Está en la página 1de 19

opnet IT guru-phn mm m phng mng hiu qu vi nhiu cng c mnh

BO CO THIT K 2 Phn mm OPNET c pht trin bi cng ty OPNET Technologies, Inc. y l mt cng c phn mm mnh c s dng m phng mng, c cc nh nghin cu khoa hc trn th gii nh gi cao v nhng kt qu m phng bng Opnet c cng nhn trn nhiu t bo khoa hc v din n cng ngh th gii. Opnet c cha mt lng th vin rt ln v cc m hnh mng, m hnh node, m hnh lin kt, bao trm t mng hu tuyn cho ti mng v tuyn vi rt nhiu cc giao thc sn c. Opnet c thit k vi c s d liu phn lp v hng i tng, Opnet cso giao din GUI to iu kin tng tc d dng hn cho vic s dng nghin cu v m phng mng Ngoi vic m phng mng v cc giao thc ca mng, Opnet cn cung cp cho ta nhiu cng c cho php phn tch hiu sut, tnh ton ng i, khi to lu lng, so snh bng th, v cng linh hot, t gip ta khng nhng ch to lp cc h thng mng m cn gip ta nh gi hot ng ca cc h thng mng . 2. Download v ci t: Yu cu h thng: CPU: Intel Pentium 300 MHz or equivalent OS: Microsoft Windows 2000, Windows XP, Vista Home Basic, Vista Home Premium, Fedora 7, or Ubuntu 7.10 RAM: 96 MB Storage: 250 MB of free disk space Screen resolution: 800 x 600 or higher Macromedia Flash Player 6.0 or higher download chng trnh bn vo website ca Opnet ti a ch: www.opnet.com/itguru-academic/mk-setup.html Lu khi download: Hy ng k 1 account c th download d dng v ng k bn quyn cho chng trnh sau ny.c bit password s c gi vo mail ng k. Bt u qu trnh ci t. Gii nn v double click vo tn file :ITG_Academic_Edition_v1998.exe Qu trnh ci t bt u: tip tc bn n Next. Cui cng bn n Finish kt thc qu trnh ci t Tuy nhin vi OPNET-IT vic active cho chng trnh mi l iu thc s c quan tm nhiu nht. Vo theo ng dn bt u ng k cho chng trnh: Start -> Program-> OPNET IT Guru Academic Edition 9.1-> OPNET IT Guru Academic Edition.

Click License Management. Hy click vo Copy to Cliboard v Next bc tip theo phc v cho vic website t ng tr v key da vo key copy. Sau bc ny chng trnh s a ti trang ch v hy nhp chnh xc user name,password tht chnh xc c th ng nhp. Website cho bn ng k s hin ra sau khi bn nhp ng user name v password Hy pase vo cn trng sau Submit ly key phc v cho bc tip theo. Hy copy key sau khi Submit vo bc tip theo ca qu trnh ng k v Next. . Pase from Clipboard v Next.Thng bo hin ln l bn actived thnh cng.Ci t chng trnh ti y l xong. II. Quy trnh lm vic, khng gian lm vic v cc cng c bin tp : Quy trnh lm vic ca OPNET IT guru chnh l cc bc xy dng mt m hnh v chy chng trnh m phng, trung tm xoay quanh mi trng Project Editor. Trong chng trnh ny, chng ta c th to mt m hnh mng, chn s liu thng k thu thp t mi mng i tng hoc t mng ton b, thc hin m phng, v xem kt qu. Project Editor l vng thao tc chnh cho vic to m phng mng. Ta c th xy dng mt m hnh mng bng cch s dng cc m hnh t cc th vin chun, chn cc thng k v mng, chy mt m phng, v xem kt qu. Mi trng Project Editor ( y l mi trng lm vic chnh ca chng ta trong phn mm ny ): Ca s Project Editor : ni c cc thanh cng c, cc vng chc nng khi to v chy chng trnh

+ Cc thanh cng c: Trong : 1/ Th vin Object Palette: Ni cha tt cc thit b mng 2/ Dng kim tra kt ni 3/ nh du b thit b : khi ta chn thit b ny v click vo biu tng ny th thit b s c gch cho mu v coi nh khng c thit b trn khng gian lm vic 4/ Khi phc i tng b nh du b 5/ Tr v phn mng bc cao hn

6+7/ Phng to v thu nh 8/ Dng ci t tham s m phng 9/ Xem kt qu 10/ Dng m v xa cc th m phng Khng gian thit k: L phn khng gian nm gia ca s, ni ta thit k, thm bt cc biu tng mng, chn cc lnh v thao tc. Vng thng bo: Nm v tr di cng, n cung cp thong tin v trng thi cng c. Biu tng cha cc thng bo: Khi ta click vo biu tng ny, ca s s m ra lit k ca cc thng bo xut hin trong vung thng bo. Cc thit b c bn trn mi trng Project Editor Node: L mt biu tng biu din mt thc th c th pht v thu thng tin ca cc mng thc Link: L mi trng truyn tin kt ni cc node li vi nhau, mi trng ny c th l cp in, si quang

Cng c Startup Wizard: T ng xut hin mi khi mt project c khi to n cho php xc nh mt s c tnh mi trng thit k mng, n cho php: - Xc nh hnh khi u ca mng - Xc nh quy m, kch thc mng - La chn bn nn cho khng gian thit k - Lin kt th vin vi hot cnh Ch : Project ngha l n, l tp hp ca mt s hot cnh ( scenario) m mi hot cnh kho st mt kha cnh khc nhau ca mng.

III. Mt s l thuyt v mng v cc giao thc: Thut ton tm ng Distance Vector: c im: Cp nht theo chu k Coppy ton b bng nh tuyn cho router hng xm Thi gian hi t chm ( thi gian hi t l thi gian chia s thng tin ph thuc vo thi gian tnh ton, update bng nh tuyn) a ch broadcast updates 255.255.255.255 Distance vector hng: - Next hop

- Exit interface ln: Hop cout Thut ton tm ng Link- state: c im: Xy dng bn v cc tuyn ng trn mng bng theo cch chn ng i tt nht ti ch Hi t nhanh hn. Ch cp nht thng tin thay i Cp nht khi c s thay i trng thi. Classfull IP addressing: c im: Khng gi thng tin v subnet mask trong cp nht nh tuyn Khng h tr VLSM Khng h tr mng khng lin tc Cc giao thc s dng nh: Ripv1, IGRP Classless IP addressing: c im: Qung b subnet mask trong cp nht nh tuyn H tr VLSM, mng khng lin tc v cc nh tuyn khc Cc giao thc s dng nh: Ripv2, EIGRP, IS-IS, BGP,OSPF - Mng khng lin tc: l 2 mng c cng major network b chn bi mng khc major network. - Cng major network: cng c chia t mt mng ln hn. - VLSM: subnet mask c chiu di thay i . Tm tt mt s giao thc nh tuyn: Rip version 1: c tnh: S dng Classfull, distance vector Metric = hop cout Khi hop cout > 15 ko th truy cp tip (bn tin b xa ) Thi gian update broadcast l 30s Rip header: phn thng tin iu khin bao gm 3 trng: Trng Command 1/ bn tin request 2/ bn tin response Trng version: 1 hoc 2 ( y l 1) Trng m rng must be zero Route Entry: gm 3 trng

Address familyidentifier IP address Metric Giao thc Rip s dng 2 bn tin: 1. Bn tin Request ( yu cu): - Bn tin ny c gi ra ngoi khi cc cng bt u c kch hot. - Yu cu tt c cc Rip hng xm gi bng nh tuyn. 2. Bn tin Response ( p ng ): Bn tin c gi n cc route ang yu cu bng nh tuyn. Rip version 2: Rip v2 khc Rip v1 ch: Rip v2 ci tin hn Rip v1, s dng classless, c h tr VLSM v mng khng lin tc. OSPF: S dng giao thc Link state, Classless

Mt s khi nim: AS(autonomous system):l mt nhm cc router trao i thng tin qua li ln nhau thng qua giao thc chung Neighboring router: 2 router c giao din chung v c chung mng .Quan h lng ging c thit lp bng cch s dng ban tin hello Adjacency : l mt mi quan h gia s chn la lng ging router cho mc ch ca s trao i thng tin nh tuyn . Khng phi mi cp router lng ging tr thnh adjacency Hello protocol : 1 thnh phn ca giao thc OSPF l s dng thit lp v duy tr quan h lng ging . Designated router: mi vng broadcast v NBMA ni m c t nht 2 router tham gia vo th phi c 1 Designated router (DR). Router pht hnh LSA cho h thng mng ny v s c nhng tr li khc trong khi chy giao thc.Designated router s c bu bi giao thc Hello.DR cho php gim thiu s ln thit lp quan h i hi trong vng broadcast v NBMA.Mt u th na l n lm gim thiu kch thc ca d liu. ABR (area border router) :router c cc giao din gn vi nhiu area ASBR: router cso t nht mt giao din ni ra mng ngoi Cch bu chn DR v BDR: Da vo u tin ca cc interface, route tng ng vi cng l DR, u tin th 2 l BDR. Mc nh th u tin ca cc interface =1, khi ta cu hnh u tin bng 0 th cng route s ko tham gia bu chn. Nu u tin bng nhau, xt Router ID: router ID cao nht l DR, cao th 2 l BDR.

Cc loi gi tin OSPF : OSPF c 5 loi gi tin Gi tin Hello trao thng tin gia cc neighbor vi nhau Database description: gi tin ny dng chn la router no s c quyn trao i thng tin vi nhau Link state request : gi tin ny dng ch nh LSA dng trong tin trnh trao i cc gi tin DBD Link state Update: gi tin ny dng gi cc gi LSA n neighbor khi neighbor gi thng ip request Link state Acknowledge : gi tin ny dng bo hiu nhn gi tin Update. Gi tin hello: Khi router bt u khi ng tin trnh nh tuyn OSPF trn mt cng no th n s gi mt gi hello ra cng v tip tc gi hello theo nh k 10s/1 ln( trong mng qung b a truy cp, point- to- point), bn tin hello mang thng tin router ID. Cn trn cng ni vo mng NBMA, v d nh Frame Relay, chu trnh mc nh ca hello l 30s D gi hello rt nh nhng n cng bao gm c phn header (iu khin) ca gi OSPF. Trong : - Type: loi gi tin: (1) l Hello, (2)_DD, (3) LS Request, (4) LS update, (5) LS ACK - Rourer ID: mt s 32 bit ch ra mi router chy OSPF . S ny l s duy nht nhn din router trong AS, khi chn th n c c nh. - Area ID: vng ca bn tin ngun - Checksum: l trng dng kim tra li - Authentication: l trng dng xc thc( nu cu hnh xc thc) Khi dng OSPF cho 1 mng ln bng nh tuyn( topology) ln router cn nhiu ti nguyn do vy phi phn vng cc router da vo a ch quy hoch t trc Nh vy cc router trong 1 phn vng (area ) s c cng bng topology chy nhanh hn. Vi vic phn lm cc area th ABR s cha hai hoc nhiu bng inh tuyn ca cc area khc nhau. IS-IS: c nhiu im chung vi OSPF, u l giao thc nhm link-state, classless. C 2 giao thc u phn phi cc thng tin nh tuyn gia cc router thuc 1 AS H tr: VLSM, xc thc, multi-path, IP unnumberd links (cho php hot ng x l IP trn interface serial m khng cn gn a ch IP cho n tit kim a ch ) . Trong ISIS, a ch vng v a ch host c gn trong ton b router, trong khi i vi OSPF, a ch c gn cp interface. Mt ISIS router nm trong mt area, trong khi mt OSPF router c th thuc v nhiu area. Trong OSPF th DR s lun tn ti, cn trong IS-IS nu c 1 router no c u tin

cao hn th DIS hin thi s b loi b vai tr ( DIS trong is is tng t DR trong ospf ). Cc type ca router khi chy IS-IS: C 3 loi l: Level 1(L1) : cc router ny ch thuc v bn trong mt area. Cc router ny ch nhn c thng tin bn trong 1 area . Level 1-2 (L1L2): l cc router kt ni cc area. Router ny s kt ni mt area L1 n backbone L2. ( L1L2 ging nh chc nng ca ABR trong OSPF). Level 2 (L2): Ch kt ni n backbone v hot ng nh trm trung chuyn gia cc area.

RSVP (ReSource reserVation Protocol) L giao thc d tr ti nguyn, l giao thc iu khin Internet c thit k ci t cht lng dch v trn mng IP. Cch thc hot ng ca giao thc RSVP: khi mt nt no gi d liu, n gi mt bn tin qua cc nt trung gian ti nt nhn, bn tin ny cha c im lu lng s gi, c im ca cc nt mng trn ng i. Nt nhn sau khi nhn c thng ip, cn c vo c im lu lng v c im ng i, s gi li mt thng ip ng k ti nguyn ti cc nt trung gian trn ng i . Nu vic ng k thnh cng, nt gi bt u truyn d liu. Nu khng, thng ip i n nt gi s bo li. Tm hiu mt s trng hin th trong phn cu hnh cc giao thc trn Giao thc RIP Trong : - Start time: - Soptime: l thi gian m phng sau khi bn tin update cu Rip khng c gi. Thuy nhin, bn tin vn c th c nhn sau thi gian ny. Thuc tnh ny c hiu lc trong m phng khi ta kch hoc thuc tnh RIP SIM EFFICIENCY - Times: bao gm + Update Interval: Thi gian trao i thng tin nh tuyn nh k, mc nh ca Rip l 30s + Timeout Value: Nu trong khong thi gian ny ( 180s) m khng nhn c thng tin th chuyn sang trng thi Hold down + Garbage Collection: ghi gi tr thi gian khi to li mi khi nhn c thng tin chn ng, tc l sau 120s s xa mc tng ng trong bng chn ng + Holddown: thi gian gi trng thi trc khi b down + Failure Impact: Nu t l Retain Route th router s nghi nh trng thy bng nh tuyn trc khi b li v s recovery li khi phc hi. Cn nu t l Clear route Table th node hon thnh bng nh tuyn RIP s gi ra ngoi khi node b li, sau khi

phc hi cc node s xy dng li bng nh tuyn. - Interface information: cc c trng ca cc interface cu hnh RIP Trn router ny c 4 cng interface, trong mi cng bao gm cc trng Mt vi trng quan trng khi cu hnh Silent mode: nu disabled th cng interface s nhn bn tin update, cn nu ennabel ch silen th cng s ko nhn bn tin update Advertisemenr Mode: l hnh thc qung b trn cng Rip interface, c 3 phung thc: 1. No filtering ( khng c lc ): qung b tt c cc tuyn ng trn cng ngay c nhung tuyn c hc 2. Split Horizon: Qung b tt c cc tuyn ng trn cng tr nhng tuyn c hc 3. Split Horizon with Poison: Qung b tt c cc tuyn ng trn cng, v router hc trn cc cng ny nhng c k v metric. +) Triggerd Extension: kh tnh nng ny c ennable th bn tin update bng nh tuyn ch gi khi c s thay i trong bng nh tuyn. Ch : cn phi ennable trn tt c cc cng interface thuc cng mt subnet cho n hot ng ng. Tip theo: Version: chn phin bn, c 2 phin bn 1 v 2 nh trnh by phn u Auto Summary: l tnh nng roter s t ng gp cc di a ch thuc cng mt di ln hn v 1 a ch nhm gim bt kich thc bng nh tuyn. Send Style: Dng gi bn tin, c 2 dng Broadcast v Broadcast & Multicast +)Redistribution y l tnh nng qung b thng tin vi mng khc giao thc +) Route Filter C mt trng quan trng l Administrative Weight: y l AD ca giao thc RIP, mc nh l 120. AD nh hng ti vic u tin chn tuyn ng khi chuyn tip bng tin. Giao thc OSPF

Router ID: L 1 IP c xt nh sau. Xt trong cc interface Loop back - interface no c IP cao nht th chn. Nu khng chy cc Interface loop back th xt ti cc interface vt l. Li xt tip xem IP ca interface no cao nht chn lm Router ID.

Router ID nh hng ti vic bu chn DR v BDR Default Route Information: Cc thng tin mc nh ca router chy OSPF Statut: trng thi ca route, cso th t l: Do not Originate, Originate, Originate Always Metric: mc nh = 10 Metric type: c 2 loi: external type 2 v external type 1, vi loi 2 th khi router qung b 1 tuyn ng cho cc router khc metric ca tuyn ng o gi nguyn ko i sau mi ln qung b, con loi 1, khi qua mi router, metric li thay i, c cng thm gi tr. Route Map: l cc cng c lp trnh c dng kim sot qu trnh redistribution, hin thc PBR, kim sot qu trnh NAT hoc hin thc BGP. Cc trng quan trng khc : Redisstribution: tng t ca rip, nhng default metric y l 20, cn ca Rip l 1 Link State Database Export: tnh nng chp li bng lin kt nh tuyn ti c s d liu vo thi im m phng Export Time (s) Specificat: ghi r thi gian m bng .tuyn c xut ra

y l phn Ad trong tng vng: Trong vng ln cn, cc vng v bn ngoi vng mc inh l 110, Ad nh hng ti vic chn tuyn ng i, Ad thp th c u tin Interface Information: cu hnh giao thc trn cc cng interface ca node, s row y tng ng vi row trong phn IP routing Parameter, trong y c mt s trng quan trng Trong : Statut: trng thi cu cng interface, khi lm vic phi ennable Silent Mode phi disable node tham gia cc hot ng nh tuyn. Type: loi kt ni, loi c bn hay dng l point-to-point Router priority: u tin l mt gi tr s nguyn- cnh hng ti vic bu chn DR, BDR, u tin cao nhiu router ang tin hn. Process Tag: ch nh qu trnh tag ang gi thng tin cp nht trn cng ( thuc tnh ny ko nh hng n vic m phng ) Cost: Gi tr cost gi bn tin qua cng, khi auto caculate th OSPF s da vo bng thng ca lin kt tnh ton, nu bng thng cao cost thp, bng thng thp cost cao. Giao thc IS-IS

Metric style: mi lv ta c th thit lp ch cho metric, c 3 ch Narrow: phm vi t 063 Wide: phm v t 0 16777215 Both: ccr 2 loi metric Cc router s dng khc style metric s khng giao tip ng vi nhau c Add Summarization: dy a ch s c summarization. AD weight: mc nh ca IS-IS l 115 Sticky DR: khi ennable tnh nng ny s xy ra vic chon DR, khi c kch hot nu router c bu chn lm DR n s nng cao u tin ca mnh bng 20. Parition Handing: thuc tnh ny ko nh hng n m phng hay phn tch . LS PDU Parameteres: gm cc thng tin v gi , kch thc ti a ca Link state PDUs nh : Max Lifetime: thi gian sng ca bn tin, ht time ny bn tin s b xa. Max size: kick thc ti a ca bn tin Refresh Interval: khong thi gian m sau node phi refresh LSP. Multipath Routes Threshold: gi tr ch nh ti a s lng cc con ng khc nhau t 1 im n m IS-IS s lu tr trong bn nh tuyn. System ID length: s byte h thngs c s dng cho u tin system ID ca mng. Vi phn tch luuw lng, thuc tnh ny phi c t l 6 ( deFault), cn i vi m phng th c th thay i. Maximum Area Add: ti s a ch area c php truyn qua node ny.

Redistribution: tng t 2 giao thc trn, cha cc thng tin qung b cc giao thc khc vo. Metric mc nh y l 20. Authentication: tnh nng xc thc, ta c th cu hnh tn domain v password y, nhng router cng domain v pass mi c th giao tip c.

VLAN: VLAN l vit tt ca Virtual Local Area Network hay cn gi l mng LAN o. Mt VLAN c nh ngha l mt nhm logic cc thit b mng v c thit lp da trn cc yu t nh chc nng, b phn, ng dng ca cng ty V mt k thut, VLAN l mt min qung b c to bi cc switch. Bnh thng th router ng vai tr to ra min

qung b. i vi VLAN, switch c th to ra min qung b. Ta thng s dng VLAN trong cc trng hp sau: Khi c 1 s lng ln my tnh trong mng LAN. Lu lng qung b (broadcast traffic) trong mng LAN qu ln. Cc nhm lm vic cn gia tng bo mt hoc b lm chm v qu nhiu bn tin qung b. Cc nhm lm vic cn nm trn cng mt min qung b v h ang dng chung cc ng dng. Vic s dng VLAN s lm: Tit kim bng thng ca h thng mng: VLAN chia mng LAN thnh nhiu vng qung b (broadcast domain). Khi c gi tin qung b (broadcast), n s c truyn duy nht trong VLAN tng ng tit kim bng thng ca h thng mng. Tng kh nng bo mt: Do cc thit b cc VLAN khc nhau khng th truy nhp vo nhau (tr khi ta s dng router ni gia cc VLAN). cu hnh VLAn trn swich, ta vo phn VLAN parameters mc Scheme chn Port- Based VLAN, sau ti Supported VLANs chn Edit to VLAN S hin ra bng : Trong c sn thng s v Vlan 1, l vlan qun l mc nh trong mi swich, by gi th v d to thm 2 vlan na l vlan10 v vlan20. Ta nhp s 3 vo phn rows ( 3 vlan, tnh c vlan1), c th t tn cho cc vlan nh hnh v, sau n OK: Trn cc Interface, cu hnh xem interface cho vlan no i qua ta vo phn Swich port Configuration ri vo cng interface cn cu hnh, v d vi m hnh nh sau: Trn cc interface ni vi node 0 v node6 ta cu hnh ch cho vlan 10 i qua. Sau khi to vlan 10 trn cc swich, ta vo cng P1 ca node 0, cu hnh nh hnh v mc Port type, nu chn l mode trunk ngha l cng cho php mi Vlan i qua, cn chn mode access ch cho vlan m mnh cu hnh i qua. Trong phn Supported VLANs, nu ch cho Vlan 10 i qua th phn row l 1, vo row 0 Indentifier chn vlan 10. Tng t vi cc cng interface khc cu hnh tng t.

IV. M phng V d 1: : Kt ni nng cp mng LAN Hin ti cng ty c mt mng my tnh vi hnh dng sao c trin khai tng th nht ca ta nh vn phng. Cng ty ln k hoch m them mt mng hnh sao na tng trn ta nh. Hy thit lp m hnh m phng v kim tra kh nng m rng ny m bo ti lu lng pht sinh t mng mi m khng lm hng hot ng ca ton mng. Qu trnh thc hin: - Chy chng trinh OPNET IT GURU - Chn File New - T thc n chn ProjectOK - Sau ta tn cho n vad tn hot cnh Tn n_Project c cu trc: xxx_Sm_Int . Trong xxx l gi tr khi u ca n, y ta t tn l first_Sm_Int t tn hot cnh l vidu_floor sau chn OK - Sau cng c Startup Wizard s hot ng (chn nh hnh v) - Sau ta n Next tip 2 ln th n phn chn bn nn cho n, chn g cng c, y ta NONE. Mc Technologies ta tm v chn: Sm_Int_model_List Tip tc n Next , mt khng gian thit k cng th vin s c m ra:

Tin hnh khi to mng: c 3 cch khi to mng 1/ Nhp hnh c sn 2/ Thit lp trn mi trng thit k cc node ring l chn t th vin 3/ S dng cng c Rapid Configuration y ta dung cng c Rapid Configuration khi to mng my tnh u tin tng 1 ta nh Trn thc n chn Topology Rapid Configuration, Chn cu hnh Star t thc n OK

Sau tin hnh ci t tham s nh hnh nh: Trong - Centrer Node Model : chn 3C_SSII_1100_3300_4s_ae5 2_e48_ge3

y l mt loi switch ca 3com - Periphery Node Model : chn Sm_Int_wkstn - Link model: chn 10 BaseT, y l mt cng ngh trong mng Ethernet cho php cc my tnh trong mng c ni vi nhau thng qua cp i xon. 10 tng ng vi tc truyn ti a 10Mb/s - Number: chn 30 ( s thit b ngoi vi ) - Center: l ta mng chn 0:0 , bn knh l 40 Click OK ta s c mng my tnh tng 1 c dng nh nh :

Tip theo ta t mt my ch vo h thng bng cch ko i tng t th vin vo khng gian thit k. Nhp vo biu tng ca th vinTrong Sm_Int_model_list tm biu tng Sm_Int_sever ri ko vo khng gian thit k Tip theo to ng link kt ni gia 2 thit b bng cch tm biu tng 10BaseT trong th vin v kt ni switch v sever Sau cng ta a vo cc i tng t cu hnh xc nh lu lng ti s xut hin trong mng. , y ta ch cn ko 2 i tng vo khng gian thit k l Sm_Application ( i tng nh ngha ng dng vi cc cu hnh m nh ca cc ng dng chun ) v Sm_Profile_Config (i tng nh ngha profile vi mt mu profile truy cp c s d liu tc thp ).

Sau ta tin hnh kho st cc tham s cht lng ca mng hin thi l Sever Load ( tham s ring ) v Ethernet Delay ( tham s chung) dng lm c s so snh tr li cho yu cu t ra: - Sever c kh nng qun tr ti lu lng t mng m rng them khng ? - tr tng cng trn ton mng c chp nhn c khng khi a them mng th 2 vo ? Thc hin: Click chut phi ln sever ( node31) chn Choose Individual Statistics , chn Ethernet ri tch vo chn Load (bits/sec) Ok. xc nh tr trn ton mng, ta tp hp tham s chung Delay Click chut phi vo khng gian thit k Chn Choose Individual Statistics Global Statisstics Ethernet Tch vao Delay (sec) OK. n Ctrl-S lu li. CHY M PHNG: Chn biu tng configure/ run simulation Chnh thi gian m phng Duration xung 0.5h ri click Run s thu c kt qu:

Kt qu cho thy trong 2s thi gian thc, phn mm m phng c 30p thi gian hot ng ca mng ( thi gian ph thuc vo tc my tnh ) ng mu xanh l tc m phng, ng mu l tc trung bnh. Chn Close ng li ca s. XEM KT QU: 1. Xem gi tr ti Ethernet ca sever: - Click chut phi ln node sever chn view Results chn Ethernet Load s thu c kt qu:

- Ta thy ti trn sever mc nh khong 91000 bit/s, sau ng kt qua li 2. Xem tham s Global Ethernet Delay - Click chut phi ln khng gian thit k, chn View Results Global Statistics EthernetDelay. Sau chn Show, ta thu c th tr Ethernet, ta thy khi mng t ti trng thi n nh th tr cc i c 0.085 s M RNG MNG: Ta tin hnh m rng, nng cp mng ri tin hnh so snh cc tham s trucs v sau khi nng cp. Mng nng cp c khi to trong mt hot cnh mi c lp vi hot cnh c d so snh. Ta tin hnh nhn bn hot cnh hin ti, nng cp theo yu cu bi: - Chn Scenarios Duplicate Scenario - t tn cho hot cnh mi l morong OK Phn mng trn tng 2 c cu hnh ging vi mng tng 1 tr sever. Tin hnh khi to: - Chn TopologyRapid Configuation Star Ok - Trong ca s Rapid Configuration chn cc tham s tng t nh cc tham s tng 1, chi khc s lng thit b va ta ( nhp sao cho hp l )

M th vin ra v tm biu tng Cisco 2514 router, ko vo khng gian thit k ri kt ni 10Base T gia cc switch trung tm ca 2 mng ri save

Tip tc thc hin chy m phng hot cnh mi ny, lm tng t nh trn, cng chn thi gian m phng l 0.5h ta thu c

Ta thy ln m phng ny c s khc bit v tc m phng: - Thi gian m phng lu hn - S events/second ln hn SO SNH: 1. So snh ti ca sever trong c 2 trng hp: - Click chut phait vo node sever Compare Results Ethernet Load - Sau click vo Show ta c: ng mu xanh l ti khi cha nng cp, ng mu l ti ca sever sau khi nng cp NX: Ti cu sever sau khi nng cp ln hn so vi trucs khi nng cp( iu ny hin nhin khi s thit b nhiu hn ) Cn y l biu trung bnh ti theo thi gian: 2. Kho st tr: Click chut phi ln khng gian thit k Chn Compare ResultsChn Global StatisticsEthernet Delay (sec). Sau chn Show Ta thy thi gian tr sau khi m rng mng nh hn so vi trc khi m rng. V d 2: Dng Opnet m phng mt mng nh, s dng giao thc OSPF, tm thng tin nh tuyn. Cc bc tin hnh: - Chy chng trnh Opnet sau to mi mt Project, t tn Project name: Routing_lab3; Scenario name: ospf_routing. - S dng Creat Empty Scenario, chn cc thng s: Campus Size: 10kmx10 Chn cc bng thit b: cisco, ethernet, links_advances add vo th vin ( lm mc nh khi m th vin ) - M th vin, s dng 3 router cisco 2511, 2 my tnh ( ethernet_wkstn ) v 1 ethernet_sever. - Dng ng link 100BaseT kt ni gia cc router vi my ch v 2 my tnh, dng ng link ppp_adv ( duplex link) kt ni gia cc route nh hnh v - Kich chut phi vo mi thit b, chn set name v t tn nh hnh v - Trn sever ta kick chut phi chn Edit Attributes sau phn Application support services chn All. - Vo cc cng interface ( ch tm ng cng kt ni ) v cu hnh a ch cho cc

cng nh hnh v, bao gm IP add v Subnet mask, y subnet mask tt c cc thit b l 255.255.255.0 - Chn 3 router ri chn Protocols IPRoutingExport Routing Tables All nodes Ok - Chn Protocols IP Routing Routing protocol Configuration kich chn OSPF Ta c mng nh hnh v: - Cu hnh link costs: Click chn cc ng link trong mng, ri chn Protocols OSPF Configure Interface Cost ri chn nh hnh v: Trong OSPF th gi tr cost nh hng ti vic chn ng i - Chn cc tham s cn kho st: click chut phi vo khng gian lm vic chn Choose Individual Statistics ri chn Node Statistics tch vo phn Route table v OSPF y ta ang quan tm ti phn nh tuyn ca cc router. - Chy chng trnh m phng, chn thi gian m phng l 30p - Sau o xem thng tin bng nh tuyn trn cc route, v d vi R1 ta click chut phi chn View Results, c 2 phn hin th l OSPF( bao gm thng tin Traffic Sent (bits/sec) v Traffic Receive (bits/sec) ) v phn bng nh tuyn Route Table Mun xem thng tin c th v bng nh tuyn ca R1 ta click chut phi vo R1 v chn Open Simulation Log chn Common route table s hin ra thng tin bng nh tuyn cau route R1 Bng nh tuyn bao gm cc tuyn ng kt ni trc tip v tuyn ng hc c qua giao thc OSPF, gm di mng, a ch next hop, v cng interface V d 3: Chy nh tuyn mt m hnh mng s dng 2 giao thc RIP v OSPF ri so snh bng nh tuyn trn mt route gia 2 trng hp. Ta s dng m hnh sau, kho st bng nh tuyn ca route R4 s S dng di a ch mng 192.0.X.0/24, trong : - X l phn s mu xanh l c khoanh trn - Trn cc route c cc a ch v cc cng, v d trn R1 cng IF1 c s 3.1 mu ngha l cng c a ch 192.0.3.1 /24 - Trn mi route u c mt tuyn Loopback Chy vi giao thc OSPF: Ta thu c bng nh tuyn ca R4 nh sau Chy vi giao thc RIP th ta c bng nh tuyn:

Nhn xt : Khi c nhiu tuyn ng cng n mt gii mng th trong bng nh tuyn ca OSPF s lu thng tin ca tt c cc tuyn ng cng metric, cn i vi Rip ch c thng tin ca mt tuyn ng ti ch. Gia tr metric ca OSPF l cost ca tuyn ng cn ca Rip y l hop cout, trong Rip th metric max =15, vi mng rng khi metrci >15 t route s khng hc c tuyn ng . V d 4: Cu hnh VLAN theo s sau: Trn mi Swich ta to 3 VLAN l 10,20,30 v t tn nh hnh v Cc cng swich ni vi nhau ta mode Trunk, v phn Supported VLANs ta cu hnh nh hnh v : cc interface kt ni vi cc my tnh USER v SEVER ta cu hnh mode acces v chn h tr VLAN tng ng, v d interface P0 ca swich1 ta cu hnh nh sau : Chn h tr VLAN trn sever v my tnh USER : Trn my sever : Khi chn All l c c h tr VLAn v cc dch v khc. Trn my tnh : Tip theo ta chn tham s cn kho st, y trn cc swich ta chn kho st v VLAN, bao gm cc thng tin v nhn, gi, drop bn bin. Chy m phng, ta thu c kt qu, v d trn swich1 Kim tra Ping : Sau y ta s kim tra ping gia cc VLAN, v d ta ping gia 2 node thuc VLAN 20 v ping gia 1 node thuc VLAN10 vi 1 node thuc VLAN30 vi nhau. C th ta s tin hnh ping t USER_3 SEVER_2 ( cng VLAN ) SEVER_1 USER_1 ( khc VLAN ) Nhp vo th vin ri vo mc internet_toolbox ko biu tng ping ra ngoi, sau kt ni 2 ng t USER_3 SEVER_2 v SEVER_1 USER_1.

Cng ti mc ta ko thit b IP Attribute Config a khng gian lm vic, phi c thit b ny ta mi c th tin hnh thao tc ping

Ta tin hnh t a chi IP cho cc thit b nh hnh v: Tip tc nhp chut phi vo mi ng link ri chn thng tin a chi ngun v ch ca bn tin ping V d trn ng kt ni gia SEVER_1 v USER_1 ta chn nh sau: Trn cc thit b an ko st ping ta chn thng tin cn m phng: click chut phi vo thit b vo phn IP tick vo 3 phn lin qua n ping: bao gm Ping Replies Received, Ping Request Sent v Ping Response Time. Tip theo ta chy m phng, sau khi ch xong ta xem kt qu tn cc node: Trng hp1: USER_3 SEVER_2 ( cng VLAN ) Ta tin hnh View Results ca USER_3 ( chi xem kt qu ca node gi bn tin ping ) th c: Nhn vo ta thy y USER_3 gi bn tin Requests ti SEVER_2 v nhn c bn tin p tr Replies, hi gian p tr hin th l 0.0006s. Nh vy USER_3 ping thng vi SEVER_2 Trng hp 2: SEVER_1 USER_1 ( khc VLAN ) View Results ca SEVER_1 Nhn vo ta thy ch c SEVER_1 ch c bn tin yu cu ch ko nhn c bn tin p tr cng khng c thng tin v thi gian tr li SEVER_1 khng ping thng vi USER_1 iu ny ng vi l thuyt v VLAN.

V. Mc lc I. Phn mm OPNET IT GURU 1.Gii thiu khi qut phn mm01 2. Download v ci t..01 II. Quy trnh lm vic, khng gian lm vic v cc cng c bin tp06 III. Mt s l thuyt v mng v cc giao thc10 IV. M phng. 1. V d 1..27 2. V d 2..38 3. V d 3..42 4. V d 4..45 V. Mc l c55