Khi ng nghe c t xung trng thi rnh ri, tip im b n xung tn hiu truy cp gi n tng i khng cn na, mch vng b ct v cuc gi khng thc thi, nh vy tit kim c nng lng. Nng lng trn ng dy thu bao c cp bi ngun pin trong tng i, v n yu cu mt chiu. 3.1.2. S nhn dng ca thu bao gi. Cuc gi c pht hin ti n v kt cui ng dy thu bao (SLTU_Subscriber Line Terminal Unit) thc hin gi trong tng i, n v ny c qui nh ch s thit b(EN_Equipment number). Ch s ny cn c dch sang s th mc ca thu bao(DN_Directtory number). Do , cn phi dng cc bng dch. Trong tng i SPC, chng c gi trong cc b nh my tnh. H thng iu khin cng cn nhn dng thu bao v: - Thu bao cn phi tr cc cho cuc gi. - Cn phi tin hnh kim tra xem thu bao c c php gi ng di hay khng. Thng tin cn thit c lu gi trong cc record m t chng loi dch v ca thu bao.

SV:Nguyn ng Hi-Lp 45k2 TVT- Khoa: Cng Ngh

27

N TT NGHIP VINH

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3.1.3. S phn phi b nh v cc thit b dng chung. Khi tng i nhn mt tn hiu truy cp(off-hook signal), h thng iu khin phi phn phi thit b dng chung cho cuc gi v cung cp ng dn cho n bt u t ng dy gi, hnh thnh nn mt nhm cc thit b chim dng lu, thit b ny cn thit trong sut cuc gi v loi thit b s dng ngn hn ch cn trong giai on thit lp cuc gi m thi.Trong cc tng i tng t, cu truyn dn phn tch ng ting mang tn hiu xoay chiu vi thnh phn mt chiu xuyn qua tng i l mt v d v loi th nht. Trong cc tng i SPC n l record ca cuc gi, l vng nh b chim gi trong sut qu trnh

SV:Nguyn ng Hi-Lp 45k2 TVT- Khoa: Cng Ngh

28

N TT NGHIP VINH

TRNG I HC

cuc gi. Loi th hai bao gm b thu v lu tr cc ch s cu thnh a ch thu bao c gi. Trong tng i SPC th cc ch s ny c lu gi trong b nh. 3.1.4. Cc ch s a ch Sau khi nhn c m hiu mi quay s, thu bao nhp vo cc ch s a ch bng cch quay s. Cc ch s c gi di dng cc tn hiu n tng i v c lu gi ti . Hot ng bo hiu l kha cnh ht sc quan trng trong h thng in thoi. 3.1.5. Phn tch ch s H thng iu khin phi phn tch cc ch s xc nh tuyn i ra t tng i cho cuc gi. Nu cuc gi hng n thu bao thuc tng i ni b th s c nh tuyn n c dy thu bao c gi. Nu ng dy ang lm vic vi cuc m thoi khc th tng i s gi tn hiu bo bn n thu bao gi. Mt khc nu cuc gi hng n tng i xa n c th c phn phi n bt c mt mch no trn tuyn thch hp i ra khi tng i gc. Nu tt c cc mch u bn, tn hiu bn cng c gi n thu bao gi. Nu c mt mch thch hp ang rnh, n s bt ly v khng th s dng cho bt k cuc gi no khc. Trong tng i c in, vic chim gi ny tc ng n mt iu kin v mc in p t vo thit b kt cui mch v c xem nh thao tc nh du. Trong tng i SPC th thng tin v mch thng c lu gi trong cc bng di dng phn mm, trong trng hp ny m ch nh trong vng d liu cho trc ch ra trng thi ca mt mch. 3.1.6.Thit lp ng dn chuyn mch. Lc ny h thng iu khin bit c cc danh nh ca mch nhp v mch xut, sau chn ng dn gia chng thng qua chuyn mch ca tng i bng cc gii thut chn ng dn tng i thch hp. Mi im chuyn mch trn ng chn c kim tra m bo rng khng trong trng thi phc v cho cuc gi khc v chim ly n nu rnh. Trong cc tng i SPC c thc hin bng cch d v chn cc entry trong cc bng c sp xp. 3.1.7. Dng chung v m hiu chung Mt tn hiu phi c gi n u ra xa tin hnh cuc gi. Nu thu bao c gi l cc b, iu ny c thc hin thng qua vic gi dng in chung n kch hot chung trong my in thoi c gi. Nu thu bao khng phi l cc b, mt tn hiu truy cp phi c gi n tng i k tip nhm kch hot n tin hnh cc thao tc ring. Cc thao tc ny cng tng t nh nhng thao tc trn, bao gm c cc tn hiu gi li tng i ngun. Khi tt

SV:Nguyn ng Hi-Lp 45k2 TVT- Khoa: Cng Ngh

29

N TT NGHIP VINH

TRNG I HC

c cc kt ni c thit lp cho php cuc gi tin hnh trn mng ni ht hoc mng hp ni hoc mng trung k, dng in chung c gi n thu bao u xa v m hiu chung c gi n thu bao gi.

3.1.8. Tn hiu tr li Mt tn hiu tr li nhn c t thu bao u xa hay t tng i khc, c nhn bit bi h thng iu khin ca tng i cc b. S truyn phi c chp thun trn ng dn chuyn mch chn xuyn qua tng i. Dng in chung v m hiu chung phi c xo trn ng dy thu bao u xa v

SV:Nguyn ng Hi-Lp 45k2 TVT- Khoa: Cng Ngh

30

N TT NGHIP VINH

TRNG I HC

thu bao gi.sau hai phn ny c ni vi nhau v cng vic tnh cc cuc gi ny vi thu bao gi c khi ng. 3.1.9. Gim st Trong khi cuc gi ang c tin hnh, cng vic gim st cng c thc thi tnh cc v pht hin tn hiu xo cuc gi. Cng vic gim st cng thc hin qut tt c cc dy kt cui trn tng i pht hin tn hiu truy cp ca cuc gi mi. 3.1.10. Tn hiu xo kt ni Khi nhn tn hiu xo kt ni(c pht hin bi thu bao gi hoc thu bao c gi), thit b tng i hay b nh c dng trong kt ni phi c gii phng v sn sng s dng cho cc cuc gi mi.

3.2. Cc chng trnh x l gi trong tng i SPC


X l gi trong tng i SPC c phn mm thao tc iu khin thc hin. Cng vic x l gi bao gm: - Pht hin s bt u ca cuc gi. - X l v trao i thng tin bo hiu. - Xc lp tuyn ni qua trng chuyn mch. - Phin dch cc ch s a ch. - Tnh cc. - Gim st cuc gi. - Gii to cuc gi. l cng vic v cc giai on c bn ca qu trnh x l gi mt tng i s SPC. 3.2.1.Cc chng trnh x l gi: mt h thng tng i SPC nhim v x l gi c hon thnh ch yu nh phn mm. Cc thnh phn ca cc chng trnh x l c m t hnh di. Chng bao gm: B phi hp chng trnh, cc chng trnh d th trng thi, cc chng trnh nh liu cuc gi, cc chng trnh iu khin chuyn mch ... v s dng cc loi bng s liu c nh, bn c nh v tm thi, cc b m ghi pht, m trng thi v cc hng nh.

SV:Nguyn ng Hi-Lp 45k2 TVT- Khoa: Cng Ngh

31

N TT NGHIP VINH

TRNG I HC

3.2.2. Chng trnh d th. Cc bin c bo hiu xut hin trong mng in thoi c pht hin nh cc chng trnh d th . Trng thi ca mt s im th cc mch in thu bao hay trung k c xem xt ng thi v u n qua tng khong thi gian. Thc t s lng im th ny l 16 hoc 32 c ghp vi nhau v c th ng thi. B iu khin trung tm so snh kt qu d th gia ln d mi thc hin v ln d trc c lu li. Cng vic so snh ny c thc hin nh thut ton v mch in logic. Nh cng vic so snh ny m bt k s thay i no xy ra gia hai ln d th u c pht hin. 3.2.3. Chng trnh tm tuyn ni. Chng trnh ny dng tm mt tuyn u ni ri gia mt u vo v mt u ra cho mt cuc gi ni ht hoc l mt tuyn ri gia mt u vo v mt u ra ca nhm mch trung k i vi cc cuc gi chuyn tip, gi ra ...

SV:Nguyn ng Hi-Lp 45k2 TVT- Khoa: Cng Ngh

32

N TT NGHIP VINH

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Cu to ca chng trnh tm tuyn ph thuc vo loi cu trc ca trng chuyn mch. Hin nay qu trnh tm tuyn trong cc h thng tng i SPC da vo qu trnh tng hp phn mm nh k thut nh ha . y l mt trong cc chng t liu quan trng. 3.2.4. Chng trnh iu khin chuyn mch. Sau khi cuc gi c xc nh, cc chc nng phn cng cn tc ng ty thuc tng cuc gi cn c quyt nh. Chng trnh iu khin chuyn mch pht cc lnh cho thit b chuyn mch tuyn ni qua thit b ngoi vi chuyn mch. Nh cc lnh ny m tuyn ni cho cc cuc gi c thit lp qua trng chuyn mch. 3.2.5. Hng cc cuc gi. Khi c mt bin c xut hin nh thu bao nng t hp, t t hp hoc chn s, cc bin c c phn tch ngay v t vo mt hng tng ng ph hp vi loi x l cn thit. B x l lin tc pht hin cc bin c trong cc chu trnh d th. Khi n lt x l bin c trong hng, mt chng trnh thch hp tch bin c ra khi hng, thc hin cc chc nng logic cn thit lin quan ti n v t kt qu vo mt hng khc c lin quan n cng vic s phi gii quyt tip ly ra (nu kt qu dng lnh thao tc) hoc tip tc x l (nu kt qu l s liu cn phi x l tip). 3.2.6. Gin on (ngt). s dng ti u cc b x l, thi gian lm vic ca n c phn phi cho cc cng vic trn c s yu cu ph hp vi mc u tin cho cc cng vic khc nhau. Nh vy m mt vic cn thit mc u tin cao c th c thc hin bt k thi im no. Mc u tin gia cc chng trnh c xc nh thng qua cc mc gin on. Vic phn chia mc gin on tu thuc vo tng h thng tng i. Ni chung c ba mc gin on c s dng. Cc mc gin on theo th t u tin gim dn nh sau: - Mc ng h: Mc ny hot ng theo chu k cch nhau 10ms, n c dng cho cc cng vic c s rng buc v thi gian ngt ngho nh thu cc thng tin chn s (cc ch s a ch), pht hin cc bin c bo hiu, x l li. - Mc x l gi: Mc ny lm vic khi cc hng x l gi ph hp c a vo phn tch cc s liu chn s thu c, xem xt s liu thu bao hay trung k, xc nh tuyn ri ... - Mc gc: Mc ny lun lun hot ng v thc hin cc cng vic mc u tin thp nht nh l mt phn ca chu trnh chng trnh. N phc v cho cc

SV:Nguyn ng Hi-Lp 45k2 TVT- Khoa: Cng Ngh

33

N TT NGHIP VINH

TRNG I HC

cng vic i hi rng buc v thi gian t hn nh vo s cc thu bao, thng k lu lng ... Cc loi bng s liu. Tt c cc s liu lin quan ti cu trc phn cng ca h thng, cc c tnh ca thu bao, trng thi ng dy thu bao, thng tin v to tuyn v tnh cc ... c th c phn b theo ba kiu. - Bng s liu c nh: S liu ging nhau i vi tt c cc tng i cng loi. N hnh thnh mt b phn logic h thng v cha cc s liu v cu trc ca tng i. - Bng s liu bn c nh: S liu bn c nh ph thuc cc nhn t ngoi nh dung lng tng i, cc c tnh thu bao, thng tin to tuyn v tnh cc, phng thc u ni gia cc phn khc nhau ca trng chuyn mch ... - Bng s liu tm thi: S liu tm thi lin quan ti tng cuc gi ring v cha trng thi cuc gi, tuyn ni cho tn hiu ting ni qua trng chuyn mch, khong thi gian gi ... Cc chng trnh x l gi cn thng tin v cc thu bao mt s giai on x l gi. S liu cn thit c ly ra t cc bng s liu tng ng. S liu ny cn c p ng trong cc trng hp sau. + Giai on trc lc chn s. + Giai on chuyn thng tin a ch. + Giai on gii to cuc gi.

3.3. S liu thu bao.


S dng phn mm cho php ta to ra thu bao nhiu c tnh chi tit hn so vi cc h thng ny ch c thng tin v ng dy thu bao, bao gm loi ng dy c php khai thc hay loi nghip v ... c th c chng trnh ho bng phng thc u ni cng. cc h thng chuyn mch SPC c th c khong 50 n 100 bits nh s liu cho mi thu bao. Cc bit s liu ny c ghi sn phc v cho phn loi thu bao. Nh vy c th cung cp cho rt nhiu dch v mi. 3.3.1. .Phn loi s liu thu bao: S liu thu bao c chia thnh hai loi. - S liu m t cc c tnh ca ng thu bao. - S liu m t cc nghip v cung cp thu bao. 3.3.2. Cc s liu thu bao: Cc s liu ny lin quan ti cc c tnh ca ng dy thu bao, bao gm:

SV:Nguyn ng Hi-Lp 45k2 TVT- Khoa: Cng Ngh

34

N TT NGHIP VINH

TRNG I HC

- S liu tng ng gia a ch thit b ng dy thu bao (LEN: Line equiment number) v a ch danh b ca n DN (directory number). - S liu xc nh cc c tnh ca mi thu bao nh ng dy ang c php khai thc hoc quay s hay n phm ... - S liu lin quan ti loi ng dy v phng din tnh cc nh: + ng dy min cc hay tnh cc. + ng dy c truyn dn xung cc hay khng. + ng dy c tnh cc cho cc cuc gi vo hay khng ... 3.3.3. S liu nghip v: - S liu ny lin quan ti cng vic cung cp cc nghip v nng cao cho thu bao ngoi nghip v thng thng chng bao gm: - S liu bn c nh dng xc nh cc nghip v m tng i cung cp cho thu bao chng han nh gi a ch ngn nghip v ng dy nng, gi ch ... - S liu m thu bao c th thay i c bng thao tc my in thoi ca mnh nh bng m thu bao gi a ch ngn v a ch y tng ng, a ch gi chuyn, gi cnh bo ... - S liu xc nh nhm ng dy PABX, tc l nhm cc ng dy c th gi n bng mt a ch. N cho php to lp nhm t bt k ng dy no ca tng i m khng cn ti a ch thit b LEN ca chng. 3.3.4. H s thu bao: S liu thu bao c lu trong cc h s thu bao. Cc vng nh ny c phn pht c nh cho cc thu bao. Cc h s ny c th c sp xp b nh chnh hay b nh ngoi tu thuc vo tng h thng. Chng c th c nh a ch theo a ch danh b DN hoc a ch my LEN ca thu bao. cc h s thu bao c hai loi thng tin chnh: - Thng tin nh gc cuc gi. - Thng tin nh ch cuc gi.

3.4. Phn tch phin dch v to tuyn.


3.4.1. Phin dch: - Mc ch ca cng vic phin dch l cung cp thng tin phc v u ni v tnh cc cho cc cuc gi. Phin dch mt tng i in t c thc hin nh cc chng trnh phn tch tin nh v cc bng phin dch. Trong c bn cn c hai loi s liu tin hnh cng vic phin dch. - S liu nh gc cuc gi. - S liu chn s. 3.4.2. Phn tch to tuyn.

SV:Nguyn ng Hi-Lp 45k2 TVT- Khoa: Cng Ngh

35

N TT NGHIP VINH

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y l cng vic phn tch cc ch s a ch thu c. Qu trnh phn tch c thc hin tng ch s mt hoc sau khi thu c mt vi ch s u. Thng tin a ch c th bao gm ton b cc ch s a ch hay mt phn trong cc ch s . Ni chung qu trnh phn tch cc ch s a ch c c cc thng tin v to tuyn c thc hin theo hai bc. - Xc nh kiu cuc gi. - Xc nh thng tin to tuyn. 3.4.3. Bng phin dch v to tuyn. Cc chng trnh phin dch v to tuyn a ra cc bng phin dch v to tuyn cho cuc gi. Cc bng ny xc nh mi quan h gia cc ch s a ch thu c v nhm ng trung k hoc cc mch in kt cui dng u ni cho cuc gi.

3.5. Thit lp cuc gi ni ht.


Qu trnh thit lp mt cuc gi ni ht trong mt h thng tng i in t k thut s SPC bao gm nhng bc c bn sau: - D th ng dy thu bao ch gi. - Giai on trc lc chn s. - Chn s v to tuyn. - Cp chung. - Gim st cuc gi.

3.6.Tnh cc.
tng i thu bao, cng vic tnh cc c thc hin bi cc ng h tnh cc ring cho tng thu bao. cc tng i SPC cc ng h cc thc cht l cc vng nh. Gi cc cho mi cuc gi c th xc nh ti ch thng qua cc thng tin ly c t cc bng phin dch. Gi cc ny cng c th nh ot da vo thng tin o cc t tng i khc a ti. Gi cc ca mi cuc gi c biu th bng s cc n v cc c s, ging nh cc xung to bc cho cc b tnh cc tng i c in, khng phi tnh ra gi tr tin hin hnh. Cc bng phin dch cc h s thu bao cn phi cung cp thng tin cho php h thng quyt nh c i vi mi cuc gi, cc tham s sau: - y l cuc gi khng tnh cc hay tnh cc. - Tnh cc da trn c s gi cc ng u. Vic tnh ny s ch ra s lng cc n v cc c s. - Tnh cc trn c s c ly v thi gian hi thoi. Cng vic tinh cc loi ny da vo tc xung.

SV:Nguyn ng Hi-Lp 45k2 TVT- Khoa: Cng Ngh

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N TT NGHIP VINH

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- Tnh cc da vo thng tin cc t tng i khc a ti. Thng tin ny c th dng thng bo v tc xung hoc dy xung cc truyn dn v trc tip. Tng i ni ht cng c th cung cp cc dch v lin quan ti qu trnh tnh cc cho mt s thu bao. iu ny lin quan ti thng tin v cc dch v ca thu bao lu cc h s thu bao. 3.6.1.Tnh cc ti nh: cc tng i in t SPC thu bao c th c cung cp dch v tnh cc ti nh. c c dch v ny, my thu bao c trang b thm mt b tnh cc kiu hin th. Cc xung cc c th c pht i t tng i qua ng dy thu bao tc ng ti b tnh cc t ti nh thu bao. Cc xung ny cn phi pht i theo phng thc thi gian thc, trong lc thu bao ang m thoi nh mt thit b pht xung cc t cc b trung k ni b, trung k ra hoc trang b chung cho cho tt c cc loi cuc gi. Cng vic truyn dn cc xung cc ny c iu khin bi trang thit b ngoi vi c lp hoc b iu khin trung tm thng qua chng trnh ghi sn. 3.6.2. Tnh cc cho thu bao b gi. Nh dch v ny cc cho cc cuc gi c tnh cho thu bao b gi m khng tnh cho thu bao ch gi nh thng l. Sau khi phn tch loi dch v ca thu bao b gi tng i u cui khi xng mt quy trnh nhn dng thu bao ch gi, h thng xc nh gi cc cho cuc gi da vo bng phin dch ca n. Cui cng n a ra gi cc thch hp tnh cho thu bao b gi. 3.6.3.Lp ho n tnh cc. Cng vic ny cung cp cho thu bao thng tin v cc mt cch chi tit dng ho n cho tt c hoc mt s cuc gi. C th c mt vi kiu lp ho n, chng hn nh ch lp ho n cho cc cuc gi i quc t, lp ho n cho c cuc gi ni ht v ng di trong nc hoc lp ho n cho tt c cc cuc gi khng phi ni ht ... Nh dch v ny m mi cuc gi cn c son tho v a ra mt bn tin. Mt bn tin cn son tho phi c quyt nh sau khi thc hin cng vic phin dch v n ph thuc vo ch cuc gi dch v ca thu bao ch gi. Ni dung ca mt bn tin dng ho n chi tit bao gm: - c im thu bao ch gi. - a ch thu bao b gi. - Thi gian bt u tnh cc. - Khong thi gian tnh cc cho cuc gi v cc n v cc.

SV:Nguyn ng Hi-Lp 45k2 TVT- Khoa: Cng Ngh

37

N TT NGHIP VINH

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Cc tin tc trong ho n cc thng c ghi cc vng nh c bit. Cc vng nh ny c phn pht linh hot cho cc cuc gi trong sut khong thi gian hi thoi. Chng c phn pht cho cc cuc gi vo giai on trc lc thu bao chn s v gii to vo lc kt thc cuc gi hoc ngay sau khi cng vic phin dch c thc hin v quyt nh cuc gi khng cn thit lp ha n chi tit. nghip v ny c th cn trang b cc chng trnh b tr chuyn dng cho h thng tnh cc. 3.6.4. Phng thc tnh cc. Vic tnh ton s lng n v cc c bn c th c thc hin cho cuc gi bng cch xc nh cc theo c ly v thi gian hi thoi. N c th c tnh theo thi gian thc hin vo lc kt thc cuc gi. - Tnh ton thi gian thc: Phng php tnh cc c thc hin khi xung cc c truyn dn qua ng dy thu bao ch gi nh chng trnh nh thi theo chu k. Tu thuc loi cuc gi m chu k ny c iu chnh ph hp. Qua mt nhp ngt b tnh cc phn pht cho cuc gi nhy mt bc. Khong thi gian ngt bng khong tnh cc v c th thay i trong lc hi thoi tu thuc s thay i gi cc gia ngy v m gia ngy thng v ngy l. Nh vy cn phi xc nh chu k thch hp mi khi thay i gi cc thao tc theo nhp ph hp vo lc cuc gi v tnh cc ch th trc tip s lng n v cc c bn lp ho n cho cuc gi. - Tnh cc sau khi hon thnh cuc gi: Phng php tnh ny khng thc hin ch thi gian thc. V vy c th s dng cc chng trnh tnh cc mc u tin thp. i vi cch tnh cc theo thi gian v c ly cuc gi th thng tin cn cho cng vic tnh cc thng thu c t bng s liu gn vi cc mch trung k ra. Khi gi cc thay i gia ngy v m hoc tng ngy trong nm th thi gian thay i gi cc mi nht c ghi li. iu ny cho php tnh cc ring r trong tng khong thi gian v tng khong thi gian gi cng c tnh theo gi cc thch hp. Ni dung ca b tnh cc cho thu bao l thng tin cn c qun l c tm quan trng bc nht v trung thc ca n cn phi c m bo. iu ny c thc hin nh s dng cc b tnh cc b tr khng thay i c lu a. Chng hn, cc h thng tng i khng c cc b nh khi th s liu tnh cc c th c bo v, chng mt mt s liu nh phng php sao chp ni dung cc b tnh cc vo bng t theo nh k. Tm li: Cc tng i hin nay u lm vic theo nguyn l iu khin theo chng trnh ghi sn (SPC). Tt c cc chc nng x l cuc gi c thc hin

SV:Nguyn ng Hi-Lp 45k2 TVT- Khoa: Cng Ngh

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N TT NGHIP VINH

TRNG I HC

trn c s cc chng trnh ghi sn c thit k v lu tr trong cc b nh x l trung tm v ngoi vi. Th h u tin ca loi tng i in t SPC c thit k theo kiu mt b x l. Sau ny ngi ta sn xut cc tng i theo kiu module v c nhiu cp x l. Vi cu trc nh vy tng i c th d dng c m rng dung lng v nng cao an ton ca h thng v hiu qu s dng cc b x l cng cao hn. Cc b x l ngoi vi c trang b cc b x l thch hp. iu khin theo chng trnh ghi sn khng nhng em li thun li cho ngi s dng m cn n gin ho rt nhiu trong qu trnh khai thc v bo dng.

CHNG III: H THNG CHUYN MCH S I. GII THIU CHUNG V K THUT CHUYN MCH S.
Trong cc tng i in t, thit b chuyn mch l mt trong cc b phn ch yu v c kch thc ln. N c cc chc nng chnh nh sau: - Chc nng chuyn mch : Thc hin chc nng ny thit lp tuyn ni tip gia 2 hay nhiu thu bao ca tng i hoc gia tng i ny vi tng i khc. - Chc nng truyn dn: Trn c s tuyn ni thit lp, thit b chuyn mch thc hin truyn dn tn hiu ni v tn hiu bo hiu gia cc thu bao vi tin cy v chnh xc cn thit.

II. H THNG CHUYN MCH S.


Phng thc chuyn mch ny cn gi l chuyn mch PCM (pulse code modulation). Chuyn mch s l qu trnh lin kt cc tuyn truyn dn k thut s TDM. iu ny cho php cc tuyn s 2Mbps hay 1,5 Mbps t cc tng i khc hay cc tng i PABX c kt ni mt cch trc tip trn chuyn mch s, khng cn chuyn i sang cc knh thoi thnh phn cho chuyn mch ging nh trong mt tng i analog. S b bt thit b nh th trn mi knh lm cho chuyn mch s c xem l c u im v gi c v kch thc. D nhin, bt c mt mch analog no kt cui trn trn tng i chuyn mch s hoc l cc thu bao hoc l cc mch trung k hay hp ni, u phi c chuyn sang dng PCM trc khi vo cc chuyn mch s. Tng t cc mch ri khi tng i trn cc phng tin truyn dn analog cng phi c chuyn t s sang tng t ngay ti ngoi vi ca khi chuyn mch. Chuyn i A/D v D/A ny, cng vi bt k s chuyn i bo hiu cn thit no c m trch bi thit b lin kt mng. Vai tr ca thit b lin kt mng c m t trong mt kin trc tng qut hnh sau:

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Theo s khi trn th cc lung s PCM nhp vo khi chuyn mch mt cch trc tip ngay ti mc ghp knh, trong khi cc mch analog kt cui ti mc mch ring trn thit b lin kt mng. Do , thit b lin kt mng phi chu s tht thot v gi c v kch thc so vi mt tng i chuyn mch s.

Mt khi chuyn mch s cung cp cc kt ni gia mt s cc h thng PCM, mi h thng bao gm 30 hay 24 knh trong mt khung TDM kt thc ti khi chuyn mch trn cc bus tc cao. Do , chuyn mch s lin quan n vic truyn cc t m PCM ca mt knh trong mt khe thi gian trn mt bus ng nhp vo mt khe thi gian trn mt bus ng ra. Ni chung, mt h thng chuyn mch s phc v mt s ngun tn hiu c ghp knh theo thi gian. Cc knh tn hiu PCM ny c truyn trn cc tuyn dn PCM. Trn cc tuyn truyn dn PCM chung ti i nhiu knh

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thng tin (ting ni hoc bo hiu) v cc knh ny c tch ra theo nguyn l phn knh theo thi gian. Qu trnh ghp v tch knh PCM c thc hin bi cc thit b ghp v tch knh trc v sau thit b chuyn mch. thc hin chuyn mch cho cc cuc gi i hi phi sp xp cc tn hiu s (cc t hp m) t mt khe thi gian mt b ghp (hoc mt tuyn truyn dn PCM) sang cng mt khe thi gian hoc sang mt khe thi gian khc ca mt b ghp knh hay tuyn PCM khc. Vic trao i cc khe thi gian, tc l chuyn mch tn hiu s c thc hin theo 2 phng php phi hp vi nhau hoc tch bit: - Chuyn mch khng gian. - Chuyn mch thi gian.

2.1. Chuyn mch khng gian.


S nguyn l.

phng php chuyn mch khng gian, khe thi gian tng ng ca cc tuyn PCM vo ra khc nhau c trao i cho nhau. Mt mu tn hiu PCM khe thi gian nh trc ca tuyn PCM vo, chng hn tuyn PCM vo s 0, c chuyn ti khe thi gian cng th t (cng tn) ca mt tuyn PCM khc, chng hn tuyn PCM ra s 1. Nh vy khng c s chm tr truyn dn cho mu tn hiu khi chuyn mch t mt tuyn PCM vo ny ti mt tuyn PCM ra

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khc. T l mu tn hiu nhn v tr cung khe thi gian trong khung thi gian tuyn PCM vo v PCM ra. Cu to tng qut mt b chuyn mch khng gian tn hiu s gm c mt ma trn cc tip im truyn t mch kt ni theo kiu cc hng v cc ct. Cc hng u vo cc tip im chuyn mch c gn vi cc tuyn PCM, cc tuyn ny c gn a ch x0, x1, x2, xn; ; Cn cc ct u ra c k hiu y0, y1, y2, yn. Cc tip im chuyn mch l cc ca logic and. Nh vy ta c mt ma trn chuyn mch khng gian s kch thc nxm. Trong thc t ma trn ny thng l ma trn vung, c ngha l s tuyn PCM dn vo bng s tuyn PCM dn ra. iu khin thao tc chuyn mch ca cc tip im cn c b nh iu khin. B nh ny gm cc ct nh hoc cc hng nh tu theo phng thc iu khin u vo hay u ra. Nu b chuyn mch lm vic theo nguyn l iu khin u ra th mi mt ct ni ti cc u vo iu khin ca cc tip im c mt ct nh iu khin . S lng cc nh mi ct nh iu khin bng s khe thi gian ca mi tuyn PCM u vo. Trong thc t cc tuyn tip ghp PCM ny c t 256 n 1024 khe thi gian tu theo cu trc v quy m ca b chuyn mch. S lng bit nh (t bo nh) ca mi nh c mi quan h ph thuc vo s lng cc tuyn PCM dn vo theo h thc: 2 =N Trong : s bit nh ca mi nh. N: s lng tuyn PCM u vo. cc tng i thc t trn mg li ca nc ta hin nay th mng chuyn mch khng gian s l cc ma trn 8x8, 16x16, hoc 32x32. tng i E10B th b chuyn mch khng gian lm vic theo nguyn l iu khin u ra. Trong khi tng TDX-1B th b chuyn mch khng gian c ma trn 8x8 li lm vic theo nguyn l iu khin u vo.

2. 2. chuyn mch thi gian. 2.2.1.Chuyn mch iu khin u vo.


phng php chuyn mch thi gian th qu trnh chuyn mch l trao i v tr khe thi gian mang mu tn hiu PCM t tuyn PCM vo ti tuyn

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PCM ra ca b chuyn mch thi gian. R rng trng hp ny xut hin thi gian tr khi thc hin chuyn mch. a.S nguyn l: V cu to, mt b chuyn mch thi gian tn hiu s bao gm 2 b nh; mt b nh ting ni v mt b nh iu khin. B nh ting ni c s lng cc nh bng s lng khe thi gian c ghp trong khung ca tuyn dn PCM a vo . s ta gi thit l cc tuyn ghp PCM u vo v u ra c 32 khe thi gian nn cc b nh ting ni v iu khin c 32 nh. Trong thc t cc tuyn ghp PCM ny c 256 n 1024 khe thi gian. Khi cc b nh cng phi c s lng cc nh tng ng. b nh ting ni mi nh c 8 bit nh ghi li 8 bit mang tin ca mi t m PCM i din cho mt mu tn hiu ting ni. B nh iu khin c s lng nh bng b nh ting ni nhng mi nh ca n c s lng bit nh tu thuc s lng khe thi gian ca cc tuyn ghp PCM; chng c quan h vi nhau theo h thc. 2r = C Trong r: S bit nh ca mt nh b iu khin. C: S lng khe thi gian ca tuyn ghp PCM. Thng thng s lng khe thi gian ca cc tuyn ghp chun trong cc h thng chuyn mch l 256, 512, 1024; lc s lng cc bit nh trong mi nh iu khin l 8, 9 hoc 10 bit. Hai b nh ting ni v b nh iu khin ca b chuyn mch thi gian s lin kt vi nhau thng qua h thng BUS a ch v chu s iu khin ca b iu khin chuyn mch hoc trc tip hoc qua b m khe thi gian.

b.Nguyn l lm vic:

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Theo phng thc chuyn mch thi gian iu khin u vo cc mu tn hiu PCM t u vo a ti c ghi vo b nh theo phng php c iu khin; tc l trnh t ghi cc xung mu PCM cc b nh ting ni c quyt nh bi b nh iu khin. Cn qu trnh c cc mu tn hiu m ho PCM t b nh ting ni vo cc khe thi gian ca tuyn ghp PCM ra c tin hnh theo trnh t t nhin. Mi nh ca b nh iu khin c lin kt cht ch vi khe thi gian tng ng ca tuyn PCM vo v cha a ch ca khe thi gian cn u ni n tuyn ghp PCM ra. Gi thit cn u ni khe thi gian TS4 ca tuyn truyn dn PCM vo ti khe thi gian TS6 ca tuyn ghp PCM ra. thc hin c tuyn ni ny th s 4 ca b nh ting ni s c s dng ghi t m PCM mang mu ting ni cha khe thi gian TS4. t m

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ny c c vo khe thi gian TS6 ca tuyn ghp PCM ra th t hp m TS4 cn c ghi vo nh 06 ca b nh ting ni. Cn a ch ca nh ny c b iu khin chuyn mch ghi vo s 04 ca b nh iu khin dng m nh phn 00110. Sau khi tin hnh ghi cc t m mang tin cc khe thi gian ca tuyn truyn dn PCM vo theo phng thc c iu khin nh b nh iu khin, ni dung cc nh ny c c ra tun t theo th t. Qu trnh iu khin ghi thc hin nh sau: B iu khin chuyn mch qut c ln lt ni dung cc nh ca b nh iu khin theo th t 00, 01, , 31 ng b vi th t cc khe thi gian ca tuyn PCM xut hin u vo. Khi c ti nh 04 ng vo lc khe thi gian TS4 xut hin u vo b nh ting ni. Lc ny ni dung 0010 04 ca b nh a ch c c ra, qua BUS a ch knh ghi c a ti ca iu khin m cho nh 06 ca b nh ting ni. Kt qu 8 bit mang ting ni cha khe thi gian TS4 ca tuyn PCM vo c ghi vo 8 bit nh ca nh ny. Khi c ra, 8 bit ny c vo khe thi gian TS6 ca tuyn PCM ra. Kt qu l khe thi gian TS4 u vo c chuyn mch ti khe thi gian TS6 ca tuyn PCM ra.

2.2.2.Chuyn mch iu khin u ra.


a.S nguyn l: V cu to th b chuyn mch thi gian tn hiu s iu khin u ra cng gm c hai b nh c cu to ging nh ca b chuyn mch theo phng thc iu khin u vo (hnh v). Th nhng nguyn l lm vic thc hin u ni th khc vi nguyn l iu khin u vo.

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b.Nguyn l lm vic: phng thc chuyn mch thi gian iu khin u ra th mu tn hiu PCM tuyn dn PCM vo cn c ghi vo cc nh ca b nh ting ni theo trnh t t nhin. Tc l mu khe thi gian TS0 ghi vo nh 00; mu khe thi gian TS1 ghi vo nh 01 v.v v mu tn hiu khe thi gian TS31 ghi vo nh 31 ca b nh ting ni. Khi c cc ni dung cc nh ny vo cc khe thi gian ca tuyn ghp PCM ra th phi thc hin c iu khin mu tn hiu PCM mt khe thi

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gian no u vo cn phi chuyn n mt khe thi gian nh trc ca tuyn PCM ra (gi l khe thi gian ch). thc hin c cng vic ny, mi khe thi gian ca tuyn ghp PCM ra c lin kt cht ch vi mt nh iu khin theo th t t nhin; tc l khe thi gian TS0 gn nh 00, khe thi gian TS1 gn vi nh 01 khe thi gian TS31 gn vi nh 31. Ni dung ca cc nh ny c b iu khin chuyn mch ghi a ch ca khe thi gian u vo (khe thi gian gc) cn c chuyn mch ti khe thi gian ra tng ng. Xt mt s chuyn mch l s u ni khe thi gian TS4 ca tuyn PCM vo ti khe thi gian TS6 ca tuyn PCM ra. Theo phng thc iu khin u ra th cn c vo thng tin a ch b iu khin chuyn mch ghi a ch nh s 4 (00100) vo nh s 6 ca b nh iu khin. Cc mu tn hiu PCM u vo cc khe thi gian c ghi th t ln lt vo cc nh ca b nh ting ni. B nh iu khin chuyn mch qut c ln lt cc nh ca b nh iu khin iu khin ng b vi tuyn ghp PCM ra. Khi c ti nh 06 th ni dung 4 c a ra v t m PCM ca khe thi gian TS4 ghi nh 04 ca b nh ting ni c c vo khe thi gian TS6 ca tuyn PCM ra. Nh vy khe thi gian TS4 c u ni ti khe thi gian TS6 u ra.

2.3.Chuyn mch s ghp hp.


a.Khi nim v chuyn mch ghp hp: Mc d cc tip im in t khng t lm nhng chi ph xy dng mt b chuyn mch khng gian s cng kh tn km do chi ph cho vic hn ni tip cn vi cc chn ca phin mch. Ngoi ra cc chn ra ca cc linh kin vi mch cng khng th gn nhau qu v khng gian hn ni khng cho php. T kch thc ca b chuyn mch khng gian cng tng ln khi dung lng ln. Cn i vi kiu chuyn mch thi gian th nhu cu v nh cng tng ln rt nhiu i vi cc b chuyn mch thun tu theo thi gian cc tng i dung lng ln. Nh vy v hiu qu kinh t cng khng cao, c bit l khi gi thnh mi bit nh cn cao. V vy hin nay, t mt vi h thng tng i sn xut ti Php l c cu trc chuyn mch thi gian thun tu, cn li a s cc tng i dung lng trung bnh v ln u c cu trc chuyn mch kiu trng nhiu t ghp hp ca 2 phng thc chuyn mch thi gian v khng gian. Trng hp ny trng chuyn mch c to bi nhiu t, mi t c ghp t mt s ma trn chuyn mch kch thc nh hoc cc b chuyn mch thi gian dung

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lng nh to thnh mt trng chuyn mch dung lng ln. Nh vy cn thit phi thay i khe thi gian v tuyn PCM trong qu trnh chuyn mch. V th trng chuyn mch phi s dng c 2 phng thc chuyn mch thi gian v khng gian tn hiu s. Loi trng chuyn mch ny gi l trng chuyn mch ghp hp, chng c th c cu trc ghp khc nhau nh TS, STS, TST, TSST (T: B chuyn mch thi gian: Time Switch; S: B chuyn mch khng gian: Space switch). Mt khc, trng chuyn mch 2 t dng 2 loi TS hoc ST ch thch hp cho cc tng i dung lng nh. Thng dng nht l trng chuyn mch TST hoc STS cho cc tng i dung lng trung bnh v ln. Tuy nhin mt s tng i trung bnh v ln ngi ta cn s dng cc kiu trng chuyn mch TSST, TSSST, hoc SSTSS. Trng chuyn mch STS c cu trc iu khin n gin nn thng c s dng cho cc tng i dung lng nh. Mt khc kha cnh tn tht th ta phi ch nhiu ti tng ra. y tng ra lm vic theo nguyn l chuyn mch khng gian nn thng thng cu trc theo kiu c tn tht. V vy n khng thch hp cho cc h thng tng i dung lng ln. Trng chuyn mch TST c tn tht nh hn v cc t ngoi l cc t chuyn mch thi gian nn khng sinh ra tn tht y. Cn t chuyn mch khng gian gia c th l cu trc kiu khng tn tht hoc tn tht nh. V vy trng chuyn mch loi ny c dng c hiu qu nht cho cc trng chuyn mch cn lu thng lng ti ln hn na nh cc tng i chuyn tip dung lng ln c th s dng loi cu trc chuyn mch TSST hoc TSSST. Vic chn dng mt cu trc trng chuyn mch kiu no ph thuc vo cc nhn t khc na; chng hn nh tnh phc tp, linh hot, kh nng o th, kh nng pht trin dung lng Trong thc t cu trc TST vn l cu trc ph bin nht.

2.3.1.Trng chuyn mch TST.


Vi mt trng chuyn mch TST, chuyn mch thi gian ng nhp khe thi gian nhp n bt k khe thi gian t do no trn bus i n ng nhp ca chuyn mch khng gian, trong khi chuyn mch thi gian ng ra kt ni khe thi gian c chn t chuyn mch khng gian n khe thi gian c yu cu. Do , cc cuc ni xuyn qua khi chuyn mch c th c nh tuyn

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xuyn qua chuyn mch khng gian trong bt k mt khe thi gian thun tin no.

S sp xp c trnh by nh hnh v cho cuc ni v d t A2/TS10 n C1/TS45. Vi khe thi gian bus nhp v khe thi gian bus xut c ch nh, iu khin chuyn mch c th chn bt k mt khe thi gian t do no xuyn qua chuyn mch khng gian ti to A2 v ct C1 (ta 2 ct C1). Gi s rng chuyn mch khng gian c 124 khe thi gian v cc ni dung cn thit ca cc CM cng c trnh by.

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B nh CM ca chuyn mch thi gian ng nhp A2 ca a ch 10 ti v tr 124; do , vi mi chu k c v chu k ghi, khe thi gian nhp TS10 c kt ni n khe thi gian xut TS124. Chuyn mch khng gian c cc b nh CM c nh hng theo ct. a ch to 2 c gi trong CM-B1 ti v tr 124 ng ra ca chuyn mch thi gian A2 c kt ni n ng nhp ca chuyn mch thi gian C1 trong thi gian ca mi khe 124. V cc l do ca iu khin i xng , mt s cc u im trong vn t chc cc chuyn mch thi gian ng ra trong ch ghi c theo chu k. Ni dung ca CM-C1 trong v tr 124 l a ch 45. Sau , d liu ng ra t ct B1 ca chuyn mch khng gian trong thi gian khe 124 c truyn n bus C1 xut trong thi gian ca khe 45. Tun t ny c lp li trn mi khung cho n khi ni dung ca cc b nh kt ni CM lin h c thay i, to mt ng dn t A2/TS10 n C1/TS45. thit lp mt kt ni hai hng, mt ng dn tng ng cng c yu cu cho truyn thng tin t C1/TS45 A2/TS10. Hai ng dn ny xuyn qua khi chuyn mch c th c thit lp mt cch c lp cho mi cuc gi hay c thit lp nh mt i. Phng php th nht c tnh linh hot hn trong vic s dng khi chuyn mch, nhng phng php th hai c x l iu khin n gin hn bi kt ni c tin hnh i xng.

2.3.2. Chuyn mch S - T - S.


Cu trc chuyn mch S - T - S c qu trnh tng t nh chuyn mch T - S - T. Vic la chn khe thi gian vo v ra c xc nh bng ng giao tip theo yu cu. Do b bin i khe thi gian c th bng cch dng hai chuyn mch khng gian do linh hot ca u ni c ci thin. Trng chuyn mch S - T - S c cu trc iu khin n gin nn thng c s dng cho trng chuyn mch c dung lng nh. tng ra lm vic theo nguyn l chuyn mch khng gian nn thng c tn tht v vy n khng thch hp cho h thng dung lng ln. *Tm li cc mng li T - S - T, S - T - S c th c thit kt c cng kh nng kt ni cuc gi v t l kho cuc gi. Vic ny chng t t ln phn b 1 : 1 c tin hnh gia phn chia thi gian v phn chia khng gian.

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CHNG IV: H THNG TNG I RLU-AXE 810


I.TNG QUAN V H THNG AXE 1.1. Lch s pht trin ca h thng AXE.
c pht trin t nm 1975, cc h thng AXE lin tc c pht trin v c s dng ph bin trn ton th gii. C th tm tt lch s pht trin ca h thng AXE ca Erricson nh bng sau: - Nm 1975: Tng i ni ht AXE u tin ra i. - Nm 1982: Tng i s hon ton c lp t Phn Lan. - Nm 1985: Tng i AXE c bn ra trn 63 nc, trong c s dng trong 22 h thng mng di ng. - Nm 1988: Lp t c 4 triu line, chim 10% th trng th gii. - Nm 1991: Erricson lp t h thng tng i AXE cho h thng GSM. - Nm 1993: c lp t trn 101 quc gia, dung lng 12 triu line. - Nm 1995: Lp t thm 14 triu line, tng s line ton th gii l 105 triu line. H thng tng i AXE cho mng di ng phc v 34 triu thu bao trn 75 quc gia. - Nm 2000: Tng s line l trn 186 triu. Trn 125 quc gia s dng AXE cho mng di ng. - Nm 2005: C 19.000 tng i AXE c lp t trn th gii v cng c 1.200 c s d liu cho trm (HLR and SCP) dng cng ngh AXE. - Hin nay p ng nhng yu cu thng tin ngy cng cao v quy m v cht lng dch v hng Erricson chuyn t th h tng i AXE 10 ln th h mi AXE 810 . AXE ang pht trin n mt h thng m, l: - Phn mm pht trin theo hng modul ha ng dng, cc giao din c thit k li p ng nhu cu mi nhng v c bn vn gi nguyn. - Phn cng c pht trin theo hng nh gn hn v tng thch v mt in t n tn mc cc bo card. - Cc b x l s c pht trin theo hng tng thm sc mnh cho cc b x l vng, v cc b vi x l. - iu khin v bo dng thng qua cc h thng vo/ra tiu chun, da trn h iu hnh Unix, bao gm cc b x l ph, c lp trnh bng ngn ng C, C++, Java. Ngoi vai tr l nn tng cho vo/ra, cc b x l ph cn c s dng cho cc ng dng khc, v d nh tnh cc.

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Chuyn mch nhm c pht trin di dng nn tng chuyn mch gm nhiu ma trn kt ni vi nhau, cho php x l cc kiu lu lng t bng rng cho n bng hp. Dung lng ca chuyn mch nhm cng tng ln.

1.2. c im ca h thng AXE.


AXE l kin trc cho php hi t cc dch v vin thng, cng ngh thng tin (truyn d liu v internet) v gii tr (truyn hnh cp). AXE c kin trc m, c kh nng h tr tt c cc loi dch v cho c cc mng ln v nh, mng di ng v c nh. AXE l gii php cho tng lai, trn c s ca qu trnh lin tc nghin cu v pht trin trong lnh vc truyn thng v p ng c cc yu cu trong tng lai nh kt hp cc cng ngh tin tin nh tng cng nng lc cc b x l, tng dung lng lu tr, tng tc chuyn mch v ci thin hiu sut phc v. AXE c kh nng m rng v c th iu chnh h tr cc ng dng khc nhau mt cch hiu qu nht. H thng AXE 810 chng minh vai tr ca cc h thng AXE l h thng chuyn mch hng u, cho php chuyn sang mng 3G v a dch v. AXE c thit k p ng cc tiu chun v chuyn mch v bo hiu theo khuyn ngh ca ITUT, ETSI v ANSI (vin tiu chun quc gia M) cng nh cc tiu chun quc gia ca Trung Quc v Nht Bn. Cc tnh nng chnh ca AXE l: - Tnh Modul. - p ng cc yu cu ca cc nh iu hnh mng. - L mt node vin thng. KIN TRC H THNG: - Kin trc modul m: H thng AXE c thit k s dng cng ngh tin tin nht v kt hp vi rt nhiu cc k thut chuyn v vin thng duy nht ca ERICSSON p ng cc yu cu pht trin rt nhanh ca khch hng trn th gii. Cc pht trin gn y em li kin trc h thng vi tnh nng m ngy cng cao. Vi tnh nng m ca AXE, cho php d dng hn trong x l, gim gi thnh vn hnh v linh hot tng thch vi s thay i ca truyn thng a phng tin, Internet, Video, thoi... Tnh modul c th c biu din di cc mt sau: Tnh a chc nng: a chc nng y c ngha l cng 1 h thng AXE c th s dng c trong tt c cc ng dng, t node chuyn mch ni ht loi nh cho n

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cc trung tm chuyn mch quc t. PSTN, ISDN, cc thu bao di ng v mng thng minh (IN) u c h tr trong cc khu vc nng thn, th v ngoi . Tnh modul v ng dng: Cho php kt hp d dng vi cc ng dng mng khc nhau trn cng mt node mng. AXE da trn khi nim modul ha ng dng ca Ericsson (AM). Modul v chc nng: Cc phn khc nhau ca AXE c xc nh theo cc chc nng m chng thc hin. Ngha l cc chc nng c th c thm vo, xa i, thay i m khng nh hng n cc phn khc ca h thng. Tnh modul ca phn mm: Cc modul ca phn mm c lp trnh c lp vi nhau, tng tc vi nhau qua cc giao din chun. Cc li c c lp trong mi modul, khng nh hng n cc d liu thuc v modul khc, m bo mc an ninh mc cao. Modul trong cng ngh: AXE l h thng m, cho php cc cng ngh v chc nng mi c th c thm vo, ci tin mt phn m khng nh hng n cc phn khc ca h thng. Modul ca phn cng: Phn cng c ng gi thnh cc n v modul (cc bo mch, card), cho php linh hot trong vic lp t v m rng.

1.3. ng dng ca tng i AXE.


Tng i ni ht: Kin trc h thng AXE cho php c th trin khai c cc khu vc th c mt dn c ng c cho n khu vc nng thn dn c tha tht. H thng c th h tr: - Cc ng dng truyn thng, PSTN, ISDN cng nh Internet, mng thng minh (IN). - Truy nhp cp ng, cp quang, v tuyn. - Cc giao thc, giao din tiu chun nh: V5.1, V5.2, QSIC, CCS7 Tng i qu giang: Tng i AXE cng c th c s dng lm tng i qu giang quc gia v quc t, h tr PSTN, ISDN, mng thng minh cng nh cc truyn thng thng mi khc. AXE c th c s dng lm:

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Gateway quc t. Transit quc gia. im iu khin dch v SCP. im chuyn mch dch v SSP. im chuyn tip bo hiu STP.

Cc c im hp dn ca h thng AXE qu giang i vi ngi vn hnh mng. - Truy nhp ISDN tc s cp. - H tr h thng bo hiu s 7. - Tnh cc. - nh tuyn ng. - Mng ring o quc t. - Thit b nhn knh s. - B trit ting vng. Ngoi ra, AXE cng c th lm tng i qu giang cho mng di ng. i vi cc khch hng khng mun s dng 2 loi tng i ni ht v qu giang ring bit, AXE cung cp loi tng i kt hp tnh nng ca c 2 loi trn, gi l AXE Translocal.

II. CU TRC CA H THNG AXE


Cu trc ca h thng AXE bao gm cc mc khc nhau: Mc h thng 1: L mc h thng cao nht ti cc node v cu hnh mng c nh ngha. Mc h thng 2: Ty vo cu trc h thng no c s dng m cc phn h c s kt hp thnh APT v APZ trong cc h thng khng pht trin trn AM, v cc modul ng dng, nn tng modul ti nguyn (RMP). H thng trn dng trong cc h thng da trn AM. H thng AXE c cu trc phn cp thnh cc mc chc nng nh (hnh 2.1) sau: Ti mc h thng 2, h thng AXE c chia thnh 2 phn: APT: l phn chuyn mch. V d: APT cung cp chc nng chuyn mch trong tng i ni ht. APZ: l phn iu khin. V d: phn h chuyn mch nhm l phn chuyn mch trung tm ca h thng AXE.

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Hnh 2.1: Cu trc phn cp ca h thng AXE. - APZ l h thng my tnh, chy cc chng trnh phn mm iu khin hot ng ca phn chuyn mch. - APT v APZ li tip tc c chia thnh cc phn h, mi phn h c mt chc nng xc nh. Tn ca mi phn h phn nh chc nng ca n.

III. KIN TRC PHN CNG.


H thng gm hai phn mc: * H thng ng dng APT. * H thng iu khin APZ. Ngoi ra chng ta cn lu ti: * H thng khai thc v bo dng IOG. c thit k vi cu trc m, n gm 3 phn h chc nng c lp (c lin kt vi nhau bi cc giao tip chun) Kt ni gia cc h thng l cc giao din chun tc cao (digital link) nh giao din cc DL2, DL3 hoc cc BUS iu khin c dng truyn nhn tn hiu thoi v tn hiu iu khin gia h thng ng dng v h thng iu khin.

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Phn cng xoay quanh b phn chuyn mch nhm GS890, b phn m c n 512 v tr ghp knh, mi mt v tr ng vi tc 64 bt/s.

Hnh 3.1: M t kin trc phn cng. S thay i ln nht trong cu trc phn cng l vic cu to b sung thm mt giao din tng i mi (the DL34) trong DL3 hin hu v cc giao din DL2. Giao din DL34 tr gip t 128 2,688 (ln) khe thi gian n mi b thit b, vi cc nhp u 128, i qua giao din phng trong b khung Ericssion cng nhm, thit b m ang vn hnh vi tc 222 Mbit/s. Giao din ny c th lm tng s kt ni gia cc thit b vi b phn chuyn mch nhm, lm gim i nng lng u vo (ngun tiu th), cp dn, bng mch, cc khe lp cc bng mch lm gim thi gian lp t v cc thng s khc. Giao din

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DL34 tc cao to iu kin cho nt c trng c hiu qu hn trong b chuyn mch nhm, v n cng nh v trong GEM. Mt thay i khc v mt cu trc (hnh 3.1) l mng kt ni b. Trong giai on u, mng kt ni b s c s dng y nhanh vic truyn thng gia b x l trung tm v b x l ph. Giao din cn c vo Ethernet. Giai on tip theo, n s tng tc n Gigabt. Tt cc cc thit b m h tr cho giao din DL34 c th b xo trn t hay nhiu khng c gii hn trong GEM. Dung lng ti a ca mi GEM l 16 k nhn ln nhiu ln cho nhiu v tr, m ng vi 8 b STM-1ET chng hn. V mt vt l hc, c mt khng gian lp t 22 b thit b trong mt GEM. Nu b chuyn mch ang s dng m ln hn 16 k MUPs hoc khi s lng cc thit b vt qua 22, th cc b GEM ph phi c lp t thm vo. Vit ny c th c nh hnh m khng cn lm gin on qu trnh vn hnh. Mt tng i m c da trn c s GEM th c th c nhn rng. Kch thc ti a ca b chuyn mch l 512 K MUPs vi tc bnh thng l 16 kbt/s hoc 128 MUPs tc ph l n x 8 kbt/s. Bng vic chn vo mt cp ng truyn s phc hp trong GEM, chng ta c th bin i giao din trt DL34 thnh 4 giao din cp DL3. iu cho php tt c cc thit b trong b thit b cng nhm, c th s dng vi mt li chuyn mch mi. im u vit trong cch b tr ca cc khi ngun v cc khi kt ni l phi nh r cc giao din trc trong qu trnh b tr. Khi cc giao din b ng bng, cc khi h thng chuyn bit c th c thit k c lp vi khi khc, v thng c nh v cc v tr khc nhau, cng ging nh trong cu to Ericssion. Sau y chng ta xem xt tng h thng ca Ericsson AXE 810.

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S khi chung ca tng i AXE 810

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3.1. H thng ng dng APT.


APT h thng ng dng bao gm group switch v cc thit b kt ni vo n. Trong phn ny em ch trnh by cu trc h thng chuyn mch GSS.: GSS kt ni cc knh vo ra theo cu trc c bn T-S-T ca hng Ericsson, C rt nhiu dng kt ni vo GS thng qua mt giao din chun c gi l SNT. Cc thit b c kt ni thng qua giao din DL2 nm backboard ca subrack GDM bao gm cc digital link multiplexers (DLMUX) c gi l digital link multiplexer half-height board (DLHB). Cn cc DLHB kt ni vo chuyn mch thi gian bng giao din mi l DL3 (digital link interface 3rd generation). Trong mi SNT tng ng vi mt PCM v chng kt ni vo trng chuyn mch thng qua mt im c gi l SNTP. GSS cung cp rt nhiu chc nng trong h thng AXE 810 nh chc nng kt ni v gii phng cuc gi, qun l qu trnh ng b, qun l cc PCM

Hnh 3.2: Chc nng cc khi trong GSS Chc nng cc khi trong s khi trn nh sau: - GS: cc phn mm trung tm v cc tn hiu iu khin cng nh vn hnh qu trnh kt ni/gii phng ca tuyn thoi. Ngoi ra n cn cung cp gim st v bt gi cuc gi. - GSM1/GSM2 (group switch maintenance blocks) phn mm trung tm, dng cho chc nng bo dng cho cc TSM v SPM. Khi ny cn qun l cc (SNT) kt ni vo Group Switch.

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- TSM (time switch module) phn mm trung tm v vng dng iu khin kt ni v gii phng cuc gi trong TSM v chc nng gim st lu lng. - GSBOARD (group switch board names) phn mm trung tm. Chc nng chnh l bin dch cc li ca phn cng b nghi ng trong qu trnh chun on. - CLT (clock pulse generation and timing) phn mm trung tm v vng cho chc nng ng h, ng b cho GS. - NS (network synchronization) phn mm v phn cng ng b vi mng quc gia thng qua Reference clock function (RCF), cesium clock module (CCM), hoc the incoming clock function (ICF). - O&M Blocks, Dng cho chc nng vn hnh v bo dng GS. - NSC (network switching command block) gm chc nng tm kim li implement fault detection (SNEFD), c lp li fault isolation (SNEFI), cung cp chc nng TEST routines (SNETR), a v kt thc cc cnh bo (SNEAL), v khi lnh (SNEC) cho chuyn mch nhm (group switch). - DLM, digital link multiplex block, iu khin cc kt ni tn hiu s ti group switch. Vi cc chc nng trn khi GS trong AXE810 c cu trc mi GEM Generic Ericsson Magazin nh (hnh 3.3) sau:
m m

207.5 mm 265 mm

0 25

22 slots for free use

15 mm
P G S SC G B S -R P SC B -R

450 mm

Hnh 3.3: Cu trc khe thi gian trong GEM. Mi GEM gm hai b x l SCB-RP, hai khi chuyn mch 16K v 22 v tr tu chn chc nng. Cc thit b kt ni vo GS thng qua backplane bng giao din c tn l DL 34 c tc 222,2 Mbit/s. Mt card ET155 c th kt ni gii hn 63 x 2.048 Mbit/s = 2016 khe thi

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gian, c th kt ni qua giao din DL34. Cc thit b vi tc chm hn cng c th gii quyt kt ni ging cc knh mm do.
B A Group Switch 16k Device Device

SCB-RP SCB-RP

A B

1 1

2 2

Hnh 3.4: Cu trc iu khin trong GEM. Nh ta thy trong hnh v trn Bus s 1 l bus iu khin vng (RP) trong GEM, dng giao tip vi trung tm iu khin (CP). Bus s 2 l hnh dng tng trng cho bus Ethernet 100 Mbit/s, s c s dng cho cc ng dng sau ny. Khi SCB-RP c chc nng chuyn mch Ethernet dung lng 1Gbit/s vi mt giao din 100 Mbit/s Ethernet pha trc card s s dng cho cc chc nng tng lai AXE. Mi GEM c mt chuyn mch 16 K vi cu trc Time-Space (TS) vi dung lng ti a l 512 K tc l c th iu khin 260.000 line cng lc (theo l thuyt). Mch SCB-RP, nhn pha trc.( Hnh 3.5) SCB-RP distributes the Serial Regional Processor Bus (RPS-B). Tp trung cc bus x l vng ni tip cung cp ngun -48V cho tt c cc PIUs trong GEM. N c chc nng nh mt chuyn mch Ethernet iu khin thng tin vi cc PIUs trong GEM nh l APZ v APG. N cn l b x l vng Regional Processor, chc nng bo dng bus v qut gi (Fan) cng c iu khin bng SCB-RP. C hai card chuyn mch (XDB), nm khe 1 v khe 24. Cc thit b cn li c kt ni vi hai khe trn.

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Hnh 3.5 Chuyn mch XDB (X l chuyn mch v DB l c phn b theo card). Cc card XDB c mt chuyn mch cha ng 16K v c phn trong GEM, cu trc ca n gm hai plane A v plane B.(hnh 3.6)

22 device slots

16K A -plane

XDB

16K B -plane

Hnh 3.6: Card chuyn mch XDB trong GEM. Trn card XDB, c 3 ASICs (application specific integrated circuit) vi mch ring cho ng dng, l cng c chuyn mch 16 K. Mt ASIC l s ghp knh v lu gi thoi (ca 2 thu bao) v lu tr s kim sot mt b x l vng (RPI) cng trn mt card XDB. Cc card XDB c kt ni vi thit b bng khe rnh ca khung t v c kt ni vi cc card XDB khc bng cc si cp ni chuyn dng (gic cm) pha trc card. M t (hnh 3.7) sau:

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XDB

Maintenance Processor

Maintenance Processor

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DL5 (8K) Front 128 x 32 7 x Horizontals

DL34 (222 Mbit/s) (2K)

MUX
Backplane 128 x 32

RPI
3 x Verticals

XDB

Hnh 3.7: ASICs trong mch XDB . kt ni cc XDB ngi ta dng ma trn chuyn mch gm 4 hng 8 ct nh sau:
0-0 0-1 0-2 0-3 0-4 0-5 0-6 0-7

1-0

1-1

1-2

1-3

1-4

1-5

1-6

1-7

2-0

2-1

2-2

2-3

2-4

2-5

2-6

2-7

3-0

3-1

3-2

3-3

3-4

3-5

3-6

3-7

Hnh 3.8 Ma trn chuyn mch.


Horizontals

0-0 Verticals

0-1

0-2

0-3

0-4

0-5

0-6

0-7

1-0

1-1

1-2

1-3

1-4

1-5

1-6

1-7

2-0

2-1

2-2

2-3

2-4

2-5

2-6

2-7

3-0

3-1

3-2

3-3

3-4

3-5

3-6

3-7

Hnh 3.9 u ni mt thc th t mch th nht trong ma trn chuyn mch.

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thc hin u ni ny ta c cu trc card nh sau:


LD E

C necto fo cables to/fromo on rs r ther X B D b ards w in the sam log o ith e ical co n lum

C necto fo cables to/fromo on rs r ther X B D b ards w in the sam log row o ith e ical

C necto fo clock cab on rs r les

Hnh 3.10: Cu trc card u ni ca GDM. Tt c cc thit Device Magazines (GDM) dng cho BYB501 c th kt ni vo GS890. c thc hin bng cch dng Digital Link multiplexer for Existing equipment Boards (DLEB), gm 11 khe trong GEM. Mi DLEB dng chuyn 4 DL-34 links t Digital Link Half size Boards (DLHB, ROJ 204 06/1) trong GDMs thnh 1 DL-34. DLEB c cu hnh nh plane A and plane B.

Hnh 3.11: u ni trong DLEB.

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Connector for the 5: th DL3 cable from ET155 -7 (used for LOT protection) Connectors fro four DL3 cables from GDM magazine

Hnh 3.12: Card DLEB. * Cc thit b kt ni vo trng chuyn mch: - Generic device magazine (GDM) - Generic Device Magazine (GDM) l ni tp trung cc thit b (c th l card lung E1, card thu bao...) bao gm RP, DLHB v 16 khe cho cc thit b. - V tr 2 v 80 dng cho RP4 cn 8 v 76 cho DLHB. - V tr 12 n 72 dng cho cc ng dng khc ETC5, PDSPL2, RPG2/RPG3 etc.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11121314 15 1617 18 19 B oard address,


M B address

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Hnh 3.13:Modul b tr cc card.

Hnh 3.14: Cu trc giao din GDM-H . Hai RP4-H trong GDM-H kt ni ti CP bng bus ni tip RPB (RPB-S). Ngun (-48 V) cp cho ton khi bng backplane v cc EM-bus, RP-bus cng tp trung ti y. Mch DLHB dng kt ni vi chuyn mch bng DL3-link. Cn DL3link nhn c th tch thnh 16 DL2-links v tp trung sau backplane.

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C cc loi a ch cho GDM-H sau: + a ch Magazine: a ch magazine c t bng thanh a ch (STRAB, ROJ 119 1112/00-15) ti v tr tri nht ca magazine Address Board (ROJ 119 1112/00-15).

Hnh 3.15: Mch a ch magazine. + a ch Board: a ch board v EM c nh c nh sau backplane. RP c a ch l 0 v 19, cn cc EM bt u t 12 a ch l 0.

3.2. H thng iu khin APZ.


* Cu trc c bn ca h thng iu khin APZ (Central Processor) b x l trung tm c thit k vi trng tm l dung lng x l. N c s dng trong nhiu lnh vc vin thng c khng dy v dy dn. APZ mi c dung lng ln hn cc b x l trc do s dng b x l c tn s ng h nhp l 160 MHz. N cng s dng b nh Cache lu tr s liu nhm tng tc truy nhp s liu. APZ cng cung cp IPN trong khi RP handler cung cp ng Ethernet u ni cho APG. IPN cung cp knh thng tin 100 Mbit/s (100BaseTX) v kh nng nhiu bn tin vi tc cao nhm tng tc reload cng nh backup s liu. Mt yu t lm nn s linh hot ca h thng AXE 810 l nh kin trc h thng iu khin APZ. C th ni APZ l tri tim ca h thng AXE, kin trc gm 2 mc, c c iu khin trung tm v iu khin phn tn, cho php tng mc tin cy ca h thng cng nh x l gi mt cch hiu qu. Cc u im ca APZ trong h thng AXE nh sau:

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- L h thng a ng dng. - Nn tng phn cng h tr nhiu loi cu hnh khc nhau. - Phn cng c tin cy cao. - Cc khi quan trng u c d phng. - Kh nng phc hi rt tt khi c li phn cng v phn mm xy ra. - H tr kh nng nng cp phn mm t xa, qua mng. Cc c im chnh v kin trc ca h thng b x l ca APZ l: - Cu trc b x l phn cp. Cc b x l vng c kt ni vi b x l trung tm rt mnh. X l cc cuc gi, phn tch s, iu khin chuyn mch, qun l v bo dng...

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- Cc b x l ph b sung, c s dng cho cc cng vic x l gn vi thi gian thc nh: x l tnh cc, x l bo hiu. Chc nng ca cc khi:

Hnh 3.16: H thng iu khin APZ B x l trung tm CP: c d phng kp, khi mt mt c li s chuyn sang hot ng mt kia m khng nh hng n lu lng. B x l CP bao gm 3 phn sau: - Lu tr chng trnh: l phn cc chng trnh ca cc khi chc nng. - Lu tr d liu: lu tr d liu ca cc khi chc nng. - Lu tr tham chiu: lu tr thng tin a ch chng trnh v d liu ca mi khi chc nng. H iu hnh s s dng 2 bng ch n a ch tuyt i ca khu vc d liu v chng trnh. Cu trc gm 3 ni lu tr logic v c ch nh a ch c bit em li cho h thng AXE c cc phn mm c modul ha. Cc b x l vng RPs: c s dng cho cc cng vic x l lp li v cng vic x l mnh m kt cui giao thc lp thp.

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Hnh 3.17 : Giao tip gia CP v cc RP. Cc b x l ph AP: gip b x l trung tm x l cc cng vic lin quan nhiu n d liu, cc b x l ph cho php. - Tng hiu qu mng: nh s dng cc giao thc giao din m v mt tuyn truyn dn Ethernet cho php truyn dn cc d liu cc n trung tm tnh cc mt cch tin cy vi tc cao. - Gim ti cho b x l chnh: x l d liu cc trc khi a vo b x l trung tm. Do cho php tng cng nng lc x l gi ca b x l chnh v dn n c th phc v cho nhiu thu bao hn. - Tng cng cc chc nng vo/ra : tng tc truyn thng vi cc u cui, tng cng kh nng x l cnh bo v sao lu cc file, dn n gim gi thnh cng vic vn hnh v bo dng. - H thng m: cho php thm vo cc tnh nng vn hnh, bo dng cng nh cc dch v mi. - Kin trc chng li: kh nng chuyn mt hot ng ngay lp tc cng nh phn cng c d phng v kh nng m rng cho php h thng hot ng vi chi ph hiu qu nht v tin cy nht. AGP bao gm 2 phn h sau: - Phn h nh dng v u ra (FOS): b x l trung tm thu thp d liu cc v gi ti AGP, ti d liu c lu tr ti mt khu vc an ton, sau c x l, bin i sang khun dng u ra ph hp gi n trung tm tnh cc. - Phn h o lu lng v thng k (STS): thu thp, lu tr, biu din cc d liu thng k. S khi cu trc ca APZ (Hnh 3.18), trong : + SPU (Signal Processor Unit) - Khi x l tn hiu, thc hin cc cng vic c nh k cng nh u tin thng qua s nh thi v iu khin ca RPH. + IPU (Instruction Processor Unit) - Khi x l theo cu trc, thc hin m chng trnh.

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+ RPH (Regional Processor Handler) - iu khin cc RP - l giao din gia RP buses v CP. The RPH c t thnh magazine ring. RPH magazine c th c cu trc bng c RP bus ni tip v song song. Ngoi ra cn c th kt ni ti CP bng c hai phng thc cng mt lc. C th c 1024 RP c kt ni ti CP. + MAU (Maintenance Unit) - Khi bo dng, mc ch chnh l gim st cc mt CP v l giao din ti h thng CPT (Central Processor Test).

AP CP-A, B DSU ETC GS IPN IPU MA U RP RPB RP G RP H RPV SP SPU *

Adjunc t Proc essor Centra l Proc essor A, B Data Store Unit Exc hang e Termina l C irc uit Group S witc h Inter Ne twork Pla tform Instruc tion Proc essing Unit Main tenanc e U nit Regio nal Proc essor Regio nal Proc essor Bus RP GS onnec ted -c RP Hand ler RP Bus Adap ter, VME Support Proc essor Signal Proc essor Uni t AUS, #7, TR H e tc .

Hnh 3.18: Cu trc phn cng ca APZ 212 33. MAU ng thi qun l cc qut gi, l h thng lm mt cho phn cng CP.

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C D -U A C D -U B

F r o n t v ie w

S id e v ie w

C P U M A

fan fan fan C P U -M A

fan

fan CCU

CPU -A

C P U M B

fan fan fan C P U -M B

fan

fan

UMB

18 0 0 CPU -B CCU

fan fan fan


R P H M R P M A A

fan R P H -M A

fan R P H -M B

R P H -M A

600

800

Hnh 3.19: T APZ 212 33.

+ DSU (Data Store Unit) - Khi lu tr s liu, gm c Data Store (DS). Trong mt khung vi kch thc 600x800 mm x1800 mm gm c CPU magazines v RPH magazines.
Khi IPU:

IPU nhn c mt vic mi t SPU. N c bt u bng mt microprogram trong IPU. Cc tn hiu iu khin cung cp bng cc phn cng mt cch t ng tm kim s liu, cc tham chiu v a ch s liu c s. IPU gm cc khi chc nng sau: - Instruction Processor Circuit (IPC) - Mch x l cu trc. - Update and Match Circuit (UBC) - Mch ton t v cp nht. - Program and Reference Store (PRS) - B nh tham chiu v chng trnh. - Data store (DS) - B nh s liu. - Program and Reference Store (PRS).

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M chng trnh c dng thc hin chng trnh c d trong Program Store (PS). The Reference Store (RS) - b nh tham chiu lu d tt c cc s liu gn cho chng trnh. C hai khi RS v PS c lu tr trong mt b nh vt l c lp. PRS nm trong IPU. Ngoi ra cn c b nh PS cache ph dng SRAM Copy phn ln cng vic trong PS blocks.
Khi DS:

DS gm Data Store Cache Memory, DSCM, (SSRAM, 8 MW16) trong IPU c hai dng sau: Static Random Access Memory (SRAM) - dng truy nhp nhanh Dynamic Random Access Memory (DRAM) - truy nhp chun
Khi x l tn hiu SPU:

SPU tp trung tt c cng vic ca CPU. The SPU iu khin qu trnh thng tin ti RPs v cc cng vic nh trong cc buffers or queues, theo mc u tin. The SPU cng chun b cc cng vic trong IPU. SPU cng hot ng vi MAS, CP test system (CPT) v maintenance unit (MAU).
Khi MAU:

Dng iu khin cc mt CP hot ng song song. APZ bao gm Automatic Maintenance unit (AMU) vi phn mm MAU, MAUR, v khi kim tra Test Processor Unit (TPU). Chc nng chnh ca AMU l: - iu khin trng thi cc mt CP. - Kim tra v sa li.

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Khi MAI: giao din khi bo dng. Khi x l ni vng RPH:

RPH l giao din gia CP v RPs. Chc nng chnh ca RPH l nhn cc tn hiu RP t CPU (SPU) ri bin dch li v gi cho RP theo giao thc RP bus v ngc li qut cc tn hiu t RP gi ti CPU (SPU).

IV. H THNG TNG I V TINH RLU AXE 810


Tng i v tinh RLU l mt n v truy nhp thu bao xa, n cho php cung cp dch v mt cch hon ho ti cc vng xa nh vng nng thn t h thng chuyn mch ch Host. i vi khong cch xa, n c th ph hp lp t RLU ti vng ngoi hoc thm ch khu th m dn s pht trin nhanh, vic thi cng ko cp rt kh khn, hn na cp ng cng ngy cng t v kh mua. H thng RLU l h thng c chc nng truyn v ghp tn hiu thoi c cng ti chc nng khi iu khin thu bao ca tng i Host, cho php h thng mm do, linh hot hn cho cc thu bao xa tng i Host. N bao gm khi iu khin giao tip thu bao xa (RLU-ET) ca phn h ng dng v RLU c lp t tng i v tinh.

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4.1 Gii thiu v khi thu bao RLU ca AXE 810


Khi nim RLU l im kt ni cc thu bao xa HOST vi cc l do sau: - Dng thay th cc tng i c lp vi dung lng vi nghn thu bao. - Lm gim khong cch ng cp t tng i ti thu bao, lm gim gi thnh bo dng, nng cao cht lng, m bo k thut cung cp dch v thu bao. - V c bn phn h v tinh SSS hot ng ging nh mt phn h thu bao ti tng i HOST. N c th cung cp nhiu dch v nh thu bao nh Host.

Access Node l tn ca mt h thng truy nhp mi ca Ericsson y ta gi l RLU (M t r hnh: 3.1). Access Node c th kt ni vo bt k HOST no c giao din V5.2. Trong tng i Ericsson th khi nim node truy nhp (Access Node) c chc nng tp hp cc thu bao c nh v c chia thnh hai h thng nh l phn h chuyn mch thu bao SSS v phn h iu khin thu bao SCS. Trong SSS cung cp cc chc nng giao tip vi thu bao nh: - Kt ni 2 dy vi thu bao - Chuyn i AD/DA - Chuyn mch kt ni giao thng thu bao - Bo hiu vi thu bao: nh tone v nhn s - Cung cp ngun cho thu bao - Tp trung lu lng - Bo dng thit b cng nh thu bao.

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- B tp trung thu bao SSS hay cn gi l phn h v tinh RLU l ni tp trung u ni cc ng dy thu bao, cng l ni kt ni giao thng tn hiu thu bao. Hnh: 4.1 trn cho thy mt trm v tinh RLU c kt ni vi b chuyn mch nhm GSS tng i khu vc (Host) vi trung k s t 2 lung E1 n ti a 36 lung E1. Mi phn h v tinh RLU- AXE 810 c dung lng ti a l 3.000 thu bao PSTN.

4.2 Chuyn mch trong SSS

Trong s trn thu bao c th kt ni ni b trong khi SSS hoc vo GSS cu HOST vi s lng nhiu hn s knh kt ni vo GSS bng ng E1 vi t s ph thuc vo lu lng thu bao vng . Tn hiu thoi hoc d liu c th c chuyn mch trong chnh chuyn mch thu bao hoc theo hng chuyn mch nhm. Cc chc nng chuyn mch trong SSS c iu khin vi b chuyn mch thi gian. Hiu qu ca chc nng chuyn mch l s ng dy thu bao c th ln hn s ca s kt ni thoi ca nhm chuyn mch. iu ny l bnh thng trong hot ng ca tng i, bi v tt c cc thu bao ni ti SSS khng giao thng cng 1 thi gian, n khng cn lu li nhiu thit b ci t v cc knh trong GSS. Lung E1 gia chuyn mch thu bao v chuyn mch nhm tc l 2048 Kbit/s, c xy dng bng mt khung 32 khe thi gian (ca Chu u); cn lung T1 tc 1554 Kbt/s xy dng mt khung 24 khe thi gian (ca M v Nht). Lung E1 cn c gi l h thng ng dy PCM.

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Cung cp nhiu dch v thu bao nh Host. Trong h thng Host phn ln thu bao nm v tinh RLU nh hnh sau:

C rt nhiu dng thu bao hin i c th kt ni vo RLU nh cc thu bao truyn thng (PSTN), hoc l cc thu bao ISDN-BA, ISDN-PRA, HDSL, SHDSL, ADSL, ETSI V5.1, ETSI V5.2.

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V. H THNG KHAI THC V BO DNG.


Chc nng chnh: S dng cng ngh VME bus chun. Giao din truyn d liu 2 MBit/s. Lu d liu vo Hard-Disk t CP vi tc 150 KB/s m khng dng Datalink. Dung lng lu tr ti a 6 GigaBytes .

5.1. Khi chc nng HW.


IOG20 gm 9 Card chc nng c thit k bi Ericsson v mt card cho chc nng FORCE my tnh, ngoi ra cn c cc card c thit k kt ni vi cng v quang. + CPU-60. Dng b x l Motorola 68060. Dng iu khin kt ni VME. H thng nh 32 Mbyte. Giao din SCSI-2. Giao din vi PC/AT. Kt ni Thin ethernet thng tin gia cc node. + RPV v RPV2. Bus giao din x l ni vng VME (RPV) c dng cho giao din gia SP v CP thng qua h thng RP-bus song song. Gm 2 card PROVME(ROJ 207 007/1) v DRPBU(ROJ 207 008/1)

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S dng b x l Motorola 68360. RPV2 c dng cho giao din gia SP v CP thng qua h thng RP-bus song song. Mt card dng cho RPB-S v kt ni vi cc node khc. S dng b x l Motorola 68360 v iu khin VME chun.

5.2. Khi module ng dy LUM.


Line Unit Module (LUM) gm 1 card x l v 4 card con cho cc giao din khc nhau. Giao din cho cc knh s liu, thit b v cnh bo (ALI) Cc giao din ny l: + G.703 (E0,E1) 64Kbit and 2Mbit + V.35/V.36/X.21 0 - 2Mbit + V.24/V.28 0 - 2Mbit Ethernet 10BaseT (supports TCP/IP) - S dng b x l Motorola 68360 v 68060. - Main board 2/ROJ 207 012 - Board cons: + V.24/V.35/V.36/X.21 ROF 197 4209/1 + G.703 (E0) 64kbit/s ROF 197 4210/1 + G.703 (E1) 2Mbit/s ROF 197 4211/1 Ethernet 10 Mbit/s ROF 197 4208/1

5.3. B chuyn i VSA.4


VME to SCSI Adapter: l b chuyn i t VME sang SCSI s dng cho vic back up s liu vo quang (OD) v cc ng dng SCSI khc nh RMS. VSA gm c: + Giao din SCSI-2 + B x l SYM53C720 SCSI (NCR) + B x l MC68360 + ROJ 207 011/1

5.4. Giao din cnh bo ALI.


Alarm Interface: giao din cnh bo gm 2 boards chuyn i s dng cho giao tip cnh bo t CP, SP ti ngun cnh bo ngoi, kt ni ny c to thng qua cng V.24 trong LUM ti ngun cnh bo ngoi. ALI gm c: + Kt ni ti alarm panels (ALEXT) + B x l MC68302

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+ ALCPU (ROJ 207 013/1) V.24 kt ni inputs v outputs. + ALEXP (ROJ 207 014/1) iu khin kt ni ngun n -48V trn bng alarm panels.

5.5. Thit b lu tr.


C ba b lu tr, cc b ny nm trong 1 board v c che chn bo v. + 3.5" 18 Gbyte SCSI-2 cho php 18 Gbyte hoc t hn. + 3.5" PC/AT vi giao din (KDR 352 02/1) IOG20B v IOG20B-P. + 3.5" 1,3 Gbyte quang vi giao din SCSI-2.

5.6. Mng kt ni (inter platform network-IPN).


L mng Ethernet, tc 100Mb/giy hoc 1Gbit/giy, IPN a ra mt tiu chun cng nghip, giao din nng sut cao trong AXE.(Hnh 4.1) m t vn ny.

Hnh 5.1: Mng kt ni IPN c ng dng nh sau: - Kt ni CP vi AP: nh tc cao ca cc kt ni nn thi gian sao lu d liu v khi ng li h thng s nhanh hn. - Truyn thng kt ni gia CP ca AXE vi cc nn h thng khc (v d nh AXD 301). - Kt ni gia cc CP trong trng hp dng a b x l.

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VI. CC U IM V NG DNG CA H THNG AXE 810


Dung lng tng ln: Cho php lp t cc node chuyn mch c ln. Dung lng x l tt c cc mc cng tng ln. Tng tin cy: Thi gian bo dng cc phn mm nhanh hn, mang n cho khch hng mt mng c tin cy cao hn, c ngha l doanh thu t c s cao hn. Gim gi thnh: V phn cng c thit k nh gn hn dn n cng sut tiu th nh hn, yu cu v lm mt cng gim xung. Ngoi ra cc tnh nng nh kh nng qun l t xa, phn cng h tr vn hnh v bo dng d dng, cho php cc cng vic vn hnh v bo dng c th c thc hin bi cc nhn vin c yu cu v trnh bnh thng cc khu vc xa. Chuyn sang cng ngh 3G: H thng cng c kh nng cung cp cc chc nng c th hot ng trong mng di ng 3G, mng a dch v... - Kh nng m rng: - AXE 810 c th m rng t cc h thng dung lng nh cho n cc h thng c dung lng rt ln. - Nh c kch thc nh hn v s chun ha cc bo mch, gic cm, cc khi modul nn vic lp t d dng hn. - Nn tng a dch v:

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AXE 810 c rt nhiu cc ng dng cho mng di ng v mng c nh. - Tng i ni ht - Tng i transit - Server in thoi - Trung tm chuyn mch di ng GSM, CDMA - B iu khin trm gc BSC - Kin trc m: - Cc ng dng modul ha. - C cc giao thc truyn thng tiu chun. - Lp t n gin, nhanh chng: - H tr "Plug and Play". - Phn cng c i cp v kim tra nh my trc khi em i lp t, do gim thi gian chi ph lp t. - S loi bo mch t hn.

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TI LIU THAM KHO - Tng i in t ca Nguyn Duy Nht Vin - C s k thut chuyn mch Dng Vn Thnh ( Hc vin bu chnh vin thng) - in thoi k thut nh xut bn bu in. - AXE 810 System Testing - Digital Telephon Exchange India 1989 - Local telecommunication into the Digital Edited byJM.Griffths - Gio trnh k thut chuyn mch s Nguyn Vn im- NXB H Ni

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KT LUN
Sau mt thi gian tm hiu nghin cu cng s ch bo, hng dn tn tnh ca thy gio Ngyn Quc Trung- Trng i Hc Bch Khoa H Ni, cng cc thy, cc c trong khoa Cng Ngh- Trng i Hc Vinh em hon thnh c bn n tt nghip ny. Qua y em nhn thy c nhng li ch to ln ca tng i SPC,c th l tng i RLU-AXE 810 ca Hng ERICSSON ang c s dng v pht trin ti Vit Nam hin nay. Em cng thy c tm quan trng v li ch ca h thng chuyn mch s v c bit l cc h thng thng tin s trong i sng x hi hin ti v trong tng lai. Bn n hon thnh nhng do thi gian c hn nn em chc hn s khng trnh khi s thiu st nht nh. Em xin chn thnh knh mong c s gip ch bo ca cc thy, cc c v cc bn c th phn no bi lp c nhng thiu st. Mt ln na em xin chn thnh cm n s hng dn tn tnh, chu o ca thy gio Nguyn Quc Trung, cc thy c trong khoa Cng Ngh-Trng i Hc Vinh gip em hon thnh bn n ny. Em xin chn thnh cm n ! Sinh vin Nguyn ng Hi

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