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TRNG I HC BCH KHOA H NI VIN IN T - VIN THNG

N TT NGHIP
ti:

MNG TH MAN

Sinh vin thc hin Lp Ging vin hng dn

: NGUYN TH TRNG : C in t 3 K54 : L QUANG THNG

H Ni, 6-2012
B GIO DC V O TO CNG HA X HI CH NGHA VIT NAM

TRNG I HC BCH KHOA H NI --------------------------------------------------

c lp - T do - Hnh phc ---------------------------------

NHIM V N TT NGHIP H v tn sinh vin: Nguyn Th Trng Kho: 54 Vin: in t - Vin thng Mang th MAN 2. Cc s liu v d liu ban u: .... .. Ni dung cc phn thuyt minh v tnh ton: ... ... ... 3. Cc bn v, th ( ghi r cc loi v kch thc bn v ): ... H tn ging vin hng dn: L Quang Thng 4. Ngy giao nhim v n:. 5. Ngy hon thnh n:. Ch nhim B mn Ngy thng nm 2012 Ging vin hng dn 1. u n: S hiu sinh vin: C0920321 Ngnh: in t - vin thng

Sinh vin hon thnh v np n tt nghip ngy

thng

nm 2012

Cn b phn bin

B GIO DC V O TO TRNG I HC BCH KHOA H NI ---------------------------------------------------

BN NHN XT N TT NGHIP
H v tn sinh vin: Nguyn Th Trng Ngnh: in t - vin thng Kho: 54 Ging vin hng dn: L Quang Thng Cn b phn bin: . 1. Ni dung thit k tt nghip: .......................................................................................................................................... .......................................................................................................................................... .......................................................................................................................................... .......................................................................................................................................... ...........................................................................................................................Nhn xt ca cn b phn bin: .......................................................................................................................................... .......................................................................................................................................... .......................................................................................................................................... .......................................................................................................................................... ........................................................................................................................... Ngy thng nm 2012 Cn b phn bin ( K, ghi r h v tn ) S hiu sinh vin: C0920321

Mng th MAN

LI M U
Trong nhng nm gn y, cng vi s pht trin nhanh chng v kinh t, vn ho, x hi trong mi trng cc th v thnh ph ln ko theo nhu cu trao i thng tin l rt ln, a dng c v loi hnh dch v cng nh cht lng v tc dch v. Vi s hnh thnh v pht trin bng n cc t hp vn phng, cc khu cng nghip, cc khu cng ngh cao, cc khu chung cthm vo l cc d n pht trin thng tin ca chnh ph, ca cc c quan, cc cng ty, cc tp on lm cho nhu cu trao i thng tin nh thoi, d liu, hnh nh, truy nhp t xa, truy nhp bng rng tng nhanh dn n p lc ln v vic cung cp cc dch v thng tin c cht lng v dich v cao. Cc mng ni b LAN (Local Area Network) ch c th p ng c nhu cu trao i thng tin trong phm vi a l hp (khong vi trm mt). Trong khi nhu cu kt ni vi mng bn ngoi (truy nhp Internet, truy nhp c s d liu, kt ni mng vn phng, mng ring o) l rt ln. iu ny dn n vic c s h tng thng tin hin ti vi cng ngh TDM l ch yu (chuyn mch knh, truyn dn SDH ) s rt kh p ng c nhu cu trao i thng tin rt ln nh vy c v loi hnh dch v v cng lu lng thng tin. Do vy vic nghin cu tm hiu cng ngh xy dng mt c s h tng mng th MAN (Metropolitan Area Network) trn nn mng th h mi NGN ( Next Generation Network) p ng c nhu cu trao i thng tin ni trn l cng vic cp thit i vi nhng nh cung cp dch v vin thng trn th gii ni chung v Vit Nam ni ring. Vi cc l do trn, cng vi s hng dn tn tnh ca thy L Quang Thng, em thc hin v hon thin n tt nghip: Mng th MAN n bao gm cc chng chnh nh sau: Chng I: Tng quan mng NGN. Chng II: Mng th, cc nguyn tc xy dng, trin khai mng v dch v. Chng III: Mt s cng ngh ng dng cho mng th th h k tip. Chng IV: Mt s gii php mng th MAN-NGN cho thnh ph H Ni.

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Mng th MAN Em xin chn thnh cm n thy L Quang Thng tn tnh hng dn em trong qu trnh thc hin n ny. Em cng xin cm n mt s thy c trong Vin in t vin thng to iu kin gip em trong thi gian qua. Do nng lc trnh , cng nh thi gian cn hn ch nn n khng trnh khi nhng sai st. Knh mong nhn c s ch bo ca cc thy c v bn b n c hon thin hn. Em xin chn thnh cm n! H Ni, ngy thng nm 2012

Sinh vin thc hin

Nguyn Th Trng

SVTH: Nguyn Th Trng

Mng th MAN

MC LC
LI M U..........................................................................................................1 Chng 1..................................................................................................................1 TNG QUAN V MNG NGN.............................................................................1
1.1. TNG QUAN V MNG TH H TIP THEO NGN................................................................................................1

1.1.1. nh gi s hn ch ca mng vin thng hin ti....................................1 1.1.2. Qu trnh hnh thnh ln NGN....................................................................2 1.1.3. Khi nim v NGN.....................................................................................2
1.2. CU TRC MNG NGN................................................................................................................................3

1.2.1. Cc ch tiu xy dng mng th h mi.....................................................3 1.2.2. Cu trc lun l ca NGN..........................................................................3


1.2.2.1. M hnh cu trc mng NGN.......................................................................................................................3 1.2.2.2. c im ca cc lp trong cu trc NGN...................................................................................................5

1.2.3. Cu trc vt l mng NGN.......................................................................10 1.2.4. Cu trc v cc thnh phn chnh trong mng NGN................................11
1.2.4.1. Media Gateway (MG).................................................................................................................................12 1.2.4.2. Media Gateway Controller (MGC).............................................................................................................13 1.2.4.3. Signalling Gateway.....................................................................................................................................14 1.2.4.4. Media Server ..............................................................................................................................................15 1.2.4.5. Application Server/Feature Server.............................................................................................................16

Chng 2................................................................................................................19 MNG TH, CC NGUYN TC XY DNG,........................................19 TRIN KHAI MNG V DCH V...................................................................19
2.1. MNG TH ...........................................................................................................................................19 2.2. CC NGUYN TC XY DNG V TRIN KHAI MNG V DCH V.......................................................................22

2.2.1. Dch v trong mng th th h k tip..................................................22 2.2.2. c tnh ca cc loi hnh dch v v cp dch v...............................25 2.2.3. Xu hng cng ngh, gii php p dng cho mng th th h k tip.28 2.2.4. Hin trng v cu trc c s h tng vin thng hin c .........................30 Chng 3................................................................................................................31 MT S CNG NGH NG DNG CHO MNG TH TH H K TIP.......................................................................................................................31
3.1. KIN TRC MNG, CC LP MNG V CC CNG NGH NG DNG.....................................................................31 3.2. CC CNG NGH NG DNG PHN LP 3.......................................................................................................32

3.2.1. Cng ngh IP............................................................................................32 3.2.2. Cng ngh MPLS.....................................................................................33 SVTH: Nguyn Th Trng

Mng th MAN 3.2.3. Cng ngh G-MPLS.................................................................................42


3.3. CC CNG NGH NG DNG PHN LP 2.......................................................................................................43

3.3.1. Cng ngh RPR........................................................................................43 3.3.2. Cng ngh 10 Gigabit Ethernet.................................................................50


3.4. CC CNG NGH NG DNG PHN LP 1.......................................................................................................55

3.4.1. Cng ngh NG SDH.............................................................................55 Chng 4................................................................................................................61 MT S GII PHP MNG TH MAN-NGN CA.................................61 THNH PH H NI.........................................................................................61
4.1. S LC V MNG VIN THNG HIN TI CA THNH PH H NI..................................................................61

4.1.1. Mng chuyn mch truyn dn truyn thng ........................................61 4.1.2. Mng truyn s liu..................................................................................62 4.1.3. Mng Internet............................................................................................63
4.2. NHU CU PHT TRIN LN MAN NGN CA THNH PH H NI................................................................63 4.3. GII PHP MNG MAN CA MT S NH SN XUT......................................................................................65

4.3.1. Gii php ca Cisco..................................................................................65 4.3.2. Gii php ca Nortel.................................................................................67 4.3.3. Gii php ca Siemens..............................................................................67
4.3. CU TRC V CC GII PHP XY DNG MNG MAN CHO VIN THNG H NI...............................................71

4.3.1. Cu trc mng...........................................................................................71 4.3.2. Yu cu k thut.......................................................................................73 4.3.3. Gii php qu xy dng mng MAN-NGN.........................................73
4.4. XY DNG MNG MAN C TH CA VIN THNG H NI.............................................................................74

KT LUN............................................................................................................77 TI LIU THAM KHO.....................................................................................78

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Mng th MAN

DANH MC K HIU V CC CH VIT TT.


T vit tt ADM ADSL AF AG API ARIS ARP ARQ ATM BCF BICC BISDN BRAS CA CAS CCS7 CDMA CL CL CO CoS CPE CR CR-LDP CSF DSCP DSL DSLAM DSP DWDM ETSI FEC Ch thch ting Anh Add Drop Multiplexer Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line Assured Forwarding Access Gateway Application Programing Interface Aggresgate Route-Base IP Switching Address Resolution Protocol Admission Request Asynchronous Transfer Mode Bearer Control Function Bearer Independent Call Control BroadBand - ISDN BroadBand Remote Access Call Agent Common Access Signalling Comon Chanell Signalling No7 Code Division Multiple Access Connectionless Operation Connectionless Operation Connection Oriented Operation Class of Service Customer Premise Equipment Cell Router Constraint Based Routing LDP Call Serving Function DiffServer Code Point Digital Subcriber Line DSL Access Module Digital Signal Processors Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing European Telecommunications Standards Institute Forwarding Infomation Base Ch thch ting Vit Thit b xen/ r lu lng ng dy thu bao s bt i xng Chuyn tip m bo Cng truy nhp Giao din lp trnh ng dng Chuyn mch IP theo phng php tng hp tuyn Giao thc phn tch a ch Yu cu ng k Ch truyn dn khng ng b Chc nng iu khin ti tin iu khin cuc gi c lp knh mang Mng s tch hp dch v bng rng My ch tuy nhp bng rng t xa i l gi Bo hiu knh chung H thng bo hiu s 7 a truy cp phn chia theo m Hot ng phi kt ni H thng phi kt ni Hot ng hng kt ni Lp dch v Thit b pha khch hng B nh tuyn t bo nh tuyn rng buc LDP Chc nng phc v cuc gi im m dch v phn bit ng dy thu bao s Khi truy nhp DSL X l tn hiu s Ghp knh phn chia theo mt bc sng Vin tiu chun vin thng Chu u Lp chuyn tip tng ng

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Mng th MAN GE GSM IEEE IN IP IPATM IPOA IPOS ISDN ISP ISR ITU LAN LDP LIB LSP LSR MAC MAN MGC MGCP MPLS MSSP NAS NGN NG-SDH OADM OAM PDH PE PLMN PON POS Gigabit Ethernet Global System for Mobile communication Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers Intelligent Network Internet Protocol The IP over ATM IP over ATM IP over SONET Integrated Service Digital Network Internet Service Internet Provider Integrated Switch Router International Telecommunication Union Local Area Network Label Distribution Protocol Label Information Base Label Swiched Path Label Switching Router Medium Access Control Metropolitan Area Network Media Gateway Controller Media Gateway Control Protocol Multiprotocol Label Switching Multiservice Switching Forum Network Attached Storage Next Generation Network Next Generation SDH Optical Add Drop Multiplexer Operation Adminitration and Maintenace Plesiochonous Digital Hierachy Provider Edge Public Land Mobile Network Passive Optical Network Packet over SDH Mng gigabit Dch v di ng ton cu Vin cc k s in v in t Mng thng minh Giao thc Internet Giao thc Internet trn ATM IP trn ATM IP trn SONET Mng s tch hp a dch v Nh cung cp dch v Internet B nh tuyn chuyn mch tch hp Hip hi vin thng quc t Mng vng cc b Giao thc phn phi nhn Bng thng tin nhn trong b nh tuyn Tuyn chuyn mch nhn Thit b nh tuyn chuyn mch nhn iu khin truy nhp phng tin Mng th bng rng Thit b iu khin MG Giao thc iu khin MG Chuyn mch nhn a giao thc Nn tng chuyn mch a dch v Mng lu tr d liu lin kt Mng th h k tip Cng ngh SDH th h k tip Thit b xen/ r quang Khai thc qun l v bo dng Phn cp ng b s Thit b bn pha nh cung cp Mng di ng mt t cng cng Mng quang th ng Gi trn SDH

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Mng th MAN POST PPP PSTN PHY QoS RAS RAS RPR RSVP SAN SDH SEN SIF SIGTRAN SIP SIP SLA SONET SS7 TCP TDM TG TMN VLAN VoIP VPC VPN WAN WDM WG xDSL Plain Old Telephone Service Point to Point Protocol Public Switch Telephone Network Physical Quality of Service Remote Access Server Registration Admission Startus Resilient Packet Ring Resource Reservation Protocol Storage Area Network Synchnorous Digital Hiearachy Service Execution Node Signalling Infomation Field Signalling Transport Session Intinition Protocol Session Intinition Protocol Service Level Agreement Synchronous Optical Network Signalling System No7 Transport Control Protocol Time Division Multiplexer Trunking Gateway Telecommunications Management Network Vitual LAN Voice cver IP Vitual Path Connection Virtual Private Network Wide Area Network Wavelength Division Wireless Gateway Digital Subcriber Line Mng thoi truyn thng Giao thc im-im Mng chuyn mch thoi cng cng Lp vt l Cht lng dch v My ch truy nhp t xa ng k, chp nhn tnh trng Cng ngh Ring gi phc hi Giao thc dnh sn ti nguyn Mng lu tr d liu vng H thng phn cp s ng b Nt thc thi dch v Trng thng tin bo hiu Chuyn ti bo hiu Giao thc khi to phin Giao thc khi to phin Tha thun kt ni mc dch v gia nh cung cp v khch hng Mng quang ng b H thng bo hiu s 7 Giao thc iu khin truyn dn Ghp knh phn chia theo thi gian Cng trung k Qun l mng vin thng Mng LAN o Thoi qua IP Cuc kt ni ng o Mng ring o Mng din rng Ghp knh phn chia theo bc sng Cng v tuyn H cng ngh DSL

DANH MC HNH V
Hnh 1.1. M hnh cu trc chc nng ca NGN...............................................................................................4 Hnh 1.2. M hnh cu trc lun l ca NGN......................................................................................................4 Hnh 1.3: Cc thnh phn ca Softswitch trong lp iu khin..........................................................................7

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Mng th MAN
Hnh 1.4. Cu trc vt l ca mng th h mi.................................................................................................10 Hnh 1.5. Cc thnh phn chnh trong mng NGN............................................................................................11 Hnh 1.6. Cu trc ca Media Gateway.............................................................................................................12 Hnh 1.7. V tr ca MGC trong chuyn mch mm.........................................................................................14 Hnh 1.8. Cu trc ca Server ng dng..........................................................................................................16 Hnh 2.1. Kin trc phn lp mng th th h k tip..................................................................................21 Hnh 2.2. Cc giao thc s dng trong MAN hin ti.......................................................................................29 Hnh 3.1. Cu trc phn lp ca mng MAN th h k tip.............................................................................31 Hnh 3.2. Cc cng ngh ng dng trong lp truyn ti ca mng MAN........................................................32 Hnh 3.3. S hi t ca MPLS...........................................................................................................................35 Hnh 3.4. Cu trc khung ca MPLS.................................................................................................................35 Hnh 3.5. Topo mng.........................................................................................................................................36 Hnh 3.6. Nhim v ca cc node mng MPLS................................................................................................37 Hnh 3.7. C ch chuyn gi tin........................................................................................................................38 Hnh 3.8. C ch cp pht nhn.........................................................................................................................38 Hnh 3.9. C ch cp nht nhn.........................................................................................................................39 Hnh 3.10. C ch to tuyn lu lng thng sut...........................................................................................40 Hnh 3.11. C ch Spatial Reuse.......................................................................................................................44 Hnh 3.12. C ch cn bng lu lng..............................................................................................................45 Hnh 3.13. C ch Fairness trong RPR Ring.....................................................................................................45 Hnh 3.14. C ch Wrap v Steer......................................................................................................................46 Hnh 3.15. Cu trc khung ca RPR..................................................................................................................47 Hnh 3.16. Mng hon ton RPR.......................................................................................................................49 Hnh 3.17. Mng RPR, MPLS over SONET, DWDM......................................................................................49 Hnh 3.18. Cu trc LAN v WAN PHY..........................................................................................................50 Hnh 3.19. Chc nng XAUI nh l giao din m gia MAC v PCS.............................................................51 Hnh 3.20. Khong cch truyn dn h tr bi PMD........................................................................................52 Hnh 3.21. Biu ca PMD v PHY...............................................................................................................52 Hnh 3.22. ng dng 10 Gigabit Ethernet trong mng MAN...........................................................................54 Hnh 3.23. ng dng 10 Gigabit Ethernet trong mng SAN............................................................................54 Hnh 3.24. Kin trc ghp knh SONET/SDH..................................................................................................55 Hnh 3.25. S linh hot ca mng NG-SONET/SDH.......................................................................................56 Hnh 3.26: Hot ng ca mng NG-SONET/SDH.........................................................................................56 Hnh 3.27: Th tc to khung chung GFP.........................................................................................................57 Hnh 3.28: Cu trc khung GFP........................................................................................................................58 Hnh 3.29: Ghp chui o VCAT......................................................................................................................59 Hnh 4.1. Cu trc mng chuyn mch ca mng vin thng H Ni..............................................................61 Hnh 4.2. Cu trc mng truyn dn ca vin thng H Ni............................................................................62 Hnh 4.3. Mng Internet ca vin thng Tp H Ni..........................................................................................63 Hnh 4.4. Kin trc Ring lp truy nhp.............................................................................................................66 Hnh 4.5. Kin trc Star lp truy nhp..............................................................................................................66 ............................................................................................................................................................................67 Hnh 4.6. Cu trc logic mng Metro ca Cisco...............................................................................................67 Hnh 4.7. Cu trc mng Metro ca Siemens...................................................................................................70 Bng 4.1. Cc hnh thc kt ni........................................................................................................................71 Hinh 4.8. M hinh mang Metro cua vin thng Ha Ni...................................................................................75 Hnh 4.9. Thit b truy nhp IP cho mng th h sau........................................................................................76

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Mng th MAN

Chng 1 TNG QUAN V MNG NGN


1.1. Tng quan v mng th h tip theo NGN
1.1.1. nh gi s hn ch ca mng vin thng hin ti Hin nay, trn mng vin thng hin ti ca nc ta ang tn ti rt nhiu loi mng khc nhau nh mng Telex, mng in thoi cng cng POTS, mng truyn s liu, PSTN, ISDN, PSDN...Cc mng vin thng ny cng song song tn ti, mi mng li yu cu mt phng php thit k, sn xut, vn hnh v bo dng khc nhau. Nh vy h thng vin thng hin ti c rt nhiu nhc im m quan trng nht l: - Ch truyn c cc dch v c lp tng ng vi tng mng. - Thiu s mm do: S ra i ca cc cng ngh mi nh hng mnh m n tc truyn tn hiu. S xut hin nhiu dch v truyn thng trong tng lai m cha d on c, mi loi s c tc truyn khc nhau nn kh cho qun l v ng b. - Km hiu qu cho bo dng v vn hnh cng nh s dng ti nguyn. Ti nguyn sn c trong mt mng khng th chia s cho cc mng khc cng s dng. - Kin trc tng i c quyn lm cho cc nh khai thc gn nh ph thuc hon ton vo nh cung cp tng i. nh hng trc tip n s cnh tranh ca cc nh cung cp, hn na tn nhiu thi gian v tin bc khi mun nng cp v ng dng cc phn mm mi. - Cc tng i chuyn mch knh khai thc ht nng lc v tr nn lc hu i vi nhu cu khch hng. Cc chuyn mch lp 5 ang tn ti nhng hn ch v kh nng sng to v trin khai cc dch v mi. iu lm gim li nhun ca cc nh khai thc. - S bng n lu lng thng tin khm ph s km hiu qu ca chuyn mch knh TDM. Chuyn mch knh truyn thng ch dng truyn cc lu

SVTH: Nguyn Th Trng - 1 -

Mng th MAN lng thoi c th d on trc v n khng h tr lu lng d liu thoi tng t bin. 1.1.2. Qu trnh hnh thnh ln NGN ng c hng u l tc pht trin theo hm m ca nhu cu truyn dn d liu v cc dch v lin kt l kt qu tng trng Internet mnh m. Cc h thng hin nay ch yu c xy dng nhm truyn dn lu lng thoi, truyn d liu thng tin v video c vn chuyn trn cc mng chng ln, tch ri c trin khai p ng nhu cu ca chng. Do vy s chuyn i sang h thng mng chuyn mch gi tp trung l cn thit khi m d liu thay th v tr ca thoi v tr thnh ngun to ra li nhun chnh. Khi m chuyn mch phn chia theo thi gian tr nn bt cp, mng th h mi ra i da trn nn tng IP s a vic truyn thoi cht lng ngy cng cao. Nhng l do chnh dn ti s xut hin ca mng th h mi: - Ci thin chi ph u t. - Cc ngun doanh thu mi. - Xu th i mi vin thng. - Nhu cu ngy cng cao ca thu bao v cht lng v gi thnh. - S pht trin ca cng ngh thng tin, cng ngh chuyn mch gi, cng ngh truyn dn bng rng, cng ngh in t - tin hc... 1.1.3. Khi nim v NGN Mng th h tip theo l mt nh ngha mang tnh cht bao hm. nh ngha NGN theo ITU nh ngha nh sau: Mng NGN l kin trc mng trong mi hnh thc thng tin c truyn i di dng gi. NGN hi t c 3 loi hnh mng bao gm mng thoi truyn thng PSTN, mng di ng v mng s liu Internet vo mt kt cu thng nht hnh thnh mt mng chung, thng minh v hiu qu cho php truy xut ton cu cng nh tch hp nhiu cng ngh v ng dng mi. 1.1.4. c im c bn ca NGN Mng NGN l h thng m, giao din v giao thc gia cc phn t mng da theo tiu chun m. Hn na, khc vi cc tng i truyn thng, cc khi chc nng trong tng i th h mi c tch thnh cc phn t mng c lp rt tt cho vn nng cp v pht trin. Trong NGN, dch v thc hin c lp vi mng li. SVTH: Nguyn Th Trng - 2 -

Mng th MAN Mng NGN hi t tt c cc mng hin c lm mt, phc v c tt c cc dch v ca cc mng ring l trc y, ng thi pht trin thm cc dch v mi. Mng NGN l mng chuyn mch gi, da trn giao thc IP thng nht. L mng c dung lng ngy cng tng, c tnh thch ng cao, c dung lng thch ng nhu cu ngi s dng.

1.2. Cu trc mng NGN


1.2.1. Cc ch tiu xy dng mng th h mi NGN phi c kh nng h tr c cho cc dch v ca mng Internet v ca mng hin hnh. Mt kin trc NGN kh thi phi h tr dch v qua nhiu nh cung cp khc nhau. Mi nh cung cp mng hay dch v l mt thc th ring l vi mc tiu kinh doanh v cung cp dch v khc nhau, v c th s dng nhng k thut v giao thc khc nhau. Mt vi dch v c th ch do mt nh cung cp dch v a ra, nhng tt c cc dch v u phi c truyn qua mng mt cch thng sut t u cui n u cui. Mng tng lai phi h tr tt c cc loi kt ni (hay cn gi l cuc gi), thit lp ng truyn trong sut thi gian chuyn giao, c cho hu tuyn cng nh v tuyn. V vy, mng NGN s tin ha ln t mng truyn dn hin ti (pht trin thm chuyn mch gi) v t mng Internet cng cng ( h tr thm cht lng dch v QoS), cung cp cc dch v thoi v d liu trong mt mng thng nht vi giao din m cho php pht trin, nng cp h thng d dng. 1.2.2. Cu trc lun l ca NGN 1.2.2.1. M hnh cu trc mng NGN Cu trc mng NGN bao gm 5 lp chc nng: Lp truy nhp dch v (service access layer), lp chuyn ti dch v (service transport/core layer), lp iu khin (control layer), lp ng dng/dch v (application/service layer) v lp qun l (manager layer). Xt m hnh cu trc chc nng ca NGN:

SVTH: Nguyn Th Trng - 3 -

Mng th MAN

Lp ng dng dch v
Giao din m API

Lp iu khin
Giao din m API

(control )

Lp qun l

Lp truyn thng
Giao din m API

(media )

Lp truy nhp v truyn dn

Hnh 1.1. M hnh cu trc chc nng ca NGN Kin trc mng NGN s dng chuyn mch gi cho c thoi v d liu:
Cc Server ng dng Lp ng dng Lp iu khin Lp truyn thng Router Lp truy cp v truyn dn Switch - Router Softswitch hay M edia Gateway Controller M edia Gateway

Cc doanh nghip ln Cc cng ty nh vn phng ti gia / ... Khch hng ti nh / Vng dn c

Thu bao di ng

Hnh 1.2. M hnh cu trc lun l ca NGN

SVTH: Nguyn Th Trng - 4 -

Mng th MAN 1.2.2.2. c im ca cc lp trong cu trc NGN Lp truyn dn v truy nhp:

Phn truyn dn: Trong lp vt l bao gm cc ng truyn dn quang vi k thut ghp knh bc sng quang DWDM c s dng v cc k thut gi cho tt c cc dch v QoS truyn dn trn mng li trong lp 2 v lp 3. Hn na, cc giao thc chuyn vn khung ATM hay IP/MPLS s dng lm nn cho truyn dn trn mng li m bo QoS trong cc mng din rng MAN hay mng ng trc. Cc router s dng bin mng li khi lu lng ln, ngc li, khi lu lng thp, switch router c th m nhn lun chc nng ca nhng router ny. Thnh phn : Cc nt chuyn mch/ Router (IP/ATM hay IP/MPLS), cc chuyn mch knh ca mng PSTN, cc khi chuyn mch PLMN nhng mng ng trc, k thut truyn ti chnh l IP hay IP/ATM. Hn na, trong lp truyn dn cn bao gm cc h thng chuyn mch v cc h thng nh tuyn cuc gi. Chc nng : Lp truyn ti trong cu trc mng NGN bao gm c chc nng truyn dn v chc nng chuyn mch. Lp truyn dn c kh nng h tr cc mc QoS khc nhau cho cng mt dch v v cho cc dch v khc nhau. N c kh nng lu tr li cc s kin xy ra trn mng (kch thc gi, tc gi, tr hon, t l mt gi v Jitter cho php i vi mng chuyn mch gi, bng thng, tr hon i vi mng chuyn mch knh TDM). Lp ng dng s a ra cc yu cu v nng lc truyn ti v n s thc hin cc yu cu . Phn truy nhp : Trong lp vt l, trn cc ng truyn hu tuyn s dng cc ng dy cp ng, cc ng dy thu bao s xDSL. Trong tng lai truyn dn quang DWDM, PON (Passive Optical Network) s dn chim u th thay cho th trng xDSL v modem cp. Trong truy nhp v tuyn, s dng cc cng ngh GSM hoc CDMA , truy nhp v tuyn c nh v v tinh. lp 2 v lp 3, cng ngh IP s lm nn cho mng truy nhp.

SVTH: Nguyn Th Trng - 5 -

Mng th MAN Thnh phn : Phn truy nhp gm cc thit b truy nhp ng vai tr giao din kt ni cc thit b u cui vo mng qua h thng mng ngoi vi cp ng, cp quang hoc v tuyn. Cc thit b truy nhp tch hp IAD cho php thu bao c th s dng mi k thut truy nhp (tng t, s, TDM, ATM, IP,) truy nhp vo mng a dch v NGN. Chc nng : Lp truy nhp cung cp cc kt ni gia thu bao u cui v mng ng trc (thuc lp truyn dn) qua cng giao tip MGW thch hp. Mng NGN kt ni vi hu ht cc thit b u cui chun v khng chun nh cc thit b truy xut a dch v, in thoi IP, my tnh PC, tng i ni b PBX, in thoi POTS, in thoi s ISDN, di ng v tuyn, di ng v tinh, v tuyn c nh, VoDSL, VoIP, - Phn truyn thng : Lp truyn thng c kh nng tng thch cc k thut chuyn mch khc vi k thut chuyn mch gi IP hay ATM mng ng trc. Hay ni cch khc, lp ny chu trch nhim chuyn i cc loi mi trng (chng hn nh PSTN, FrameRelay, LAN, v tuyn) sang mi trng truyn dn gi c p dng trn mng li v ngc li. Thnh phn: Thit b lp truyn thng l cc cng truyn thng (Media Gateway) bao gm cc cng truy nhp (AG) v cc cng giao tip (TG). Cc cng truy nhp AG (Access Gateway) kt ni gia mng li vi mng truy nhp, RG (Residental Gateway) kt ni mng li vi mng thu bao ti nh. Cc cng giao tip TG (Trunking Gateway) kt ni gia mng li vi mng PSTN/ISDN, WG (Wireless Gateway) kt ni mng li vi mng di ng... Chc nng: Lp truyn thng c kh nng tng thch cc k thut truy nhp khc vi k thut chuyn mch gi IP hay ATM mng ng trc. Hay ni cch khc, lp ny chu trch nhim chuyn i cc loi mi trng (chng hn nh PSTN, FramRelay,

SVTH: Nguyn Th Trng - 6 -

Mng th MAN LAN, v tuyn,) sang mi trng truyn dn gi c p dng trn mng li v ngc li. - Lp iu khin: Thnh phn : Lp iu khin bao gm cc h thng iu khin m thnh phn chnh l Softswitch cn gi l Media Gateway Controller hay Call Agent c kt ni vi cc thnh phn khc kt ni cuc gi hay qun l a ch IP cc thnh phn nh: SGW (Signaling Gateway), MS (Media Server), FS (Feature Server), AS (Application Server).

Hnh 1.3: Cc thnh phn ca Softswitch trong lp iu khin. Chc nng: Lp iu khin c nhim v kt ni cung cp cc dch v thng sut t u cui n u cui vi bt k loi giao thc v bo hiu no. C th, lp iu khin thc hin : - nh tuyn lu lng gia cc khi chuyn mch.

SVTH: Nguyn Th Trng - 7 -

Mng th MAN - Thit lp yu cu, iu chnh v thay i cc kt ni hoc cc lung, iu khin sp xp nhn (label mapping) gia cc giao din cng. - Phn b lu lng v cc ch tiu cht lng i vi mi kt ni (hay mi lung) v thc hin gim st iu khin m bo QoS. - Bo hiu u cui t cc trung k, cc cng trong kt ni vi lp media. Thng k v ghi li cc thng s v chi tit cuc gi, ng thi thc hin cc cnh bo. - Thu nhn thng tin bo hiu t cc cng v chuyn thng tin ny n cc thnh phn thch hp trong lp iu khin. - Qun l v bo dng hot ng ca cc tuyn kt ni thuc phm vi iu khin. Thit lp v qun l hot ng ca cc lung yu cu i vi chc nng dch v trong mng. Bo hiu vi cc thnh phn ngang cp. Lp ng dng: Thnh phn : Lp ng dng gm cc nt thc thi dch v SEN (Service Excution Node), thc cht l cc server dch v cung cp cc ng dng cho khch hng thng qua lp truyn ti. Chc nng : Lp ng dng cung cp cc dch v c bng thng khc nhau v nhiu mc . Mt s loi dch v s thc hin lm ch vic thc hin iu khin logic ca chng v truy nhp trc tip ti lp ng dng, cn mt s dch v khc s c iu khin t lp iu khin nh dch v thoi truyn thng. Lp ng dng lin kt vi lp iu khin thng qua cc giao din m API. Nh m cc nh cung cp dch v c th pht trin cc ng dng v trin khai nhanh chng trn cc dch v mng. Lp qun l: Lp qun l l mt lp c bit xuyn sut cc lp t lp kt ni cho n lp ng dng. Ti lp qun l, ngi ta c th trin khai k hoch xy dng mng gim st vin thng TMN, nh mt mng ring theo di v iu phi cc thnh phn mng vin thng ang hot ng. Tuy nhin cn phn bit cc chc nng qun l vi cc chc nng iu khin. V cn bn NGN s da trn cc giao din m v cung cp rt

SVTH: Nguyn Th Trng - 8 -

Mng th MAN nhiu loi hnh dch v trong mt mng n, cho nn mng qun l phi lm vic trong mt mi trng a nh u t, a nh khai thc, a dch v. Xy dng s thc th chc nng cho NGN:

Service & Application Call control & Signaling

AS-F

MS-F

R-F/A-F IW-F

MGC-F/CA-F IP (Transport & Transmission)

Media

MG-F

SG-F

Trong : AS-F: Application Server Function MS-F: Media Server Function MGC-F: Media Gateway Control Function CA-F: Call Agent Function IW-F: Interworking Function R-F: Routing Function A-F: Accounting Function SG-F: Signaling Gateway Function MG-F: Media Gateway Function Nhim v ca tng thc th nh sau: AS-F: y l thc th thi hnh cc ng dng nn nhim v chnh l cung cp cc logic dch v v thi hnh mt hay nhiu cc ng dng/dch v. MS-F: cung cp cc dch v tng cng cho x l cuc gi. N hot ng nh mt server x l cc yu cu t AS-F hoc MGC-F. MGC-F: cung cp logic cuc gi v tn hiu bo hiu x l cuc gi cho mt hay nhiu Media Gateway.

SVTH: Nguyn Th Trng - 9 -

Mng th MAN CA-F: l mt phn chc nng ca MGS-F. Thc th ny c kch hot khi MGC-F thc hin vic iu khin cuc gi. IW-F: cng l mt phn chc nng ca MGC-F. N c kch hot khi MGC-F thc hin cc bo hiu gia cc mng bo hiu khc nhau. R-F: cung cp thng tin nh tuyn cho MGC-F. A-F: cung cp thng tin dng cho vic tnh cc. SG-F: dng chuyn cc thng tin bo hiu ca mng PSTN qua mng IP. MG-F: dng chuyn thng tin t dng truyn dn ny sang dng truyn dn khc. 1.2.3. Cu trc vt l mng NGN Xt cu trc vt l ca NGN chng ta thy rng trong NGN, chuyn mch knh c thay th bng chuyn mch gi, s dng cng ngh chuyn mch mm, cc mng nh s liu, data, internet, c nh v di ng c tch hp trong mt mng duy nht. iu to ln mt kin trc tng th NGN theo mt th thng nht vi cc tnh nng a dch v, a phng tin... Sau y l kin trc vt l mng NGN:
ISP Mobile Users DNS GPRS UMTS Wireless gateway

SS7
Directory Server Appication / Feature Server Signaling gateway

MGC

Softswich
Telephone Users

PSTN
Trunk gateway

Wireless

Business Users LAN RSVP, Mobile IP, IP Sec

Access gateway

IP Network (WDM/SDH/ATM) MPLS, Mutticast

Wireless PC xDSL Digi. TV

Resident gateway

AAA Charging

Network Management

GE, MAN

Business/ Residental Users

Wireless

Hnh 1.4. Cu trc vt l ca mng th h mi. SVTH: Nguyn Th Trng - 10 -

Mng th MAN 1.2.4. Cu trc v cc thnh phn chnh trong mng NGN Trong mng vin thng th h mi c rt nhiu thnh phn cn quan tm, nhng y chng ta ch nghin cu nhng thnh phn chnh th hin r nt s tin tin ca NGN so vi mng vin thng truyn thng. C th l : 1. Media Gateway (MG) 2. Media Gateway Controller (MGC - Call Agent - Softswitch) 3. Signaling Gateway (SG) 4. Media Server (MS) 5. Application Server (Feature Server) M hnh cu trc mng v cc thnh phn chnh trong mng NGN:
SOFSWITCH

PSTN
SCP GSM analog IDSN 2B+ D INAP ISUP

Web

IVR

AAA

Directory Charging Server ...

MGCP/ H24 8

A LD

IDSN 30B+ D
PBX

AXE DX EWSD ...

ISUP E1

SG TGW

SG MGC
RTP
P I SU

SIP H323

I US RAD
SIP

SIP Terminals

SIP Server
SIP

MGCP/ H24 8

IP Core (MPLS) MGC


MGCP/ H248

WGW
RTP

3G UMTS

AGW
RTP
PBX

RTP

DSL

IP/ATM

DSLAM

SSG

RGW MS

Hnh 1.5. Cc thnh phn chnh trong mng NGN

SVTH: Nguyn Th Trng - 11 -

Mng th MAN 1.2.4.1. Media Gateway (MG)

Hnh 1.6. Cu trc ca Media Gateway Media Gateway cung cp phng tin truyn ti thng tin thoi, d liu, fax v video gia mng gi IP v mng PSTN. Trong mng PSTN, d liu thoi c mang trn knh DS0. truyn d liu ny vo mng gi, mu thoi cn c nn li v ng gi. c bit y ngi ta s dng mt b x l tn hiu s DSP (Digital Signal Processors) thc hin cc chc nng: chuyn i AD (analog to digital), nn m thoi/audio, trit ting di, b khong lng, m ha, ti to tn hiu thoi, truyn cc tn hiu DTMF, Cc chc nng ca mt Media Gateway : Chc nng chnh ca Media Gateway l truyn d liu thoi s dng giao thc RTP (Real Time Protocol). Cung cp khe thi gian T1 hay ti nguyn x l tn hiu s (DSP Digital Signal Processing) di s iu khin ca MGC (Media Gateway Controller). ng thi qun l ti nguyn DSP cho dch v ny. Hn na Media Gateway cn h tr cc giao thc c nh loop-start, ground-start, E&M, CAS, QSIG v ISDN qua ng truyn T1v qun l ti nguyn, kt ni T1, cung cp kh nng thay nng cc card T1 hay DSP. Trong h thng mng sn c phn mm d phng Media Gateway cho php m rng cc Media Gateway v cng, cards, cc nt m khng lm thay i cc thnh phn khc trong mng. SVTH: Nguyn Th Trng - 12 -

Mng th MAN c tnh h thng : Mt Media Gateway l mt thit b vo/ra c hiu (I/O). Dung lng b nh lun m bo lu tr cc thng tin trng thi, thng tin cu hnh, cc bn tin MGCP, th vin DSPDung lng a ch yu s dng cho qu trnh ng nhp (logging). Qu trnh d phng y giao din Ethernet (vi mng IP), m rng mt vi giao din T1/E1 vi mng TDM vi mt khong 120 port (DSOs) v s dng bus H.110 m bo tnh linh ng cho h thng ni b. 1.2.4.2. Media Gateway Controller (MGC) MGC l n v chc nng chnh ca Softswitch. N a ra cc quy lut x l cuc gi, cn MG v SG s thc hin cc quy lut . N iu khin SG thit lp v kt thc cuc gi. Ngoi ra n cn giao tip vi h thng OSS v BSS. MGC chnh l chic cu ni gia cc mng c c tnh khc nhau, nh PSTN, SS7, mng IP. N chu trch nhim qun l lu lng thoi v d liu qua cc mng khc nhau. N cn c gi l Call Agent do chc nng iu khin cc bn tin. Mt MGC kt hp vi MG, SG to thnh cu hnh ti thiu cho Softswitch. - Cc chc nng ca Media Gateway Controller: Chc nng ch yu l qun l cuc gi, s dng cc giao thc thit lp cuc gi thoi nh H.323, SIP v cc giao thc iu khin truyn thng nh MGCP, Megaco, H.248. Chc nng tip theo l chc nng qun l lp dch v v cht lng dch v vi giao thc qun l SS7 SIGTRAN (SS7 over IP) v x l bo hiu SS7. Ngoi ra, Media Gateway controller cn qun l cc bn tin lin quan QoS nh RTCP, thc hin nh tuyn cuc gi, ghi li cc thng tin chi tit ca cuc gi tnh cc (CDR- Call Detail Record) v iu khin qun l bng thng.

SVTH: Nguyn Th Trng - 13 -

Mng th MAN

SC P

SC P

SS TC AP 7 Appl . Server

STP

... ...

ST P

Signaling L ayer T ransport L ayer

Sianalling SIG TRAN ISUP G ateway / TC AP

SI P-T SI SIP

C all Agent
Trunking G ateway MGCP / M E G AC O

C all Agent

CO Swicth

CO Swicth

RTP Residental G ateway Softphone

Hnh 1.7. V tr ca MGC trong chuyn mch mm - i vi Media Gateway, MGC c cc chc nng: Xc nh v cu hnh thi gian thc cho cc DSP. Phn b knh DS0. Truyn dn thoi ( m ha, nn, ng gi).

- i vi Signaling Gateway, MGC cung cp : Cc loi SS7. Cc b x l thi gian. Cu hnh kt ni. M ca nt mng hay thng tin cu hnh.

- ng k Gatekeeper. 1.2.4.3. Signalling Gateway Signaling Gateway to ra mt chic cu gia mng bo hiu SS7 vi mng IP di s iu khin ca Media Gateway Controller (MGC). SG lm cho Softswitch ging nh mt nt SS7 trong mng bo hiu SS7. Nhim v ca SG l x l thng tin bo hiu.

SVTH: Nguyn Th Trng - 14 -

Mng th MAN - Cc chc nng ca Signaling Gateway : Trong qu trnh bo hiu SG cung cp mt kt ni vt l n mng bo hiu, truyn thng tin bo hiu gia Media Gateway Controller v Signaling Gateway thng qua mng IP. Trong thit lp cuc gi, Signaling Gateway cung cp ng dn truyn dn cho thoi, d liu v cc dng d liu khc. (Thc hin truyn d liu l nhim v ca Media Gateway) v cung cp cc hot ng SS7 c s sn sng cao cho cc dch v vin thng. - c tnh h thng : Signaling Gateway l mt thit b vo ra I/O, dung lng b nh lun m bo lu tr cc thng tin trng thi, thng tin cu hnh, cc l trnh,Dung lng a ch yu s dng cho qu trnh ng nhp (logging), do khng yu cu dung lng ln. H thng d phng y giao din Ethernet (vi mng IP), giao din vi mng SS7 bng cch s dng mt lung E1/T1, ti thiu 2 knh D, ti a 16 knh D. tng hiu sut v tnh linh ng ngi ta s dng bus H.110 hay H.100 vi yu cu sn sng cao vi nhiu SG, nhiu lin kt bo hiu, 1.2.4.4. Media Server Media Server l thnh phn la chn ca Softswitch, c s dng x l cc thng tin c bit. Mt Media Server phi h tr phn cng DSP vi hiu sut cao nht. Cc chc nng ca mt Media Server: cn. Chc nng voicemail c bn. Hp th fax tch hp hay cc thng bo c th s dng e-mail hay cc Kh nng nhn ting ni (nu c). Kh nng hi ngh truyn hnh (video conference). Kh nng chuyn thoi sang vn bn (speech-to-text).

bn tin ghi m trc (pre-recorded message).

c tnh h thng : L mt CPU, c kh nng qun l lu lng bn tin MGCP. Lu tr cc phng php thc hin lin kt vi DSP ni b hay ln

SVTH: Nguyn Th Trng - 15 -

Mng th MAN Cn dung lng b nh ln lu tr cc c s d liu, b nh m, Dung lng a tng i nh. Qun l hu ht lu lng IP nu tt c ti nguyn IP c s dng S dng bus H.110 tng thch vi card DSP v MG. sn sng cao.

th vin,

x l thoi.

1.2.4.5. Application Server/Feature Server Server c tnh l mt server mc ng dng cha mt lot cc dch v ca doanh nghip. Chnh v vy n cn c gi l Server ng dng thng mi. V hu ht cc Server ny t qun l cc dch v v truyn thng qua mng IP nn chng khng rng buc nhiu vi Softswith v vic phn chia hay nhm cc thnh phn ng dng. Cc dch v cng thm c th trc thuc Call Agent, hoc cng c th thc hin mt cch c lp. Nhng ng dng ny giao tip vi Call Agent thng qua cc giao thc nh SIP, H.323, Chng thng c lp vi phn cng nhng li yu cu truy nhp c s d liu c trng.

Hnh 1.8. Cu trc ca Server ng dng SVTH: Nguyn Th Trng - 16 -

Mng th MAN Chc nng ca Feature Server : Xc nh tnh hp l v h tr cc thng s dch v thng thng cho h thng a chuyn mch. Mt vi v d v cc dch v c tnh : H thng tnh cc Call Agents s dng cc bn ghi chi tit cuc gi CDR (Call Detail Record). Chng trnh CDR c rt nhiu c tnh, chng hn kh nng ng dng tc da trn loi ng truyn, thi im trong ngy,.. Dch v ny cho php khch hng truy nhp vo bn tin tnh cc ca h thng qua cuc gi thoi hay yu cu trang Web. H.323 Gatekeeper- dch v ny h tr nh tuyn thng qua cc min khc nhau (cc mng khc nhau). Mi min c th ng k s in thoi v s truy nhp trung k vi Gatekeeper thng qua giao thc H.323. Gatekeeper s cung cp dvh v nh tuyn cuc gi ( v chuyn dch sang dng s) cho mi u cui H.323. Gatekeeper cn c th cung cp iu khin tnh cc v qun l bng thng cho Softswitch. o o o o o o VPN- Dch v ny s thit lp mng ring o cho khch hng vi cc Bng thng xc nh ( thng qua mng thu ring tc cao) m bo QoS Nhiu tnh nng ring theo chun K hoch quay s ring Bo mt cc m thoi c truyn dn. . N c bit yu cu mt CPU tin ch cao. iu ny cng cn ph Cn b nh ln vi tr thp. CPU c kh nng m rng p ng cho vic nng cp dch v v c tnh sau :

c tnh h thng thuc vo cc ng dng c bit khc nhau.

lu lng. - t mt vi c s d liu trong Server.

SVTH: Nguyn Th Trng - 17 -

Mng th MAN - Dung lng a ln, ty thuc vo c tnh ca ng dng. Chng hn nh dung lng 100GB- 2TB cho ngn hng voice mail. Giao din Ethernet (vi mng IP) c thc hin vi y kh nng d phng.

SVTH: Nguyn Th Trng - 18 -

Mng th MAN

Chng 2 MNG TH, CC NGUYN TC XY DNG, TRIN KHAI MNG V DCH V


2.1. Mng th
Mng th bng rng a dch v, gi tt l mng MAN (Metropolitan Area Network) l mng bng thng rng trn c s tch hp cu trc mng th h mi NGN (Next Generation Network), c kh nng cung cp mt siu xa l thng tin. Mng MAN l mng my tnh c kch c trung bnh t vi km n vi chc km, c kh nng to ra cc kt ni tc cao, ln n hng trm Megabit/s (c th m rng ln n Gigabit/s). N c th c kt ni cc nhm vn phng, cc nhm doanh nghip, trng, vin, n v, phuc v cho cng tc ch o, qun l hnh chnh nh nc, trao i thng tin, cung cp cc dch v hnh chnh cng, chun b cho pht trin thng mi in t Xu hng tch hp gia cng ngh thng tin v vin thng trn mt c s h tng duy nht thc y nhm cc nh cung cp thit b, gii php xy dng v khai thc mng, quan tm nghin cu mng th th h k tip (Next Generation Metropolitan Area Network). Mng th c hiu nm gia mng tryn ti ng trc v mng truy nhp. Mng th bng rng (MetroNet-MAN) cung cp ng truyn tc siu cao, c kh nng cung cp nhu loi dch v gi tr gia tng cng lc trn cng mt ng truyn, ch yu s dng ng truyn cp quang. MetroNet c thit k mng li theo dng mch vng v c cp quang ha nn c tc cao c th ln ti hng Gbps, p ng c mi nhu cu v tc cng nh cc ng dng cao cp, cht lng ng truyn rt cao, khng b xuyn nhiu, m bo tc n nh v tnh bo mt cao. Nh ng dng cng ngh tin tin nht kt hp vi h thng cp quang n tn nh, MetroNet cung cp cho khch hng kh nng s dng ng thi 3 loi dch v l thoi (voice), d liu (data) v hnh nh (video) gm: truyn d liu, hnh nh, IP TV, in thoi c hnh nh (video phone), hi ngh truyn hnh, xem phim theo

SVTH: Nguyn Th Trng - 19 -

Mng th MAN yu cu (video on demand), truyn hnh cp, gio dc t xa, gim st t xa, truy cp Internet, Mt trong nhng ng dng ni bt ca MetroNet l tch hp cc ng dng trong thi gian thc nh bng thng cc rng, tnh linh hot cao. Ngi s dng c th d dng thay i cu hnh bng thng ty theo mun ty mc ch s dng v tit kim. Vi bng thng rng ln ti 1 Gbps, ngi dng dch v ny s tit kim c thi gian ti cc chng trnh, nht l i vi cc c s d liu, h thng hnh nh, phimc dung lng ln. Ty theo nhu cu thc t v iu kin khch hng, MetroNet c th d dng thay i cu hnh bng thng theo yu cu ca khch hng theo tng nc 1 Mbps. Mt cch khc l ngi s dng c th la chn 4 mc cam kt cht lng dch v (gi l SLA) gm: SLA1 ng dng thoi, SLA2 ng dng thi gian thc nh video, IPTV, video phone, video conferenceing, SLA3 thc hin truyn s liu v SLA4 cho cht lng dch v ti thiu ty la chn ca khch hng. MetroNet cho php thu bao thit lp mng theo nhng cch m dch v truyn thng khc khng th thc hin c. Khch hng c th s dng 2 kiu kt ni l t im n im (Point to Point) v a im n a im (Multipoint to Multipoint). Chng hn, mt cng ty s dng dch v MetroNet c th kt ni nhiu mng ca h (LAN, WAN), hoc mng ca i tc nhiu v tr khc nhau thnh lp mt mng ring o (VPN) hoc kt ni Internet tc cao n nh cung cp dch v Internet. Mt im c bit khi s dng mng MetroNet l khch hng c th thm vo hoc thay i bng thng rt nhanh thay v phi thc hin trong vi ngy hoc thm ch vi tun nh khi s dng nhng dch v mng truy nhp khc (Frame relay, ATM). Ngoi ra, nhng thay i ny khng i hi ngi s dng phi mua thit b mi. Thun li khi s dng dch v ny l ngi dng s c nhiu iu kin thun li, hi t tng cng hiu nng ca h thng CNTT v vin thng, d dng trin khai cc ng dng chuyn nghip v hin i nht trn mng, tch hp vic gim st mng nhanh chng, d dng trin khai thm cc dch v tin ch vi gi tr gia tng

SVTH: Nguyn Th Trng - 20 -

Mng th MAN trn mng, kt ni mng lin tnh, quc t vi bng thng rng, kt ni vi cc nh cung cp ni dung thng tin tng tnh a dng v hiu qu khai thc mng ni b.

Hnh 2.1. Kin trc phn lp mng th th h k tip Lp truy nhp thc hin cc chc nng tch hp cc loi hnh dch v bao gm c dch v t ngi s dng v dch v mng. Lp mng li thc hin chc nng truyn ti lu lng tch hp trong mng th mt cch hp l, lp ny thc hin chc nng nh tuyn truyn ti lu lng trong ni vng th hoc chuyn giao lu lng vi mng trc. Khng ging nh mng ng trc ni c khuynh hng hi t cc loi hnh lu lng truyn ti nhm t hiu sut s dng mng cao nht nh SDH/DWDM, mng th thc hin tip cn vi rt nhiu loi hnh ng dng v giao thc truyn ti cn phi truyn mt cch trong sut gia ngi s dng hoc cc mng vn phng vi nhau. Do vy vn t ra l cn cn nhc gia mc tiu l truyn lu lng trong sut v t hiu sut s dng mng cao, l bi ton t ra i vi cc nh xy dng mng th, n s quyt nh n chin lc trin khai mng v dch v cng nh vic la chn nh cung cp thit b mng.

SVTH: Nguyn Th Trng - 21 -

Mng th MAN

2.2. Cc nguyn tc xy dng v trin khai mng v dch v


Thc t cho thy hin tn ti nhiu c s h tng mng c da trn cng ngh ATM/SDH, do vy cc nh cung cp dch v mng rt quan tm ti vic tch hp cc c s h tng c vi vic xy dng c s h tng Mng th th h k tip. Do vy cc nh cung cp dich v mng th h k tip cn phi c mt chin lc xy dng v cung cp dch v r rng v i theo l trnh c vch ra. Nhng cn c vch ra chin lc l: Nhu cu i hi cung cp dch v mng MAN (Loi hnh dch v, t trng cc dch v v c tnh dch v). Xu hng p dng cng ngh v gii php p dng cho mng MAN. Cu trc c s h tng vin thng hin trng. Trnh qun l, kh nng tip cn cc cng ngh mi ca i ng cn b k thut. 2.2.1. Dch v trong mng th th h k tip. Trc tin ta cn xc nh m hnh cung cp dch v trong mng MAN th h mi. M hnh cung cp dch v ny da trn c s cc yu cu xut pht t ngi s dng, n hon ton c lp vi cc gii php cng ngh trin khai sau ny. Hin ti chng ta c th trin khai dch v theo 3 m hnh sau y: - Dch v truyn ti LAN trong sut (Transparent LAN Service) cung cp kt ni gia cc mng cc b tch ri nhau v mt a l cng nh v mt kt ni vt l. - Dch v cung ng ng truy nhp Internet (Dedicated Internet Access) cung cp kt ni tc cao ti cc nh cung cp dch v Internet (ISPInternet Service Providers). - Cung cp ng kt ni ring (Private Line Service) cung cp cc ng kt ni ring ti cc thu bao. Cc m hnh cung cp dch v trn y s lm c s cho vic pht trin cc loi hnh dch v gi tr gia tng khc. Cc loi hnh dch v gi tr gia tng c nhu cu ln hin nay v trong tng lai gn l: - Dch v thoi - Dch v Video SVTH: Nguyn Th Trng - 22 -

Mng th MAN - Dch v kt ni truy cp Internet - Dch v kt ni thu knh ring - Dch v kt ni mng ring o (VPN) - Dch v truy cp c s d liu - Dch v lu tr d liu - Dch v cho thu c s h tng Sau y ta s xem xt ln lt cc loi hnh dch v trn. Dch v thoi: S xut hin hai hnh thc cung cp dch v thoi: Cc dch v thoi trn nn tng mng MAN mi c xy dng v cc dch v thoi PSTN truyn thng t mng PSTN hin c. i vi c hai hnh thc trn u yu cu mng MAN mi xy dng cung cp cc giao thc ph hp truyn ti cc dch v ny. Nh vy mng cn phi c cc nt mng thc hin chc nng l cng giao tip kt ni vi cc loi hnh giao thc khc nhau v phi c nhng c ch truyn ti lu lng ph hp nhm m bo cht lng dch v cng nh cc nt mng thc hin chc nng iu khin, kin to dch v hoc h thng lin kt bo hiu. Dch v Video: y l vn c quan tm v cn nhc nhiu nht khi quyt nh u t xy dng mng bi l cn c mt cng ngh v c s h tng mng hin i cho dch v ny, tuy nhin y l mt trong ba dch v c bn (thoi, video, truyn s li) m nu mng MAN th h mi cung cp c ba dch v my vi cht lng v tc cao s c li th cnh tranh mt cch tuyt i. Dch v kt ni truy cp Internet: y l mt trong nhng dch v ch yu ca mng LAN th h mi, nhu cu kt ni Internet ang tng vi tc chng mt nh nhng dch v nh: trao i thng tin, gi nhn th in t, truyn tp, truy nhp iu khin t xa, giao dch thng mi in t, gii tr trn mng, game online Hin nay dch v ny cung cp qua mng PSTN hoc ADSL tuy nhin vn c s hn ch v bng thng (ngay c mng ADSL cng da vo mng truyn dn SDH hin c truyn ti lu lng) dn n tc v cht lng truy cp khng cao.

SVTH: Nguyn Th Trng - 23 -

Mng th MAN Dch v kt ni thu knh ring: Dch v thu knh ring ang trin khai hin nay c trin khai lp vt l trn c s cng ngh truyn dn/chuyn mch TDM (s dng c ch ghp tch knh trong cng ngh SDH hoc s dng cc giao din thu bao s tc thp ca cc h thng chuyn mch knh TDM). Phng thc cung cp knh thu ring ni trn thc hin cung cp mt tuyn kt ni vt l ring r ti khch hng t u cui ti u cui vi bng thng c nh, iu ny khin cho hiu sut s dng bng thng gim ng thi gi thnh thu knh cao trong khi khng p ng c nhu cu i vi cc thu bao c nhu cu tc kt ni cao. Mng MAN th h mi s cung cp dch v thu knh ring vi nhiu giao din, nhiu tc , thi gian p ng nhanh, gi thnh h bng cch s dng bng thng mt cch linh hot, nng cao hiu sut s dng. Dch v thu knh ring trong mng MAN th h mi khc phc hu ht nhc im ca phng thc cung cp c. Dch v kt ni mng ring o: Hin nay kt ni, trao i thng tin gia cc trung tm u no v cc chi nhnh ca cc c quan, t chc, doanh nghip, ngn hng, kho bc, c s o to thng phi thu knh ring ca cc nh cung cp dch v mng vi chi ph tng i cao. gii quyt vn rt c quan tm ny mng LAN th h mi cung cp dch v mng ring o VPN (Virtual Private Network), VPN cho php cc c quan, t chc lin kt (o) cc thc th mng LAN li vi nhau thnh mt mng thng nht, qun l mt cch thng nht v cu trc phn cp mng, c ch nh tuyn, c ch phn quyn truy nhp, chia s ti nguyn mng ni b, kh nng bo mt thng tin. Trong thc t dch v ny c trin khai v pht trin rt nhanh chng. Dch v truy nhp c s d liu: S pht trin rt nhanh ca Internet, cc c s h tng mng truyn d liu, mng ca cc c quan chnh ph, c s o to nghin cu, doanh nghip, ngn hng, kho bccho php cc c quan chnh ph, cc vin nghin cu cung cp cc thng tin v chnh tr, kinh t, x hi, php lut, thng mi thng qua cc kho c s d liu chia s. Thng qua cc cng c tm kim ni dung thng tin, cc trnh duyt Web hoc cc h tng pht trin ng dng trao i thng tin khc nh cc h qun tr c s d liu

SVTH: Nguyn Th Trng - 24 -

Mng th MAN ngi s dng c th tm kim, truy nhp cc c s d liu dng chung trn mng phc v cho cng vic hoc nhu cu c nhn. Dch v lu tr d liu: S liu dng in t ca cc c nhn v cc t chc khng ngng tng ln mt cch nhanh chng. Trong lnh vc ti chnh, cc t chc tn dng, ngn hng, cc cng ty mi gii chng khon, ngnh y t, bo him, cc c s nghin cu khoa hc c mt h thng d liu khng l, phn tn trong phm vi a l rng i hi phi lu tr, cp nht thng xuyn. c bit i vi cng tc hnh chnh, qun l nh nc c cc s liu rt a dng, phn tn v thng xuyn phi c cp nht. Nh vy vic lu tr, bo v v khi phc cc d liu trn i hi cc trung tm lu tr d liu in t. Dch v cho thu c s h tng: Cc loi hnh dch v cho thu c s h tng mng bao gm dch v kt ni vi cc nh cung cp dch v mng khc, cc cng ty pht trin dch v gi tr gia tng cung cp cc kt ni vt l hay m bo vn chuyn lu lng ca cc nh cung cp dch v mng khc. 2.2.2. c tnh ca cc loi hnh dch v v cp dch v. Nh cung cp dch v cn phi quan tm v cc thuc tnh dch v ca lp dch v c cung cp bi v n nh hng rt ln n hng trin khai dch v trn mng. V d, nu mng cn phi cung cp cc lp dch v c duy tr cao th iu ny c ngha l mng xy dng cn phi tng cng kh nng d phng cc thit b mng, hng kt ni, ti nguyn phc v cho vic cung cp dch v c ngha l tng chi ph u t xy dng mng. Vi cc lp dch v cn quan tm n cc ch tiu v tr, tc trao i thng tin i hi mng cn c kh nng iu khin lu lng mt cch linh hot, ngha l cc c cu, giao thc iu khin lu lng nhm m bo cc ch tiu QoS cho cc dch v cn phi c cung cp trong cc nt thit b v h thng qun l trn ton mng. Xt v mt tng quan, nh khai thc v cung cp dch v phi quan tm n mt s thuc tnh ch yu sau nhm mc ch nh gi mt cch tt nht bng thng cn thit cho khch hng, t xc nh c kh nng thc hin ca mng nhm m bo s kh thi cao ca mng c xy dng. SVTH: Nguyn Th Trng - 25 -

Mng th MAN Cc hnh thi bng thng ca dch v: Khi xc nh c cc loi hnh dch v cn cung cp trong mng, nh cung cp cn phi la chn cc loi hnh dch v trn c s xem xt n cc c tnh dch v cn cung cp thng qua cc iu khon, tho thun v cp dch v SLA. Cc iu khon tho thun v cp dch v cho php nh cung cp dch v sp xp phn loi tp cc loi hnh dch v ph hp vi cc ng dng cn cung cp theo yu cu ca khch hng, mi mt gii php mng da trn nn tng cc cng ngh c la chn no s cho php xy dng mng cung cp tp cc dch v tng ng vi gii php cng ngh c la chn, trong khi yu cu v loi hnh dch v ca khch hng mang tnh c th khng ph thuc vo cng ngh. Do , vn la chn yu cu dch v ca khch hng ph hp vi loi hnh dch v c th vi nhng ch tiu v SLA l rt quan trng i vi nh cung cp dch v. Nu lm tt iu ny th s m bo kh nng tng li nhun trong vic cung cp dch v cho khch hng, ng thi t c mc tiu m bo cht lng dch v theo khun kh cc iu khon SLA i vi khch hng. Hnh thi bng thng ch ra mt s c tnh c bn nht v thuc v cc c tnh ca SLA. Thng thng, hnh thi bng thng ca dch v c xc nh bi thng tin v tc trao i thng tin c tho hip (CIR), thng tin v tc nh c tho hip (PIR). Ngoi ra hnh thi bng thng ca dch v cn c th hin bi thuc tnh v gi tr bus cc i (MBS) th hin tng s lu lng cc i m ngi s dng c php truyn lin tc vi tc vt qua tc quy nh bi CIR. Hnh thi bng thng theo cch th hin thng thng m nh khai thc mng cung cp cho khch hng l mt tc khng i khi trao i d liu, tuy vy thc t cung cp dch v ca nh khai thc s c hai hnh thc cung cp bng thng: hnh thc cung cp bng thng c nh ti phn lp 1 v hnh thc cung cp bng thng thng k ti phn lp 2 v 3. Trn c s s dng ghp knh thng k dch v loi hnh cung cp bng thng c nh l loi hnh truyn thng, in hnh ca loi ny l vic cung cp cc kt ni ti khch hng trn c s cng ngh chuyn mch knh TDM hoc cng ngh truyn dn SONET/SDH. Cung cp bng thng cho khch hng theo loi hnh ny khng cho php nh cung cp phn lp dch v mt cch hon chnh v chi tit bi v lu lng ca tt c cc loi hnh dch v u c i

SVTH: Nguyn Th Trng - 26 -

Mng th MAN x nh nhau, khng c s u tin phn bit. Hnh thi bng thng loi hnh ny ngi ta ch yu quan tm ti thuc tnh thng tin v tc nh PIR ch khng quan tm ti thuc tnh thng tin v tc c tho hip CIR. Hnh thi bng thng loi th hai l cung cp bng thng thng k, hnh thi ny cho php nh khai thc s dng bng thng tng, ti nguyn mng hiu qu hn rt nhiu. Tuy vy s dng loi hnh thi bng thng ny cung cp cho ngi s dng i hi nh khai thc v qun l mng phi trin khai nhng cng ngh thch hp, cho php thc hin chc nng qun l lu lng tinh t vi nhng kh nng phn loi lu lng, kh nng ng khun lu lng, k thut nh c b m c i ng cn b k thut trnh cao, am hiu cng ngh mi. Phn lp dch v: Khi nim v phn lp dch v c hiu l nhm cc ng dng i hi c chung mt cch thc trao i thng tin ging nhau. Cc lp dch v khc nhau yu cu cch thc truyn ti thng tin khc nhau. Vic phn lp dch v cho php nh cung cp dch v to cc ng dng c th (cc dch v c th ti ngi s dng mt cch linh hot hn thay v vic cung cp kt ni vt l c nh ti ngi s dng). Ngi s dng s nhn c mt hp ng v vn chuyn lu lng v ch quan tm ti danh sch lit k cc dch v vi nhng thuc tnh SLA tng ng thay v n thun ch quan tm n bng thng m nh khai thc mng a li. Gia nh cung cp dch v v ngi s dng rng buc vi nhau v thuc tnh ca SLA, ca cc lp dch v c tho thun trong hp ng vn chuyn lu lng. Nh cung cp dch v khi thc hin cung cp dch v cho ngi s dng s phi trin khai cc phng n cp dch v theo cc lp dch v khc nhau c xc nh theo m s dch v (nh m s dch v DSCP trong cng ngh IP) v ghp ni vi cc cp dch v tng ng vi cng ngh c trin khai. V d, nh cung cp dch v trin khai bn lp dch v, mi mt dch v c c trng bi cp gi tr CIR/PIR v thuc tnh dch v. Phng thc phn cp dch v em li nhiu im thun li cho khch hng cng nh nh khai thc mng. N cho php khch hng xem c chi tit hn v phng thc truyn ti lu lng m mnh s dng, nh khai thc s c li nhiu hn v vic tng tnh hiu qu, ti u s dng ti nguyn mng.

SVTH: Nguyn Th Trng - 27 -

Mng th MAN 2.2.3. Xu hng cng ngh, gii php p dng cho mng th th h k tip Cc mng vin thng, my tnh truyn thng hin nay c c im chung l tn ti mt cch ring l. Tng ng vi mi loi hnh dch v thng tin th c t nht mt loi mng vin thng, my tnh ring phc v dch v . Hay ni cch khc, cc dch v vin thng, my tnh khc nhau cn n cc h thng mng khc nhau. Chng hn nh vi thoi l mng PSTN truyn thng, da trn nn chuyn mch knh, vi d liu l mng truyn s liu theo X25, X21, mng truy nhp trn nn chuyn mch gi IP Cc mng ny hot ng hon ton tch bit nhau, v do hnh thc qun l cng hon ton ring bit nhau. Chnh v vy m cc nh cung cp dch v phi ng thi vn hnh qun l cng lc rt nhiu mng vin thng khc nhau. Hnh thc qun l phn tn ny tr nn kh phc tp mt cch khng cn thit. Bn cnh , vic tn ti cng lc song song nhiu mng s to nn s trng lp an xen nhau gia cc mng. Vi cc h thng truyn thng, vic thc hin a dch v l rt kh khn v phi ng thi trin khai cc h thng khc nhau cng lc ti cng mt thi im. V tin su hn trong vic cung cp a dch v theo nhu cu ca hin ti v tng lai l iu khng th thc hin c. Cc h thng vin thng truyn thng cha c c tnh nng m cho mi trng multi-vendor, chng hn nh cha c c cc giao din lp trnh m (API) hay cha th lm vic trong mi trng a giao thc. y l mt nhc im rt ln gy khng t kh khn cho nh vn hnh mng. Trong mng chuyn mch knh, nhng knh lu lng c thit lp gia nhng ngi s dng sau khi mt s c quay v knh ny c duy tr cho cuc gi n khi mt ngi dng no gii phng cuc gi. y l dch v thit lp kt ni trc khi truyn d liu (connection oriented) cung cp cho nhng ngi s dng vi m bo l lu lng thoi s khng b t qung, tuy nhin, do knh b chim dng ngay c khi khng c d liu hu ch v hnh chung gy ra s lng ph rt ln. Mc d vy, y l mng c thit k ti u cho dch v thoi c bn. Vn t ra khi ni bt ln nhu cu truyn d liu trn mng chuyn mch knh. Khi hu ht lu lng d liu c truyn trong nhng khong ngn (so vi thoi), qu trnh truyn vn gn vi vic thit lp knh v gi cho chng lun m trong sut qu trnh truyn chng t khng hiu qu v tn chi ph. y l mt iu bt li khi

SVTH: Nguyn Th Trng - 28 -

Mng th MAN m hu ht nhng ngi dng ch mun tr chi ph cho d liu truyn ch khng phi khong thi gian m knh truyn m. Khi lu lng truyn d liu bt u bng v vt qu lu lng thoi trn mng vin thng, s kinh t hn nu chng ta cng truyn thoi trn mng chuyn mch gi. S hi t ny s gip gim chi ph hot ng v bo dng nhng mng ring r. Tuy nhin cng c nhiu vn gn vi vic duy tr chuyn mch knh l nhng mc dch v c th cung cp thi gian thc trn mng chuyn mch gi, v trn mng chuyn mch gi khng phi lc no cng dung lng duy tr kh nng truyn d liu p ng thi gian thc. Trong mng chuyn mch gi c th xy ra mt s trng hp nh: gi d liu b mt, tr, nghn mch, nhng trng hp ny khng c mong mun trong qua trnh truyn thoi.

Hnh 2.2. Cc giao thc s dng trong MAN hin ti Nh vy cc nhc im chnh ca cc giao thc mng hin nay ang s dng trong mng MAN l: Mi giao thc cn mt c s h tng mng ring bit. Khng linh hot trong s dng v qun l bng thng, cht lng dch v do vy khng th cung cp c cc dch v di dng SLA. Hn ch trong kh nng cung cp bng thng rng cho mt thu bao dn n chi ph cao. Xu hng pht trin ca mng th h k tip l tng bc thay th hoc chuyn lu lng mng s dng cng ngh TDM sang mng s dng cng ngh chuyn mch gi, xy dng c s h tng mng vi mc tiu hi t cc loi hnh dch v d liu,

SVTH: Nguyn Th Trng - 29 -

Mng th MAN ting ni, truyn hnh trn cng mt c s h tng mng, cung cp cc dch v bng thng rng di dng tho thun v cp dch v. Cc cng ngh s dng trong mng MAN th h k tip phi khc phc c cc nhc im ca cng ngh mng hin nay v p ng c cc mc tiu ra trn. Hin nay cc cng ngh ang rt c quan tm lp 3 l cng ngh s dng giao thc nh tuyn Internet (IP- Internet Protocol) v cng ngh chuyn mch nhn a giao thc (MPLS- Multiprotocol Label Switching). Cc cng ngh lp 1 v 2 l cng ngh GbE (Gigabit Ethernet), cng ngh Ring gi phc hi RPR (Resilient Packet Ring), cng ngh SDH th h k tip NG-SDH (Next Generation SDH). Vic nghin cu chi tit v cc cng ngh trn s c trnh by chng tip theo. 2.2.4. Hin trng v cu trc c s h tng vin thng hin c Hin ti hu ht mng vin thng s dng cng ngh chuyn mch knh TDM. VNPT mi ch s dng cng ngh chuyn mch gi lp mng li ng trc (cc tng i ng trc s dng cng ngh IP, MPLS, Softswitch ca Juniper) cn li cung cp cc dch v mng nh Internet, frame relay, ADSL u phi u t c s h tng cc mng ring l tng ng. Yu cu bt buc khi xy dng mng MAN th h k tip l phi tn dng c c s h tng mng sn c trong thi gian qu . Cng ngh c la chn phi c tnh m, va tng thch vi c s h tng mng sn c va c kh nng m rng trong tng lai nhm tit kim chi ph v em li hiu qu cao.

SVTH: Nguyn Th Trng - 30 -

Mng th MAN

Chng 3 MT S CNG NGH NG DNG CHO MNG TH TH H K TIP


3.1. Kin trc mng, cc lp mng v cc cng ngh ng dng
Mng MAN th h k tip c cu trc phn lp: Lp ng dng/dch v(Application/Service) Lp iu khin (Con rol) Lp truyn ti (Transport)

nuq p L l

Lp truy nhp (Access)

Hnh 3.1. Cu trc phn lp ca mng MAN th h k tip Chc nng cc lp trong mng MAN th h k tip: -

Lp truy nhp: kt ni gia mng MAN th h k tip v cc thit b u cui thu bao hoc cc mng truyn thng khc. Lp truyn ti: nh tuyn, chuyn mch v chuyn tip gi tin gia cc phn t mng. Lp iu khin c chc nng: + iu khin kt ni v bo hiu cuc gi + iu khin lu lng v cht lng dch v + iu khin hot ng ca cc phn t mng

Lp ng dng/dch v: iu phi, cung cp dch v v ng dng. Lp qun l mng: c chc nng qun l mng theo m hnh TMN. + Qun l kinh doanh, chm sc khch hng + Qun l kt ni, tnh cc + Qun l ti nguyn v cht lng mng + Qun l phn t mng

SVTH: Nguyn Th Trng - 31 -

ne m ga na M e (

)t

Mng th MAN Cc cng ngh tng ng vi cc lp trong kin trc phn lp ca mng MAN th h k tip.

Hnh 3.2. Cc cng ngh ng dng trong lp truyn ti ca mng MAN Lp truyn ti ca mng MAN th h k tip bao gm cc phn lp 1, 2, 3 trong kin trc phn lp trn. Ti phn lp 3 cc cng ngh ng dng l IP, MPLS v hin nay ang xy dng GMPLS, phn lp 2 cc cng ngh ng dng l RPR, Gigabit Ethernet, phn lp 1 cc cng ngh ng dng l NG-SDH, DWDM. Sau y ta s xem xt v nh gi cc cng ngh ny.

3.2. Cc cng ngh ng dng phn lp 3


3.2.1. Cng ngh IP y l cng ngh rt ph bin hin nay do vy trong n ny ch nu mt s kin thc c bn, u nhc im chnh ca cng ngh. IP l thnh phn chnh ca kin trc ca mng Internet. Trong kin trc ny, IP ng vai tr lp 3. IP nh ngha c cu nh s, c cu chuyn tin, c cu nh tuyn v cc chc nng iu khin mc thp (ICMP). Gi tin IP gm a ch ca bn nhn; a ch l mt s duy nht trong ton mng v mang y thng tin cho vic chuyn gi tin ti ch. C cu nh tuyn c nhim v tnh ton ng i ti cc nt trong mng. Do vy, c cu nh tuyn phi c cp nht cc thng tin v topo mng, thng tin v nguyn tc chuyn tin (nh trong BGP) v n phi c kh nng hot ng trong mi trng mng gm nhiu nt. Kt qu tnh ton ca c cu nh tuyn c lu trong cc SVTH: Nguyn Th Trng - 32 -

Mng th MAN bng nh tuyn (routing table) cha thng tin v chng tip theo c th gi gi tin ti hng ch. Da trn cc bng nh tuyn, c cu nh tuyn chuyn mch cc gi IP hng ti ch. Phng thc nh tuyn truyn thng l theo tng chng mt, cch ny, mi nt mng tnh ton bng nh tuyn mt cch c lp. Phng thc ny, do vy yu cu kt qu tnh ton ca phn nh tuyn ti tt c cc nt phi nht qun vi nhau. S khng thng nht ca kt qu s dn ti vic chuyn gi tin sai hng, iu ny ng ngha vi vic mt gi tin. Kiu nh tuyn theo tng chng hn ch kh nng ca mng. V d, vi phng thc ny, nu cc gi tin chuyn ti cng mt a ch m i qua cng mt nt th chng s c truyn qua cng mt tuyn ti im ch. iu ny khin mng khng th thc hin mt s chc nng khc nh nh tuyn theo ch, theo loi dch v Tuy nhin, bn cnh , phng thc nh tuyn v chuyn tin ny nng cao tin cy cng nh kh nng m rng ca mng. Giao thc nh tuyn ng cho php mng phn ng li vi s c bng vic thay i tuyn khi router bit c s thay i v topo mng thng qua vic cp nht thng tin v trng thi kt ni. Vi cc phng thc nh CIDR (Classless Interdomain Routing), kch thc ca bng nh tuyn c duy tr mc chp nhn c, v do vic tnh ton nh tuyn u do cc nt t thc hin, mng c th c m rng m khng cn thc hin bt k mt thay i no. Tm li, IP l mt giao thc c tin cy v kh nng m rng cao. Tuy nhin, vic iu khin lu lng rt kh thc hin do phng thc nh tuyn theo tng chng. Ngoi ra, IP cng khng h tr cht lng dch v m ch vi s c gng ti a. 3.2.2. Cng ngh MPLS Chuyn mch nhn a giao thc (Multiple-Protocol Label Switching - MPLS) l cng ngh nh tuyn/chuyn tip mi nht cho mng ng trc Internet, mang li mt gii php tch hp thng sut vic iu khin nh tuyn lu lng IP vi s n gin ca chuyn mch lp 2. Trong cc mng nh tuyn truyn thng, cc gi IP di chuyn qua mt lot cc router thng qua c ch nh tuyn theo tng chng (hop-byhop) c hiu qu thp, thi gian nh tuyn chm. MPLS ban u c pht trin ci thin tc chuyn tip gi ca router. Nn tng ca MPLS l pht sinh ra cc

SVTH: Nguyn Th Trng - 33 -

Mng th MAN nhn c chiu di c nh v ngn gn th hin a ch mng lp 3 ca mt gi. Tt c cc quyt nh chuyn mch hay chuyn tip trn gi da trn cc nhn ny. MPLS thay th nh tuyn gi bng chuyn mch gi. N da trn thc t qu trnh nh tuyn gi phi thc hin hai vic l phn tch mo u v la chn bc tip theo. Chc nng u s chia tp hp cc gi c phn mo u tng ng vo cc lp chuyn tip tng ng (FEC Forwarding Equivalence Classes). Chc nng sau s ghp ni mi FEC v bc chuyn tip. MPLS thm vo gi IP mt nhn router u vo. Nhn trong MPLS l mt s c di c nh v khng ph thuc vo lp mng. Nh b chuyn mch/router thc hin chuyn tip trc tip nhanh chng gi n ch. Ti router/chuyn mch u ra nhn c g b. MPLS s dng c ch hon i nhn nh ca ATM tng tc truyn gi tin m khng cn thay i cc giao thc nh tuyn ca IP. N tch chc nng ca IP router ra lm hai phn ring bit: chc nng chuyn gi tin v chc nng iu khin. Phn chc nng chuyn gi tin, vi nhim v chuyn gi tin gia cc IP router, s dng c ch hon i nhn tng t nh ca ATM. K thut hon i nhn v bn cht l vic tm nhn ca mt gi tin trong mt bng cc nhn xc nh tuyn ca gi v nhn mi ca n. Vic ny n gin hn nhiu so vi vic x l gi tin theo kiu thng thng, v do vy ci thin kh nng ca thit b. Phn chc nng iu khin ca MPLS bao gm cc giao thc nh tuyn lp mng vi nhim v phn phi thng tin gia cc LSR, v th tc gn nhn chuyn thng tin nh tuyn thnh cc bng nh tuyn cho vic chuyn mch. MPLS l mt cng ngh c chun ho, cc giao thc tng tc m bo tnh tng thch gia cc thit b ca cc nh sn xut khc nhau. Cc thit b mng u c thng mi ha, cho nn gi thnh h thng tng i thp. MPLS h tr nhiu cu hnh mng: MPLS h tr bt c cu hnh mng (Ring, Star, Mix) cho php s dng cc giao din GE, POS, 10 GB quang, c kh nng thit lp cc ng kt ni ring gia hai nt bt k vi nhiu tc khc nhau khng i hi cng tc trn cc tuyn to kh nng cu hnh mng mm do, linh hot.

SVTH: Nguyn Th Trng - 34 -

Mng th MAN MPLS l mt trong nhng cng ngh tin tin nht c nhiu li im trong phi k n mt s tnh nng quan trng nh Traffic Engineering, MPLS- VPN, OAM, Billing, Accounting, kh nng phc hi mng khi c li (< 50 ms), v.v N c bit thch hp cho vic trin khai cc mng truyn s liu chuyn dng v mng ni . Tm li MPLS kt hp c kh nng chuyn mch tc cao ca ATM v tnh thng minh, linh hot ca IP.

Chuyn mch gi

Chuyn mch knh

IP

MPLS

ATM

nh tuyn gi tin

Hon i nhn

Hnh 3.3. S hi t ca MPLS Gi tin chuyn n lp MPLS s c gn mt nhn nhm phn loi thng tin vn chuyn l thoi/video/s liu cc gi tin s c x l u tin khc nhau.

Hnh 3.4. Cu trc khung ca MPLS Phn mo u MPLS (label shim) c th gm mt hoc nhiu nhn, mi nhn gm bn trng: Label (20 bit): ni dung nhn.

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Mng th MAN Exp (3 bit): cp dch v, cung cp ti a 8 cp dch v khc nhau, tuy nhin hin ti mi ch dng 3 cp : c gng ti a (best effort), nhim v ti hn (mission critical) v thi gian thc (real time). Site A-1

S (1 bit): c nh du kt thc nhn nu S=1. TTL (8 bit): thi gian tn ti ca gi tin. Mng MPLS gm hai phn: bin v li vi chc nng ring bit: Li: Chuyn mch nhn v chuyn gi. Bin: X l gi, dn nhn v nh tuyn
Site A-2 CEA2 Site B2
OSPF Routing

CEA1 LSR LS R LER

Site B1

Static Routes

CEB2 Site A-3 E-BGP

LER

CEA3

CEB1 RIP Site C1


CEC1

LSR

LSR

LER

CEB3

CE C2

Site C2

Site B3

Hnh 3.5. Topo mng MPLS gm b nh tuyn bin LER (Laber Edge Router) c tch hp cc giao thc nh tuyn v b nh tuyn li LSR (Laber Switch Router) thc hin chc nng chuyn mch nhn gi tin.

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Mng th MAN

Hnh 3.6. Nhim v ca cc node mng MPLS Nhn ngoi cng ca gi tin MPLS s c LSR phn tch chn mt trong ba tc v sau: Tro i hay thay nhn mi (swap); Ly nhn ra (pop); Thm nhn vo (push). Tc v push s cng thm nhn vo pha trc ca chng nhn (encapsulating) mt phn cp mi c to ra cho php gi tin MPLS c nh tuyn theo c ch phn cp (hierarchical routing).

SVTH: Nguyn Th Trng - 37 -

Mng th MAN Tc v pop s tch nhn ngoi cng khi gi tin (decapsulating). Trng hp nhn cui cng trn chng nhn c bc th gi tin s ri khi tuyn ngm MPLS. C s s liu nhn c cp nht ti mi phn t mng s quyt nh tc v no c thc hin trn c s ni dung ca nhn.

Hnh 3.7. C ch chuyn gi tin C ch thit lp LSP s dng giao thc LDP Mc ch: trao i thng tin lin kt nhn cho cc FEC gia cc phn t mng MPLS. Nguyn tc thc hin: da trn giao thc nh tuyn c sn hoc giao thc phn phi nhn chuyn dng LDP (Label Distribution Protocol) theo nguyn tc ngang hng (peers) v song hng (bi-directional).

Hnh 3.8. C ch cp pht nhn Phn t mng c yu cu cp nhn cho FEC (ch n) no s gi bn tin yu cu nhn n phn t mng k cn. Phn t mng k cn cp pht gi tr trng Label SVTH: Nguyn Th Trng - 38 -

Mng th MAN IN cho phn t mng trc. Phn t mng trc cp nht gi tr nhn vo trng Label OUT ng vi ch n tng ng.

Hnh 3.9. C ch cp nht nhn LSP to mi lin kt nhn vo v ra gia cc phn t mng to tuyn chuyn ti lu lng thng sut t ngun n ch.

SVTH: Nguyn Th Trng - 39 -

Mng th MAN

Hnh 3.10. C ch to tuyn lu lng thng sut C ch thit lp LSP s dng giao thc RSVP. Khi mt node mng cn gi thng tin, n s dng giao thc RSPV gi i bn tin yu cu thit lp ng ti node mng ch, mng ch s p tr bn tin nu tt c cc node mng trn ng i ca bn tin p ng c cc yu cu v bng thng, cp dch v. Nh vy mt LSP c thit lp v tt c cc node mng trn LSP u bit c ni dung v yu cu ca bn tin. Nhn xt v MPLS C th tm tt nhng u nhc im ca MPLS trong mt s ni dung chnh sau: u im ca MPLS l: Kin trc n gin, tc x l nhanh, gii quyt c vn phc tp v kh nng m rng mng. Thch ng vi hu ht cc giao thc lp 2 hin nay nh: ATM, Frame Relay, PPP, HDLC, RPR, Ethernet... do vy khi u t mng MPLS vn tn dng c c s h tng mng hin c. So vi ATM, MPLS khng cn n cc giao thc iu khin bo hiu hay chuyn mch t bo phc tp, kch thc gi MPLS ln hn nhiu so vi t bo ATM nn gim ng k mo u. Mc khc, MPLS duy tr c chc nng kim sot lu lng v iu khin ngoi bng nh ATM. SVTH: Nguyn Th Trng - 40 -

Mng th MAN u im ca MPLS so vi IP l kh nng iu khin lu lng v h tr kim sot cht lng dch v (cao hn DiffServ, thp hn ATM) nh vic to ng o trc khi truyn v phn cp dch v da vo trng Exp trong mo u khung MPLS. MPLS c th cung cp cc dch v vi cc cp cht lng tho thun t c gng ti a cho n dch v thi gian thc . Nh vy cng ngh MPLS p ng c tt c yu cu ra cho mt mng MAN th h k tip: cung cp tt c cc dch v trn mt c s h tng mng, c kh nng tn dng c s h tng mng hin ti khi u t mi, cung cp c cc hp ng tho thun v cp dch v, cung cp dch v vi bng thng rng, tc cao. Do MPLS c la chn cho mng MAN th h k tip. Nhc im ca MPLS: H tr a giao thc s dn n cc vn phc tp trong kt ni. Kh thc hin h tr QoS xuyn sut. Vic hp nht cc knh o ang cn tip tc nghin cu. Gii quyt vic chn t bo s chim nhiu ti nguyn b m hn.

SVTH: Nguyn Th Trng - 41 -

Mng th MAN 3.2.3. Cng ngh G-MPLS Vi s bng n nhu cu lu lng trong nhng nm gn y, mng quang c xem l gii php hu hiu p ng nhu cu. Cc h thng SDH, WDM v cc thit b u ni cho OXC cng pht trin mnh m nhm tng dung lng v phm vi mng. Mng iu khin quang c thit k nhm n gin ha, tng tnh p ng v mm do trong vic cung cp cc phng tin trong mng quang. MPLS tr thnh m hnh nh tuyn mi cho mng IP. G-MPLS l s m rng ca MPLS nhm hng ti mng iu khin quang cho mng quang. G-MPLS m rng kh nng nh tuyn lp s liu n mng quang, cho php mng truyn ti v mng s liu hot ng nh mt mng ng nht. G-MPLS cng ha hn s mng li cht lng dch v tt hn v thit k lu lng trn Internet, mt xu hng hin ti v cng l mc tiu chnh ca bt c nh cung cp dch v no. S pht trin MPLS thnh G-MPLS m rng giao thc bo hiu (RSVPTE, CR-LDP) v giao thc nh tuyn (OSPF-TE. IS-IS-TE). Cc m rng ny gm cc c tnh mng quang v TDM/SONET. Giao thc qun l tuyn l mt giao thc mi qun l v bo dng trng iu khin v mt s liu gia hai nt ln cn. LMP l gio thc da trn IP bao gm c cc m rng i vi RSVP-TE v CRLDP. G-MPLS c m rng t MPLS, tuy nhin trong khi MPLS hot ng trong mng s liu th G-MPLS c ng dng trong mng iu khin, thc hin qun l kt ni cho mng s liu gm c chuyn mch gi, chuyn mch knh (nh TDM, chuyn mch bc sng v chuyn mch si). G-MPLS mng li hiu nhiu li ch ni bt, th hin c th trong cc vn sau: Thit k lu lng qua lp. Tch hp bo vic khi phc v bo v. Cung cp dch v nhanh chng. Tng li nhun.

SVTH: Nguyn Th Trng - 42 -

Mng th MAN Bn cnh nhng u im vt tri ca G-MPLS mang li so vi cc phng thc iu khin hin ti, n cng bc l mt s vn cn c b sung nh: An ton bo mt trong mng, phi hp hot ng gia cc mng.

3.3. Cc cng ngh ng dng phn lp 2


3.3.1. Cng ngh RPR Tng quan v RPR RPR (Resilient Packet Ring) hay IEEE 802.17, giao thc lp MAC ang c chun ha bi IEEE, l gii php cho vn bng n nhu cu kt ni tc cao v chi ph thp trong khu vc thnh ph. Bng cch ghp thng k gi IP truyn trn h tng vng si quang, c th khai thc hiu qu dng vng quang v tn dng u im truyn gi nh Ethernet. Khi c li node hay lin kt xy ra trn vng si quang, RPR thc hin chuyn mch bo v thng minh i hng lu lng i xa khi ni b li vi tin cy t ti thi gian nh hn 50ms. RPR s dng vng song hng gm hai si quang truyn ngc nhau, c hai vng ng thi c s dng truyn gi d liu v iu khin. RPR cho php nh cung cp dch v gim chi ph thit b phn cng cng nh thi gian v chi ph ca vic gim st mng. Trong RPR khng c khi nim khe thi gian, ton b bng thng c n nh cho lu lng, RPR ghp thng k v phn phi cng bng bng thng cho cc node trn vng trnh tc nghn c th mang li li ch hn nhiu so vi vng SDH/SONET da trn ghp knh phn chia theo thi gian. RPR l giao thc lp MAC vn hnh lp 2 ca m hnh OSI, n khng nhn bit lp 1 nn c lp vi truyn dn nn c th lm vic vi WDM, SDH hay truyn dn da trn Ethernet (s dng GBIC Gigabit Interface Converter). Ngoi ra, RPR i t thit b a lp n dch v mng thng minh lp 3 nh MPLS. MPLS kt hp thit b bin mng IP lp 3 vi thit b lp 2 nh ATM, Frame Relay. S kt hp tin cy v kh nng phc hi ca RPR vi u im qun l lu lng v kh nng m rng ca MPLS VPN v MPLS TE c xem l gii php xy dng MAN trn th gii hin nay.

SVTH: Nguyn Th Trng - 43 -

Mng th MAN Mt s k thut trong RPR Spatial reuse: y l mt trong nhng c trng quan trng ca giao thc RPR, dng li khng gian cho php tng cng lu lng hot ng trn Ring, nng cao hiu qu mng. iu ny thc hin c bng cch ch cho php node mng ngun chuyn lu lng ti node mng ch trn on mng gia hai node, cc node mng v on mng khc trn Ring vn hot ng bnh thng.

Hnh 3.11. C ch Spatial Reuse Hnh trn cho thy c ch dng li khng gian, trong Ring FDDI, Token Ring lu lng gi t S1 ti S3 s chy vng quanh trn ton Ring, tng t nh vy i vi lu lng t S3 ti S4. Nhng trong mng RPR, lu lng gi t S1 ti S3 s ch chy trn on mng t Si-S2-S3, tng t nh vy i vi lu lng t S3 ti S4. Nh vy bng thng c s dng rt hiu qu, nhng phn tch lu lng mng MAN gn y cho thy c ti 80% lu lng lu li trn mng, k thut dng li khng gian em li nhng li ch rt to ln.

SVTH: Nguyn Th Trng - 44 -

Mng th MAN Cn bng lu lng K thut ny nhm gia tng bng thng ca mt node mng, nng cao hiu qu mng, thc hin bng cch cn bng lu lng node ngun ti node ch trn c hai hng m khng cn cng tc .

Hnh 3.12. C ch cn bng lu lng Fairness y l c ch quan trng trong RPR, dng iu khin lu lng.

Hnh 3.13. C ch Fairness trong RPR Ring

SVTH: Nguyn Th Trng - 45 -

Mng th MAN Hnh trn m t c ch Fairness: ban u tt c cc node u truyn vi tc cao nht, ti mt thi im node 1 b nghn do vy cn cc node mng khc gim tc truyn, lc ny thut ton Fairness c s dng lm cho cc node 4,5,6 gim tc truyn xung ph hp trong khi hai node 2,3 khng lin quan g n s c ny vn tip tc truyn vi tc cao nht. Bo v v phc hi lu lng y l c ch ni bt ca RPR cho php bo v v phc hi lu lng t ng khi cp t. C hai c ch bo v l Wrap v Steer.

Hnh 3.14. C ch Wrap v Steer Hnh trn cho thy lu lng gi t S2 ti S4, khi lu lng ti S3 mi pht hin t cp do vy lu lng s vng tr li, l Wrap. Cn trong trng hp khi pht hin

SVTH: Nguyn Th Trng - 46 -

Mng th MAN li trc khi truyn th lu lng s c truyn theo hng ngc li ngay, l Steer. Cu trc khung v hot ng ca RPR

Hnh 3.15. Cu trc khung ca RPR DA: di 1-6 byte ch a ch MAC node mng ch, n khng i khi truyn trn mng. iu khc vi cng ngh Ethernet, ni m a ch MAC thay i khi qua mi thit b lp 2. SA: di 1-6 byte ch a ch MAC ngun, n khng i khi truyn trn mng. iu khc vi cng ngh Ethernet, ni m a ch MAC ngun thay i khi qua mi thit b lp 2. Payload type: di 2 byte ch dng khung c ng trong trng Payload l IP, IPX, MPLS, VLAM, MPEG, TDM CES, ATM hay Ethernet. Hai dng payload mi c b sung l TDM frames v MPEG, vic ng gi trc tip cc khung trn vo khung RPR m khng cn phi ng gi trc qua ATM cell, Ethernet frames hay IP packets s tit kim mo u gi v tng tnh hiu qu ca dch v. CoS (Class of Service): di 3 bit ch lp dch v cung cp, nh ngha ti 8 lp dch v bao gm: hng gii quyt (expedited forwarding), 6 cp hng m bo AF1-AF6 (assured forwarding) v c gng ti a (best effort). S lp dch v ny cng tng ng vi s lp dch v ca IP DiffServ, VLAN CoS v MPLS CoS, iu

SVTH: Nguyn Th Trng - 47 -

Mng th MAN cho php qun l cht lng dch v xuyn sut u cui ti u cui (end-toend). E (Extension bit): bit m rng dnh cho tng lai. TTL: di 1 byte quy nh thi gian tn ti ca khung tin, c qua mt node mng th TTL gim i 1 n v, nhm trnh khung tin lp vng khi node ngun v node ch ri khi mng khi gi tin c gi i. Flow ID: di 20 bit nh dng lung, sp xp cc kt ni o t u vo n u ra ca Ring RPR. N cho php cung cp dch v hng kt ni nh TDM hay Leased lines qua mng chuyn mch gi. N cho php cung cp cc hp ng tho thun cp dch v c kh nng o c, kim tra v tnh cc. Nh vy cng ngh RPR cho php cung cp cc dch v tho thun cp dch v cho cc cng ngh lp trn nh IP, MPLS. Header error check: di 2 byte ch kim tra li trong header m khng quan tm n li trong Payload. Trong mng Ethernet, bt k mt gi no b li cng b loi ngay, tuy nhin trong mng RPR phn Payload c th cha khung ting ni TDM, mt li trong khung TDM khng phi l qu quan trng trong khi nu b khung TDM s gy ra vn ln vi knh. Vic c thm trng HEC cho php RPR xc nh li trong phn mo u, nu c li th vic x l khung s tu thuc vo Payload type. Payload: di 1.500 n 10.000 byte cha d liu ngi dng chng hn nh: IP,IPX, MPEG, TDM hay cc loi khc. CRC: di 4 byte ch trng kim tra li, khc vi Ethernet trng ny ch kim tra li trong Payload. Khi node mng RPR nhn khung tin n s c 3 phng thc x l: N extracts khung tn nu a ch MAC ch trng vi a ch ca n v nhn dng vng ph hp. N drop khung tin nu thi gian sng ca khung tin TTL ht hoc a ch MAC ngun v nhn dng vng trng vi MAC ngun v vng ca n. Cc trng hp cn li n forward khung tin li Ring, sau khi quyt nh forward khung tin li Ring khung tin s c gi vo hng i. Nu khung tin c quyn u tin cao n s c xp vo hng s cp PTQ (primary

SVTH: Nguyn Th Trng - 48 -

Mng th MAN transit queue), nu quyn u tin thp n s c xp vo hng th cp STQ (secondary transit queue). ng dng RPR Mng hon ton RPR:

Hnh 3.16. Mng hon ton RPR Mng RPR, MPLS/SONET, DWDM:

Hnh 3.17. Mng RPR, MPLS over SONET, DWDM SVTH: Nguyn Th Trng - 49 -

Mng th MAN 3.3.2. Cng ngh 10 Gigabit Ethernet Cc tiu chun 10 Gigaibit Ethernet Theo m hnh lin kt cc h thng m ca t chc tiu chun quc t (OSI), Ethernet l giao thc lp 2. 10 Gigabit Etherner s dng giao thc iu khin truy nhp ng Ethernet IEEE 802.3, tiu chun ny s nh dng cu trc khung, tc v khong cch truyn tng ng. Trong thit b h tr cng ngh Ethernet lp vt l (PHY) kt ni gia phng tin truyn dn (Cp quang hoc cp ng) vi lp MAC (tng ng lp 2). Kin trc Ethernet chia PHY thnh PMD v PCS, v d nh truyn dn quang l PMD, PCS bao gm cc chc nng m ho, ghp knh v xp hng. Chun 802.3ae c bit nh ngha hai dng PHY: LAN PHY v WAN PHY.

Hnh 3.18. Cu trc LAN v WAN PHY Giao din chip S thay i ca 10 Gigabit Ethernet Task Force l giao din XAUI. XAUI c thit k nh mt giao din m (mt v d l giao din XGMII), XGMII l giao din m

SVTH: Nguyn Th Trng - 50 -

Mng th MAN rng ti 74 tn hiu (32bit ng d liu), c th s dng nh km Ethernet MAC vo lp vt l PHY, y l giao din m gia MAC v PCS.

Hnh 3.19. Chc nng XAUI nh l giao din m gia MAC v PCS XAUI c mc cng sut thp, bus chui t ng c pht trin t Gigabit Ethernet 1000BASE-X PHY. Tc ca giao din XAUI gp 2,5 ln 1000BASE-X, vi vic sp xp 4 chui lanes giao din cho php h tr thng lng gp 10 ln. XAUI s dng m truyn dn 8B/10B nh 1000BASE-X truyn qua cp ng. Mt s u im truyn thng ca XAUI l: nhiu in t EMI thp, khong cch truyn ln, pht hin v cch ly li, cng sut thp v c kh nng tch hp u vo v u ra XAUI trong mt qu trnh x l CMOS. Mt mc tiu quan trng ca ng dng XAUI l kt ni trc tip MAC vi lp vt l v ti module truyn dn quang, XAUI xut mt nh dng module quang cm 10 Gigabit l XGP.

SVTH: Nguyn Th Trng - 51 -

Mng th MAN ng truyn vt l c lp PMD Chun IEEE 802.3ae Task Force (tc v bt buc) pht trin mt d tho v vic h tr khong cch kt ni ti lp vt l s dng cp quang nh bng sau:

Hnh 3.20. Khong cch truyn dn h tr bi PMD Lp vt l LAN PHY v WAN PHY hot ng da trn PMD v h tr cng khong cch nh trong PMD. Lp vt l PHY c c trng bi m ho vt l lp con PCS.

Hnh 3.21. Biu ca PMD v PHY Nhm cnh tranh vi mng WAN hin ti, 10 Gigabit Ethernet WAN PHY h tr kt ni vi mng SDH/SONET hin ti. WAN PHY khc vi LAN PHY ch n gn khung SONET/SDH vo lp con giao din WAN (WIS). Do tc ng ca SONET OC-192/SDH-64 ch l mt phn nh ca 10 Gbps do vy s rt n gin

SVTH: Nguyn Th Trng - 52 -

Mng th MAN cho lp MAC x l tc LAN PHY 10 Gbps hoc ti trng ca WAN PHY tc xp x 9,2 Gbps. WAN PHY s dng PDM cung cp truy nhp ti kin trc SONET, cho php cng ngh chuyn mch gi IP/Ethernet truy nhp ti kin trc SONET/SDH v TDM. C ngha l c th s dng cng ngh SONET/SDH lp 1 cho mng backbone WAN Ethernet. Mt iu quan trng l Ethernet duy tr mt giao thc kt ni cn ng b. nh thi v ng b trong 10 Gigabit Ethernet c duy tr trong tng k t trong dng bit d liu, cc hub, switch, router nhn tn hiu s ti nh thi v ng b d liu. Tng phn li, giao thc ng b (bao gm c SONET/SDH) yu cu mi thit b phi chia s cng mt ng h h thng nhm trnh trt ng b gia thit b truyn v nhn tn hiu. WAN PHY lin kt switch v router vi mng SONET/SDH hoc mng quang, iu cho php m rng cc lin kt Ethernet trn cc mng nh trn. Tuy nhin hai router s c x nh chng c kt ni trc tip vi nhau qua cc lin kt Ethernet n. Khng cn c cc thit b bridges hoc b m, cc h thng qun l lu lng IP cho cc dch v khc nhau hot ng trn 10 Gigabit Ethernet s lin kt hai router. Nhm qun l cc lin kt 10 Gigabit Ethernet m rng, WAN PHY cung cp hu ht cc thng tin qun l SONET/SDH trong WIS, cho php cc nh qun l mng coi lin kt Ethernet WAN PHY nh lin kt SONET/SDH. WIS hot ng gia 64B/66B PCS v PMD. ng dng 10 Gigabit Ethernet trong mng MAN. Ethernet 10 Gigabit cho cc mng vng th (MAN) c trin khai nh mt cng ngh xng sng cho cc mng th. Vi cc giao din Ethernet 10 Gigabit thch hp nh my thu pht v tuyn quang v si quang singlemode, cc nh cung cp dch v mng v Internet c kh nng xy dng cc lin kt rng ti 40 km hay hn na bao quanh cc vng th vi cc mng tri rng trn ton thnh ph. u im ni bt ca 10 Gigabit Ethernet l c kh nng chuyn cc gi tin t cc server qua cc cng Gigabit Ethernet quang khong ngn, qua mng DWDM v ti

SVTH: Nguyn Th Trng - 53 -

Mng th MAN cc PC qua cc connector BNC m khng cn phi qua bt k mt s chuyn i giao thc hay nh li khung no.

Hnh 3.22. ng dng 10 Gigabit Ethernet trong mng MAN 10 Gigabit Ethernet ang l mt cng ngh ng trc ha hn cho mng MAN th h k tip. Ngoi ra 10 Gigabit Ethernet cn cung cp kin trc c bn cho cc mng lu tr lin kt NAS v mng lu tr vng SAN.

Hnh 3.23. ng dng 10 Gigabit Ethernet trong mng SAN

SVTH: Nguyn Th Trng - 54 -

Mng th MAN

3.4. Cc cng ngh ng dng phn lp 1


3.4.1. Cng ngh NG SDH Tng quan v NG-SONET/SDH SONET/NG th h k tip l thut ng ch mt cng ngh k tha v pht trin da trn nhng tiu chun hnh thnh t mng SONET/SDH nhm h tr tt hn cc dch v chuyn mch gi nh Ethernet, RPR, Fiber Channel bn cnh cc dch v vin thng chuyn mch knh truyn thng. ng thi SONET/SDH th h k tip truyn d liu vi bng thng rng, tc cao hn, linh hot trong s dng bng thng, cung cp nhiu cc dch v vin thng hn.

Hnh 3.24. Kin trc ghp knh SONET/SDH gi mt tn hiu Ethernet, RPR trc tip ti thit b ghp knh xen r SONET/SDH truyn thng cc thit b u cui ng truyn cn phi lu tr tm thi thnh b nh m v s dng giao thc chuyn i thnh tn hiu c mng SONET/SDH h tr.

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Mng th MAN

Hnh 3.25. S linh hot ca mng NG-SONET/SDH Nhm tit kim chi ph, tn dng ti a c s h tng mng, nng cp mng ln NG-SONET/SDH ch cn thm cc node mng MSSP ti bin mng SONET/SDH truyn thng m khng cn thay th ton b hay chng ln h thng mng hin c. MSSP thc hin cng ngh NG-SONET/SDH da trn cc k thut chnh: Th tc to khung chung GFP, ghp chui o VCAT, giao thc iu chnh dung lng kt ni LCAS.

Hnh 3.26: Hot ng ca mng NG-SONET/SDH

SVTH: Nguyn Th Trng - 56 -

Mng th MAN Mt s k thut trong NG-SONET/SDH Th tc to khung chung GFP K thut ny s dng nhm khc phc s khng ng b, thay i cc chun v thng lng, kch thc khung khi truyn s liu IP/PPP, Ethernet, RPR qua mng SONET/SDH.

Hnh 3.27: Th tc to khung chung GFP GFP ghp mt chui s liu khung c bn vi chui byte bng cch nh x cc dch v khc nhau vo cng mt khung chung, sau c nh x vo cc khung SONET/SDH.

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Mng th MAN

Hnh 3.28: Cu trc khung GFP Khung GFP gm 5 phn chnh: Mo u chnh (core header) chiu di 4 byte nh ngha chiu di khung GFP v sa li CRC. Mo u ti tin (payload header) chiu di 4 byte xc nh loi thng tin c truyn ti, gm vic qun l cc khung hay cc khung thnh phn v ni dung ti. Mo u m rng (extension header) chiu di 0-6 byte dnh cho tu chn ca cc nh sn xut. Ti tin (payload) xc nh ti truyn thc t. Tu chn xc nh li FCS.

SVTH: Nguyn Th Trng - 58 -

Mng th MAN C hai ch cho vic ghp tn hiu thnh phn c nh ngha cho GFP l GFP-F ni mt khung s liu c nh x tng thnh phn ca n vo mt khung GFP v GFP-T ni cc khi m tn hiu s c nh x vo cc khung GFP nh trc. Ch dng ph thuc vo dch v s c truyn. Ghp chui o VCAT Phng php ghp ni theo chun ITU-TG.707 ca cng ngh SONET/SDH truyn thng l phng php ghp ni lin k. Cc container lin k c kt hp li v c truyn qua mng nh mt container ln. Hn ch ca phng php ny l n yu cu tt c cc nt mng u phi c kh nng nhn ra v x l container ln, ng thi tc lung truyn trn ton mng lun gi c nh gy ra lng ph bng thng. Phng php ghp chui o VCAT khc phc trit cc nhc im trn, cc container lin k c nh s v cc nt mng coi cc container thuc v mnh m khng cn c ton b lung thng tin. iu c ngha l tng lin kt c th tch thnh cc tuyn ring khi qua mng.

Hnh 3.29: Ghp chui o VCAT SVTH: Nguyn Th Trng - 59 -

Mng th MAN Thng tin c yu cu cho ghp chui o c truyn qua phn mo u tuyn cho mi container. Cc tham s yu cu trong ghp chui o gm m khung (MFI-frame counter) v nh s th t (SQ-sequence number). Cng ngh NG_SDH/SONET mng li hiu qu sau: Tit kim chi ph pht trin/ vn hnh mng (CapEx/OpEx). Cung cp kh nng chuyn mch knh tc thp VC-2/VT1.5 v tng thch vi giao din RPR, DWWM. Kch thc thit b gn nh, ngun tiu th thp. H tng: tch hp vi mng truyn dn quang hin thi. Ngun tiu th thp. C th thit lp mng DWDM trn mng cp quang hin thi Thit b chim din tch b. C th cung cp nhiu thit b mi trn h tng mng hin c (nh: thoi, Ethernet, truyn s liu, FC). Qun l ton trnh (End-to-End) ti kt ni VC-2/VT1.5 Tha mn yu cu v tc kt ni theo nhu cu khch hng. Chuyn mch knh ton thng (non-blocking) cho lu lng thoi. S dng ghp knh thng k theo cng ngh RPR i vi lu lng s liu. Tn dng ti u u t hin thi

Trin khai dch v nhanh.

Hiu qu s dng bng thng cao.

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Chng 4 MT S GII PHP MNG TH MAN-NGN CA THNH PH H NI


4.1. S lc v mng vin thng hin ti ca Thnh ph H Ni
Mng vin thng hin ti ca Tp H Ni bao gm cc mng PSTN, mng DDN, mng Internet v mng Cityphone, Telex & Gentex Sau y, trong phm vi ca n tt nghip ch kho st vi cc mng PSTN, mng DDN, mng Internet v nhu cu tt yu ca s pht trin mng th th h k tip. 4.1.1. Mng chuyn mch truyn dn truyn thng H thng truyn dn SDH c chia thnh 03 cp: Ring ton mng H Ni 10Gb/s, Ring trc 2,5 Gb/s cho tng vng v cc mng Ring v tinh c tc t 155Mb/s n 622 Mb/s. Tng i VTN (lin tnh, quc t)

Tandem TH

Tandem CG

HOST

HOST

HOST

HOST

HOST

Hnh 4.1. Cu trc mng chuyn mch ca mng vin thng H Ni

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Ring 622 Mb/s

Ring 155 Mb/s

Ring 10 Gb/s

Ring 2.5 Gb/s

Ring 155 Mb/s Ring 155 Mb/s

Ring 622 Mb/s

: Node truyn dn, chuyn mch (tng i Host) : Node truyn dn, chuyn mch (tng i Host) Hnh 4.2. Cu trc mng truyn dn ca vin thng H Ni 4.1.2. Mng truyn s liu Mng truyn s liu ca mng vin thng H Ni bao gm c mng truyn s liu theo cng ngh PCM v mng truyn s liu theo cng ngh ATM c h tr nhiu loi giao din v nhiu tc khc nhau t 9,6Kb/s n 128 Kb/s, nx64Kb/s. Hin nay, vin thng Tp H Ni ang trin khai mng truyn s liu trn nn cng ngh mng xDSL. C th thy rng cc mng truyn s liu hin nay ch yu tp trung vo phc v cc khch hng vi nhu cu bng thng thp hoc trung bnh (t 2Mbps tr xung), vic cung cp kt ni tc cao hn tng i b hn ch bi cng ngh, cu hnh v giao din ca thit b hin c. p ng c cc nhu cu s dng vi bng thng cao nu phn u, bn cnh vic pht trin v khai thc mng truyn s liu hin c vi hiu qu cao nht, vin thng H Ni cn xem xt nghin cu

SVTH: Nguyn Th Trng - 62 -

Mng th MAN trin khai mt h thng mi, s dng cng ngh tin tin, c kh nng p ng c nhu cu ca mng li th trng trong thi gian ti. 4.1.3. Mng Internet Mng Internet ca vin thng H Ni hin ti da trn hai loi hnh chnh: Mng Internet tc thp dnh cho cc thu bao truy nhp bng phng thc Dial up qua mng PSTN, tc ti a 56Kb/s. Mng Internet bng rng dnh cho cc thu bao truy nhp qua mng xDSL vi cc cng ngh ADSL (tc ti a hng xung 8Mb/s, hng ln 640Kb/s), SHDSL (tc ti a c hai hng 4,6Mb/s).
Mng NGN VTN Internet Quc t

BRAS

DSLAM

DSLAM HUB

Mng Internet Dial Up

DSLAM

DSLAM

DSLAM

Hnh 4.3. Mng Internet ca vin thng Tp H Ni

4.2. Nhu cu pht trin ln MAN NGN ca thnh ph H Ni


a bn thnh ph H Ni l trung tm chnh tr - hnh chnh quc gia, trng im v kinh t - vn ha - x hi v l mt trong nhng u mi v khoa hc k thut ca c nc. V vy, tc ng dng cc cng ngh mi trong vin thng cng nh cng ngh thng tin ti H Ni l rt a dng v i hi cht lng cao. Cng ngy, vic s dng mng my tnh lm vic trao i thng tin tr thnh hot ng thng thng ca hu ht cc doanh nghip, trng hc, vin nghin cu Nhu cu truyn s liu tc cao v ang xut hin di nhiu hnh thc, xut pht t nhiu i tng khc nhau nh: SVTH: Nguyn Th Trng - 63 -

Mng th MAN
-

Cc doanh nghip l cc nh khai thc v cung cp dch v thng tin vin thng: Viettel, VNPT, FPT Telecom Cc cng ty, Tng Cng ty ln c nhu cu v kh nng xy dng cc trung tm d liu, trao i thng tin thng xuyn qua mng Ngn hng, bo him, t chc ti chnh,

Cc ta nh cao c hot ng di hnh thc trung tm thng mi, trung tm giao dch, im cho thu vn phng, l cc im tp trung nhiu doanh nghip c cng mt ch th cung cp mt bng v cc dch v c bn nh in, nc , truyn thng

Cc trng i hc, vin nghin cu, cng vin phn mm, trung tm my tnh, trung tm truyn s liu,

Theo knh bn hng truyn thng, dch v truyn s liu c th c cung cp thng ti ngi dng cui cng nh cc trng hc, vin nghin cu, ngn hng, bo him, cng ty thng mi Tuy nhin trong iu kin kinh doanh moiwsdichj v ny cng c th c bn li thng qua cc nh khai thc hoc cung cp dch v khc nh cc doanh nghip vin thng mi, hoc thng qua cc i l bn l dch v nh ch u t ca cc cao c, khch sn, Vin thng H Ni tin hnh iu tra lp danh sch cc doanh nghip (trong c bit quan tm ti cc Ngn hng, trung tm thng mi, cc khch sn, trung tm phn mm), cc trng i hc, cc ta nh vn phng, chung c , trn a bn H Ni. Tng t nh cc doanh nghip ln khc, vin thng H Ni cng c nhu cu s dng mng truyn s liu tc cao kt ni cc trung tm d liu phc v hot ng sn xut kinh doanh ca ni b n v. Do khi lng d liu ln, mc tin hc ha v hm lng k thut ca cng vic cao, nhu cu v bng thng v tin cy ca h thng l rt ln. Tng t nh cc nh cung cp dch v vin thng khc v c bit l sau khi a h thng phn ti v h thng mng ADSL vo hot ng th nhu cu kt ni ng trc a im (cc node chuyn mch ATM vi nhau, cc im Access Server vi POP, cc DSLAM vi DSLAM hub, DSLAM hub vi BRAS) vi tc cao c

SVTH: Nguyn Th Trng - 64 -

Mng th MAN nx100Mbps, thm ch c nx1Gbps l rt ln. Nhu cu ny s cng cao khi cc dch v gi tr gia tng nh Video on Demand, hi ngh truyn hnh Theo nh hng chung ca Tng cng ty BCVTVN, vin thng H Ni ang t chc xy dng cu trc mng NGN Class 4-5 trn a bn H Ni. Mng NGN c h tng thng tin hp nht da trn cc u im ca cng ngh chuyn mch gi, p ng s hi t gia thoi v s liu trin khai cc dch v mt cch a dng v nhanh chng. t c mc tiu ny, mng NGN cn da trn mt nn tng truyn dn chuyn mch gi c bng thng ln c nx1Gbps, tin cy ln, kh nng kt ni linh hot.

4.3. Gii php mng MAN ca mt s nh sn xut


4.3.1. Gii php ca Cisco Gii php mng MAN ca Cisco da trn cc thit b 10700 v 12000 vi cu trc mng 2 lp: Lp Regional Metro v lp Metro Access, c hai u c t chc theo cu trc Ring. Vi quy m trung bnh v nh cc Internet multi-layer switch 10700 c dng c hai lp mng trn. Vi quy m mng ln hn, cc multi-layer switch 12000 c dng lp Regional Metro tng kh nng chuyn ti lu lng. Do cc multi-layer switch ny u c kh nng cross-connect v multi-ring terminal nn chng s lm lun chc nng kt ni 2 lp mng. Ti lp tip cn khch hng ngoi cc thit b switch v router truyn thng vi kh nng cung cp cc giao din 10/100/1000Base-T, FE< GE Cisco cng cung cp cc thit b h LRE cho giao din Ethernet trn nn cng ngh VDSL. Mt nhc im quan trng trong gii php ca Cisco l kh nng cung cp ng thi cc dch v packet v TDM km. cung cp c giao din TDM v Ethernet ti cng mt im , Cisco xut. Chy h thng truyn dn trn cc i si quang ring bit. Chy hai h thng truyn dn trn cng mt i si quang thng qua WDM. Chy thit b RPR/DPT trn nn SDH c sn.

SVTH: Nguyn Th Trng - 65 -

Mng th MAN

Hnh 4.4. Kin trc Ring lp truy nhp

Hnh 4.5. Kin trc Star lp truy nhp

SVTH: Nguyn Th Trng - 66 -

Mng th MAN

Hnh 4.6. Cu trc logic mng Metro ca Cisco Trong cc cu hnh do Cisco a ra Distribution Layer v Core Layer thuc lp mng li MAN (Metro core). 4.3.2. Gii php ca Nortel Gii php mng MAN ca Nortel da trn thit b OPTera vi cu trc mng 2 lp: lp Collector v lp Access. Cc lp dc kt ni thng qua Pasport 8600 routing switch hoc thng qua kt ni trc tip back-to-back bng giao din Ethernet NNI ca cc thit b mng. Lp Collector s dng cng ngh RPR trn Ring SDH vi thit b OPTera 3500 c kh nng cung cp cc dch v TDM, ATM v Ethernet cc giao din STM-1, STM-4, 10/100Base-T, FE, GE. Lp Access c t chc di dng cy phn nhnh hoc Rinh gi to bi cc thit b u ni chui gip vng . Ti lp ny s dng cc thit b OPTera 1200, 1400 v 1450, trong OPTera 1200 (vi cc giao din 10/100Base-T) thch hp cho vic cung cp dch v trong phm vi gn; OPTera 1450 (vi cc giao din FE v SFP GBIC) thch hp cho vic phn phi v tch hp dch v c ly xa hn. OPTera 1400 (vi cc giao din 10/100Base-T v SFP GBIC) nm vo khong trung gian ca 2 thit b trn. Nortel khng sn xut cc thit b tip cn thu bao m da vo cc nh cung cp khc cung cung cc thit b ny. 4.3.3. Gii php ca Siemens Cho ti thi im hin nay, Siemens a ra rt nhiu gii php v cng ngh trong mng MAN, c th k ra cc cng ngh Siemens cung cp nh sau: SVTH: Nguyn Th Trng - 67 -

Mng th MAN Mng Metro da trn cng ngh Ethernet Mng Metro da trn cng ngh SDH th h mi Mng Metro da trn cng ngh RPR v DWDM

i vi mng MAN ca thnh ph H Ni, Siemens c a ra gii php SURPASS hiT cho mng a dch v v tng cng hiu qu ca mng th. SURPASS hiT l gii php mng quang ca Siemens cung cp cc dung lng yu cu ca mng Metro v mng li truyn ti tt c cc dch v vi hiu qu cao nht. N c c trng bi tnh c th phn cp v tch hp lin vi h tng hin ti, do tn dng c u t trc y. H gii php SURPASS hiT bao gm cc gii php v m hnh gim st a dch v vi SURPASS hiT 70xx v gii php v mng ghp knh quang vi SURPASS hiT 7500. V ct li ca cc gii php u nh sau: Cng ngh mng li da trn cng ngh RPR/SDH/Ethernet, cng ngh thng tin gi s dng trn mng li l cng ngh IP. Cng ngh mng truy nhp l nhiu loi cng ngh cng ngh Ethernet. Mt s gii php thit b ca Siemens c kh nng cross-connect v multi-ring nn chng c dng lun lm chc nng kt ni gia 2 lp mng. Gii php thit b SURPASS hiT 7500: Gii php SURPASS hiT 75xx da trn 02 sn phm chnh l SURPASS hiT 7500 v SURPASS hiT 7300. Cc sn phm mng quang trong sut SURPASS c cung cp vi 02 kin trc (platform) h tr truyn ti thng tin vng n thng tin i rt xa v c dung lng cao, kt hp vi cc b OADM c th cu hnh t xa (qua TMN) v kh nng qun l cc ng ni mm do. Thm vo , kin trc SURPASS hiT 7500 v hiT 7300 c xy dng t cu trc module ha c kh nng cho php dch v pht trin n khi kt thc vng i sn phm, dch chuyn dich v t vung n cu trc ng di v s bin i t kin trc im im n kiu mng quang hn hp (mesh) m khng nh hng ti lu lng. nh TDM, ATM,Ethernet, xDSL nhng ch yu tn dng kh nng u vit ca

SVTH: Nguyn Th Trng - 68 -

Mng th MAN SURPASS hiT 7500 v hiT 7300 cng vi s h tr dn knh ca b i knh d liu quang (ODU Optical Channel Data Unit) cung cp cc dch v trong sut hon ton trong khi vn duy kh nng iu khin thng tin cho vic gim st tn hiu v thit b. c tnh ny cc k quan trng cho cc ng dng ca nh khai thc dch v bo v y v thng tin mo u trong sut. SURPASS hiT 7500 v hiT 7300 cung cp y cc b pht p c th iu chnh c v cc b ghp knh v cc c tnh hot ng t ng trn h thng DWDM. Nh vy, gii php SURPASS hiT 75xx v c bn da trn h thng DWDM (ch yu quan tm n cc thit b lp vt l thng tin quang) ch khng phi l gii php thc s thch hp cho cc dch v MAN. Ngoi ra , gii php da trn cng ngh DWDM thc s l cc gii php dnh cho mng c bng siu rng ch khng phi l mng cung cp trc tip dch v bng rng n khch hng. Nh vy, gii php mng SURPASS hiT 75xx khng thch hp vi cc yu cu ca mng MAN trn a bn thnh ph H Ni. Gii php SURPASS hiT 70xx: Gii php SURPASS hiT 70xx l gii php va mng li dung lng cao cho mng th bng rng v mng li va l gii php c th to ra nmangj c th chuyn ti tt c cc loi dch v vi hiu qu cao nht. N c c trng bi tnh phn mc v tch hp lin khi vi mng hin ti, do n tn dng c cc mng li u t trc . Cc sn phm SURPASS hiT 70xx l kin trc hon ton thch hp cho a dch v c gii thiu m cc nh cung cp thit b mng quang trn th trng. N l phn ch cht trong s tin ha t mng hin nay ln mng tch hp vi chi ph tin ha c gim ti thiu. SURPASS hiT 7300 v hiT 7020 thuc v ti sn khch hng phn phi bo m tch bch vi cng ngh SDH a dng dch v kt ni Ethernet v d nh mng Mesh Intranet, cc ng dng kinh doanh video, cc mng lu tr v cc ng dng truy nhp Internet.

SVTH: Nguyn Th Trng - 69 -

Mng th MAN

Hnh 4.7. Cu trc mng Metro ca Siemens Nh vy, gii php mng MAN ca Siemens da trn h thit b Surpass hiT vi cu trc mng phn lp thnh lp Core l lp Access, c hai u c t chc theo cu trc Ring. Lp Core s dng cng ngh RPR, ch yu dng cc Multi Sevice router hiT 70xx l thit b truyn dn a chc nng, h tr cc giao din TDM v RPR. Do cc hiT 7070 c kh nng cross connect v multi ring terminal nn chng s lm lun chc nng kt ni 2 lp mng. Lp Access c t chc di dng Ring, ch yu dng cc Multi Sevice router hiT 7050/7060. Cc hiT 7070/7050 u c kh nng cung cp cc dch v TDM, ATM v Ethernet giao din STM-1, STM-4, 10/100Base-T, FE, GE. Ti lp tip cn khch hng, Siemens a ra gii php dng cng ngh khc da trn cc sn phm hiT 7030/7020.

SVTH: Nguyn Th Trng - 70 -

Mng th MAN

4.3. Cu trc v cc gii php xy dng mng MAN cho vin thng H Ni
4.3.1. Cu trc mng Cn c vo hin trng h thng cp quang nh trm hin c, mng MAN ca vin thng H Ni c t chc theo cc cp chnh: Cp I: T chc theo cc vng cp quang trc hin c trn a bn thnh ph, vi cc node tp trung ch yu t cng v tr vi cc tng i host ca mng in thoi. Cp mng ny to thnh vng ng trc cung cp kt ni gia cc vng phc v khc nhau trn ton thnh ph. Protocol stack trn mng cp I l IP/MPLS/RPR/Fiber. Cp II: T chc theo cc vng cp quang hin c trn a bn thnh ph, vi cc node mng tp trung ch yu t cung v tr vi cc tng i v tinh ca mng in thoi. Cp mng ny cung cp kt ni gia cc im truy nhp trong cng mt vng phc v. Ty theo phn b ca khch hng m t cc node trn cp mng ny c th kt ni trc tip ti lp thit b t ti v tr ca khch hng. Protocol stack trn mng cp II l IP/Ethernet /Fiber. Cp tip cn khch hng: T chc theo cu trc cy kt ni t cc node nm trn cc vng cp II ti v tr ca khch hng. Protocol stack trn mng cp III l IP/Ethernet /(Fiber, Copper, Wireles). Do tnh cht a dng lp vt l qua giao din Ethernet, cc kt ni cp II c th c cung cp thng qua nhiu hnh thc: cp quang, cp din thoi, UTPCat5,Wireless Ty thuc vo mt thu bao ti tng khu vc, khong cch t khu vc ti im cp II gn nht, kh nng t thiu b ti a im ca khch hng v cn c vo cc c tnh k thut ca tng phng thc kt ni, Vin thng H Ni s la chn hnh thc kt ni c th cho tng trng hp nh sau: Phng thc Tc Khong cch UPT-Cat5 100 Mbps ~ 100m Wireless ~ 10 Mbps ~ 100m xDSL Di 100Mpbs Di 3Km Cp quang 1 Gbps ~ 10Km Bng 4.1. Cc hnh thc kt ni

SVTH: Nguyn Th Trng - 71 -

Mng th MAN Do mng cp in thoi (PSTN hoc private PBX) sn sng tt c cc a im ca khch hng tim nng, xDSL s l gii php c u tin cho lp mng cp II. Ty theo nhu cu ca khch hng m c th trin khai nhiu dng xDSL nh: VDSL: im hn ch ca CSDL l tc suy gim nhanh theo khong cch; ng truyn VDSL tc 26 Mb/s ch c th ko di ti khong cch 300m. Trong trng hp t thit b ti a im ca khch hng c PBX, y s l gii php thch hp nht. SHDSL: DSL c tc i xng ti a l 4,6 Mb/s vi khong cch ln ti 3km. Trong trng hp khong cch ti a im khch hng xa hn hoc nhu cu bng thng ngoi kh nng phc v ca xDSL, cp quang s l phng tin chnh tip cn khch hng. Ty theo gii php thit b ca nh cung cp(Shost Reach, Medium Reach, Long Reach) khong cch phc v ca ng truyn quang c th khc nhau nhng ni chung m bo kt ni khch hng trong phm vi phc v ca mt tng i v tinh. Nhc im c bn ca cp quang l i hi u t ln, trong mt s trng hp vic trin khai s gp rt nhiu kh khn do lin quan ti vic o ng, xy dng h thng cng b Cp UTP-Cat5 c s dng chng cui cng tip cn thit b ca khch hng trong mt s tnh hung c th. Nhc im c bn ca cp UTP-Cat5 l khong cch phc v qu ngn, ch thch hp vi trng hp khi thit b cu nh cung cp c t trong a im ca khch hng, tuy nhin n c u im l khng i hi thm mt cp thit b chuyn i, do vy rt thun tin cho vic kt ni. Truy nhp v tuyn cng c th c s dng chng cui cng tip cn thit b ca khch hng, c bit l i vi khch sn, cao c Truy nhp v tuyn c cng nhc im nh UTP-Cat5 song n ph hp vi cc i tng khch hng cao cp c nhu cu s dng u cui di ng. m bo linh hot v ch ng trong vic cung cp dch v, cc thit b outdoor (quang v in) s c u tin xem xt trong qu trnh trin khai mng.

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-

Cc node cp I (lp Core): Nng lc x l ti thiu 128Gbps. IP/MPLS/RPR(10Gbpsx2). Cc node cp II (Lp Aggregation): Sn sng h tr cc giao din IP/1001000BaseT, FE, GE, STM-1. Cp tip cn thu bao (Lp Access): Sn sng h tr cc giao din IP/10100BaseT, FE, xDSL.

4.3.3. Gii php qu xy dng mng MAN-NGN Trong thi gian qu , vn ct li l nh cung cp dch v phi c gii php dung ha gia cc cng ngh, thit b, dch v cung cp n ngi s dng, cc giao din ngi s dng c v mi, m bo hot ng thng sut v khng gy nh hng n ngi s dng. Mt s nguyn tc trong thi gian qu l: Mng phi p ng c cc yu cu v dch v hin ti v cc dch v vin thng th h mi, m bo dch v c cung cp ti khch hng khng b gin on (non stop). m bo c tnh tng thch, kh nng lin thng gia cc mng dng cng ngh c v mi. Mng c cu trc n gin, linh hot v tnh sn sng cao, kh nng tn ti mnh. Vic thay i cu trc mng c tin hnh tng bc, tn dng ht nhng thit b trn mng PSTN, DDN hin c. Trn c s cc nguyn tc ca thi gian qu v nhu cu pht trin mng MAN, vin thng H Ni la chn phng hng xy dng mng li trc v tn dng, ci to dn mng hin c theo hng NGN. nh hng trong thi gian qu : Cc dch v l cc nhn t thc y s tin ha mng. NGN khng n thun l truy nhp bng thng rng nhng n l nhn t thc y cc dch mi to ra li nhun. Dch v thoi trong thi gian ti vn l dch v quan trng em li doanh thu, li nhun cao, v vy mng NGN cn xy dng da trn c dch v thoi mc d v cng ngh thc hin, cung cp dch v thay i.

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4.4. Xy dng mng MAN c th ca vin thng H Ni


Ngoi nhng nguyn tc v nh hng nu trn, theo c th mng vin thng ca thnh ph H Ni c cc vn cn quan tm sau: Mng vin thng H Ni gm nhiu mng ring r nh mng chuyn mch truyn dn cho PSTN, mng DDN dng cng ngh ATM, v PCM, mng Internet vi c hnh thc thu bao bng hp truy nhp qua PSTN ln thu bao bng rng xDSL. Cc dch v c v mi an xen phc tp. tn dng c c s h tng hin c i hi gii php ht sc mm do v c tnh cht thch nghi cao v trn mng hin ti c rt nhiu thit b ca cc hng khc nhau v chuyn mch nh CISCO, Alcatel, NEC, Siemens, Ericsson Tin ha ln NGN khng ch l ch trng n gii php chuyn PSTN ln NGN m cn phi m bo kt hp vi vic xy dng mng core MAN NGN mi kt hp cung cp nhiu loi dch v trong c thoi, d liu Cc loi hnh truy cp cn phi linh hot v m bo thun tin nht cho ngi s dng, ngi s dng khng bt buc phi chuyn i thit b ca h. Nhiu loi hnh truy nhp nh bng hp/ bng rng, truy nhp TDM hay truy nhp IP, truy nhp v tuyn hay truy nhp hu tuyn u phi c h tr v cung cp cho khch hng theo yu cu. Trn c s nhng phn tch nu trn, nh hng ca mng vin thng H Ni s hng ti cu hnh chung tng th ca mng nh sau:

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IP VPN VoIP

Internet BRAS

VPN S ervice
Network Cloud Video Headend

Internet Access S ervice VoIP S ervice


End User DSLAM GE DSLAM

CORE SWITCH METRO CORE


NNI

GE

CORE SWITCH

CORE SWITCH
Access Switch

IPTV/VoD Service

UNI Access Switch Access Switch UNI IP DSLAM UNI IP DSLAM UNI

UNI End User

Customer A

IAD

PC

STB

Small/Medium Bussiness

CPE

Customer B

Hinh 4.8. M hinh mang Metro cua vin thng Ha Ni trin khai theo m hnh nh hng ny, gii php theo tng bc i vi mng vin thng ca thnh ph H Ni nh sau: Xy dng mng li da trn nn IP y chnh l gii php mng MAN H Ni c nu trn. Mng MAN s ng vai tr l mng li v tin ti truyn ti mi lu lng ca cc dch v thoi, d liu pht sinh trn mng vin thng H Ni. N cng ng vai tr nn tng trong vic pht trin cung cp cc gi dch v trn nn IP ti cc khch hng. Mng li IP s da trn ring quang vi cng ngh RPR, lp Acces l cc vng ring cp 2 vi cng ngh Ethernet, ti lp tip cn khch hng c th s dng nhiu loi giao din khc nhau nh xDSL, cp quang, cp xonTrong thi gian u, cc dch v data, truyn s liu, truy nhp Internet bng thng rng s c u tin trin khai trc trn mng li IP ny do c tnh thun li v cng ngh v bn cht dch v d liu. Trong thi gian u xy dng mng li IP, vn ct li l phi c cc gii php nhm m bo QoS ca mng chun b cho cc bc sau. Ti u ha mng PSTN vi vic nng cp cc tng i v kh nng x l v dung SVTH: Nguyn Th Trng - 75 -

Mng th MAN lng phc v, m bo cung cp cc dch v thoi trong thi im hin ti v pht trin trong thi gian ngn trc mt, gim ti a s phn t trn mng. Cc dch v thoi trong thi gian ny vn hot c x l v thc hin trn mng PSTN c lp.

Hnh 4.9. Thit b truy nhp IP cho mng th h sau Pht trin mng truy nhp da trn nhiu loi hnh cng ngh truy nhp t cc loi giao din thu bao c TDM v mi IP, truy cp bng thng rng, truy nhp khng dy ph hp vi nhu cu ca nhiu loi i tng khch hng, tn dng nng lc ca mng li IP. Thi im hin ti, vin thng H Ni mi ch c mng truy nhp qua i dy cp ng thu bao l chnh, mng xDSL vn cn ang trong giai on u pht trin, cha tng xng vi tim nng hin c trn mng, cc mng truy nhp khng dy nh Wifi, Wimax mi ch mi dng th nghim ban u. Khi trin khai bc ny th cc lu lng d liu, lu lng Internet chuyn gn nh hon ton sang mng li IP. Song song vi vic pht trin mng truy nhp l tng bc ti u ha cc lu lng TDM v lu lng gi trn mng. Pht trin cc loi hnh truy nhp mi khc nh cp quang n thu bao, truy nhp khng dy Wimax, Wifi, vin thng H Ni cng cn trin khai th nghim v sm a vo khai thc cung cp dch v n khch hng. Trin khai dn vic chuyn lu lng TDM ln mng li IP bng cc trung k IP. u t cc chuyn mch mm (softswitch) c kh nng NGN hoc cc chuyn mch c ch lm vic kp (c TDM v gi IP) c dung lng cao nhm tin ti a vic pht trin thu bao PSTN mi sang dng IP. Vn cn ch l vic thay SVTH: Nguyn Th Trng - 76 -

Mng th MAN i k t mng truy nhp tr v n mng li d cng ngh c thay i nhng vn phi m bo tnh trong sut dch v i vi khch hng, khch hng vn c th s dng cc thit b u cui vi giao din thu bao c POTS, ISDN, V5.x ng thi trin khai nng cp cc b truy nhp thu bao, trin khai cc node truy nhp a dch v v cc Access gateway, IP trunking nhm tng bc gim ti cho mng PSTN vn thc hin iu khin v chuyn mch cho cc cuc gi thoi ni b ca n, vn lin thng gia mng PSTN c v cc thu bao ca mng gi mi trin khai s c thc hin thng qua cc gateway v cc b chuyn i bo hiu theo cc gii php ca cc hng nu.

Trin khai cc dch v mi trn nn IP, gii thiu cc dch v mi cho cc

thu bao truy nhp trc tuyn IP, cc dch v multimedia. Trin khai cc gi gii php v thit b y dn vic truyn ti, truy nhp da trn cng ngh gi IP tip cn n cng gn khch hng cng tt thun li cho vic trin khai v cung cp dch v ti khch hng. Khi m rng mng gi IP nh vy, mt s thnh phn ca mng PSTN c s b thu gn li hoc b chuyn i, thay th bi cc chuyn mch mm, cc gateway, cc node truy nhp a dch v trn nn IP. T bc ny c th trin khai cc gii php m phng dch v POTS, ISDN da trn nn IP, s thay i v cng ngh cung cp dch v i vi khch hng l trong sut, khch hng khng phi u t hoc thay th cc thit b u cui m vn c th s dng cc dch v truyn thng v hng li cc dch v mi trn nn NGN. Khi trin khai xong bc ny, v c bn mng gi IP hon ton chuyn ti, x l, iu khin dung lng cu cc dch v ang cp nh in thoi, d liu, video. Hon thin mng NGN y , tin ti m phng hon ton cc dch v c trn nn mng cng ngh mi l gi IP. Ton b cc lu lng pht sinh trong mng u c x l, truyn ti di dng gi IP, cc bo hiu cng da trn nn mng gi IP. V kha cnh khch hng, khch hng c th la chn s dng cc thit b u cui c s dng vi cc dch v (lc ny c m phng li trn nn cng ngh mi) hoc mua sm thm/ thay th cc thit b u cui mi truy nhp IP c y cc tnh nng v dch v ca mng NGN.

KT LUN
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Trn y chng I, chng II v chng III nghin cu mt cch tng quan v mng th th h k tip, a ra mt cch tng qut nht v cu trc mng NGN, cc nguyn tc t chc, trin khai mng v mt s cng ngh ng dng cho mng th th h k tip. Xem xt, phn tch cc cng ngh hin i c quan tm nht hin nay ng dng cho mng th. n ny cung cp cc phng thc, gii php trin khai mng th ca cc hng khc nhau nhm nghin cu v tm ra cch thc u t sao cho hiu qu u t l cao nht. Tuy nhin vi s pht trin khng ngng vi tc nhanh ca cng ngh vin thng v cng ngh thng tin i hi cc nh cung cp dch v mng phi thng xuyn cp nht cc cng ngh mng, cc dch v mng mi nht, xy dng mng c tnh m, sn sng p ng nhu cu ca th trng trong tng giai on cnh tranh quyt lit hin nay. Xut pht t nhu cu thc t ti TP H Ni, chng IV em cng tm hiu v nhng gii php mng MAN-NGN cho thnh ph H Ni, nhm p ng c nhu cu hin ti v tng lai, ph hp vi xu hng pht trin ca cng ngh vin thng, cng ngh thng tin hin i. Qua qu trnh thc hin n ny gip em hiu thm v cu trc, cng ngh c s dng ca cc nh cung cp cc dch v vin thng, cng nh hiu hn v m hnh mng th th h k tip v vic ng dng cc cng ngh mi xy dng mng. l nn tng gip em nh hng v tip cn vi cc cng ngh mi nhy bn hn trong tng lai. Trong qu trnh thc hin n khng trnh khi nhng thiu st c v ni dung ln hnh thc, em mong nhn c s ch bo, gp ca qu thy c v bn b n c hon thin hn. Em xin trn trng cm n!

TI LIU THAM KHO

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[1]. Ts. Phm Cng Hng, Bi ging NGN, Trng i hc Bch khoa H Ni [2]. Ts. Trn Cng Hng, Chuyn mch nhn a giao thc MPLS, NXB Thng tin v truyn thng. [3]. Ths. Ng M Hnh, Mng th h sau v tin trnh chuyn i, NXB Bu in. [4]. Ts. Nguyn c Thy, Ths. Hong Vn Bnh, Ks. Phm Hng Nhung, Ks. Phm Tin t (2004), ti nghin cu cc cng ngh v gii php mng MAN quang theo hng NGN ca tng cng ty n nm 2010, Vin Khoa hc K thut Bu in. [5]. Cao Ngc Tin (2009), Mng th MAN v gii php xy dng mng vin thng H Ni, Lun vn thc s khoa hc. [6]. Vin thng H Ni (2008), M rng h thng xDSL Bu in Thnh ph H Ni giai on 2006-2008, Phn mng MAN. [7]. Ti liu gii thiu thit b mng MAN ca cc hng Cisco, Siemens. [8]. Trang Web: www.vnpt.com.vn www.cisco.com www.tapchibcvt.gov.vn www.siemens.com

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