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BY THE SAME AUTHOR.

ST

PAUL S EPISTLE TO THE EPHESIANS.

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ST PAUL S

EPISTLE TO THE EPHESIANS

MACMILLAN AND
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THE MACMILLAN COMPANY


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ATLANTA
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LTD.

ST PAUL S

EPISTLE TO THE EPHESIANS

A.

REVISED TEXT AND TRANSLATION


WITH

EXPOSITION

AND NOTES

BY
J.

ARMITAGE ROBINSON
DEAN OP WESTMINSTER

D.D.

MACMILLAN AND CO., LIMITED ST. MARTIN S STREET, LONDON


1909
All rights reserved
\

First Edition, 1903.

Second Edition, 1904.


faprinted 1907, 1909

AMPLISSIMO

THEOLOGORVM
QVORVM
.

HALLENSIVM

ORDINI

EX
.

DECRETO
.

AD

GRADVM
ANTE
.

DOCTORIS
.

IN
.

SACRA

THEOLOGIA
.

NOVEM
HAS

ANNOS

PROVECTVS
.

SVM

CHARTAS
HAVD
.

TANDEM

IMMEMOR

DEDICO

K<\1

Ovdev

V0-TIV apcivov flprjvrjs, ev

fi

Tras TroXe/xoff /carapyeirai

eVovpavtcov *at eVtvetwv.

IGNATIUS.

eCTIN H

PREFACE.

AN
-^-

English commentator on the Epistle to the Ephesians


finds a portion of the detail of his

work already done

by the master-hand of Bishop Lightfoot in his edition of the companion Epistle to the Colossians. For the discussion of
particular words I have accordingly referred again and again Where I have felt obliged to differ from to Lightfoot s notes.

some of

his interpretations, it

has seemed due to him that

I should state the

ground of the difference with considerable fulness, as for example in more than one of the detached notes :

for

we may not

lightly set aside a

judgment which he has

given.

Lightfoot had himself


;

made

preparations for an edition of

Ephesians but only an introductory Essay and notes on the first fourteen verses have seen the light (Biblical Essays,
pp.

375396

A more

solid contribution to the

Notes on Epistles of St Paul, pp. 307324). study of the epistle is to be

found in Hort s Introductory Lectures (Prolegomena to Romans and Ephesians, pp. 63 184). I have nothing to add to the
discussion of the authorship of this epistle which these lectures
contain.

My

object has been to

crown of St Paul s

expound the epistle, which is the I have separated the exposition writings.

from the philological commentary, in order to give myself greater freedom in my attempt to draw out St Paul s meaning and I have prefixed to each section of the exposition a trans
:

lation

of the Greek

text.

In this translation I have only

viii

PREFACE.
from
the

departed

Authorised Version where that version

appeared to

me

to fail to bring out correctly

and

intelligibly

the meaning of the original. The justification of the renderings which I retain, as well as of those which I modify or reject,

must be sought

in the notes to the

Greek

text.

In order to retain some measure of independence I have refrained from consulting the English expositors of the epistle,

but I have constantly availed myself of

Dr

T. K. Abbott s

work
he

in the International Critical Commentary, since it is as

says

primarily philological

I offer the fruit of a study

which has extended over the

past ten years as a small contribution to the interpretation of St Paul The truth of the corporate life which was revealed
to

him was never more needed than


life

it is

to-day.

Our

failure

to understand his

and message has been

largely

due to our
to enquire
will

acquiescence in disunion.
after the

meaning of

As we rouse ourselves unity, we may hope that he

speak

to us afresh.

Several friends have helped me in seeing this book through the press: I wish to thank in particular the Reverend
J.

0. F. Murray and the Reverend R. B. Rackham.

WESTMINSTER ABBEY,
Feast of the Transfiguration, 1903.

CONTENTS.
EPISTLE TO THE EPHESIANS.
PAGE

INTRODUCTION

TRANSLATION AND EXPOSITION

17

TEXT AND NOTES


On
meanings of The Beloved* as a Messianic
x<*P

141
l*

the

ana x a P lT0 ^ v
title

221

229

in the New On the meaning of On evepyeiv and its cognates On tJie meaning of eTri-yvcoans On the meaning of irKr) papa On the word o-wappoXoyelv On Trwpoxris and Trijpaxris On some current epistolary phrases
p.v<rrr)piov

Testament

234
241

248
255

260
264
275 285

Note on various readings

INDEX OF GREEK WORDS


INDEX OF SUBJECTS

305
311

INTRODUCTION.

sT PAUL

was in Rome

not, as

he had once hoped, on a

St Paul in

encouragement to the Roman Christians, with them for a few weeks before he passed on to resting preach to new cities of the further West; not in the midst
friendly visit of

Home

of his missionary career, but at its close.


:

His active work was

practically done a brief interval of release might permit him to turn eastwards once again but to all intents and purposes
;

was a prisoner in Rome. To know what had brought him there, and to comprehend his special mission, of which this was in truth no unfitting
his career

was ended.

He

e
*^.

his mis-

climax,

we must

pass in brief review the beginnings of the

Christian story.

Our Lord s earthly life began and ended among a people i. Our I. the most exclusive and the most hated of all the races under ministry 6 the universal Roman rule. But it was a people who had an unparalleled past to look back upon,

and who through centuries of

oppression had cherished an undying hope of sovereignty over all other races in the world. Our Lord s life was essentially a

Jewish

life

in its

outward conditions.

In every

vital point

He

conformed to the traditions of Judaism.

He

Scarcely ever did set foot outside the narrow limits of the Holy Land, the

area of which was not

much

larger than that of the county of

Yorkshire or the principality of Wales.


tion

With hardly an excep

He

was not

confined His teaching and His miracles to Jews. He He said, but unto the lost sheep of the house of sent,
2

EPHES.

2
Israel.

EPISTLE TO THE EPHESIANS.

He gave hints of a larger mission, of a universal kingdom, of becoming in His own person founding the centre of the human race. But the exclusive character of
It is true that

His personal ministry stood in sharp contrast to those wider hopes and prophecies. He incessantly claimed for His teaching
that
it

was the

filling

out and perfecting of the sacred lessons

and prophets of the past. He seemed content to identify Himself with Hebrew interests and Hebrew aspira tions. So it was from first to last. He was born into a Jewish
of the lawgivers
family, of royal lineage,
it

though in humble circumstances and was as a Jewish pretender that the Romans nailed Him to
;

a
2.

cross.
2.

The

The

little

brotherhood which was formed in Jerusalem


strictly limited

Church
witlTthe

to carry
i*1

on His work after His Ascension was as

^ ne s P nere of its efforts as

He

Himself had been.

It

was

same

limi-

composed entirely of Jews,


from the national unity,
the national temple. It within the Jewish Church.

who in no way cut themselves off and who were zealous worshippers in was a kind of Reformation movement

Jews, and

It sought for converts only among retained its members for the most part probably at the national centre in the expectation of the speedy return of Jesus as the recognized national Messiah, who should break
it

the

Roman power and

rule a conquered world from the throne

of David in Jerusalem.

A popular
merit,

how long this lasted: perhaps about five we know that during this period a long one in But years. the childhood of a new society the Apostles and the other
cannot say
brethren enjoyed the esteem and good will of all except the governing class in Jerusalem, and that their numbers grew

We

with astonishing rapidity. The movement was characteristi While the Sadducaic high-priestly party cally a popular one. dreaded it, and opposed it when they dared, the leader of the
Pharisees openly befriended
it,

and

a great multitude of the

(who must be distinguished from their aristocratic priests became obedient to the faith (Acts vi. 7). This rulers) statement indicates the high- water mark of the movement in

INTRODUCTION.
its earliest

3
loyal to

stage.

It

shews too that there was as yet no breach

specifically Christian gather for exhortation, prayers and eucharists were not regarded ings as displacing or discrediting the divinely sanctioned sacrificial

at all with Judaism,

and that the

worship of the temple.


3.

But the Apostles had received a wider commission,

3.

A crisis

although hitherto they had strictly adhered to the order of the on A crisis came Lord s command by beginning at Jerusalem.

storm suddenly broke upon their prosperous calm a storm which seemed in a moment to wreck the whole structure
at last.

which they had been building, and to dash their


the national conversion in irretrievable ruin.

fair

hope of
by St
6U

The Jews

of Alexandria

Greek philosophy and


their faith in a dress

culture.

had been widened by contact with They had striven to present


it less

wider

which would make

deterrent to teachmg

the Gentile mind.

If

we cannot say
at

for certain that

was an Alexandrian, we know

any

rate that he

St Stephen was a repre

sentative of the Hellenistic element in the Church at Jerusalem.

had prepared a wider purpose than others him to see in the teaching of Christ saw. He felt that the Christian Church could not always remain shut up within the walls of Jerusalem, or even limited
large study of the Old Testament scriptures

What he said to suggest innovation and we do not know. We only know that the What he points on which he was condemned were false charges, not to have said unlike some which had been brought against the Lord Himself.
to Jewish believers.
to arouse opposition

He was

accused of disloyalty to Moses and the temple

the

sacred law and the divine sanctuary. His defence was drawn from the very writings which he was charged with discrediting. The politi-

was pleading a cause already condemned; and the two great political parties were
it

But
at

was not heard

to the end.

He

imitate

one in stamping out the heresy of the universality of the Gospel. For it is important to note the change in the Pharisaic party. Convinced that after all the new movement

was

fatal to their

narrow traditionalism, they and the

common
i

people, whose accepted leaders they had always been, swung


2

EPISTLE TO THE EPHESIANS.


round into deadly opposition. The witnesses, who by the law must needs cast the first stones at the condemned, threw off their
Persecu
tion scat
ters the

Church,

a young disciple of Gamaliel. by a general perse cution, and in a few days the Apostles were the only Christians We may fairly doubt whether the Church left in Jerusalem.

upper garments at the

feet of

The murder

of St Stephen was followed

which

is

as a whole would have been prepared to sanction St

Stephen s

thus in line of teaching. they been called to pronounce upon it, volved in the conse have censured it as rash and premature, if they might perhaps quences of But they were never asked the wider not indeed essentially unsound.

Had

teaching,

without
being

asked to sanction
it.

They were at once involved in the consequences what he had taught, with no opportunity of disclaiming it. Providence had pushed them forward a step, and there was
the question.
of

no possibility of a return.
4.

^e

4.

The

scattered believers carried their message with


it

them

begin nings of extension to the


Gentiles.

and they soon found themselves proclaiming


circle of hearers.

widening St Philip preaches to the unorthodox and

to a

Not
Philip,

half-heathen Samaritans; later he baptises an Ethiopian, no Jew, though a God-fearing man. St Peter himself formally declares to a Roman centurion at Caesarea that now at length

he

learning the meaning of the old saying of his Jewish Bible, God is no respecter of persons At Antioch a Church springs up, which consists largely of Gentile converts.
is

that

is

but Saul, to be
the suc cessor of

man on whom
of his spirit

Stephen.

to Jerusalem to get a sight of the St Stephen s prophetic mantle has fallen. He was with him when he was taken up, and a double portion

But we must go back

upon him. The fiery enthusiasm of the persecuting Saul, the most conspicuous disciple of the greatest Pharisee of the age, was a terrible proof that Christianity had forfeited the esteem and favour of her earliest years in
is to rest

Jerusalem.

The

tide of persecution

his conversion to the persecuted side:

was stemmed indeed by but for some time his


retired into obscurity.

own

life

was in constant danger, and he

He came

out of his retirement as the

Apostle,

not of a

Christianized Judaism, but of St Stephen s wider Gospel for the world.

INTRODUCTION.
Alike by birth and training he was peculiarly fitted to be His

three-

the champion of such a cause. Jew, born in a Greek city, potion h 18 f F and possessed of the Roman franchise, he was in his own person mission. 1
.

the meeting-point of three civilisations. In a unique sense he was the heir of all the world s past. The intense devotion
of the Hebrew, with his convictions of sin and righteousness

and judgment

now

come the flexible Greek language, ready the East to the West; the strong Roman force of centralisation, which had made wars to cease and had
to
;

to interpret

bidden the world to be at one


factors

in each of these great world-

he had, and realised that he had, his portion: each of them indeed was a factor in the making of his personality

and

his career.

With

all

that the proudest

Jew could

boast,

he had the entry into the larger world of Greek culture, and He was withal a Roman s interest in the universal empire.

man

to be claimed

there were to

claim him.

by a great purpose, if such a purpose His Judaism could never have


Chris

enabled him to enter on the fulness of his inheritance.


tianity found him a chosen vessel to the utmost.
,

and developed

his capacity

The freer atmosphere of the semi-Gentile Church in Antioch marked out that great commercial centre as a fitting sphere From it he was sent on a mission to for his earliest work. and Asia Minor, in the course of which, whilst always Cyprus

Antioch
ing-point.

starting in the Jewish synagogue, he found himself perpetually drawn on to preach his larger Gospel to the Gentiles. Thus Gentile

Churches

along the line of his route

new

centres of Gentile Christianity founded.

Churches in which baptism practically took the place of circumcision, and Jews and Gentiles were associated on equal terms. At Antioch, on his return, the news of this
were founded,

was gladly welcomed a door of faith had been opened to the Gentiles, and they were pressing into the kingdom of God.
:

5.

We

could hardly have expected that the Christians of 5-

The

Jerusalem,

now again returned to their home, would view the matter with the same complacency. The sacred city with its
memories of the
past, the

problem
of the
believer,

solemn ritual of the temple, the holy

EPISTLE TO THE EPHESIANS.


language of the scriptures and the prayers of the synagogue
all

spoke to them of the peculiar privileges and the exceptional destiny of the Hebrew people. Was all this to go for nothing ? Were outside Gentiles, strangers to the covenant with Moses,
to
rise

at

a bound to equal heights of privilege with the

His dis

may was
natural.

circumcised people of God? are apt to pass too harsh a judgment on the main body of the Jewish believers, because we do not readily understand

We

the dismay which filled their minds at the proposed inclusion of Gentiles in the Christian society, the nucleus of the Messianic

kingdom, with no stipulation whatever of conformity to Jewish institutions. Day by day, as the Jewish believer went to his
proud right to pass the barrier which separated Jew from Gentile in the house of God. What was this intolerable confusion which was breaking down the
temple-prayers,
it

was

his

divinely constituted middle-wall of partition between

them?

His dearest hope, which the words of Christ had only seemed for a moment to defer, was the restoration of the kingdom
to Israel.

What had become

of that, if the

new

society

was to

include the Gentile on the same footing as the Jew ? Was not Christ emphatically and by His very name the Messiah of the

Jewish nation

Could any be a good Christian, unless he

were
The ren
dering Christ

first

a good

Jew?
an understanding of St Paul s special

It is essential to

mission, and of the whole view of Christianity which he was


led to take during the progress of that mission, that we should appreciate this problem as it presented itself to the mind of

from us the Jewish


Messiah
.

the

Jew who had

believed in Christ.

The very

fact

that

throughout the Apostolic writings the Greek translation Xpi<rro9 takes the place of the Hebrew Messiah disguises from us the

deep significance which every mention of the name must have had for the Palestinian Christian. The Syriac versions of the

New

Testament, in which the old word naturally comes back How again, help us to recover this special point of view.
strangely
to take a few passages at
1

random 1

do these words

Cor. viii

n,

ix 12, xii 27.

INTRODUCTION.
sound to us
:

7
the Messiah died
;

him who
less

is

weak,
;

for

whom

the Gospel of the Messiah

ye are the body of the Messiah

Yet nothing
to every

than this could St Paul s words have meant

Jew

that heard them.


_

own championship of Gentile liberty is St Paul s own sense f so prominent in his writings, that we are tempted to overlook O f the S1 those passages which shew how keenly he himself realised the pathos of the situation. A Hebrew of purest Hebrew
Again, St Paul s
blood, a Pharisee as his father

was before him, he saw to his bitter sorrow, what every Jewish Christian must have seen, that his doctrine of Gentile freedom was erecting a fresh barrier

against the conversion of the Jewish nation: that the very universality of the Gospel was issuing in the self-exclusion of the Jew. The mental anguish which he suffered is witnessed

by the three great chapters of the Epistle to the Romans (ix xi), in which he struggles towards a solution of the
to

problem.

disobedient and gainsaying people it is, as the prophet had foretold. And yet the gifts and the calling of God hath not cast off His people, God are never revoked
* ;

whom He
1

foreknew

The future must contain somewhere the


:

justification of the present


all Israel

then, though

it

cannot be now,

shall

be saved

It is the largeness of his


is

hope The
so

that steadies him.

His work

not for the souls of


in Christ.

men

much
before

as for the Purpose of


little in

God

The

individual
-

counts but
him.

comparison.

The wider

issues are always him

Gentile, are

Not Jews and Gentiles merely, but Jew and the objects of his solicitude. Not the rescue of
all is

some out of the ruin of


things in Christ.

has inspired him, but the

the hope with which the Gospel summing up of all persons and all

which rose in the minds of the Chris- 6. The tian portion of the Jewish people on hearing of the proposed an a its lssue indiscriminate admission of Gentiles into the Church of Christ
6.

The

feeling, then,

might have found its expression in the cry, The Jewish Messiah The for the Jews Gentiles might indeed be allowed a place in
!

the kingdom of God.

The

old prophets had foretold as

much

8
as this.
later

EPISTLE TO THE EPHESIANS.

Nor was

it

contrary to the

established practice

of

Judaism, after it had been forced into contact with the Greek world. The Gentile who submitted to circumcision and

other recognised conditions might share the privileges of the chosen people. But admission on any lower terms amounted

a revolution; the very proposition was a revolt against divinely sanctioned institutions.
to
not taken
Apostles.

are not to suppose that the Apostles themselves, or even tne majority of the Jewish believers, took so extreme

We

a view
not.

the conference at Jerusalem

But even they may

a proof that they did well have been perplexed at the


is

swiftness with which a change

was coming over the whole


this

face

of the

movement

in consequence of St Paul s missionary action:

and they must have perceived that

change would be

deeply obnoxious in particular to those earnest Pharisees they had led to believe in Jesus as the nation s Messiah.
The conAntioch.

whom
to
:

Some

of the more

ardent of these found their

way

Antioch, where they proclaimed to the Gentile believers Except ye be circumcised after the custom of Moses, ye cannot be saved Happily St Paul was there to champion the Gentile cause. We need but sketch the main features of the struggle
.

that ensued.
The conJerusa-

conference with the Apostles and Elders in Jerusalem was ^ ne nrs ^ s ^ep. Here after much discussion St Peter rises

lem

and

recalls the occasion

guided to action like facts from the missionaries

on which he himself had been divinely St Paul s. Then comes the narrative of
themselves.
is

Finally St
to lay

James

formulates the decision which

reached,

on them

no other burden

than certain simple precepts, which must of be observed if there were to be any fellowship at all necessity between Jewish and Gentile believers.

The
averted

So the

first

battle

attestation given to St Paul s

was fought and won. The Divine work among the Gentiles was a

moment
only.

P ro ^ tna ^ ^ 0(^ ^ ac^ opened to them also the door of faith, They were pressing in who could withstand God by trying to shut the door? But when the novelty of the wonder wore
:

INTRODUCTION.
away, the old questionings revived, and it seemed as though the Church must be split into two divisions Jewish and
Gentile Christians.

To St Paul s view such a partition was fatal to the very Two conmission of Christianity, which was to be the healer of the epistles. world s divisions. The best years of his life were accordingly
devoted to reconciliation.

Two great epistles witness to this the Epistle to the Galatians, in which he mightily defends Gentile liberty and the Epistle to the Romans, in
endeavour
:

which, writing to the central city of the world, the seat of its empire and the symbol of its outward unity, he holds an even
balance between

Jew and

Gentile,

and claims them both

as

necessary to the Purpose of God.

One

practical

method of

reconciliation

was much in his

Gentile

Poverty had oppressed the believers in Judaea. Here was a rare chance for Gentile liberality to shew that St Paul was right in saying that Jew and Gentile were one man in
thoughts.
Christ.

poverty.

Hence the

stress

which he

laid

on the collection of

the ministry unto the saints (2 Cor. ix i). The alms collected, he himself must journey to Jerusalem to present
alms,

them
life
:

in person.

He knows
is lest

that he does so at the risk of his


lived.

but

if

he

dies,

he dies in the cause for which he has

His one anxiety


should
fail

by any means

his mission to Jerusalem

end; and he bids the Roman Christians wrestle in prayer, not only that his life may be spared, but also that the ministry which he has for Jerusalem or, to use an
of its
,

earlier phrase,

the offering of the Gentiles

may be

acceptable
St Paul

to the saints

(Rom. xv 1 6, 31). His journey was successful from this point of view; but it led to an attack upon him by the unbelieving Jews, and a long

imprison-

ment imprisonment in Caesarea followed. Yet even this, disastrous as it seemed, furthered the cause of peace and unity within the Christian Church. St Paul was removed from the scene of
conflict.

Bitter feelings against his person naturally subsided


in prison for his

when he was
and

Master s sake.

his letters gained in importance

and authority.

His teachings Before he

10

EPISTLE TO THE EPHESIANS.


trial at Rome the controversy was practically Gentile liberty had cost him his freedom, but it was an accomplished fact. He was the prisoner of Jesus Christ on

was taken to his

dead.

close the

behalf of the Gentiles

contro
versy.

but his cause had triumphed, and the

equal position of privilege of the Gentile converts was never again to be seriously challenged.

7.

The

of the

"-

Thus St Paul had been strangely brought to the place where he had so often longed to find himself. At last he was 1 R me: a prisoner indeed, but free to teach and free to write.
7.

Ephe-

Ajid from his seclusion came three epistles to the Colossians, and to the Ephesians
.

to the Philippians,

A nonsialexpo8
f

The circumcision question was

dead.

Other questions were

ositive

being raised; and to these the Epistle to the Colossians in This done, his mind is particular is controversially addressed.
free

truth:

for

one supreme exposition, non-controversial, positive,

fundamental, of the great doctrine of his life that doctrine into which he had been advancing year by year under the the doctrine of the discipline of his unique circumstances
unity of mankind in Christ and of the purpose of world through the Church.
the issue

God

for

the

The
see
"

foregoing sketch has enabled us in

some measure

to

to^ and
1

mediate circum-

ru ^ e(^

w St Paul was specially trained by the providence that n ^ ^^e * ^e ^ ne exponent of a teaching which transcends

The best a n other declarations of the purpose of God for man. the effort to years of his Apostolic labour had been expended in
preserve in unity the two conflicting elements of the Christian And now, when signal success has crowned his Church.
labours,

we

find

world

s activity

in confinement at the great centre of the writing to expound to the Gentile Christians of
is his final

him

conception of the meaning and aim of the Christian revelation. He is a prisoner indeed, but

Asia Minor what

not in a dungeon he is in his crushed by bodily suffering.


:

own

hired lodging.

He

is

not

He

can think and teach and

Only he cannot go away. At Rome he is on a kind of watch-tower, like a lonely sentinel with a wide field of view
write.

INTRODUCTION.
but forced to abide at his
over the world
post.

1 1

His mind

is free,

and ranges

With a large liberty past, present and future. before the of thought he commences his great argument foundation of the world and carries it on to the fulness of the times embracing in its compass all things in heaven and on
,
,

the earth
8.

If the writer s history arid circumstances help us to

8-

The

understand the meaning of his


tion of the readers for

epistle, so too will

a considera-

readers O f the
ei

whom

it

was intended.

But here we

meet with a

in Omission the very outset. The words some of our oldest and best wor as n Ephesus (i l) are absent from Ephesus MSS., and several of the Greek Fathers make it clear that they
difficulty at
<i

did not find

them

in all copies.

Indeed

it is
.

almost certain

1 that they do not come from St Paul himself There are good reasons for believing that the epistle was A circular c letter. intended as a circular letter, an encyclical, to go the round ot
.

have parallels to this in I St Peter and the Apocalypse, in both of which however the Churches in question are mentioned by their names.

many Churches

in Asia Minor.

We

The capital of the Roman province of Asia was Ephesus. Naturally To Ephesus such a letter would naturally go first of all and |rst to when in later times a title was sought for it, to correspond E Pkesus with the titles of other epistles, no name would offer itself so its Accordingly Hence readily and so reasonably as the name of Ephesus. the title TO THE EPHESIANS was prefixed to it. And if, as
: -

into which the

seems not improbable, the opening sentence contained a space name of each Church in turn might be read
to the saints which are * * * and

the faithful in Christ


in

Jesus

it

Ephesus

was certain that in many copies the words would come to be filled in.
is

The

internal evidence of the epistle itself


it

in

with the view that


sian Church.

was not

specially intended for

harmony The the Ephe- n large


i
-

For in

to be writing to
faith

more than one place the Apostle appears tnowTto Christians whom he has never seen, of whose st Paul
See the detached note on iv

he knew only by report, and who in turn knew of his


1

12

EPISTLE TO THE EPHESIANS.


teachings only through the
iv 21).

medium

of his disciples

(i 15, iii 2,

Moreover the encyclical nature of the


If

epistle

removes what

would otherwise be a most serious objection to

its authenticity.

they are given

s relations with Ephesus, as St Luke in the Acts, we observe that for a by long while he appears to have been specially checked in his At one efforts to reach and to settle in that important centre.

we read

the notices of St Paul

he was forbidden by the Holy Ghost to preach the word in Asia Other work must take precedence. Not (xvi 6).
time
only were the Galatian Churches founded
first,

but also the

Then European Churches Philippi, Thessalonica, Corinth. on his way back from Corinth he touches at the city of his
desire,

but only to hurry away, though with a promise to At last he comes to remain, return, if God so will (xviii 21). and he makes it a centre, so that all they which dwelt in
Asia heard the word of the Lord
(xix 10).

As he

tells
is

the

Ephesian elders at Miletus, when he believes that he


his last words to them,

saying

For three years night and day

I ceased

Yet this
epistle

has no
saluta tions of indi viduals.

not to warn every one of you with tears (xx 31). To judge by the other letters of St Paul, we should expect to find a letter to the Ephesians unusually full of personal
details, reminiscences of his

long labours, warnings as to special


to

individuals by name. are dangers, kindly greetings struck by the very opposite of all this. No epistle is so general, so little addressed to the peculiar needs of one Church more

We

than another.
are none.

As for personal references and greetings, there Even Timothy s name is not joined with St Paul s
:

at the outset, as it is in the Epistle to the Colossians, written at the

same time and carried by the same messenger


is

not one

proper name
its

found in the rest of the

epistle,
,

except that of
is

Tychicus grace be with


Theincon
sistency

bearer.
all

Peace

to the brethren
.

its

close;

that love our Lord

The apparent
out the words
letter will

inconsistency disappears the


.

moment we strike
is

disap
pears, if

in Ephesus

No

one Church

addressed

the

go the round of the Churches with the broad lessons

INTRODUCTION.
Tychicus will read in the name from to place, will explain St Paul s own circumstances, and place

13
this is a
letter.

which

all

alike

need

convey by word of mouth his messages to individuals. Thus the local and occasional element is eliminated and The elimiin this we seem to have a further explanation of that wider theTocal
will
:

view of the Church and the world, which we have in part


accounted
the
for
s

element
results in

already by the consideration of the stage in a wider


career

to which this epistle belongs, and by Apostle the special significance of his central position in Rome.

The

following
2.

is

an analysis of the
salutation.

epistle:

Analysis.

i i, i

Opening

14.
(a)

A Doxology,

expanded into

a description of the Mystery of

God

will

elec
(8),

tion (4), adoption (5), redemption (7),

wisdom

consummation (10);
(b)

a statement that
portion of

Jew and God (n 14).


as

Gentile alike are the

15

ii

10.

A Prayer for Wisdom,


shewn

expanded into a descrip

tion of

God s power,

(a) in raising
(b) in

and exalting Christ (19 raising and exalting us in

23),

Christ,

whether

Gentiles or
ii

Jews

(ii i

10).

10

22.

The Gentile was an


(13

alien (ii, 12); but is

now

man with the Jew and part of God s house


one
iii i

18); a fellow-citizen (19),


22).

(20

13.

Return to the Prayer for Wisdom


Mystery
(2

but
6),

first

(a) a fresh description of the


(6)
iii

and
21.

of St

Paul

s relation to its

14

The Prayer in

full (14

proclamation (7 13). 19), with a Doxology

(20, 2l).

iv

1 6.

God s

calling involves a unity of life (i


gifts is

6),

to

which diversity of

intended to lead (7
(15, 16).

14)

the unity in diversity of the


iv 17 iv 25
24.

Body
life.

The
The

old life contrasted with the new.

v
21.

5.

Precepts of the
old darkness

new
and

v6

folly: the

new

light

and

wisdom.

EPISTLE TO THE EPHESIANS.


v 22
vi 9.

Duties interpreted by relation to Christ wives and husbands (22 33);


children and parents (vi i slaves and masters (5 9).
4);

vi 10
vi 21

20. 24.

The

spiritual warrior clad in

God s armour.

Closing words.

The
Everest
I? istle to the
sians.

The

topic of the Epistle to the Ephesians is of pre-eminent

interest in the present day.

At no former period has there


:

been so widespread a recognition in all departments of human life of the need of combination and cooperation and never,
perhaps, has more anxious thought been expended on the problem of the ultimate destiny of mankind. Whilst it is
true that everywhere and always questions have been asked about the future, yet it is not too much to say that we, who have begun to feel after the truth of a corporate life as higher

than an individual
has been to learn,

life,

more eager than any past generation and perhaps are more capable of learning,
are

what
The
1

is

the goal for which


is

Man

as a whole
for the

is

making,

or,

in

other words, what

God s Purpose

Human

Race.

message
is for all

time.

Among the perpetual marvels of the Apostolic writings is the ^ac ^ that they contain answers to enquiries which have ~ wa ited to be made } on that, while the form of the written
:

record

remains

the

same

for

all

ages,
its

its

interpretation

grows in
its

clearness as each age

asks

own

questions in

own way.

EXPOSITION
OF THfi

EPISTLE TO THE EPHESIANS.

IN A MYSTERY, THE WISDOM THAT HATH BEEN HIDDEN, WHICH GOD FOREORDAINED BEFORE THE WORLD UNTO OUR GLORY.

WE SPEAK THE WISDOM OF GOD

One God, one law, one element,

And

To which

one far-off divine event, the whole creation moves.

[TO

THE EPHESIANS]
i

TJAUL,
-*-

an apostle of Christ Jesus by the will of God, to the saints which are [at Ephesus] and the faithful in Christ
2
:

Jesus

Grace to you and peace from God our Father and the Lord Jesus Christ.

The two points which distinguish this salutation have been No other name is joined with noticed already in the Introduction. St Paul s, although the salutation of the Epistle to the Colossians,
written at the same time, links with him No one Church is addressed, but a blank
in turn
is left,

Timothy the brother that each Church


.

may

find its

own name

inserted

by the Apostle s messenger.

Paul the Apostle, and no other with him, addresses himself not to the requirements of a single community of Christians, but to a universal need the need of a larger knowledge of the purposes
of God.
3

BLESSED be the God and Father


blessed us with
4
:

of our

Lord Jesus Christ,

who hath

all spiritual

blessing in the heavenly

places in Christ

according as He hath chosen us in Him before the foundation of the world, that we should be holy and
blameless before

having foreordained us to the adoption of sons through Jesus Christ unto Himself, according 6 to the good pleasure of His will, to the praise of the glory
in love
;

Him

of His grace, which

Beloved;

in

whom

hath freely bestowed on us in the we have redemption through His blood, the

He

forgiveness of trespasses, according to the riches of His grace, 8 which He hath made to abound toward us in all wisdom and

prudence,
according
10

to

Him,

for
8

having made known unto us the mystery of His will, His good pleasure which He hath purposed in dispensation in the fulness of the times, to gather
2

EPHES.

EXPOSITION OF THE
up in one all things in and which are on earth
Christ, both
;

[I 3

which are in the heavens

in

Him,

"

in

whom

also

we have been

chosen as God s portion, having been foreordained according to the purpose of Him who worketh all things according to the
counsel of His
glory,
also,
will,
"that

we should be

to the praise of
13
;

His

the first to hope in Christ in whom ye heard the word of the truth, the gospel of your having in whom also having believed, ye have been sealed salvation,

who have been

with the holy Spirit of promise, 14 which is the earnest of our inheritance, unto the redemption of God s own possession, to
the praise of His glory.

From the

to affect the composition. of the epistles :


1

outset the elimination of the personal element seems Compare the introductory words of some

Thess.

2 Thess.

We thank God always concerning you all... We are bound to thank God always for you...
concerning you...

Gal.
Col.

I marvel that ye are so soon changing...

We thank God always

i3

Here, however, no personal consideration enters. His great theme possesses him at once: Blessed be God... who hath blessed us\ The customary note of thanksgiving and prayer is indeed sounded (vv. 15 f.), but not until the great doxology has run its full
course.

There
the
2 Cor. vii

is one parallel to this opening. The Second Epistle to Corinthians was written in a moment of relief from intense

strain.

of

The Apostle had been anxiously waiting to learn the effect At length good news reaches him: God as he says later on, which comforteth them that are low, com forted us by the coming of Titus In the full joy of his heart he
his former letter.
, .

-2

Cor.

3,

begins his epistle with a burst of thanksgiving to the Divine Blessed be the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Consoler
:

Christ, the Father of mercies and God of all comfort, who forteth us in all our trouble, that we may be able to comfort

com them

that are in any trouble, by means of the comfort with which we ourselves are comforted of God
.

blessing there ascribed to God Blessed be God... who comforteth us

The

is

for a particular mercy:

But here no
to

in his mind.
1

Blessed be

The supreme mercy of God God... who hath blessed us\

man

fills

special boon is his thoughts :

I 3]

EPISTLE TO THE EPHESIANS.


w.
3

K
14

verses which follow baffle our analysis. They are a kaleidoscope of dazzling lights and shifting colours : at first we fail to find a trace of order or method. They are like the preliminary

The twelve

the eagle, rising and wheeling round, as though for a while uncertain what direction in his boundless freedom he shall So the Apostle s thought lifts itself beyond the limits of take.
flight of

time and above the material conceptions that confine ordinary men, and ranges this way and that in a region of spirit, a heavenly sphere, with no course as yet marked out, merely exulting in the attributes and purposes of God. At first we marvel at the wealth of his language but soon we
:

discover,
us,

by the very

repetition of the phrases

the poverty of all language when it He seems to be swept along by his theme, topics as he has chosen. whither it is taking him. He begins with God, hardly knowing

which have arrested comes to deal with such

the blessing which comes from God to men, the eternity of His purpose of good, the glory of its consummation. But he cannot

order his conceptions, or close his sentences. hard upon another, and will not be refused.

doxology runs on and on:


in
.

presses so this great in whom... in Him... in Him, in whom...

One thought

And

to perceive certain great words recurring and revolving round a central point
:

whom. .in whom. But as we read it again and again we begin


. .

The will of God: vv. 5, 9, n. To the praise of His glory vv.


:

6, 12, 14.
bis,

In Christ

vv. 3, 4, 6, 7, 9,

10

n,

12, 13 bis.

The
Christ
it

will of

God working
his theme.

itself

out to some glorious issue in


.

that
it is

is

A single phrase of the ninth verse sums

up

the mystery of His will

In proceeding to examine the passage clause by clause we shall not here dwell on individual expressions, except in so far as their discussion is indispensable for the understanding of the main
drift of the epistle.

But at the outset there are certain words and which challenge attention; and our hope of grasping the phrases Apostle s meaning depends upon our gaining a true conception of the standpoint which they imply. They must accordingly be treated with what might otherwise seem a disproportionate fulness. The third verse contains three such phrases. The first is ivith all spiritual blessing It has been suggested that the Apostle inserts the epithet spiritual because the mention of two Persons of the Blessed Trinity naturally leads him to introduce a reference
l
: .

20
to the

EXPOSITION OF THE
7

[I

3
:

third. Accordingly we are asked to render the words every blessing of the Spirit But a little consideration will shew that the epithet marks an
.

important contrast. The blessing of God promised in the Old Testament was primarily a material prosperity. Hence in some of
its

noblest literature the

Hebrew mind

struggled so ineffectually

with the problem presented by the affliction of the righteous and the prosperity of the wicked. In the Book of Genesis the words
Gen. xxii
<

In Deuteronomy the blessing of God is expressed by the familiar words Blessed shalt thou be in the city, and blessed shalt thou be in the field Blessed shall be thy basket and thy store The blessing of the New Covenant is in another region: the It is spiritual blessing region not of the body, but of the spirit.
will multiply
.

blessing I will bless thee are interpreted by thy seed as the stars of the heaven

in multiplying I

. . .

not carnal, temporal blessing. The reference then is not primarily to the Holy Spirit, though spiritual blessing cannot be thought of apart from Him. The adjective occurs again in the phrase
v 19
vi 12

and also in the remarkable passage our wrestspiritual songs ling is ... against the spiritual (things) of wickedness in the heavenly It is confirmatory of this view that in the latter passage (places)
: :
.

it

occurs in close connexion with the difficult phrase which

we must

next discuss.

The expression in
l

epistle (13,

20;

ii

the heavenly (places) occurs five times in this iii 10 ; vi 12), and is found nowhere else.
:

The

adjective (eTrovpai/to?) is not new we find it in Homer and Plato, as well as in the New Testament, including other epistles of St Paul. The nearest parallel is in an earlier letter of the same

Phil,

ii

10

every knee shall bow of things in heaven and captivity on earth and things under the earth things or in the It might be rendered among the heavenly things to use a more modern term, in the heavenly or, heavenly places It is a region of ideas, rather than a locality, which is sphere To understand what suggested by the vagueness of the expression. it meant to St Paul s mind we must look at the contexts in which he uses it.
:

Roman

Leaving the present passage to the last, we begin with i 20: after the Resurrection God seated Christ at His right hand in the heavenly
sphere,

above every principality and authority and power and dominion, and every name that is named not only in this world but Thus the heavenly sphere is also in that which is to come as the sphere of all the ruling forces of the universe. The regarded
.

1 3]

EPISTLE TO THE EPHESIANS.


is described in Old Testament language as There Christ is seated above all conceivable rivals. are not told whether the powers here spoken of are powers of
.

21
Ps. ex
i

highest place therein


*

God s right hand

We

good or powers of

are at least included


Phil,

The Psalm might suggest that the latter Thou at My right hand, until I make Thine enemies Thy footstool But St Paul s point is, as in
evil.
:

Sit

10, simply the supremacy of Christ over all other powers. In ii 6 we have the surprising statement that the position of
ii

* Christ in this respect is also ours in Him. He raised us together and seated us together in the heavenly sphere in Christ Jesus ; that

He might display in the ages that are coming the surpassing riches of His grace in kindness toward us in Christ Jesus In iii 10 we read that there might now be made known to the
.
:

principalities

and powers in the heavenly sphere by means of the Church the very- varied wisdom of God St Paul is here speaking
.
:

of his special mission to the Gentiles as belonging to the great mystery or secret of God s dealings throughout the ages there are

powers in the heavenly sphere

who

are learning the purpose of


*

God
not
vi ia

through the history of the Church. The last passage is perhaps the most remarkable to wrestle against blood and flesh, but against the
:

We have

against the powers, against the rulers of the world, against the spiritual (hosts) of wickedness in the heavenly Our foe, to meet whom we need the very armour of sphere*.

principalities, darkness of this

God

is

no

material

foe

it

is

spiritual

foe,

a
.

foe

who
i

in the heavenly sphere are reminded of Satan standing among the sons of God and accusing Job Job. are reminded again of the scene in the Apocalypse

attacks and must be fought

We

We

there

the dragon

We

was war in heaven, Michael and and the dragon fought, and
:

his angels, to fight against Apoc. his angels


.

xii 7

now

return to our passage:

Blessed be God...

who hath 13
:

blessed us with all spiritual blessing in the heavenly sphere . The heavenly sphere, then, is the sphere of spiritual activities

that immaterial region, the

unseen universe

which

world of sense. In

it great forces are at work ceived of as having an order and constitution of their in part transgressed against that order, and so
:

behind the forces which are con


lies

own ; as having having become dis

ordered
us
:

which in part are opposed to us and wrestle against which take an intelligent interest in the purpose of God with His world, and for which the story of man is an object-lesson in the many-sided wisdom of God forces, over all of
:

forces

forces, again,

which, be they evil or be they good, Christ

is

enthroned, and

we

in

Him.

22

EXPOSITION OF THE

[I 3

We may call to
The things
to

our aid one other passage to illustrate


,

all this.

in the heavens
to

as well as

be

summed up

be gathered

the things on earth , are up in one in the Christ


:

It pleased Or, as the parallel passage, Col. i 20, puts it (i 10). God to reconcile all things through Christ unto^ Himself, setting them at peace by the blood of the cross, whether they be the things

on earth or the things in the heavens That is as much as to say, The things in the heavens were out of gear, as well as the things on earth And so St Paul s Gospel widens out into a Gospel of the Universe the heavens as well as the earth are in some mysterious
.

manner brought within

its scope. It is important that we should understand this point of view. Heaven to us has come to mean a future state of perfect bliss.
s

in the heavenly sphere the very same Only with this going on which vexes us on earth. difference there Christ is already enthroned, and we by representa tion are enthroned with Him.

But, to St Paul
is
:

mind,

struggle

In other words, St Paul warns us from the beginning that he takes a supra-sensual view of human life. He cannot rest in the things seen they are not the eternal, the real things they are
:

2 Cor.

but things as they seem, not things as they are ivi8 for a time (Tr/aocr/caipa), not things for ever

they are things

(aia>via).

The
It
is

the epistle

third important phrase which meets us on the threshold of It is characteristically Pauline. is the phrase in Christ
.

not, of course,

confined to this epistle, but


all

it

is

specially

frequent here.

word must

first of

St Paul uses the

name

Christ

be said as to the two forms in which It is found sometimes with and


.

sometimes without the definite article. The distinction which is thus introduced cannot always be pressed but, speaking generally, we may say that in the first case we have a title, in the second a proper name in other words, the first form lays emphasis on the
:
:

on the Person who holds it. In the present passage, in speaking of the blessing wherewith God has blessed us, St Paul points to Christ as the Person in whom in Christ we have that blessing Below, in speaking more
Office held, the second
.

10

broadly of the purpose of God for the universe, he lays the stress to gather up in one all things in upon the Office of the Messiah
the Christ
.

But

it is possible

that in

many

cases the choice be

tween the two forms was determined simply by the consideration of


euphony.

The Messiah was the hope

of the Jewish nation.

Their expecta-

I 3]

EPISTLE TO THE EPHESIANS.


was summed up in Him.
the ideal

23
the Chosen, whom the

tion for the future

He was
King

the Beloved, the Anointed of God; nation s destiny was to be fulfilled.

in

of Jesus were in strange contrast to the The Resurrection and Ascension Messianic expectation. general restored the failing hope of His immediate followers, and at the

The Life and Death

same time helped to translate

it

to a

more

spiritual region.

They
rarely

revealed the earthly Jesus as the heavenly Christ. To St Paul Jesus was preeminently the Christ

Yery

does he use the


the title l Christ

name
:

Jesus

without linking

it

with the name or

perhaps, indeed, only where some special reference intended to the earthly Life. So, for example, he speaks of the sCor.ivio and, in contrasting the earthly humiliation with dying of Jesus the heavenly exaltation which followed it, he says: that in the Phil. iii of.
is
:

name

of Jesus every knee should bow,... and every tongue confess that Jesus Christ is LORD
.

primary thought of the Messiah is a hope for the Jewish people, St Paul s Gospel further proclaims Him to be the hope of That the the world of men, the hope even of the entire universe. Christ was the Christ of the Gentile, as well as of the Jew, was the to bring as special message which he had been called to announce a gospel to the Gentiles the unexplorable wealth of the Christ
If the
.

iii

This was the mystery, or secret of God, long hidden, now revealed God willed to make known what is as he says to the Colossians
:

Col.

27

the wealth of the glory of this mystery among the Gentiles is Christ in you the hope of glory . you Gentiles

which

That the Christ to so large an extent takes the place of Jesus in St Paul s thought is highly significant, and explains much that seems to call for explanation. It explains the fact that St Paul
dwells so

on the earthly Life and the spoken Words of the cannot have been ignorant of or indifferent to the great Yet he scarcely story which for us is recorded in the Gospels. touches any part of it, save the facts that Jesus was crucified, that He died and was buried, that He rose and ascended. Of the
little

Lord.

He

miracles which

He wrought we hear nothing ; of the miracle which attended His birth into the world we hear nothing. Of the struggles with the Pharisees, of the training of the Twelve, of the discourses It is a solitary to them and to the multitudes, he tells us nothing. exception when, as it were incidentally, he is led by a particular
necessity to relate the institution of the Eucharist. It cannot have been that these things were of small
his eyes.

moment
:

in

He must

valued them.

have known at least most of them, and have But he had a message peculiarly his own and that

24

EXPOSITION OF THE

[I 3

sCor. v 1 6

message dealt not with the earthly Jesus, so much as with the HenceIn the heavenly sphere his message lies. heavenly Christ. forth he says, know we no man after the flesh: yea, if we have
,

known

Christ after the


.

flesh,

yet

now

henceforth

know we Him
;

(so)

no more The Death, the Resurrection, the Ascension these are to him the important moments of the life of Christ they are the ladder that leads upwards from Christ after the flesh to Christ
the exalted, the glorified, the reigning in the heavenly sphere Christ ; the Christ yet to be manifested as the consummation of the

And if St Paul looked beyond the earthly life of purpose of God. the Lord in one direction, he looked beyond it also in another. To his thought the Christ does not begin with the historical Jesus The Christ is eternal in the past as well as in the future. The
.

earthly
Phil. ii6f.

life

for a time.

God... He
1

kind of middle point, a stage of humiliation Being rich, He became poor ; being in the form of humbled Himself, taking the form of a servant, coming
of Jesus is a

to be in the likeness of

men

God hath

Christ

highly exalted Him ascended and enthroned.

That stage of humiliation is past we fix our gaze now on Jesus


:

may not, indeed, think that Jesus and the Christ can ever in any way be separated St Paul s frequent combination of the two names is a witness against such a separation. Yet there and it is the heavenly aspect that predominates are two aspects
:

We

in the thought of St Paul. It is instructive in this connexion to compare the narrative of St Paul s conversion with the account that immediately follows of

Acts ix 5

Jesus who appeared to him in the It was his first preaching. He had always looked art thou, Lord ?. .1 am Jesus way he was to be taught that in Jesus the Messiah for the Messiah
:

Who

Acts ix

22

had come.

The lesson was learned; and we read: Saul waxed that dwelt in Damascus, strong the more, and confounded the Jews He had seen Jesus, risen and proving that this was the Christ exalted he knew Him henceforth as the Christ.
.
:

We
Christ

in observe, then, that the conception which the phrase to the same supra-sensual region of ideas to implies belongs

which the two preceding phrases testify. The mystical union or identification which it asserts is asserted as a relation, not to the name more distinctive of the earthly Life but to the Jesus Christ as risen and exalted.
*

as indicated by the significance of the relation to Christ, in , and the issues of that relation, are matters on preposition which light will be thrown as we proceed with the study of the

The

epistle.

But

it is

important to note at the outset how

much

is

1 4]

EPISTLE TO THE EPHESIANS.


in this brief phrase,
s

25
it

summed up

and how prominent a position


suffered, rose, ascended,
all

holds in St Paul

thought.

In Christ, the eternal Christ, who


is

who

seated
:

now

at

God s

right

hand supreme over

the forces of the

universe

in Christ, in the heavenly sphere wherein

He now
is

in the region of spiritual activities, all spiritual blessing Christ God has blessed us ; blessed be God.

ours

abides, in :

In the verses which follow (4 14) we have an amplification of v. 3, and This especially of the phrase in Christ is introduced the words according as amplification by And first St Paul declares that the blessing wherewith God hath blessed us is no new departure in the Divine counsels. It is in harmony with an eternal design which has marked us out as the according as He hath chosen us in Him recipients of this blessing the foundation of the world before He hath chosen us or elected us Election is a term which suggests at once so much of controversy, that it may be well to lay emphasis on its primary sense by substituting, for the moment, a word of the same meaning, but less trammelled by associations
the thoughts of
l
. .

vv.

4-14

the word

selection

The thought that God in His dealings with men proceeds by the method of selection was not new to St Paul. The whole of the Old Testament was an affirmation of this principle. He himself from his earliest days had learned to cherish as his proudest posses sion the fact that he was included in the Divine Selection. He was a member of the People whom God had in Abraham selected
for peculiar blessing. The Divine Selection of the

Hebrew People

to hold a privileged

position, their ready recognition of that position and their selfish abuse of it, the persistent assertion of it by the Prophets as the ground of national amendment this is the very theme of the Old

Testament scriptures. It is on account of this, above all, that the Christian Church can never afford to part with them. Only as we hold the Old Testament in our hands can we hope to interpret the New Testament, and especially the writings of St Paul. Only the history of the ancient Israel can teach us the meaning of the new

Gal. vi 16

God No new departure in principle was made by Christianity. very name of the New Covenant declares that God s method is
1

Israel of

Its
still

the same.

of selection has

Only the application of it has been extended the area been enlarged. A new People has been founded, a not limited by geographical or by racial boundaries but People
:
:

WOODSTOCK ;OLLE8t

26
still

EXPOSITION OF THE

[1

a People, a Selected People even as to-day we teach the Christian child to say * The Holy Ghost, which sanctifieth me and all the Elect People of God
:

God, then, says St Paul, selected us to be the recipients of the It is in accord distinctive spiritual blessing of the New Covenant. ance with this Selection that He has blessed us.
i

The Selection was made in Christ before the foundation of world That is to say, in eternity it is not new; though in In time it appears as later than the time it appears as new. Selection of the Hebrew People, and as an extension and develop ment of that Selection. But it is an eternal Selection, indepen dent of time ; or, as St Paul puts it, before the foundation of the
*

the

world
of the

Here we must ask

Whom
1

does St Paul regard as the objects

Divine Selection

blessed us... according as of the world What does he


.

He says: Blessed be God... who hath He hath selected us... before the foundation
"?

mean by the word us The natural and obvious interpretation is that he means to He has include at least himself and those to whom he writes. spoken so far of no others. Later on he will distinguish two great
both included in the Selection, of whom he has certain But at present he has no division or dis special things to say. tinction. He may mean to include more he can scarcely mean to include less than himself and the readers whom he addresses. It has been said that in the word us we have the language of charity \ which includes certain individuals whom a stricter use
classes,
:

of terms

would have excluded.

That

is

to say, not all the

members

of all the Churches to

whom

the letter was to go were in fact

included in the Divine Selection.

we may reply : (i) Nowhere in the epistle does St Paul that any individual among those whom he addresses either suggest is or may be excluded from this Selection.
To
this
(2)

Unworthy

individuals there undoubtedly were:

but his
:

iv

appeal to them is based on the very fact of their Selection by God I beseech you, that ye walk worthy of the calling wherewith ye
<

have been called The Old Testament helps us again here. Among the Selected People were many unworthy individuals. This unworthiness did On the contrary, the not exclude them from the Divine Selection. made their privileged position the ground of an appeal to Prophets
.

them.
Moreover, just as the Prophets looked more to the whole than to the parts, so St Paul is dominated by the thought of the whole,

I 4, 5]

EPISTLE TO THE EPHESIANS.


God s purpose with the
whole.
It
is

2/

and

of

a new Israel that

are apt so far to a People of privilege. as to regard St Paul mainly as the Apostle of individu forget this, But in the destiny of the individual as an individual he shews ality. strangely little interest strangely, I say, in comparison with the

Christ has founded

We

prevailing thought of later times; though not strangely, in the light of his own past history as a member of a Selected People.

include

by the word us* St Paul means to whom he intended his letter to come. It is reasonable to suppose further that he would have allowed his language to cover all members of the Christian Church every
take
it,

We

then, that

all

those Christians to

where.

The one doubt which may


phrase of
verses.
v. 12,

fairly

be raised
the
first

is

whether the later

we who have been

should be taken as limiting the meaning This phrase we must discuss presently: but meanwhile

to hope in Christ , us in the earlier of


it is

enough to point out that the parallel passage in the Epistle to the Colossians, where some of the same statements are made (compare especially Eph. i 6, 7 with Col. i 13, 14), has no such limitation, and quite clearly includes the Gentiles to whom he was writing.

We

may

therefore believe that here too the Gentile Christians are

up to the point at which the Apostle definitely makes statements specially belonging to the Christian Jew. The aim of the Divine Selection is plainly stated in the words, that we should be holy and blameless before Him in love The
included,
1
.

must be joined with the preceding words, not with phrase those that follow although the latter collocation has some ancient For (i) the same phrase occurs five interpreters in its favour. times more in the epistle (iii 17, iv 2, 15, 16, v 2), and always in
in love
;

the sense of the Christian virtue of love

not of the Divine love

towards man: and


intention.

Love is and the proof that it is not bestowed in vain. result aimed at is love just as on God s side it the glory of His grace
:
.

(2) here it stands as the climax of the Divine the response for which the Divine grace looks ;

On
is

our side the


the praise of

Having fore-ordained us unto the adoption of sons through Jesus Christ unto Himself. The sonship of Man to God is implied,

but not expressed, in the Old Testament. In the light of the later revelation it is seen to be involved in the creation of Man in the Gen. 126 f. Divine image, by which a relationship is established to which appeal Gen. ix 6 can be made even after the Fall. In a more special sense God is a Jer. xxxi 9 Father to Israel, and Israel is the son of God. But sonship in the Ex. iv 11

28

EXPOSITION OF THE
of the Divine

[I 5,

completest sense could not be proclaimed before the manifestation Son in the flesh. He is at once the ideal Man and

In Him the sonship of Man to God finds its Those who have been selected in Him are possessed of this sonship, not as of natural right, but as by adoption. Hence
the Image of God.
realisation.

the adoption of sons

is

the distinctive privilege of the


is

New

Covenant in

Christ.

The doctrine

of

Adoption

the universal sonship of


closest relation to
it.

Man
is

not antagonistic to the doctrine of to God. It is on the contrary in the


its actualisation.

It

the Divine method of

The sonship

of creation is through Christ, no less truly than the of adoption. is created in Christ but the Selected sonship are brought more immediately than others into relation with People

Man

Christ,
l

15
will
i

A ccording
:

and through Christ with the Father. to the good pleasure of His
cannot, and

will

Ultimately, the
It pleased

power that

rules the universe is the will of God.

His

we

we need

not, get behind that.

To
issue
it
:

the praise

of

the glory

God s

free favour to

Man

This is the ordained of His grace is to be gloriously manifested, that


.

may be
c

Grace

eternally praised. is too great a word with St Paul to be mentioned

and
:

allowed to pass. It will, as we shall see, carry his thought further. But first he will emphasise the channel by which it reaches us * His grace, which He hath freely bestowed on us in the Beloved
.

If

the Beloved

is

a Messianic
literal

title,

yet
.

it is

not used here without


parallel

a reference to
Col.
is

its

meaning.

In the

passage in
:

Just as in the Son, who 113 we have the Son of His love Son in a peculiar sense, we have the adoption of sons so in the

Beloved,
vv.

who

is

loved with a peculiar love, the grace of

God

is

graciously bestowed on us.


3-6

To sum up vv. 3 6 The blessing, for which we bless God, is of a spiritual nature, in the heavenly sphere, in the exalted Christ. It is in accordance with an eternal choice, whereby God has
:

selected us in Christ.

Its goal, so far as

we

are concerned,

is

the

fulness of all virtues, love. It includes an adoption through Jesus Christ to a Divine sonship. Its motive lies far back in the will of
Its contemplated issue in the Divine counsel is that God s grace, freely bestowed on us in His Well-beloved, should be gloriously

God.

manifested and eternally praised.


It is noteworthy that up to this point there has been no any kind to sin : nor, with the exception of a passing notice of the fact that it has been put out of the way, is there any

reference of

16,7]

EPISTLE TO THE EPHESIANS.

29

allusion to it in the whole of the remainder of this chapter. are taken in these verses into the eternal counsels of God.

We
Sin,

here as elsewhere in St Paul s teaching, appears as an interloper. It comes in to hinder the progress of the Divine Purpose; to check There is nothing to lead us to suppose it, but not to change it.
that the grace of God comes to Man in Christ simply on account of a Sin indeed has served to magnify the necessity introduced by sin.

grace of

God
.

abounded

But the

where sin hath abounded, grace hath yet more Eom. v free favour which God has bestowed on the

20

Selected People in Christ is a part of the eternal Purpose, prior to the entrance of sin. There is good reason to believe that the Incar nation is not a mere consequence of the Fall, though the painful conditions of the Incarnation were the direct result of the Fall.

And we may perhaps no less justly hold that the education of the human race by the method of Selection must likewise have been
necessary, even
if

Man

had not sinned at


7

all.

But the mention

of

grace

leads St Paul

peculiar glory of grace, on which above all grace in baffling sin.


c

on to speak of the he has so often dwelt. Grace is

of trespasses
training,
if

In whom we have redemption through His blood, the forgiveness must again bear in mind St Paul s Jewish
.

"We

we

are to understand his thought.

This

is

especially

necessary, where, as here, the terms very familiar to us.

which he employs have become

Redemption

God

is

often spoken of in the Old Testament as

the Redeemer of His People Israel. The first great Redemption, typical of all the rest and frequently referred to as such by the Prophets, was the emancipation of Israel from the Egyptian bondage.
"With

and not now a family new Redemption, or Emancipation, initiates the merely, began. history of the New People.
this the history of Israel, as a People,

These words would be scarcely intel Through His blood we had not the Old Testament. To the Jewish mind blood was not merely nor even chiefly the life-current flowing Gen. in the veins of the living it was especially the life poured out in death; and yet more particularly in its religious aspect it was the symbol of sacrificial death. The passover lamb whose blood was sprinkled on the lintel and doorposts was the most striking feature of the Redemption from Egypt. The sacrificial blood of the Mosaic ritual was the condition of the remission of sins: without Heb. blood-shedding no forgiveness takes place The New Covenant is the consummation of the Old. The
.

ligible if

iv 10

ix 22

30
Redemption
17
is

EXPOSITION OF THE
through the blood of Christ, and
. .

[I

79
the

it

includes
*

forgiveness of trespasses

The mention of grace According to the riches of His grace had led to the thought of its triumph over sin and this in turn leads back to a further and fuller mention of grace His grace which He hath made to abound towards us in all
:

wisdom and prudence


in another
:

The

last

words help to define the grace

prudence
of

things,

way among its consequences for us are wisdom and Wisdom is the knowledge which sees into the heart which knows them as they really are. Prudence is

the understanding which leads to right action. Wisdom, as it is set before us in the Sapiential books of the Old Testament, includes

but with St Paul "Wisdom belongs specially to the region of the Mystery and its Revelation. The great stress laid by St Paul on Wisdom in his later letters
both these ideas
:

calls for

some

notice.

In writing to the Corinthians at an

earlier

period he had found it necessary to check their enthusiasm about what they called Wisdom an intellectual subtlety which bred conceit in individuals and, as a consequence, divisions in the
Christian Society.
this

He

had refused to minister to

their appetite for

kind of mental entertainment. He contrasted their anxiety for Wisdom with the plainness of his preaching. He was forced into an extreme position he would not communicate to them in their
:

carnal state of division and strife his

things of

God.

But

at

own knowledge of the deeper the same time he declared that he had
1
.

Cor.

ii

Wisdom which belonged not to babes, but to grown men And it is this Wisdom which we have in the present Epistle. It it is a Wisdom long deals as St Paul had said with a mystery hidden but now revealed.
;
: *

Having made known

to

us the mystery of His will

This

together with what follows, to the end of v. 10, is explanatory of God hath made grace to abound toward the preceding statement. us in all wisdom and prudence, in that He hath made known to us

the mystery of His will The mystery or secret


. c

It is tempting to regard St Paul s employment of the word mystery as one of the instances in which he has borrowed a term from popular Greek phraseology and has The word was every lifted it into the highest region of thought. where current in the Greek religious world. When the old national
.

Contrast
7:

Cor.

ii

i,

7 with ib.
s

this subject (Prolegg. to

Romans and

ii

6,

and

see

Dr Hort

words on

Ephesians, iSoff.).

1 9]

EPISTLE TO THE EPHESIANS.

31

out in Greece, the national religious life died with it, and the ancient national cults lost their hold on the people. About the
spirit died

same time there came into prominence


another form of religious worship, not so
as private

all

over the Greek world

and

individualistic.

It
Its

much public and national had many shapes, and borrowed

much from Eastern


vidual lives
;

sources.

and

its

aim was the purification of indi methods were (i) the promise of a future life,

and

(2)

into a secret religious lore.


of

the institution of rites of purification followed by initiation With some of the mysteries much that
:

was abominable was connected but the ideals which some at least them proclaimed were lofty. The true secret of divine things

could only be revealed to those


purification,

who

passed through long stages of

and who pledged themselves never to disclose the which they had been taught. mysteries The mystery of which St Paul speaks, is the secret of God s dealing with the world and it is a secret which is revealed to such as have been specially prepared to receive it. But here so far at
,
:

1 the parallel with any rate as St Paul s writings are concerned the Greek mysteries ends. For the Secret of God has been pub lished in Christ. There is now no bar to its declaration. St Paul

has been appointed a steward of


interpretation of
all

it,

to

expound

it

as containing the

human

life.

As

different source.

a matter of fact the word has come to St Paul from a wholly now know that it was used of secrets which

We

belong to God and are revealed by Him to men, not only in the Book of Daniel, but also in a book which presents many parallels to

Book of Daniel, and which just failed, when that book just Portions succeeded, in obtaining a place within the Jewish canon. of the long lost Greek of the Book of Enoch have recently been
the

and we find that the word mystery is used in again and again of divine secrets which have rightly or wrongly come to the knowledge of men. And even apart from this particu lar book, we have ample evidence for this usage in the Greek-speak
restored to us,
it

ing circles of Judaism. The word, with its correlative revelation was at hand in the region of the Apostle s own Jewish training, and we need not seek a heathen origin for his use of it 2
c
.

His good pleasure which He hath purposed in Sim, in the fulness of the times, to gather up in one all for dispensation
c

According

to

With

later parallels to the

Greek

See

the detached

note on the

mysteries in the rites of the Christian

meaning of fAvcr^piov.

Church we are not here concerned.

32
things in Christ

EXPOSITION OF THE
This
is

[I

10

a description, in the broadest terras of


.

10

the scope and contents of the Divine Secret. For dispensation in the fulness of the times language of iii 9 is the best comment on this passage.
declares there that
of the

The similar The Apostle

iii

ii

it is his mission to shew what is the dispensation which hath been hidden from eternity in God who mystery The Creator of the universe has a Purpose in created all things an eternal purpose which He hath purposed in Christ to it regard The secret of it has been hidden in God until Jesus our Lord
.
.

iii

now. The dispensation or working out of that secret Purpose is a matter on which St Paul claims to speak by revelation. Dispensation is here used in its wider sense, not of household

management, which
effect

is its

primary meaning, but of carrying into

The word must be taken with the foregoing phrase the mystery of His will and we may paraphrase, to carry it out The thought is not of a Dispensation in the fulness of the times
a design.
;
. ,

though one of several Dispensations but simply of the carrying out of the secret Purpose of God. That secret Purpose is summarised in the words, to gather up in one all tilings in Christ
as
:

To gather up in one
addition of
all

As

the total

is

the result of the

the separate factors, as the summary presents in one view the details of a complicated argument these are the
so

metaphors suggested by the Apostle s word


counsels Christ
All things
.

in

the

Divine

is

the

Sum
:

The

of all things. definite article of

the Greek cannot be

but it helps to give the idea that * all represented in English the are regarded as a whole, as when we speak of things Col. i 1 7 and Heb. i 3. universe compare
:

the stress

The Greek has the definite article here also for not on the individual personality, but rather on the Messianic office. The Messiah summed up the Ancient People
In Christ
.

is laid

St Paul proclaims that foundation of

He sums up

the Universe.

The contrast between the one and the many was the most of the early Greek philosophical systems. the variety of objects of sense was the result of The many The many constituted im a breaking up of the primal one The philosopher the one was the ideal perfection. perfection the absolute and alone could look beyond the many to the one
. :

existent

one
is

There
of unity.

universe, with

The variety of the discordances and confusions, has a principle In Christ , says St Paul in Col. 117, all things consist ;
something akin to this here.
its

I 10]

EPISTLE TO THE EPHESIANS.


:

33

in

even as

is, they have their principle of cohesion and unity through Him and unto Him they have been created If confusion has entered, it is not of the nature of things, and it is not to be eternal. In the issue the true unity will be asserted and

Him, that

Col.

16

manifested.

determination

The mystery of the to gather up in one

will
all

of

God

is

the Divine
.

things in Christ

to the issue of

St Paul has thus been led on past the method of God s working God s working. He has told us the purpose of the Divine Selection. It is not simply, or mainly, the blessing of the
Selected People.
It
is

It

is

the blessing of the Universe.

worth while to note how entirely this is in harmony with the lesson of the Old Testament, though it far transcends that Abraham was chosen for peculiar blessing but earlier teaching. at the moment of his call it was said to him in thee shall all Gen. xii 3 families of the earth be blessed And to take but two of the later I do not this Ezek. utterances, we may recall the warning of Ezekiel for your sakes, O house of Israel, but for Mine holy name s sake... xxxvl 22 f and the heathen shall know that I am the Lord ; and the familiar O let the nations rejoice and be glad for Ps. Ixvii words of the Psalm Thou shalt judge the folk [the chosen people] righteously, and 4 7 govern the nations upon earth... God shall bless us: and all the ends of the earth shall fear Him It was the failure to recognise this mission to bless the whole world that was the great refusal of Judaism. like failure to
: :

grasp the truth that

whole of human

the mission of Christianity to sanctify the experience has blighted the Church of Christ again
it is

and

again.

Out

of that failure it is the purpose of St

Paul s greatest

epistle to lift us to-day.

It has

For the Christian hope is an unbounded hope of universal good. two stages of its realisation, an intermediate and a final
:

stage

the intermediate stage is the hope of blessing for the Selected People; the final stage is the hope of blessing for the Universe
the gathering up in one of and things upon the earth
.

all

things in Christ, things in heaven

"Without attempting to analyse this burst of living praise, we yet may notice that there is a certain orderliness in the Apostle s enthusiasm. The fulness of spiritual blessing of v. 3 is expounded

vv. 3

10

under
tion,
v.

five great
7
;

heads
v.

Election,

v.

Adoption,
v.

v.

Redemp

Wisdom,

8; Consummation,

10.

"We might have expected him at last to stay his pen. He has reached forward and upward to the sublimest exposition ever framed

EPHES.

2
-y

34

EXPOSITION OF THE
of the ultimate Purpose of God.

[I

n,

12

His doxology might seem


is

to

have

gained

its fitting close.

But St Paul

always intensely practical,

and at once he is back with his readers in the actual world. Jew and Gentile are among the obstinate facts of his day. May it not be thought by some that he has been painting all along the glowing picture of the Jew s hope in his Jewish Messiah ?
It
is plain,

at

any

rate, that

place of

Jew and

Gentile alike in the

he desires at once to recognise the new economy. So without a

in

13

break he proceeds: in Him, in wham also we have been chosen as God s portion, having been foreordained... thai we should be to the praise of His glory, who have been the first to hope in Christ; in

whom

We have
lies

ye also... been chosen as


.

God

portion

that

to Himself as

His own

lot

and portion.

is, assigned by God Underneath the phrase

the thought of Israel s peculiar position among the nations. Compare the words of the great song in Deut. xxxii 8 ff.
:

When When He He set the

the Most

High gave to the nations their inheritance, separated the children of men,
bounds of the peoples

According to the

number

of the children of Israel

For the Lord s portion is His people; Jacob is the lot of His inheritance. He found him in a desert land,

And in the waste howling wilderness; He compassed him about, He cared for He kept him as the apple of His eye.
Zech. iii2the future:

him,

The prophet Zechariah foresaw the realisation of this once more in The Lord shall inherit Judah as His portion in the and shall yet choose Jerusalem holy land, To St Paul the fulfilment has come. In the dispensation of
.

in

the mystery of God s will, he says, this peculiar position is ours: we have been chosen as God s portion, having been foreordained
according to the purpose of to the counsel of His will
.

Him who

worketh all things according

12

no word of limitation has occurred: but now at once two classes is marked out: that we should be to the who have been the first to hope in we, praise of His glory

Thus
first

far

the

of

Christ

It seems limiting phrase is capable of two explanations. most natural to interpret it of the Christian Jews, those members of the Jewish people who have recognised Jesus as their Messiah. Elsewhere the Apostle lays stress on the fact that Christ was first

The

I 13]

EPISTLE TO THE EPHESIANS.

35

preached to and accepted by Jews. The Jewish Christian had a indeed the first stage of the Christian distinct priority in time St Paul recognises this, Church was a strictly Jewish stage.
:

though he hastens at once to emphasise the inclusion of the Gentile but only first to the Jew Eom. It is to the Jew first Christians. first, and to the Greek; for there is no respect of persons with God
:

ii

10

who aforetime hoped in the Jewish people as such. This would be in harmony with such an expression as For the hope of Acts xxviii Israel I am bound with this chain In either case, if for a moment he points to the Jewish priority, it is only as a priority in time; and his very object in mentioning it is to place beyond all question the fact that the Gentiles are no
But
,

it is also

Christ

and to

possible to render, refer the words to the

less certainly
l

chosen of God.
also
.

ln whom ye

The main verb

of this sentence is not easy

13

It can hardly be ye have been chosen as (God s) portion , supplied out of the former sentence: for the assignment to God is a part of the eternal purpose in Christ, and not a consequence of

to find.

It might be ye hope supplied out of hearing and believing the preceding participle. But it is simpler to regard the sentence as broken, and taken up again with the words in whom also
f
.

In whom ye also, having heard the word of the truth, the gospel of your salvation, in whom also having believed, ye have been To the Jew came the sealed with the holy Spirit of promise You too heard the first: but to you it came as well. message word of the truth the good news of a salvation which was yours as well as theirs. You heard, you believed; and, as if to remove all and uncertainty, God set His seal on you. The order of question
.

the words in the original Spirit of the promise, the

is

striking

Ye

were sealed with the


Gal.
iii

Here again we have the Holy (Spirit) To Abraham and his expansion of an Old Testament thought. but the ultimate purpose of God seed were the promises made was that upon the Gentiles should come the blessing of Abraham
. :

16

Gal.

iii

14

in Jesus Christ, that

we might
is

receive the promise of the Spirit


,

through faith St Peter on the


.

To you

the promise (of the Holy Spirit)


.

says Acts

ii

39

and to your children, and to all And that are afar off, as many as the Lord our God shall call when the Holy Spirit fell on the Gentiles at Caesarea he cried: Can any forbid the water, that these should not be baptized, seeing that they have received the Holy Spirit, even as we? The gift of the Spirit of the Promise was not only God s

Day

of Pentecost,

Acts x 47

and

authentication of the Gentile converts at the time, but their foretaste their security of the fulness of blessing in the future. This is

36

EXPOSITION OF THE

[I 14, 15

14

expressed in two ways. First, by a metaphor from mercantile life. The The Holy Spirit thus given is the earnest of our inheritance word arrhabon means, not a pledge deposited for a time and ulti
1
.

iv

30

mately to be claimed back, but an earnest an instalment paid at It is an actual once as a proof of the bona fides of the bargain. portion of the whole which is hereafter to be paid in full. Secondly, says the Apostle, unto the redemption of ye have been sealed So later on, speaking of the Holy Spirit, God s own possession he says: in whom ye have been sealed unto the day of redemption The full emancipation of the People of God is still in the future.
,

The redemption of God s own possession is that ultimate emancipation by which God shall claim us finally as His peculiar So the Septuagint rendered Mai. iii 17 They shall be treasure. to me for a possession, saith the Lord of Hosts, in that day which
I

comp. i Pet. ii 9, a people for Gods own possession noteworthy that St Paul is careful to employ in regard to inheritance the Gentiles the very terms emancipa promise which were the familiar descriptions of the tion possession Moreover in the phrase our inherit peculiar privilege of Israel. ance he has suddenly changed back again from the second person

make
It

is

to the first
iii

; thereby intimating that Jews and Gentiles are, to use a phrase which occurs later on, co-heirs and concorporate and co-partakers of the promise
.

At
Jer. xiii
1 1

last the great

for the thinj.

doxology comes to its close with the repetition words time of the refrain, to the praise of His glory

which recall to us the unfulfilled destiny of Israel, that they might be unto Me for a people, and for a name, and for a praise, and for a glory but they would not hear
:

1523

1S

WHEREFORE

I also, having heard of your faith in the


all

Lord Jesus, and love unto

the

l6

saints,

cease

not

to
;

give thanks for you, making mention of you in my prayers 17 that the God of our Lord Jesus Christ, the Father of glory,

may

give unto you the Spirit of wisdom and revelation l8 the eyes of your heart being in the knowledge of Him
;

enlightened, that ye may know what is the hope of His calling, what the riches of the glory of His inheritance in the saints,

and what the exceeding greatness of His power to us-ward who believe, according to the working of the might of His ^ which He hath wrought in Christ, in that He strength, hath raised Him from the dead and seated Him at His right
19

I 15,

6]

EPISTLE TO THE EPHESIANS.

37

hand in the heavenly places, * above every principality and authority and power and dominion, and every name that is
named, not only in this world, but also in that which is to come M and He hath put all things under His feet and Him ^ which hath He to be head over all to the
;

given

things
all

church,

is

His body, the fulness of Him who

in all

is

being

fulfilled.

From doxology the Apostle passes to prayer. His prayer is introduced by expressions of thanksgiving, and it presently passes into a description of the supreme exaltation of the heavenly Christ,
and
of us in

Him

for,
is

though

it is

convenient to

the end of
*

c. i,

there

in fact no break at all until

make a pause at we reach ii n.


15

Having heard of y OUT faith in


.

the saints

It

is

St Paul

the Lord Jesus and love unto alii habit to open his epistles with words of

thanksgiving and prayer; and as a rule his thanksgiving makes


times with
special reference to the faith faith he couples

the trinity of
(1)

whom he writes some and sometimes he completes ; Christian graces by a mention of hope Thus
of those to
:

love

Rom.
2

that your faith

is

spoken of throughout the

whole world.
(2)

Thess.

and the charity of every one


:

3: because that your faith groweth exceedingly, of you all toward each other aboundeth.

Philem. 5 hearing of thy love and faith which thou hast toward the Lord Jesus and toward all the saints. i Thess. i 3 remembering without ceasing your work of (3) faith and labour of love and patience of hope, etc. Col. i 4, 5 having heard of jour faith in Christ Jesus, and the love which ye have toward all the saints, because of the
:
:

hope, etc.
*

/ cease
.

not

to give

prayers

This

thanks for you, making mention of you in my making mention is a frequent term in St Paul s
"We

16

i 2, Bom. i 9, Philem. might suppose it to 4). be a peculiarly Christian expression. But, like some other phrases in St Paul, it is an old expression of the religious life of the people,

epistles (i Thess.

lifted

up to its highest use. Thus in a papyrus letter in the British Museum, written in Egypt by a sister to her brother and dated
B.C.,

July 24, 172 your welfare.


house,

we

read:

am

well myself,

I continue praying to the gods for and so is the child, and all in the

prayer

in continually making mention of you [i.e., no doubt, When I got your letter, immediately I thanked the gods for your welfare... Here are the very terms * making mention
].
.

38

EXPOSITION OF THE
and I thanked the gods
bears this out 1
this:
. .

[I 16

18

And

the language of

many
is,
.

other letters
for example,

St Paul, then, our lord Serapis makes his request to the God of our Lord Jesus Christ instead of a conventional prayer for their health and welfare, he prays for their spiritual enlighten
I

make thy

frequently occurring phrase reverence to our lord Serapis


,

instead of praying to

ment: and so what to others might have been a mere formula of correspondence becomes with him a vehicle of the highest thought
of his epistle.
1

17,

His prayer is this: that the God of our Lord Jesus Christ, the Father of glory, may give unto you the Spirit of wisdom... that ye may know...\ It is to be noted that for the sake of emphasis the Apostle has resolved the combined title of v. 3, the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ His prayer is directed to Him who is not only
.

the Father of our Lord, but also our Father in the heavenly glory. With the title the Father of glory we may compare on the one
2 Cor.
i
i

hand

the Father of mercies

rv CorTiiS- gl
ii i

^6

Jas.

St James

and on the other, the God of ; Lord of glory and the remarkable expression of our Lord Jesus Christ of glory Moreover, when after
,
. :

a long break the Apostle takes up his prayer again in iii 14, we find another emphatic expression I bow my knees to the Father, of whom all fatherhood in heaven and on earth is named

an expression which may help to interpret


this place.

the Father of glory in

The prayer takes the form


definite

end:
s

that

the

of a single definite request for a Father .. .may give unto you the Spirit of
.

wisdom... that ye

may know

The words are


.

closely parallel to

Luke

xi 13

our Lord

promise as given by St Luke: The Father... will give the Holy Spirit to them that ask Him For note that it is a Spirit, that St Paul prays for. It is not

In an attitude of mind, as when we speak of a teachable spirit the New Testament the word spirit is used in its strictest sense. All true wisdom comes from a Spirit, who dwells in us and teaches It is a teaching Spirit, rather than a teachable spirit, which us.
.

the Apostle asks that they may have. In St John s Gospel the personality of the Divine Teacher
John xiv
26, xvi 13
:

is

The Holy Spirit, whom the Father will send strongly emphasised jn When He, the Spirit nam6j jj e w jn teach you all things ^jy of truth, is come, He will guide you into all truth There in the
;
.

Greek we have the definite


is

absent

(irv^vfjax,
1

cro<i

as).

article (TO Trvcv/xa Trjs aA/^euxs) : here it To attempt to make a distinction by

See the detached note on current epistolary phrases.

I 17,

8]

EPISTLE TO THE EPHESIANS.

39

inserting the indefinite article in English would perhaps be to go There is, after all, but one Spirit of further than is warranted. wisdom that can teach us.

But a distinction may often be rightly drawn in the New Testament between the usage of the word with the definite article and its usage without it. With the article, very generally, the word indicates the personal Holy Spirit; while without it some
special manifestation or bestowal of the Holy Spirit is signified And this latter is clearly meant here. special gift of the Spirit for a special purpose is the subject of St Paul s request.

The Spirit thus specially given will make them wise: He will come as the Spirit of wisdom Yet more, as the Spirit of revelation He will lift the veil, and shew them the secret of God. Revelation or unveiling is a word which is apocalypse is in naturally used where any mystery or secret question. The Divine Secret needs a Divine Unveiling. So St Paul declares of himself by apocalypse was the mystery by revelation was
.

iii

the secret
for those to

made known unto me

whom

he writes.

prays that it may be so In one sense it is true that a secret


.
.

He

once published is thereafter but an open secret true that the Christian mystery demands for
perpetual intervention of the

But
its
.

it is

no

less

unveiling the
i

Lord Jesus be recognised and known. And to this end the eyes of their heart must be opened and filled with light. The Divine illumination is no mere intellec tual process: it begins with the heart, the seat of the affections
knowledge of Christ, the Father of glory
the
:
:

In

Him

Spirit of apocalypse i.e. of the God of our

17

as such

must

He

18

and the
1

will

1
.

striking illustration of the Ian-

guage of St Paul in this passage is to be found in 2 (4) Esdras xiv 22, 25 : * If I have found grace before thee,
send the Holy Ghost (or, a holy into me, and I shall write all ) that hath been done in the world
spirit

the fulness of the times compare 2 (4) Esdr. iv. 37, By measure hath He

measured the times, and by number hath He numbered the times ; and He doth not move nor stir them, until the said measure be fulfilled with
:

the mystery

compare

xii 36,

since the beginning... And he answered me,... I shall light a candle of under-

only hast been


this

made meet

to

Thou know

secret of

standing in thine heart, which shall not be put out, till the things be per-

v. 38,

38, xiv 5

the Highest (comp. the secrets of the

formed which thou shalt


write
.

begin

to

with ye were sealed corn) : pare perhaps vi 5, Before they were sealed that have gathered faith for
times

In this book, which is perhaps almost contemporary with St Paul, there are two or three other verbal parallels

a treasure,
is

and x

23,
lost

And, which
all, the seal her honour .

the greatest [sorrow] of

of Sion hath

now
p.

which are worth noticing here

with

See also below,

48.

40
6

EXPOSITION OF THE
That ye
.

[I

1820

eternity
(1)

threefold knowledge, embracing all may know the past, the future, and not least the present. What is the hope of His calling Note that St Paul does
.

not say the hope of your calling i.e. His calling of you that is included. The expression is wider it is universal.
,
:

though
"We

are

taken back, as in the earlier verses of the chapter, to the great past of eternity, before the foundations of the world were laid. It is His calling in the fullest sense, that we need to understand. . That calling involves a hope and we must learn to know
,

what that hope

is.

It

is

a certain hope

for it rests

fact that the calling is God s calling, and no weak Faithful is that calleth you, iThes.v24 for better things.

on the very wish of ours

He

who

also will

do

it

What the riches of the glory of Ifis inheritance in the This too they must know the glory of the eternal future. but something grander far. Again, it is not of your inheritance It is His inheritance ; of which they are but a tiny, though a
(2) saints .
: 4

Deut.
xxxii 9

The necessary, part. i ot O f His inheritance*.

Lord s portion

is

His people

Jacob
to

is

the

119

who
the

(3) believe

And what
.

the exceeding greatness

of His power

us-ward

Not merely God s

calling in

inheritance in the future


first

enlarge.

but also God s ; two he has said much already on the third he will now And so he is led on, as it were by a word, to a vast
:

the past, and God s power in the present. Of

expansion of his thought. This power is an extraordinary, a supernatural power. It is the very power that has raised Christ from the dead and seated Him at God s right hand, and that makes Him now supreme over the uni
verse.
i

This

is

the power that goes forth


.

to us-ward

who

believe

19,

20

According to the working of the might of His strength, which He hath wrought in Christ have no words that fully represent the original of the phrase, the working... which He hath wrought Both the noun and the verb are emphatic in themselves, and St Paul seldom employs them, except where he is speaking of some Divine activity Might again, is an emphatic word, never used of mere human power in the New Testament. St Paul heaps word

We

upon word (Swa/us, evepyeia, /cparos, term s) in his determination to emphasise the power of God that is at work in the lives of them
that believe
1
.

In
ii,

that

He

hath raised

viii

If the Spirit of
. . .

Him from the dead Compare Horn, Him that raised Jesus from the dead
.

d welleth in you
1

See the detached note on tvepyelv and

its

cognates.

2023]

EPISTLE TO THE EPHESIANS.


set

41
.

The at His right hand in the heavenly places a step in the path of exaltation. Above every principality and authority and power and dominion 121 These titles St Paul uses as denoting familiar distinctions of spiritual We have another list in Col. i 16: Whether thrones or forces. dominions or principalities or authorities Originally terms of

And

Him

resurrection

is

Jewish speculation, they came in after times to play a large part in The Apostle s purpose in mentioning them, Christian thought. both here and in the Epistle to the Colossians, is to emphasise the He closes the list with every exaltation of Christ above them all. name that is named i.e. every title or dignity that has been or can
,

be given as a designation of majesty. Name which is above every name


.

Compare

Phil,

ii

9,

the

That

spiritual potencies are in the Apostle s


,

mind

is

clear

from

the phrase

in the heavenly sphere as we have already seen (above, on v. 3); and also from the added words not only in this world is to come\ (or age\ but also in that which

anywhere can be above all grades of dignity, real or imagined, good or evil, present or to come the mighty power of God has exalted and enthroned the

Above

all

that

anywhere

is,

Christ.

Thus Christ has i 22 hath put all things under His feet Let them have Gen. i 26 His own person the destiny of man The actual words are derived from the eighth Psalm dominion... What is man that Thou art mindful of him, and the son of man Ps.viii4, 6 that Thou visitest him?... Thou hast put all things under his feet The best comment is Heb. ii 6 9. And Him hath He given to be head over all things to the church, i 22, 23 which is His body\ When St Paul combats the spirit of jealousy and division in the Corinthian Church, he works out in detail the metaphor of the Body and its several parts. But he does not there speak of Christ as the Head. For not only does he point out the absurdity of the head s saying to the feet, I have no need of you ; but he also refers to the seeing, the hearing and the smelling, to which he could not well have alluded as separate functions, had he been thinking of Christ as the head. Indeed in that great passage Christ has, if possible, a more impressive position still He is no part, but rather the whole of which the various members are parts for as the body is one and hath many members, and all the mem- i Cor. xii
.

And He
.

fulfilled in

I2 bers of the body being many are one body ; so also is the Christ with the image employed by our This is in exact correspondence That is to John xv I am the Yine, ye are the branches Lord Himself
.

say, not

am

the trunk of the vine, and ye the branches growing

42
out of the trunk
;

EXPOSITION OF THE
but rather,
I

[I

23

am

the living whole, ye are the


.

V22

ff.

parts whose life is a life dependent on the whole Here however the Apostle approaches the consideration of Christ s relation to the Church from a different side, and his lan guage differs accordingly. He has begun with the exalted Christ and he has been led on to declare that the relation of the exalted Christ to His Church is that of the head to the body. It is interesting to observe that later on, when he comes to ex pound the details of human relationship as based on eternal truths, he says in the first place, Let wives be subject to their own hus bands as to the Lord because the husband is head of the wife, as also Christ is head of the Church, Himself being saviour of the body but then, turning to the husbands, he drops the metaphor of headship, and bids them love their wives as their own bodies,
;
;
:

following again the example of Christ in relation to His Church; and he cites the ideal of marriage as proclaimed at the creation of
Gen.
&
ii

24;
5

E h

v^

Not headship here, but This mystery , he adds, is a ^entity, is the relation in view. mighty one: but I speak (it) with reference to Christ and to the
man,
the twain shall become one flesh
.

Church Thus the two conceptions involve to St Paul s mind no inherent He passes easily from one to the other. Each in contradiction. turn serves to bring out some side of the truth.
.

say that the headship of Christ is a new concep tion, belonging only to the Epistles to the Ephesians and to the For in the same Epistle to the Corinthians in which Colossians 1
.

Nor may we

Cor. xi 3

he regards Christ as the whole Body of which Christians are the parts, he also says, I would have you know that the head of every man is Christ, and the head of the woman is the man (i.e. her This is not quite the. husband), and the head of Christ is God same thought as we have here; but it is closely parallel.
.

We
i

now come

to

what

is

perhaps the most remarkable expres

23

sion in the whole epistle. It is the phrase in which St Paul further describes the Church, which he has just declared to be Christ s Body, as ike fulness of Him who all in all is being
fulfilled
.

the Apostle thus speaks of the Church as the pleroma or fulness 2 of the Christ, and in the same breath speaks of the Christ as being fulfilled he would appear to mean that in some
,

When

mysterious sense the Church


1

is

that without which the Christ is


i

Eph.

i 22, iv 15, v 23 ; Col. See the detached note on

18, ii 10, 19.

I 23]

EPISTLE TO THE EPHESIANS.

43

is

not complete, but with which He is or will be complete. That to say, he looks upon the Christ as in a sense waiting for completeness, and destined in the purpose of God to find com
pleteness in the Church.

This is a somewhat startling thought. Are we justified in thus giving to St Paul s language what appears to be its obvious

meaning ?
1.

First, let us

been employed,
Christ
it is

pay attention to the metaphor which has just and which leads directly up to this statement. the Head of the Church, which is His Body. Now, is
1

not true that in a certain sense the body is the pleroma or Is the head complete without the body? fulness of the head Can we even think of a head as performing its functions without a body? In the sense then in which the body is the fulness or completion of the head, it is clear that St Paul can speak of the Church as the fulness or completion of the Christ. Even now, in the imperfect stage of the Church, we can see
?

is true. The Church is that through which Christ lives on and works on here below on earth. Jesus, the Christ incar His feet and hands no nate, is no longer on earth as He was. move and work in our midst, as once they moved and longer wrought in Palestine. But St Paul affirms that He is not without feet and hands on earth: the Church is His Body. Through the Church, which St Paul refuses to think of as something separate from Him, He still lives and moves among men 2. But, further, although he may make havoc of his meta phors, St Paul will never let us forget that the relation of the Church to Christ is something even closer than that of a body In the present passage he has been describing the to its head. exalted Christ; and he asks, How does He in His supreme posi tion of authority stand to the Church He stands as Head to But this is never all the truth; and if we bear in the Body. mind St Paul s further conception, in accordance with which the whole Head and Body together is the Christ, we get yet further help in our interpretation of the statement that the Church is the pleroma of the Christ. For it is plainer than ever that without the Church the Christ is incomplete: and as the Church grows

that this

Cor. xii

I3

towards completion, the Christ grows towards completion; the the Christ Christ, who in the Divine purpose must be all in all
,

Col.

iii

if

we may
.

so use the language of our

own

great poet

that

is

to be
3.

Again, this conception illuminates and in turn receives


1

See the quotation from Clement of Alexandria on

p. 140.

44
light

EXPOSITION OF THE
from a remarkable passage is there speaking of his If joice in them, he tells us. one, the suffering of the Church
St Paul
are also one.

[I

23

in the Epistle to the Colossians. own sufferings he can even re


:

the Church and the Christ are

and the suffering of the Christ has not suffered all that He is Christ, then, destined to suffer; for He goes on suffering in the sufferings of the Church. These sufferings of the Church have fallen with He is filling up something of what special heaviness on St Paul.

The

is

CoL

24

still to be filled So up, if the sufferings are to be complete. he says Now I rejoice in my sufferings on your behalf, and fill up in your stead the remainder (literally, the deficits ) of the
:

my flesh, on behalf of His Body, Thus then the Church, the completion of the Christ, is destined to complete His sufferings; and St Paul rejoices that as a member of the Church he is allowed by God to do a large share of this in his own person on the Church s behalf. The thought is astonishing; it could never have occurred
sufferings
is

of

the Christ in
.

which

the Church

to a less generous spirit than St Paul s. It is of value to us as helping to show in one special direction how to St Paul s here, mind the Christ in a true sense still waited for completion, and

would

find that completion only in the Church.

St Paul, then, thinks of the Christ as in some sense still in The conception is complete, and as moving towards completeness. difficult and mysterious no doubt; but the Apostle has given us

10

abundant warning earlier in the epistle that he is dealing with no ordinary themes. He has already told us that the purpose of God is to gather up in one all things in the Christ Until
.

that great purpose is fully achieved, the Christ is not yet all that the Divine wisdom has determined that He shall be. He still waits for His completeness, His fulfilment. As that is

being gradually worked out, the Christ


fulfilled.

is

being completed,

being

By way
serts

of enhancing this ultimate completeness St Paul in


all

the adverbial phrase


all

in all
its

or,

(things) in
after

(things)

We

feel

force the
it

more literally, all more when we


comes as a climax
:

read the whole context, and observe that

two previous declarations of supremacy over all things He hath put all things under His feet; and Him hath He given to be head over all things to the Church, which is His

And Body, the fulness of Him who all in all is being fulfilled indeed immediately before this we read, above every principality ...and every name All conceivable fulness, a completeness which
. .

1 23]

EPISTLE TO THE EPHESIANS.


universe,
is

45

sums up the

predicated of the Christ as the issue of


as the Apostle will declare yet

the Divine purpose. Through the Church

more

Hi 10

The explicitly further on, this Divine purpose is being worked out Head finds completeness in the Body the Church is the completion
:

of the Christ

all in all fulfilled towards a completeness absolute and all-inclusive


:

for the Christ is being

is

moving

It

may

be well here to note that

the three great Versions of antiquity support the rendering of the pas

sage which is here given. The Latin Church, the early Syrian Church, and the Egyptian Church so understood

from their king. So nothing more in harmony with the merciful kingdom of Christ, than each of those reasonable beings aided and perfected
revolt
is

by Him, who help to

fulfil

that king

dom;

in that fleeing unto


fulfil

Him
is

the words
loc.

see the

commentary ad

help to

His Body, which


it

they in a

manner empty, while


be here quoted.
says
133

lacks those

Of the Greek commentators two

may

that are thus aided by Him. Where fore Christ is fulfilled in all that come

Origen
Ephes.

(Cramer,
ff.
;

Catena in

unto Him, whereas


in respect of
come."

He

pp.
:

comp.

Jerome
in

them

is still lacking before they have

ad

loc.)

"Now,

we

desire to

know

what
of
all

The words

of the great master are

way the Church, being the Body Christ, is the fulness of Him who
in all
is

not always clear, but his illustration is a good one up to a certain point
:

being
of

fulfilled

and why
filleth
is

it is
(TrXij-

not said

Him who
but
fulfilled,

and at least there is no doubt of what he thought the passage meant.


Chrysostom, in
his

povvros) all in all,


filled

who

Himself
:

Commentary
iii

(or

7r\7,povf^i>ov)

on the passage
:

(Savile,

776), after

seem as though it would have been more naturally said that Christ was He who filleth, and not He who is filled. For He Himself not
for it will

expounding the Headship of Christ to His Body, says as though this were not "But,

enough to show the relation and close

only

is

also is

the fulness of the Law, but of all fulnesses ever the fulness,

The ful connexion, what says he ? ness , he says, of Christ is the Church.
For the fulness of the head is the body, and the fulness of the body is
the head. ... * The fulness
is,
,

since nothing

comes

to be full apart

from Him. the answer

See, then, if this be not


;

close relation

that inasmuch as, for the and fellowship of the

he says that
:

of

Son with reasonable beings, the Son God is the fulness of all reasonable

just as the head is filled (or ful For the body is filled) by the body.

beings, so too

He

Himself takes as
full

it

were a fulness into

shown
is

to

be most

Himself, being in regard to

constituted of all its parts, and has need of each one.... For if we be not many, and one a hand, another a foot, and another some other part, then

each of the blessed.


said

And

that

what

the whole

Body
all,

is

not

fulfilled.

By

be the plainer, conceive of a king as being filled with kingdom in respect of each of those who aug

may

means
filled.

of

Then
all

then, His Body is ful the Head is fulfilled,

then there comes to be a perfect Body,

ment

his

kingdom
in

and being emptied


of

when we

thereof

the

case

those

who

joined in one.

together are knit and Do you see the riches

46
i

EXPOSITION OF THE

[I 23, II

23 and
c.

i.

The beginning of c. ii cannot be separated from the close of The Apostle has been led away to expound the mystery
:

of the exalted Christ

persons

to

whom

he

is

but he comes quickly back to the actual writing, and deals at some length with

their relation to

parallel to that in v.

The transition is exactly the gathering up in one of the universe in the Christ he turns at once to speak of the relation
the exalted Christ.
ii,

where from

of himself

and
.

of his readers to Christ

in

whom

also we... in

whom

ye
i

also

. .

iii

21

the

It will be useful at this point to note the general construction of first part of the epistle
:

(1)

Doxology

purpose of
(2)

God

leading to ever-expanding thoughts of the in Christ, and describing the relation of Jew and
(i

Gentile to that purpose

14).

leading to a preliminary exposition of the of the exalted Christ (i 15 23), and then to a fuller mystery discussion of the relation of Jew and Gentile to Him (ii i 22).

Prayer

In iii i the Apostle recurs to the thought of his Prayer; (3) but at once breaks off to say more of the mystery, and of his own work in proclaiming it; and then (iii 14) returns to his Prayer, and closes it at last with a brief Doxology (iii 20, 21).
i

1523

may now gather up the leading thoughts of i 15 23, in order to grasp the connexion of this passage with what follows I have heard of your faith (15) I thank God, and I pray (16) that you may have the true knowledge (17), the light which falls
: :

We

on the opened eye of the heart; that you may know the hope
of

God s

calling, the glory of

God s
all,

ness of

God s power: above


(19).

the last of these as

inheritance (18), the great it bears

upon ourselves
Christ
:

there you see

Judge what it is by looking at the exalted God has raised Him, and it at work (20).

above every conceivable dignity of this world or the next (21). Thus supreme, He has further made Him Head of a Body (22), which in turn fulfils and completes Him; for to
exalted

Him

an absolute completeness He is still moving on The grammatical construction was broken

(23) in v.

22

from

that point independent sentences follow one another, no longer subsidiary to the words according to the working... which... of

W.

19,

20.

of our next sentence, which is simply added by a to those which precede, is long in coming; for once conjunction

The verb

you

of the glory of the inheritance? Do see the exceeding greatness of the

power towards them that believe? Do you see the hope of the calling ?
"

II i]

EPISTLE TO THE EPHESIANS.


is

47

more the construction

We

find the verb at last in


.

broken, to be picked up again in v. 5. He hath quickened us together with


is this:

Christ

So that the

line of

thought

specially prays that they may know is the very power God has raised Christ from the dead and seated

The power which the Apostle by which

Him

in the

heavenly region

(i 20),

and

and Jews, as he breaks seated them in the heavenly region in Christ (ii 5, 6). In the original the sequence is brought out clearly by the repetition of the verbs of i 20 in a compound form in ii 6.

also has quickened them (both Gentiles off to explain), and raised them, and

AND you, who were dead in your trespasses and sins, wherein in time past ye walked according to the course of this
air,
3
;

ii i

10

world, according to the prince of the power of the spirit that now worketh in the sons of disobedience

of the

wherein

we

also all

flesh,

had our conversation in time past in the lusts of our doing the desires of our flesh and of our minds, and were
as the rest
:

by nature children of wrath, even

rich in mercy, for His great love wherewith

He

but God, being hath loved us,

seven though we were dead in trespasses hath quickened us 6 and hath together with Christ, by grace ye are saved,
us together and seated us together in the heavenly places in Christ Jesus: Hhat in the ages to come He might shew forth the exceeding riches of His grace in His kindness
raised

toward us in Christ Jesus.


faith
;

For by grace are ye saved through


: :

and that not of yourselves it is the gift of God 9 not of IO For we are His workman works, lest any man should boast. created in Christ Jesus unto good works, which God hath ship, afore prepared that we should walk in them.
The grammatical construction is often broken in St Paul s writings from a desire to clear up obscurities at once and to fore stall possible misconceptions. His style reminds us of the freedom and rapidity of conversation it hurries eagerly on, regardless of
:

formal rules, inserting


to
repetitions

to

explanations in a parenthesis, trusting restore the original connexion, and above all
full

depending on emphasis to drive the meaning home. less cause to be surprised at this freedom of

We

have the

composition,

when we

48
remember that
l
.

EXPOSITION OF THE
several
of

[II

i,

his epistles contain the clearest indi

cations that the Apostle s practice was to dictate his letters to an amanuensis Accordingly in many cases the force of a passage
will

most readily be felt when we read it rapidly or read it aloud. In the present instance the Apostle desires to work out a simple The mighty power of God, he would say, which raised parallel. Christ from the dead and seated Him in the heavenly region, has been at work in you as well. For you too were dead, and you too
it

places.

has raised from the dead and seated with Christ in the heavenly But he breaks off in the middle to explain (i) in what

sense he could speak of them as dead, and (2) that not only they, the Gentiles, were dead, but the Jews likewise. Quite similarly in i 1 3 he had broken off to say that not the Jews only had been taken

as

God

s portion,

but they, the Gentiles, likewise.


trespasses

ii !

Dead in your

and

sins

that

is

to say,

you were

dead, not with a physical death as Christ was, but with the death of This state of sin ; dead while you lived, because you lived in sin.

death was the inevitable condition of those


the
life

of this world,
to the

which

is

who had no life beyond dominated by death and the lords of


.

death \
ii

According
original
is

course of this world

age

or

pleonastic. this world


.

The expression of the The Apostle might have said either this But for the sake of emphasis he says, in a

the phrase which we cannot use in English without ambiguity, This age and this world represent a single of this world age Hebrew phrase, which is often found in the Rabbinic writings, where it stands in contrast to the age (or world ) to come that The is to say, the age introduced by the advent of the Messiah. contrast is not found in the canonical books of the Old Testament ; Thus we read The 2 (4) Esdr. but it occurs frequently in 2 (4) Esdras. l Most High hath made this world for many, but the world to come The same contrast is found in St Matthew s Gospel, Matt.xii 3 2 for a few 3 and we have had it already in this epistle Paul is in agreement with contemporary Jewish thought in St i 4, i Cor. regarding this age as evil and as transitory (see Gal. Eom. xii 2 vii 31). Instead of being conformed to it, Christians are to be For them transfigured even now by the renewing of their mind
.

Compare

e.g.
1 8,

xvi 21, Col. iv


2

Horn, xvi 22, i Cor. 2 Thess. iii 17.


spiritual

On

life

and death in a

sense see the striking words of

Dr Hort

3 See Eph. i 21, and the commentary on that verse. Compare also 2 (4) Esdr. vi 9, For Esau is the end of this world, and Jacob is the begin-

(Hulsean Lectures, App. pp.

iSpff.).

ning of

it

that followeth

II

2, 3]
*

EPISTLE TO THE EPHESIANS.


is

49
crucified

this

world

already dead, having been itself

in the Gal.

vi 14

crucifixion of Christ.

Here again According to the prince of the power of the air the Apostle adopts the language of his contemporaries. It was the general belief of his time that through the Fall the whole world had
.

become subject to evil spirits, who had their dwelling in the air, and were under the control of Satan as their prince. So in the New Testament itself we read of the power of darkness in Col. contrast with the kingdom of Christ ; of the power of Satan and even the kingdom of Satan ; and Beelzebub is named as the xii. 26 Later on in this epistle we have a further Markm22 prince of the devils
*
,

description of the spiritual hosts of wickedness , who are called in a strange phrase the world-rulers of this darkness
.

vi 12

This power (or authority ) of the air is further described by a collective term as the spirit that now worketh in the sons of\\i The phrase is carefully chosen so as to suggest that disobedience the world-power as a whole stands in sharp contrast to God. It is a spirit and it worketh the same forcible word which has been i n, 20 used twice already of the Divine working.
.

The sons of disobedience

is

a Hebraism.

It recurs in v

6.
:

Compare also Luke xvi 8, xx 34, the sons of this world (or age ) and contrast i Thess. v 5, sons of light and sons of day In is sometimes used children rendering it into Greek the word instead of sons as in ii 3 children of wrath and v 8 children
.

of the light

but the meaning

is

precisely the same.

Lest the Gentiles should seem for a moment to be placed in a worse position than the Jews, St Paul breaks off to insert a guard Wherein ing clause. We were all alike, he says, in this evil case. we also all had our conversation in time past in the lusts of our flesh,
doing the desires of our flesh and of our minds Whether in Gentile or in Jew this lower life was hateful to God it was a life of disobedience, and as such it incurred the Divine wrath. were by nature children of wrath, even as the
. :

ii

We

rest

to

we have seen, an expression parallel That the wrath here spoken of must be the Divine wrath, and not human passion is made clear by a later passage, in which similar on account v 6 phraseology recurs of these things the wrath of God cometh upon the sons of dis obedience wrath in this place as Moreover, to interpret passion would destroy the contrast which immediately follows between wrath and mercy The phrase plainly signifies objects
Children of wrath
is,
.

as

sons of disobedience

EPHES.

50
of the Divine
of
:

EXPOSITION OF THE
God

[II 3

wrath compare Rom. i 18, ii 5, 8, where the wrath shewn to attend Gentiles and Jews alike who do amiss. Thus far the expression involves no difficulty. This is what St Paul has always taught Jew and Gentile are in the same case
is
:

they have alike lived in sin and * children of wrath


.

they are alike

sons of disobedience
9

into the latter phrase he inserts the words by nature : In children by nature of wrath is the order of the original. interpreting these words it is important to remember that we are

But

accustomed to use the word nature much more freely than it was used in St Paul s day. We speak, for instance, of an evil nature : So but there is no such term to be found in the New Testament 1 too we often use the word natural in a depreciatory sense, as when we render i Cor. ii 14, The natural man receive th not the But in the Greek the word is i^v^t/cos, things of the Spirit of God
. .

the

man

of soul

The Greek word

as opposed to Tn/eu/xariKo s, the man of spirit It simply means for nature is a neutral word.
c

the natural constitution of a thing, or the thing in itself apart from anything that may come to it from outside. As a rule it has a

good meaning rather than a bad thus according to nature is good, contrary to nature is bad ; compare Rom. xi 2 1 ff., and
:

Rom.
Eom.
Gal.
ii

26.

14

ii

15

important example of St Paul s use of the phrase by nature is found in the words, When the Gentiles, which have not Law, by nature do the things of the Law i.e. without the Other examples are, intervention of a direct revelation. are
:

An

We
:

by nature Jews
Gal. iv 8

i.e.

we have not become such


,

we are such

and,

those which

by nature are not gods

though they
:

may be thought

such and called such.

We were in ourselves chil but God in His mercy did not leave us to ourselves as the Apostle hurries on to say, breaking his We must be careful, sentence again in order to point the contrast. not to introduce then, while retaining the rendering by nature nature ; nor to later meanings and associations of the word
The sense
of the present passage is
:

dren of wrath, even as the rest

make St Paul throw the blame upon a


necessarily led to sin

defect of constitution which That is not the teaching of this By nature as St Paul used the words, men were not passage. led to do wrong they could not shift the blame on to necessarily

and wrath.
,
:

their
1

nature
i Pet. i 4

In

nature
of a

(6da

0i5<rts);

we read of a Divine and in Jas. iii 7


(avepwrlv-r)
<tf<ns)

in contrast to a
(0&ris
6i}pL(av).

nature of beasts

human

nature

II

36]
Much
to
of
is

EPISTLE TO THE EPHESIANS.


the confusion which has shrouded the meaning of * This sug probably due to the word children
.

the passage

many minds the idea of infancy so that St Paul is gests taken to mean that by our birth as children we came under the Divine wrath. But this is quite foreign to his meaning here. He is not thinking, as in Rom. v, of the sin and death in which we are
:

involved through

Adam s

disobedience.

He

is

speaking of actual

Atten transgressions, of a conversation in the lusts of the flesh. tion to the two parts of the phrase has shewn us (i) that children * of uirath is a Hebraism for objects of wrath , and (2) that by
as apart from the Divine in ourselves So that the common misinterpretation which makes the phrase mean deserving of wrath from the moment of birth is due to a neglect first of a Hebrew, and then of a Greek

nature

means simply

purpose of mercy.

idiom.

St Paul hastens on, as so often, from sin to grace, only mention how grace more than meets it compare Rom. iii 23 f., v 12 21. Here sin and wrath lead on to a wealth as in the previous chapter sin led on to a wealth of of mercy
ing sin in order to shew
:

ii

i 7

grace

Even though we were dead in trespasses With these words he takes up the broken sentence of v. i only now the Jew has been linked with the Gentile in the disobedience and the wrath and therefore must be kept with the Gentile in the mercy Hence
. : *

ii 5

not

you/ but

we

hath quickened us together with Christ, by grace ye are St Paul s affection for the word grace , the word which to saved him sums up his own special proclamation 1 the word which is his
. ,

He

sign-manual in every epistle leads him to break off again to insert it ; and the insertion itself will presently be repeated and expanded,
,

2 Thess.
I

iii

causing a yet further digression (v. 8). Ye are saved ; not ye are being saved
2 nor ye were saved regarded as in process a single Divine act 3 but ye are saved or
: :

(aorist)

salvation (present) salvation as

ye have been saved

salvation as a Divine act completed indeed, but regarded (perfect) as continuous and permanent in its issues.

And hath
(with
1

Him) in

raised us together (with Him) and seated us together the heavenly places in Christ Jesus \ The compound
note on
the
that were being saved . 3 As in Eom. viii 24,

ii

See the

detached

meanings of xapts. 2 As in i Cor. i 18, xv 2; 2 Cor. ii them 15; and especially Acts ii 47,

for

by hope

were we saved

42

52
verbs verbs
(a-uvrjyeipev

EXPOSITION OF THE

[II 6

10

and crvvfKaOicrcv^ are intended to recall the simple and Ka$ib-as) of i 20. Christ was dead, and was raised (eyeipa? from the dead. We too, in a true sense, were dead, and as truly were raised from the dead in His Resurrection aye, and were seated, even as He was seated, in the heavenly sphere
:

spoken of as a Divine act contemporaneous with the Resurrection and Ascension of Christ. It is wholly independent of
is

All this

any human
into a
6
7

action.

It is the free grace of God, which has lifted us

new world

in Christ.

As

its

motive the Apostle can but

i
ii

As he had said before that the suggest the glorification of grace. Election and the Adoption were f to the praise of the glory of His so here he says, that in the ages to come He might shew grace
:

forth the exceeding riches of His grace in His kindness toward us in Christ Jesus
.

ii

8,

For by grace he repeats, are ye saved through faith and lest by any means the possibility of merit should seem to creep in with the mention of the faith which realises this great salvation,
, :

and that not oj yourselves : it is the gift of God : any man should boast or, if we may slightly paraphrase the words to force out the meaning of the original the gift, for such it is, is God s gift aye, and not of yourselves
he adds at once
:

not of works,

lest

not of works, that none


ii

may have ground

to boast

J
.

10

For we are His workmanship : more closely, for His making words which recall Ps. 03: it is He that hath made us, But the words which here follow shew that and not we ourselves There has it is not of the first Creation that St Paul is speaking.

we

are

been a new Making of


Christ Jesus
.

Man

in Christ.

We

have been

created in

This

is

that

New

vi 15, as having done


*

Creation of which St Paul speaks in Gal. away with the distinction between those who
it
:

were within the Jewish covenant and those who were outside
for neither
is)

is

(there

a new

circumcision anything, nor uncircumcision ; but creation Similarly in 2 Cor. v 1 6 f he declares


.
.

that distinctions of the flesh are done

henceforth away know no man after the flesh... so that if any man be in Christ, the old things have passed away lo, (there is) a new creation have become new they Mankind had started as One in the original Creation. But in
: :
:
.

We from

the course of the world s history, through sin on the one hand, and on the other hand through the revelation of God to a selected
People, a division had

come
1

in.

Mankind was now Two and not


ff.

See above pp. so

II ID]

EPISTLE TO THE EPHESIANS.

53

There was the privileged Jew, and there was the unprivileged It was the glory of grace to bring the Two once more new start was thus made in the as One in Christ. together world s history. St Paul called it a New Creation. We shall see presently the importance which he attaches to this He is our peace he says, who hath made both One... iii4f. view. that He might create the Two in Himself into One New Man,
One.
Gentile.

And so again, later on, he speaks of the New making peace Man, which according to God is created in righteousness The New Creation, then, in St Paul s language is that fresh beginning in the history of the human race by which the old division is done away, and the unity of mankind is restored. It was for the realisation of this unity that St Paul laboured and suffered. His supreme mission was to proclaim Christ as the centre of a united humanity. And this is the drift of our present passage. The Apostle has been speaking of the relation of both Gentile and Jew Both alike were in themselves the objects of Divine to Christ. wrath by reason of their disobedience but both alike, though dead, were quickened, raised, exalted, with and in Christ Jesus. Man was made anew by God. Free grace had done it all works, or merit as we should say, had no part in the matter. It was a New Creation God s making are we, created in Christ Jesus
. .

iv

24

Created in Christ Jesus unto good works, which God hath afore Not of works , but unto prepared that we should walk in them works The Divine purpose is not achieved apart from the good
1
.

ii

10

works
them.

of

men

only

it

does not begin from them, but leads to


:

They are included in the Divine will for man they are for our doing ; and we are created to do them. This reference ready to works is an echo of the earlier controversial teaching. It is which is the human directly suggested by the mention of faith
,

response to the Divine

grace

We
of

must not allow our attention to be distracted by the

details

interpretation from the very remarkable thought which is enshrined in the verses which we have been considering. The Apostle has been praying that God would grant to those to whom 117 he is writing the Spirit of wisdom and revelation, with a view to
their

knowing in particular the mighty energy that


all

is

at

work in

20

themselves and in
exalted

It is that miraculous power Christian people. which raised and exalted Christ. It has in like manner raised and

them in Christ for they cannot be separated from Him, even as the Body cannot be separated from its Head. The result of this action on God s part is manifold. It lifts them out of the
:

22

ii i

10

54
,

EXPOSITION OF THE
*
,

[II 10,

n
.

* and sets them in the heavenly sphere or world present age It lifts them above the control of the world-forces which rule here

below, and seats them where Christ is seated above all the powers It lifts them out of death that are or can be. the death of sin

and makes them truly alive. It annihilates the old distinction between Gentile and Jew, and inaugurates a New Creation of man kind for Gentile and Jew alike were dead, and alike have been quickened and exalted in Christ Jesus. And all this is the free gift of God, His sovereign grace. The same teaching, couched to some extent in the same words,
:

may be

gathered out of various parts of the Epistle to the Colossians (see especially i 21, ii 12, 13, 20); and there it is pressed to the logical conclusion, which is only hinted at in the good works of
Col.
iii i ff.

our passage. For there the Apostle urges If therefore ye have been raised together with Christ, seek the things that are above, where Christ is, seated at the right hand of God set your thought on the things that are above, not on the things that are on
: :

the earth.
in

For ye have

died,

and your

life is

hidden with Christ

God Nor

is

We need but recall the sixth chapter of


Horn, vi
1 1

the teaching by any means confined to these two epistles. the Epistle to the Romans,
:

where again the logical conclusion is vigorously pressed In like manner do ye also reckon yourselves dead to sin, but living to God
in Christ Jesus
.

In our present passage the practical issue is not insisted on, but merely hinted at in passing. The Apostle s main thought is the unity which has thus been brought about, and the new hope which Hence he passes accordingly is opened up for mankind as a whole. on at once to expound the wealth of privilege to which, as the result of this new unity, his Gentile readers have been introduced.
ii

1122

"WHEREFORE

in the flesh,
is

who

remember that in time past ye, the Gentiles are called the Uncircumcision by that which

called the Circumcision, in the flesh,

made by hands,

"

that

at that time without Christ ye were aliens from the

common

wealth of Israel and strangers from the covenants of promise, I3 But now in having no hope and without God in the world.
Christ Jesus ye

who

in time past were far off have been


I4

made

For He is our peace, who hath nigh by the blood of Christ. made both one, and hath broken down the middle wall of the
I5

partition,

having abolished in His flesh the enmity, the law

II

1 1]

EPISTLE TO THE EPHESIANS.


contained in ordinances;
that

55

of

commandments

He might
;

new man, so making peace 16 and that He might reconcile both unto God in one body by the cross, having slain the enmity thereby I7 and He came and preached peace to you which were afar off, and peace to them I8 for through Him we both have our access in that were nigh
create in Himself of the twain one
:

So then ye are no more strangers but ye are fellow-citizens with the saints, and and sojourners, * of the household of God, being built upon the foundation of the apostles and prophets, Christ Jesus Himself being the M in whom all the corner-stone building fitly framed together
one Spirit unto the Father.
I9
;

groweth into an holy temple in the Lord; in whom ye also are being builded together for an habitation of God in the
22

Spirit.
f

Wherefore remember*.

It is hard for us to realise the vital

ii

interest of this teaching to St Paul s readers. To us the distinction of Jew and Gentile is not the most important fact in human life.

The battle for our and place in Christ

privilege as Gentile Christians

for our part

was fought and won eighteen hundred years We have forgotten the struggle and the victory altogether. ago. We do not recognise that this was a decisive battle of the world s
history.

But
conflict

for the Gentiles to

whom

St Paul wrote the abolition of this

great distinction was everything.

For five and twenty years the had been raging. At one moment the issue had depended on a single man. little place the Christian Jew was prepared to

He might be like the stranger in the gates but he could not be as the true born child of privilege, unless indeed he were prepared to abandon his Gentile position, and
allow to the Christian Gentile.
:

by circumcision identify himself with the Jew. At one critical moment even St Peter withdrew himself, and would not sit at the same table with the Gentile Christians. St Barnabas at that moment was likewise carried away. St Paul stood He saw that everything depended on absolute equality alone. within the Church of Christ. He withstood St Peter to the face, and brought him to his true self again. That scene and a score of others, when in different ways the same struggle was being waged, left a deep mark on St Paul s mind. Two Churches or one that to his mind was the question at issue. One Church, in the providence of God, and through the work of St Paul, it was destined to be.

Gal. iii iff.

56

EXPOSITION OF THE

[II ii, 12

letter.

The struggle was over but only just over when he wrote this It was the morrow of the victory. Can we marvel that while it was vivid in his memory, and in the memories of all, he should delight again and again to remind the Gentiles of what had
been gained
1

Wherefore remember

ii 1

Remember

that in time past ye, the Gentiles


this.

connexion appears to be

We

in the flesh The both Gentiles and Jews, with


.

God s New Creation in Christ; created a path marked out to tread. Wherefore fulfil, remember what you were, and what you are. You were the despised, outside, alien Gentiles, while these fleshly distinctions
no distinction now
are

with an end to

Cor. v

6 lasted.

But now that we know no man after the flesh now that Creation has made the Two no longer Two, but One, all is yours you have equal rights of citizenship, an equal place in the family of God ; you go to make up the Temple in which it pleases God to dwell. while Remember that in time past ye, the Gentiles in the flesh the flesh was the ground of distinction, as it was while the sign of God s covenant was a mark made by a man s hand on a man s flesh who are called the Uncircumcision by that which is called There is no the Circumcision, in the flesh, made with hands
,

the

New
:

necessary trace of contempt, as has been sometimes thought, in the who are called the Uncircumcision , and which is expressions,
called the Circumcision
lips,
.

These were familiar names on Jewish

There St Paul himself will not lend them his sanction. the so-called as if the Apostle is no ground for the interpretation, meant that the distinctions were absurd or unreal. They were very
even
if
,

and very tremendous; but they were done away in the New So far as there is any depreciation of circumcision in the passage, it is found in the last words, which are intended to suggest that it belongs to an order that is material and transient. The emphasis which the Apostle wishes to lay on the words the Gentiles has led him again to expand, and so the sentence is broken. This is the third time in the epistle that he has broken his sentence to emphasise the position of the Jew and the Gentile compare 113 and ii 3. Nothing could more clearly shew the place this question
real

Creation.

ii

12

held in his thought. That at that time without Christ ye were aliens from the common wealth of Israel and strangers from the covenants of promise
.

contrast

is

here
,

drawn between

without Christ and their new This contrast is somewhat obscured (v. 13).

at that time their old position, now in Christ Jesus position,


if

we

render, as in the

II

2]

EPISTLE TO THE EPHESIANS.


that at that time ye were without Christ, They are called upon to remember not simply

57

Authorised Version,
being aliens
<fcc.

that they were without Christ, but what they were without Christ. It is interesting to compare with this statement of disabilities

the Apostle s catalogue in an earlier epistle of the privileges of those whom he terms his brethren, his kinsfolk after the flesh they Rom. * are Israelites ; theirs are the adoption, and the glory, and the 3 5
:

ix

covenants, and the giving of the law, and the worship, and the promises ; theirs are the fathers , that is, the patriarchs and
prophets, the heroes of the past ; and of them is the Christ accord These were their distinctive privileges, which ing to the flesh
.

marked them as the Elect People. Gentiles had lacked.


In Christ
out Christ
aliens
,
,

It

was these things that the


all

indeed, as they

now

were,

was

theirs

but with
* ,

had been, they were unenfranchised outlanders with no rights of citizenship in the sacred Gen. xvii 7 x X * 1V with no share in the covenants which guaranteed j commonwealth, the promise made to Abraham and his seed for ever 72 f. The Jew had a hope the Gentile had none. Having no hope The golden age of the Gentile was in the past his poets told him of it, and how it was gone. The Jew s golden age was in the future his prophets told him to look forward to its coming. And without God Though there were gods many and lords i Cor. viii ^ many yet in the true sense they had no God. It had not yet R om. iii been revealed, as it was revealed through Christ, that the God of the Jews was the God of the Gentiles also This is the only place in the New Testament where the word It is in no contemptuous sense that the Apostle occurs. It was the speaks of them as having been atheists or godless simple and sad description of their actual state, not indeed from their own, but from the only true point of view. The charge of atheism was hurled again and again by the
as they

and

foreigners,

<x0eos

heathen at the Christians of the early days. Justin Martyr com plains that Christians were persecuted as aOeoi, and reminds the On a persecutors that Socrates had been put to death as a#eos.

memorable occasion the phrase was turned back on those who used it. The Martyrdom of Polycarp tells (c. 9) how the proconsul bade the aged bishop, in words which it was customary to employ, Swear by the genius of the emperor ; repent ; say, Away with
the atheists

Then meaning the Christians). (Atpe TOVS dOeovs Polycarp, looking towards the people and waving with his hand, It groaned and looked up to heaven and said, Aipe TOVS a0e ovs was they and not the Christians, who had no God.
.

UOlLBai

5$
*
.

EXPOSITION OF THE
state

[II

1214

In the world These words are the positive description of the which the Apostle has hitherto been describing entirely by
:

Coming at the close, they stand in sharp contrast to but now in Christ Jesus... what immediately follows They are not however to be taken by themselves, but in close connexion with the two preceding phrases. The world, to St Paul,
negatives.
is

the present outward order of things ; not of necessity to be characterised as evil ; but evil, when considered as apart from God,

this

Without a hope, and without a God and limited to the world, with nothing to lift them above the material and the transient. It was to be, in St John s language, not only in the world but of the world
or as in opposition to God. was to be in the world
, .

I3

been

But now in Christ Jesus ye who in time past were far off have made nigh by the blood of Christ In the remainder of this
.
c

section

the Apostle reverses the picture. They were without Christ... in the world The distance they are in Christ Jesus
:
. : .

Isa. Ivii 19

between the unprivileged and the privileged is annihilated the far has become near These are Old Testament terms: the allusion is more explicitly made below in v. 17.

By
Christ
.

the blood

of Christ
7

So in

we had through His

or (more literally) in the blood of the blood , when the Apostle

was speaking of the Emancipation, before he had distinguished the two classes of Jew and Gentile, and when he was describing the
blessings of the new Election in the imagery of the old covenant. may reserve to a later point the consideration of his present

We
ii

use of the words.


14

For He

is

our peace
:

The pronoun
Himself
is

We might render
who
is
.

For

He

is emphatic in the original. our peace or For it is He


,

Isa. Ivii 19

our peace Note that the Apostle, having taken two words from the passage In fact it is thus that the word in Isaiah, now takes a third. for the old promise ran is suggested to him Peace, peace peace
c
: :

It is He and to him that is nigh says Note also the change in the pronouns St Paul, who is our peace To you and to us the peace has come. We from ye to our it is He were strangers to one another ; nay, we were enemies

to

him that

is

far

off,

who

our peace both the parts one whole. The He, who hath made both one neuter of the original cannot well be expressed by an English translation. Lower down, instead of the neuter he will use the
is
.

ii

15

masculine
(so)

that

He
.

might create the two (men) into one new man,

making peace

II 14]

EPISTLE TO THE EPHESIANS.


:

59

not the armed peace of rival is the most perfect peace not even the peace of the most friendly alliance ; but the powers, can be no more a peace which comes from absolute unity. There when there are no more two, but only one. quarrel,

This

8 And hath broken down the middle watt of the partition* ; that is, the intervening wall which formed the barrier. To understand the metaphor we must know something of the The area which had construction of the Temple in St Paul s day.

ii

14

been enclosed by Herod the Great was very large. It consisted of court within court, and innermost of all the Holy Place and the Holy of Holies. There were varying degrees of sanctity in these sacred Into the Holy of Holies only the High Priest could enter, places. and that once in the year. The Holy Place was entered daily and incense was burned by a priest on the golden altar at the moment This sacrifice took of the sacrifice of the morning and evening lamb. outside in the Court of the Priests, where was the great Altar place
of Burnt-offerings. Outside this again were two further courts the Court of the Sons of Israel immediately adjacent, and beyond this

on the east the Court

of the

Women.

The whole
:

of the localities

thus far mentioned formed a raised plateau from it you descended at various points down five steps and through gates in a lofty wall, to find yourself not yet outside the temple-precincts, but on a narrow
platform overlooking another large court the outer court to which Gentiles who desired to see something of the glories of the Temple, or to offer gifts and sacrifices to the God of the Jews, were freely admitted. Further in than this court they were forbidden on pain
of death to go. The actual boundary line which the Gentile might not cross was not the high wall with its gates, but a low stone barrier about five feet in height which ran round at the bottom of

fourteen more steps In the year 1871, during the excavations which were being made on the site of the Temple on behalf of the Committee of the
.

Palestine Exploration Fund, M. Clermont Ganneau found one of the very pillars which Josephus describes as having been set up on

the barrier to which St Paul here refers.

It

is

now

preserved in

This

account

is

derived

from

Josephus Antiqq. xv n, B. J. v 5. In the latter passage he says : As you went ou through this first court to the second there was a stone fence running
all

most beautifully worked; on it there were set up at equal distances pillars setting forth the law of sanctity, some in Greek and some in Eoman characters, how that no man of another race
might pass within the sanctuary
.

round, three cubits high and

60
tlie

EXPOSITION OF THE

[II 14

Museum at Constantinople, tion in Greek letters


1 :

and

it

bears the following inscrip

NO MAN OF ANOTHER NATION TO ENTER WITHIN THE FENCE AND ENCLOSURE ROUND THE TEMPLE. AND WHOEVER IS CAUGHT WILL HAVE HIMSELF TO BLAME THAT HIS DEATH ENSUES.
That barrier, with its series of inscribed stones threatening death to the intruder, was still standing in the Temple courts at the moment when St Paul boldly proclaimed that Christ had broken it

was already antiquated, obsolete, out meaning went. The sign still stood but the thing signified was broken down. The thing signified was That was done away in the separation between Gentile and Jew. A few years later the sign itself was the person of Jesus Christ.
down.
It
still

stood

but

it

of date, so far as its spiritual

dashed down in a literal ruin. Out of that ruin a fragment of it has been dug, after exactly eighteen hundred years, to enforce St Paul s words, and by a striking object lesson to bid us, the remember that in Christ Jesus we who were far off Gentiles,
7

have been
ii

made nigh

ii

14

this point we may pause to draw out in greater fulness the has called on the teaching of the Apostle in this passage. who have newly been admitted into a position of absolute Gentiles,

At

He

equality of privilege with the Jew, to

remember what they were and what they now are. They were the Gentiles, according to a distinction which he describes by the words in the flesh that is to say, they were the Uncircumcision, as they were called by those who on their part were called the Circumcision. The distinction was an external one it was made in the flesh ; it was made by a man s hand. The very terms suggest and are chosen to suggest But it was not therefore un that it was temporary, not eternal. it was part of the Divine method for the real ; nor was it wrong education of the world. It is done away now ; but it was divinely ordained, and tremendous in its reality while it lasted. This is what they were. There was a dividing line, and they were on the wrong side of it. And consequently, as he goes on to say, they were not only without the sign of privilege, but without the privilege itself. For they were not members of the Chosen People they were aliens, they were strangers they knew nothing of a Divine fellowship, a sacred polity, in which men were linked to one another and to God, in which God had entered into covenant
*
:

For the Greek text see the commentary ad

loc.

II

4]

EPISTLE TO THE EPHESIANS.


blessed

61

with

men and had

their outlook into the future.


:

them with a promise which brightened Nothing of all this was for them
:

they had no hope, no God they were in the world without a hope and without a God the world, which might be so full of hope and so full of God, to those who knew the Divine purpose and their own share in it ; but which was as a fact to them, in their isolated, That is unprivileged condition, a hopeless and a godless world.

would do them good to think upon it. mind how closely St Paul links together member ship in a Divine polity and fellowship with God Himself, we shall be saved from some difficulties of interpretation later on. He did not deny that God was working in the hearts of the Gentiles all the while something of God could be known to them, was known to them He left not Himself without witness , He was always them good their sin consisted in their rebellion against Him doing who made Himself felt among them, at least in some degree, as the Lord of their spirits. But they were not like the favoured Jews, who knew God and had been brought into an actual fellowship with Him, who had God so nigh unto them who were claimed every moment of their lives as God s own so that in a peculiar sense God was the God of Israel and Israel was the Israel of

what they were


If

it

we bear

in

Acts xiv 1 7

Deut. iv 7

God

The Jew, and the Jew

alone,

was nigh to God.

And

hence

it

followed that to be nigh to the Jew was to be nigh to God, and to be far from the Jew was to be far from God.

This then is what St Paul says You were far off, but now you have been made nigh. In the first instance he means, You were far off from the Jewish commonwealth and the covenants that con tained the promise but he cannot separate this thought from that other which gave it all its meaning and importance far from the sacred commonwealth is far from God. We must go back upon his life-long training, if we would under stand his position. From a child he had been taught that he was a member of a Selected People, that he was brought into a Divine
:

This membership, this citizenship in the sacred polity, fellowship. was the fact on which his whole life rested. This was what made
life

worth living to him this was his one only and sufficient When he became a Christian this was hope for the great future. not taken from him. Only he now saw that his People s hope had come he saw in Jesus the Messiah of his People s longings. All, and more than all, that his prophets had foretold had actually come to pass. The Divine fellowship, the sacred commonwealth, was more than ever to him now. To be within it, as he knew he was,
:
:

62
was
infinitely

EXPOSITION OF THE

[II 14

more precious a privilege, to be outside was far more a disability, than ever it could have seemed before. grievous Hence the deep pathos of his language as he describes the hopeless misery of the Gentile world. Hence too his supreme delight in pro
claiming, not that the Divine fellowship was suddenly at an end, but that the old limits by which it had been confined to a single race were done away ; that the world was no longer two parts one privileged, the other unprivileged but one whole, all privileged alike ; that the
partition wall which

Mark
1

xi

Ps.

ii

had kept the Gentile at a distance was simply broken down, and that Jew and Gentile might enter hand in hand into the One Father s house, the house of prayer for all nations It was the fulfilment of the Jewish hope not its disappointment which had brought about this glorious issue. It was the Messiah who had done it. The Jew lost nothing he gained everything gained new brothers, gained the whole Gentile world. In Christ God had given him the heathen for his inheritance, and the utter
( .
: .

most parts of the earth for his possession The Gentile too had gained all. He indeed had nothing to lose, and could only gain. He had gained brotherhood with the Jew, a
place in the Divine family, the franchise of the sacred polity, his passage across the partition which had divided him from the Jew

1113

Eeb. ix

and thereby had divided him from God. He was brought nigh nigh to the Jew, and nigh to God. Ye were far off, All this is in St Paul s thought when he says but ye have been made nigh We have not yet considered the important words which he adds in or The to this statement: by the blood of the Christ reconciliation by which the far off and the near are brought together by which Gentile is made nigh to Jew and thereby nigh For neither was the Jew s own not without blood is to God
c
:
.

covenant without blood We need to remind ourselves that from the earliest days every treaty between man and man, as well as every covenant between man and God, was ratified and made sure by the blood of a sacrifice.
.

All that is done away now, and we find it hard to do full justice to a conception so foreign to our ways of thinking. But we must bear The covenant this fact in mind if we would understand St Paul. between a nation and its deity was a covenant of blood the peace between a nation and a nation was ratified by a victim s blood
:

The history of

this idea,

which

by the late Professor

W.

Eobertson
Institu-

played so large a part in human life before the Christian era, is elaborately
treated in The Religion of the Semites

Smith (part
tions
).

I.

Fundamental

II 14, i5]

EPISTLE TO THE EPHESIANS.

63

That the Messiah had been killed was at first sight the defeat and failure of all the expectation of which He had been the centre. His resurrection dispelled the gloom, and shewed that He had triumphed in spite of death even through death, for He had shewn Himself the conqueror of death. His death was presently seen to have been a necessary stage of His work. It partook of the nature so He Himself had It was the blood of a covenant of a sacrifice. This is My Mark described it on the eve of His crucifixion solemnly St Paul gives us here an interpretation of Blood of the Covenant His words. The blood of the Christ had made a new treaty of peace between the two opposing sections of humanity it had made The blood of the Christ had made the far off the two into one. it had widened out the old Covenant, so as to embrace to be near those who had been outside it had become the fulfilment of all the sacrificial blood-shedding of the old Covenant, which it superseded only by including it in a new Covenant, in which Jew and Gentile His life-blood poured out alike had access to the one and only God.
:

xiv

as the ratification of the


;

made the for He Himself is our peace ; He Himself has made near far off the two parts one whole He Himself has broken down the partitionsays St Paul, has
*

new Covenant,

wall that shut off the one from the privileges of the other.

Up to this point the Apostle s meaning is clear, when once we have grasped the conceptions which lie behind his thought. But he is conscious that he has been using the language of metaphor, and he proceeds to elaborate and to interpret what he has been saying. The participial clause which follows is a re-statement in other terms
of

what has immediately preceded. Having abolished in His flesh


*
7
.

ments contained in ordinances


the statements

the enmity, the law of commandThis recasts and presents afresh

ii

15

He

Himself
*

is

our peace
.

down the middle


to the emphatic
is

wall of the partition

and He hath broken In His flesh corresponds


.

pronoun He Himself ; the abolition of the a new description of our peace As the division was enmity symbolised and expressed in the barrier of the Temple, so the
enmity
ordinances
the law of commandments contained in Accordingly the breaking down of the Temple barrier is one and the same thing with the abolition of the enmity as it had taken outward shape in the enactments of the ritual law. But these phrases deserve to be considered one by one. In
.

was expressed in

His flesh His flesh is the scriptural term for what we speak of as His humanity, His human nature. He took upon Him flesh was an early Christian mode of speaking of the mystery of the
.

64
Incarnation.
It
is

EXPOSITION OF THE
the Te

[II 15

Deum, Tu ad

the same in meaning with the great phrase of liberandum suscepisti hominem, Thou tookest
.

The flesh of Christ is our common upon Thee man, to deliver him humanity, which He deigned to make His own. So that in Him
all flesh

He

is

And thus that is, all humanity, finds its meeting point. Himself our peace in His own person He has abolished our
,
:

enmity.

Matt, v 17

The law of commandments contained in ordinances was abolished The fulness of this expression is no doubt intentional. by Christ came not to destroy the law, but to fulfil it: not to Yet this was to break it down, but to fill it with its full meaning. do away with it in so far as it was a limited code of commands. All its commandments were swallowed up in the new commandment In so far as it was petrified in enactments, and especially of love. in those external ordinances which guided all the details of the Jew s daily life and were meant above all things to keep him distinct from the outside Gentile, -just in that sense and in that
Christ.

measure
of

it

was annulled

in Christ.
.

This

is

made

clearer

by the

guarding phrase

in ordinances

commandments and was was abolished by Christ. The Apostle uses parallel language
sians.
*

law, so far as it was a law 7 identified with external ordinances ,

The

in the Epistle to the Colos-

Col.

ii

14

hath cancelled the bond that stood against us, (that in ordinances He hath taken it out of the way, having consisted) And he asks, lower down, of those who nailed it to His cross
: .

He

Col.

ii.

20,

tions

seemed to wish to return to a modified system of external prohibiWhy are ye still ordinance-ridden ? And at the same time Touch he explains his meaning by examples of such ordinances To re-enact these was to abandon the not, taste not, handle not
:

Gospel and to return to

The law

of

the commandments and doctrines of men commandments in ordinances had an important


.

use while the distinction

in the flesh between Jew and Gentile had to be clearly marked. The touch of certain things defiled, the To touch even in the taste of certain meats made a man unclean. commerce of the market what a Gentile had touched, to eat at the same table at which a Gentile ate these things were defiling then. The ordinances were framed to prevent such pollution, such sins against the Divine covenant which marked off the Jews as a It was just these distinctions that were done away peculiar people. now ; and with them the ordinances which enforced them were

annulled.

The law

of

commandments

in ordinances

was

abolished,

and

abolished by the Messiah Himself.

In His

flesh

He had

united

II

isI?]

EPISTLE TO THE EPHESIANS.


?
:

65

in His blood whom these distinctions had held apart had made a new Covenant which included them both.

those

He
ii

That

He might
.

create in
is

Himself of

the

twain one new man, so

15

making peace

This

the

New

we have spoken

already.

Creation, the New Man, of which Henceforth God deals with man as a

Not as Two Men, the whole, as a single individual, in Christ. and the unprivileged Two, parted one from the other by privileged
a barrier in the most sacred of
all

the relations of
is

life

but as One
a single
ii

Man, united
organism.

in a peace, which

no mere

alliance of elements
life of

naturally distinct, but a concorporation, the

common

And that He
what has

cross, having slain the enmity thereby

might reconcile both unto God in one body by the Here the Apostle expresses
.

16

all along been implied in his thought, namely, that the peace by which the Gentile was reconciled to the Jew was at the same time a peace with God. In the new Covenant which was made in the blood of the Christ not only were the two sections of

humanity brought nigh to one another, but both of them in the same moment were brought nigh to God. This is the one body which has resulted from In one body It is the one body to which the the union of the two sections.
.

one Spirit of v. 1 8 corresponds. It is not the human body of the Lord Jesus ; that was referred to above in v. 15 by the expression Here St Paul is speaking of that larger Body of in His flesh the exalted Christ, of which he has already declared that it is His fulness or completion, and of which he will presently declare that there is one body and one Spirit, even as ye are called in one hope
1
.

23

iv 4

of your calling Having slain the enmity thereby , that is, by the Cross. alternative rendering is having slain the enmity in Himself.
.

An
The

meaning
one.
too.

is

the same in either case

Christ in His death was slain

and the expression is a bold but the slain was a slayer

And He came and preached (or published good tidings of) peace to you which were afar off, and peace to them that were nigh In these words St Paul combines with the passage of Isaiah which he has already used in w. 13, 14 another passage of the same book.
.

"

17

Peace, peace to him that is far off and to him that is near, saith the Lord is combined with How beautiful upon the mountains are the feet of him that bringeth good tidings, that publisheth The verb to publish good tidings is drawn by the Apostle peace from the Septuagint version of the latter passage.
,
.

Isa. Ivii 19

Isa.

lii

EPHES."

66

EXPOSITION OF THE

[II 18, 19

ii 1 8

In the words He came and preached we have a reference not to the work of the Lord Jesus on earth before the Crucifixion, but to the work of the exalted Christ in announcing the peace which His death had made. For through Him, we both have our access in one Spirit unto the The new Covenant was henceforward the ground of the Father Jew s approach to God, as well as of the Gentile s. For the old Covenant was swallowed up in the new. Jew and Gentile now rested alike on the new Covenant, and so all distinction between them was at an end.
c .

It is noteworthy that, as the Apostle proceeds, the hostility between Jew and Gentile has been gradually falling into the back ground. The reconciliation of which he speaks is the reconciliation and the of both to God, even more than of each to the other climax of all is found in the access of both to the common Father. For the supreme blessing which the new Covenant has secured is freedom of approach to Him who is to be known henceforth by His new Name, not as Jehovah the God of Israel, but as the Father.
;
*

In one
c
:

Spirit

This phrase

is

the counterpart of the phrase

In one body we both were reconciled to in one body of v. 16. in one Spirit we both have our access to the Father. The God
*

iv 4

one Spirit is animated by So, later on, the Apostle There is one body and one Spirit, even as ye have been Even if the reference is not called in one hope of your calling

one body
:

declares

primarily to the

Holy

Spirit, yet the

thought of

Him

as the Spirit

Comp.
i
T

^
<

fellowship
is
it.

is

necessarily present where the


of.

Cor. xii
3

one body

spoken

one Spirit of the The Body of the Christ has a Spirit that

dwells in

When we
of Christ,

Spirit is the Spirit of the Christ, the Holy Spirit. grasp this correlation of the Body of Christ and the Spirit

That

we can understand why

The Holy Catholic Church


section

forms the

in the Apostolic Creed the clause first subdivision of the

which begins,

I believe in the

Holy Ghost

ji

jg

So then ye are no more strangers and sojourners, but ye are


fellow-citizens with the saints

The Apostle returns to his political and uses a term which was well understood in the Greek metaphor, The sojourners were a class of residents who were recog cities. but nised by law and were allowed certain definite privileges their very name suggested that their position was not a permanent one they resided on sufferance only, and had no rights of citizen The Gentiles, says St Paul, are no longer in this position of ship. exclusion from the franchise of the sacred commonwealth. They The saints was a designation are fellow-citizens with the saints
.
:

II 19, 2o]

EPISTLE TO THE EPHESIANS.

6/

proper to the members of the ancient People of God. They were a holy nation they were saints by virtue of their national The designation was naturally retained consecration to Jehovah. by St Paul, when the Chosen People was widened into the Catholic
:

Church.

To quote Bishop Lightfoot s words


*

"The

Christian

Church, having taken the place of the Jewish race, has inherited a chosen generation, a royal all its titles and privileges ; it is All who priesthood, an holy nation, a peculiar people (i Pet. ii 9).

have entered into the Christian covenant by baptism are

saints

in

Even the irregularities and profli the language of the Apostles. of the Corinthian Church do not forfeit it this title gacies
".

Gentiles, then, had been admitted to full rights in the polity of the saints : they were now no less truly a part of the

The

consecrated people than were the Jews. further metaphor. He has just spoken of

But the Apostle adds a

God

as

the Father

to

whom
hold
*
:

In harmony with this he now declares that the Gentiles are members of God s family, or house
they had been given
all

access.

they have

of

the household

(otKctos)

the privileges of the sons of the house : they are In this phrase he uses an adjective which implies the word house in the non-material sense in

of God \

ii

19

which we often use it ourselves comp. i Tim. iii. 4 and 1 5. But we can scarcely doubt that it is the feeling of the radical meaning of the word that leads him on to the new metaphor which he at once developes, and which would seem excessively abrupt if it were
:

not for this half-hidden connexion. They are not merely members of the household, but actually a part of the house of God.

Being

built

upon

the

Christ Jesus Himself being the corner-stone stones laid in the building they are built
:

foundation of the apostles and prophets, They are not the first
.

ii

20

up on others which were


Isa. xxviii ..? CXVlll 22
I
"

stones are the apostles and prophets, the chief stone of all being Christ Jesus Himself, who is the Corner-stone as the Old Testament writers had called the Messiah.

there before them.

The foundation

s*

In an

earlier epistle St

Paul had emphatically declared

*
:

Other

foundation can no

But there he
build.

is

lay than that is laid, which is Jesus Christ . employing his metaphor in a different way. He is

man

not speaking of persons

who

are builded

in,

but of persons who

himself, for example, is not a stone of the building, but a wise master-builder those of whom he speaks are builders also,
:

He

and

their

work

will

come to the

testing.

The foundation he has


:

himself laid in the proclamation of Christ Jesus it is not possible that any of them should lay any other foundation but it is only
:

too possible that the superstructure which they raise should be 1 Note on Philippians i i.

52

68
worthless,

EXPOSITION OF THE

[II

20

and that instead of wages for good work done they should come in for the fine which attached to careless or fraudulent workmanship. Here the application of the metaphor is different. The stones are persons the foundation stones are the apostles and prophets, the most important stone of all being Christ Jesus
:

Himself.
This last phrase is emphatic. Christ, the Messiah who had been spoken of beforehand as the corner-stone; Jesus, the human manifestation of the Christ in time Christ Jesus Himself He is part of the Body which He brings into being, for He is its Head He is part of the House which He founds, for He is its Corner
:
.

stone.

as

it

The passage in St Paul s mind at was rendered by the Septuagint

this point is Isa. xxviii 16, Behold, I lay for the

foundations of Sion a stone costly stone for the foundations thereof


.

and

chosen, a precious corner

And just

because he will speak

of Christ in the old prophet s terms as a corner-stone, he cannot here speak of Him as the whole foundation.
Matt, xvi

We are naturally
Lord upon
to St Peter
:

I say unto thee, this rock (TreVpa) I will build


:

reminded by this passage of the saying of our Thou art Peter (IleYpos), and My Church, and the gates of hell

shall not prevail against it Here kingdom of heaven


.

we have

I will give to thee the keys of the the same metaphor, and again

its
is

In English the play upon words somewhat obscured by the change from Ilerpos to Trerpa. The feminine word (Trerpa) could not well be the name of a man, and accordingly the Greek name of Cepha was But in the Herpes, which signifies a stone rather than a rock. Aramaic, in which our Lord almost certainly spoke, there was no such difficulty. Cepha was equally a stone or a rock. So that the words must have run, just as we now read them in the Syriac Thou art Cepha, and upon this cepha I will build My versions Church It is worth our while to notice how the metaphor of a house is It is the Divine House which Christ there applied to the Church.
application
is

wholly lost

slightly varied. in the Greek it is

will build

(He

is

neither the foundation nor the corner-stone, but

the Builder), and the keys of it He will place in the Apostle s Thus by a rapid transition the Apostle s own relation to hands.
the house
Isa.xxii-22 of
is expressed by a new metaphor ; he is now the steward I will give the the house: compare the prophet s words:

(Heb.)

key

of the houge of

D avid

>

Thug the Church


,

the Ecclesia

which the Messiah has the kingdom of heaven come to establish each of the designations being drawn from the * past history of the sacred commonwealth, which was at once the
corresponds to
:

II 20, 21]

EPISTLE TO THE EPHESIANS.


and
the kingdom of Israel
: .

69

Ecclesia of the sons of Israel Ecclesia


,

My

Amos

Christ says, (i.e. My new Israel) I will build compare I will build again the taber ix ii ., cited in Acts xv 16 f.,
.

David which is fallen down In our present passage the foundation is not Peter (Cepha, the rock) ; he is only a part with others of the foundation not Christ, for even He is but a part, though the chief part, the corner-stone The scope of these designations I but f the apostles and prophets Here it is enough to say with regard have discussed elsewhere to the former that though the Twelve and St Paul himself are no doubt primarily intended, we need not seek to narrow it to them to the exclusion of others who may have been founders or joint-founders With regard to the latter the whole context makes of Churches. it abundantly plain that St Paul is not taking us back from the New Covenant to the Old not speaking of Old Testament prophets in the past when he says that the apostles and prophets are the
nacle of
:

foundation of the

When

new House of God. St Paul speaks of Christ as the corner-stone, he uses a

metaphor which appears to be wholly Oriental. The Greeks laid no stress on corner-stones. We must go to the East if we would understand at all what they mean. The corner-stones in the Temple substructures, which have been excavated by the agency of the Palestine Exploration Fund, are not, as we might perhaps have supposed, stones so shaped as to contain a right-angle, and thus by their projecting arms to bind two walls together; though it would appear from an incidental remark of Sir Henry Layard (Nineveh ii 254) that he had seen some such at Nineveh. They are straight blocks which run up to a corner, where they are met in the angle by similar stones, the ends of which come immediately above or below them. These straight blocks are of great length, frequently
measuring
fifteen feet.

by

Sir Charles

The longest that has been found Warren (Jerusalem Recovered, p. 121) in

is

described

his account

of the excavation of the southern wall of the sanctuary area. It measures 38 feet and 9 inches, and belongs to a very ancient period of building.

It was such a stone as this that furnished the ancient prophet with his image of the Messiah.

In whom all the building fitly framed together groweth unto an The uncertainty which has attended the holy temple in the Lord translation of these words may best be illustrated by bringing
1
.

ii

21

2 together the various forms of the English Version in this place


1

See Encyclopedia

Biblica,

arts.
:

I cite the older renderings

from

Apostle

and

Prophet (N. T.)


f.

see

The
1841).

English

Hexapla

(Bagster,

also below, pp. 97

70
WICLIF.

EXPOSITION OF THE

[II 21

In whom eche bildynge made: wexeth in to 1380. an holi temple in the lord. TYNDALE. 1534. In whom everj bildynge coupled togedder, groweth vnto an holy temple in the lorde. CRANMER. 1539. In whom what buyldyng soever is coupled together, it groweth vnto an holy temple in the Lorde. GENEVA. 1557. In whom all the buyldying coupled together, groweth vnto an holy temple in the Lord. In whom al building framed together, groweth RHEIMS. 1582. into an holy temple in our Lord. AUTHORISED. 1611. In whom all the building fitly framed together, groweth vnto an holy temple in the Lord. REVISED. 1881. In whom ^ach several building, fitly framed 2 together, groweth into a holy temple in the Lord.
1

Gr. every building.

Or, sanctuary.

We

need not at this point enter into the causes of so great

This would be to discuss the influence of the variety of rendering. Latin Vulgate, and of the variants in the Greek text. Our study

by this time have made it perfectly clear that St Paul contemplates a single structure and no more. Such a rendering then as every building (that is to say, all the build ings ) is out of harmony with the general thought of the passage. If the Apostle has in any way referred to parts which go to make
of the context should
7

up a whole,

it

Jew and the Gentile. To introduce going to make up one Church is to do


whole
section.

has always been to two parts, and only two, viz. the the idea of many churches
violence to the spirit of this

each several building, fitly framed together, groweth into a holy temple offends the most conspicuously For it must logically imply that against the Apostle s thought. and this is at the several buildings grow into several temples
:

The rendering

once inconsistent with the single habitation or dwelling-place of God, which the Apostle mentions in the next verse. In English the word building has various shades of meaning,
each of which
is

found equally in
.

its

counterpart in the Greek.


:

It

the building it may mean may mean the process of building itself when complete Or it may have a sense intermediate between The these two, and mean the building regarded as in process
.

Apostle s meaning is saved by the rendering of the Rheims Bible * al building ; but this is somewhat harsh, and limits us too strictly All that to the process, as contrasted with the work in process. or all building that is done might express the sense is builded with sufficient accuracy but this hardly differs from all the build,
* :

II 21]

EPISTLE TO THE EPHESIANS.

/I

ing , when we keep before our minds the thought of the building in process, as opposed to the completed edifice. may accord retain the familiar rendering, although it is not free from ingly ambiguity if the context be neglected, and although it was origi

We

nally intended as the translation of a reading in the Greek which the textual evidence precludes us from accepting. All work done on this House of God, all fitting of stone to
as the building rises coupled and morticed by clamp and all this work is a growth, as though the building were a dowel, St Paul has no hesitation in mixing his meta living organism.
stone,

phors,
if

if

thereby he can the more forcibly express his meaning.


:

We have the exact converse of this transition in the fourth chapter


here
the building grows
holy temple
is
.

like

a body, there

the body

is

builded

iv 12, 16

An
these

used to render two

temple in our English Bible is Greek words, naos and hieron. The first of
denotes the shrine, the actual

The word

which

used in this place

which in the Jewish temple consisted of the Holy Place and the Holy of Holies. The second, on the other hand, has the wider meaning of the temple-precincts the courts and colon This distinction nades, in which the people gathered for worship. is observed alike by Josephus and by the writers of the New Testa ment. Thus the hieron was the temple into which the Pharisee Luke xviii and the publican went up to pray it was there that our Lord used I0.5 Mark to teach: it was thence that He drove out the traders. But it Mark ii 15 was in the naos that the angel appeared to Zacharias the priest Luke i 9 the son of Matt, xxiii it was between the naos and the altar that Zacharias, Barachias was slain it was the veil of the naos that was rent at 35
of God,
:

House

the Crucifixion

,,

!
.

Markxv 3 8

A passage which is sometimes


tion of our present verse
.

is

Matt, xxiv
:

cited to justify a false interpreta the buildings of the i,

But note the word there used And Jesus went out and temple was departing from the hieron, and His disciples drew near to point out to Him the buildings of the hieron The plural could be used
.

through which they were passing, adorned as it was with the splendid structures of Herod. It could not be used of the naos, which was a single building, divided only by the partition of a veil. Accordingly it seems impossible to assign
of the temple-precinct

any meaning to the phrase


naos
,

except

it

every building groweth into a holy be such a meaning as is directly opposed, as we


xxvii 5

1 The only passage where there could be a reason for wishing to give

Lord

Judas cast the price of the : betrayal into the naos.

to the naos & wider

meaning

is

Matt.

?2

EXPOSITION OF THE
have seen, to the whole teaching on which St Paul
evident stress.
is

[II 21, 22

laying such

In
title

the

Lord

This

is

the

first

time in the epistle that this

may not be wise always to insist on a conscious motive for the choice of the phrase in the Lord in
has stood by
itself.

It

Yet it can hardly be a mere preference to the phrase in Christ coincidence that where the Apostle describes the transcendental
.

relation of believers to Christ as the ground of their acceptance with God he uses the expression in Christ , or one of the fuller expressions into which this title enters; whereas, when he is

ii

10

speaking of the issues of that relation as manifested in life and conduct here below, he uses the phrase in the Lord Contrast, for example, the words created in Christ Jesus with the words
.

vi 10

Be strong in the Lord the Lord of the holy life

The Christ
:

if

in Christ
is

we

of the privileged position is are in heaven, in the Lord

we must
ii

live

on earth.
.

Christ

the corner-stone of the foundation ;

the building grows to an holy temple in the Lord.


22

In whom ye also These words have by this time a familiar The Apostle insists afresh upon the inclusion of the Gen and he is thus led into what might seem a mere repetition of tiles what he has already said, but that the two fresh expressions which
sound.
:

Exod. xv
i75.

he adds produce the effect of a climax. Are builded together for an habitation of God in the Spirit Once more he takes his word from the Old Testament. The habitation or dwelling-place of God was a consecrated phrase.
.

It

was the proudest boast


i*1

of the

Jew

that the Lord his God,

who

viii^o etc

To the new People the same heaven, dwelt also in Sion. For we 2Cor.vii6 high privilege is granted in a yet more intimate manner. as God hath said, I will dwell in Lev. xxvi are the temple of the living God
dwelt
:

them, and walk in them ; and I

will

be their God, and they shall be

My people
it

In the Spirit Here, as so often, the Apostle does not make plain whether he is speaking directly of the Divine Spirit or not. But it is to be observed that this section, which began with the
.

words

in the flesh
.

the spirit
spiritual,

No

(twice repeated), ends with the words in doubt the thought that the habitation of God is
to

in

contrast

the material temple,

is

present to the

Apostle s mind, even if it does not exhaust the meaning of his And we may perhaps regard the expression of i Pet. ii 5, words. a spiritual house as the earliest commentary on this passage.
,

Thus St Paul closes this great section by declaring that the Gentiles had full rights of citizenship in the sacred commonwealth,

II 22, III

i]

EPISTLE TO THE EPHESIANS.

73

that they were true sons of the household of God, nay that they were a part of His Holy House, builded upon its foundation, secured by its corner-stone, that corner-stone which gave unity to all building that was reared upon it so that all such building, duly welded into
;

one,

was growing into a holy


c

shrine, to

be the spiritual dwelling.

place of God.
It was that they Such was the mystery of the will of God might grasp this mystery that he had begun to pray for the Spirit of wisdom and apocalypse on their behalf. And now that he has
i

17

expounded it, in brief language compared with its mighty magnitude, it becomes again the basis of his prayer. Or rather, the prayer which he had essayed to utter, and the first words of which
so far

had carried him so far that the prayer had

lost itself in the

wonder

of the blessing prayed for, that prayer he once take up and at length to utter in its fulness.
:

more

desires to

This he attempts to do in the words For this cause I Paul, the of Christ Jesus for you, the Gentiles prisoner but, as we shall see, new thoughts again press in, and in v. 14 he makes another and at
:

iii i

last a successful
4

For

this cause

attempt to declare the fulness of I bow my knees


.

his petition

FOR

this cause I Paul, the prisoner of Christ Jesus for you,


2

iii r

13

the Gentiles,

be that ye have heard of the dispensation of the grace of God which was given unto me to you-ward 3 how that by revelation was made known unto me the mystery,
if so
:

whereby, when ye read, can perceive my understanding in the mystery of Christ ye 5 which in other generations was not made known unto the sons
as I have written afore in few words,

of men, as

it

hath now been revealed unto His holy apostles


;

and prophets in the Spirit 6 to wit, that the Gentiles are fellowheirs, and fellow-members of the body, and fellow-partakers of the promise in Christ Jesus through the gospel, 7 whereof I was

made a
8

minister according to the gift of the grace of God which was given unto me according to the working of His power,

unto me, who

am
9

less

than the

least of all saints,

was

this

grace given,

to preach unto the

Gentiles

the unsearchable
is

riches of Christ,

and
I0

to bring to light

what

the dispensation

of the mystery which from the ages hath been hid in

God who

created

all

things

to the intent that

now unto

the princi-

74
palities

EXPOSITION OF THE

[III

and powers in the heavenly places might be made known through the church the manifold wisdom of God,
"according

Christ Jesus our Lord,


access with confidence

to the purpose of the ages which He purposed in I2 in whom we have our boldness and

by the

faith of

Him.

13

Wherefore I ask

you that ye faint not at

my

tribulations for you,

which are

your glory.
is at once broken at the end of v. i. There is even in those few words which has suggested a new train something of thought, and the Apostle cannot check himself until he has

The construction

expressed what

is

in his soul.

What

is

the starting-point of this

new departure ?
Hitherto St Paul has been strangely unlike himself in one He has been marvellously impersonal. His only particular. reference to himself since the salutation has been in the words, He has said nothing I cease not to give thanks and to pray
{
.

15

f.

peculiar office as the chosen herald of these new revela tions of the will and way of God ; and of all that he had personally
of his

own

endured, whether in long journeyings and constant labours to bring this message to the Gentiles, or in persecutions and imprisonment

The directly due to his insistence on the wideness of the Gospel. reason for this unwonted reserve is, as we have partly seen already,
that he
is

Acts xx 3 1 foundation,

not writing to the members of a single Church of his own whom he had admonished night and day with tears
*
,

who knew him

15

f.

he could write as he would have face to face. He is writing to many who had never seen spoken him, though they must have heard much of him and probably had He is writing not a learned the Gospel from his fellow-workers. personal word of encouragement, but an exposition of the Divine Purpose as he had come to know it a word of large import for He multitudes who needed what he knew it was his to give them. has heard how the great work has been going forward far beyond He thanks God for the limits of his own personal evangelisation.
well
to
it.

and

whom

It

is

part of the fulfilment of the Purpose.

He

is fully

taken

up with declaring what the Purpose has brought to the Gentiles as


a whole.
iii i

It is only as he reaches a resting-place in his thought, that he hears as it were the clink of his chain, and remembers

/ Paul, the prisoner of Christ is and why he is there Jesus for you, the Gentiles . But the words are too full to be left without a comment or a
where he
:

justification.

You may

never have seen

my

face,

he seems to say,

Ill 2]

EPISTLE TO THE EPHESIANS.


:

75

but surely you have heard how God has been using me to help you you may even have been discouraged by learning to what my efforts on your behalf have brought me.

The

fresh points which are to be emphasised in the remainder of

iii

213

one long parenthesis, are these: (i) St Paul s mission as the exponent of the mystery of the inclusion of peculiar the Gentiles, as the publisher of the great secret, as the herald of
this section,

which

is

grace (2) the newness of the revelation, hid in God now, but made known at last to the apostles and prophets of the Christian Church ; (3) the sufferings which his mission has entailed upon him, and which yet must not dishearten those for

the Gospel of
till

whom

he

suffers.

The section is full of echoes of the earlier part of the epistle. Almost every great phrase has its counterpart in the first two the mystery made known by revelation revealed by chapters the Spirit to the apostles and prophets ; the inheritance, the body,
:

the promise, in which the Gentiles have their share in Christ ; the grace of God, and the working of His power ; the dispensation of the grace, and of the mystery ; the heavenly region ; the purpose
of eternity
*

the free access to God.


2

heard of the dispensation of the grace to you-ward The form of the sentence is conditional, just as in iv 21 ; but it can scarcely mean anything The expression as a whole, less than For surely you have heard however, confirms the conclusion that among those to whom the epistle was addressed a considerable number, if not the majority, had never come into personal contact with the writer had he been writing solely or even primarily to his own Ephesian converts, he could never have expressed himself so. The grace of God which was given unto me is a favourite phrase

If

so be that ye have

q/"iii

God which was given unto me

The context usually makes it quite clear that the him was not a spiritual endowment for his own personal grace given Thus, in life, but the Gospel of God s mercy to the Gentile world.
of

St Paul.

describing his visit to the Apostles at Jerusalem, St Paul says, When they saw that I had been entrusted with the Gospel of the Gal.

ii 7,

Uncircumcision,...and

when they knew

the grace which was given

unto me,
that
cision
.

. .

.they gave right hands of fellowship to

we should go unto

me and to Barnabas, the Gentiles, and they unto the Circum


is

An

equally striking example

found where St Paul

justifies his action in

addressing a letter to the


,

Roman

Christians

Horn. xv.
I

I have written the

more boldly

he

says,

by reason

of the grace

5 f*

76

EXPOSITION OF THE

[III

2,

which was given unto me from God, that I should be a minister As we have seen in part already, of Christ Jesus unto the Gentiles grace was the significant word which summed up for St Paul his
.

own

Col.

25

the merciful inclusion of the Gentile in the special message purpose of God In a parallel passage of the Epistle to the Colossians we find the words, according to the dispensation of God which was given unto me to you- ward ; and an English reader might be led to suppose that in our present passage the construction likewise must be, the
1

The ambiguity, which does not dispensation... which was given exist in the Greek, might be avoided by the rendering * that grace
.

Revised Version renders) ; disadvantage of partially obscuring the of a phrase which recurs again and again in St Paul s identity
of
(so the

God which was given unto me


this expedient has the
2

but

epistles

25 the dispensation spoken of is a the Dispenser, and not the adminis This is made clear or stewardship, of any human agent. tration, the parallel use of the word in i 10, and again below in iii 9. by
i

Both here and in Col. dispensation in which God

is

iii

3
"We
4

How tJiat by revelation was made known unto me the mystery 3 have already noted the signification of the word mystery or
.

and of its natural correlative apocalypse or revelation Divine disclosure, St Paul declares, the Divine secret had been By made known to him. The recognition of the wideness of God s
secret
,
.

purpose was neither a conclusion of his passed on to him by the earlier Apostles.
Gal.
i

own mind nor a

tradition

A special providence had


,
,

15

f.

prepared him, and a special call had claimed him, to be the depositary of a special revelation. It was the good pleasure of God he says
4 who elsewhere, in words that remind us of an ancient prophet even from my mother s womb, and called me through separated me,

Gal.

ii

His grace, to reveal His Son in me, that I might preach Him among And of his visit to the Apostles in Jerusalem he the Gentiles I went up by revelation, and I laid before says emphatically, them the Gospel which I preach among the Gentiles The message
.
.

1 See above p. 51 ; and, for the detailed examination, see the detached

PP-3of-39Comp. Jer. i

5,

Before I formed

note on XC/HS. The use of the word in the Acts is in striking harmony with the usage of StPaul: see esp. xi. 23,

thee in the belly I knew thee, and before thou earnest forth out of the

womb
nations

I sanctified thee;

have apunto
the

xv
2

ii.

pointed
1 .

thee

prophet

The same ambiguity meets us


v. 7.

below in

Ill 3
itself,

5]

EPISTLE TO THE EPHESIANS.


its justification,

77

and the method of its proclamation and of were alike given to him by Divine revelation.

can perceive

when ye read, ye In the my understanding in the mystery of Christ earlier chapters the Apostle has stated already in brief his concep He tion of the Divine purpose as it has been made known to him.

As I have

written afore in few words, whereby,

iii

f.

has not indeed declared it in the set terms of a formal treatise. But he has given them enough to judge by if they attend to it they cannot but recognise as they read that he writes of that which he knows, and that a special knowledge gives him a special claim to
:

speak of the mystery of Christ.

Which in other generations was not made known unto the sons iii 5 Here St Paul takes up a fresh point. He has not had \ occasion hitherto in this epistle to dwell on the newness of the great revelation. It is his reference to his own part as the receiver and proclaimer of the illuminating truth, that leads him on to explain, not indeed that the Divine purpose is a new thing, but that its The Purpose was there in the treasury manifestation to men is new. of the heavenly secrets from eternity but it was a secret kept in Eom.
of men
:

xvi

silence

The sons of men whom it so deeply concerned, knew it not as yet it was hidden away from Jew and from Gentile alike. As it hath now been revealed unto His holy apostles and prophets
.

25

This clause, without revoking the last, seems to in the /Spirit leave room for those glimpses of the Divine purpose, which the Apostle would never have wished to deny to the holy and wise of
.

the past. Yet their half-lights were but darkness, with the day of the new revelation. In contrast to the sons of men of the past, to

when compared

whom

the secret

had not been

the holy apostles and prophets of the present, to whom a spiritual revelation of it had come. This word holy or saints as we render it when it stands by itself has played an important part in the epistle already. It is to the
disclosed, St
sets
,

Paul

i i

that the epistle is formally addressed ; that is, as we have seen, to those who in Christ are now the hallowed People of God. The Apostle thanks God that they are recognising their position in
saints
l God s heritage, practice by a love which goes out to all the saints he declares in passing, is in the saints , that is, in His hallowed
.

i
i

I5 18

And, later on, he explicitly contrasts the alien state of the People. Gentiles apart from Christ with their new position of privilege in Christ as * fellow-citizens with the saints When the same word is
.

ii

19

used, as

whom

adjective, to characterise the apostles and prophets to the new revelation has been made, it cannot be a mere otiose

an

epithet or conventional term of respect, nor can

it

be properly taken

78

EXPOSITION OF THE
in any other sense than hitherto.

[III

5,

It is no personal holiness to which the Apostle refers ; it is the hallowing which was theirs in common with the whole of the hallowed People. Here is the answer to

the suggested difficulty, that while St Paul must certainly have included himself among the * apostles to whom the revelation came,

he would hardly have called himself holy even in this indirect There is no real incongruity. Not his holiness, but God s fashion.
,

hallowing

is

in question

the hallowing which extended to

all

the

members
iii

of the hallowed People, even, as he would tell us, to himself, though he was less than the least of them all. The mention of the apostles and prophets, as those to whom the

ii

20

f.

new revelation was made, recalls and helps to explain the position of the apostles and prophets as the foundation of the holy temple of God s building. With the reference to the Spirit as the medium
of

17

the revelation

revelation

God
is

we may compare the prayer for the Spirit of to be the guide of his readers into the knowledge of s purpose. Here, as in some other places, the Apostle s language
vague that we cannot
tell

with entire certainty whether he Divine Spirit, or rather desires to suggest that the reception of the revelation is a spiritual process. The actual phrase in (the) Spirit does not preclude either view.
so
refers directly to the personal

What, new in its

old as eternity, yet then, is the substance of this secret disclosure to mankind ? The Apostle has told us already, as he says, in brief but now to remove all possible misconception
:

iii

he will tell us once again, repeating in fresh words the images which he has already so fruitfully employed. It is that the Gentiles of the body, and fellow-partakers of the promise in Christ Jesus through the gospel \ The middle term of this threefold description (orWoyAos) cannot be rendered by any current English word. Concorporate a loan from the Latin, and analogous to incorporate , is the word we want ; but, though it has been used in this connexion, it is not a rendering of the passage. sufficiently familiar to take its place in
,

we fellow-heirs, and fellow-members

In relation

to the

Body

the members are

to one another they are

concorporate

in relation incorporate that is, sharers in the one


:

Body. The unusual English word might indeed express the fact that St Paul himself, in order to emphasize his meaning, has had 1 recourse to the formation of a new Greek compound
.

The rendering

of the Latin Vul-

gate is

cohaeredes et concorporales et

that

fends the unusual Latin on the ground it was important to represent the

comparticipes

has

concorporatos

(Ambrosiaster actually St Jerome de).

force of the repeated

compounds.
Latin

I
it

know

he says,

that in

Ill 6
i

9]

EPISTLE TO THE EPHESIANS.


the gospel,
iii

79
6
ff.

whereof I was made a minister according of God which was given unto me... to preach of There is a close parallel in the Epistle to unto the Gentiles... the Church, whereof I was made a minister ac the Colossians to the dispensation of God which was given unto me to cording you-ward, to fulfil the word of God, (even) the mystery that hath been hid &c. In both passages the Apostle emphasises the great

Through

to the gift

the grace
.

Col.

124^.

ness of his peculiar mission, which corresponded to the wide mercy of God to the Gentiles. Here he adds according to the might (or * work

words which remind us of Gal. ii 8, He that worked mightily ) for Peter unto the apostleship of wrought (or the Circumcision, wrought for me also unto the Gentiles Once more he breaks his sentence, lest, while as Apostle of the Bom. xi Gentiles he glorified his ministry, he should for one moment seem J 3 Never did a man more stoutly press his to be glorifying himself. claims never was a man more conscious of personal unworthiness. He was not a whit behind the very chiefest of the apostles yet 2 Cor. si 5 he felt that he was the least of the apostles and not worthy to be i Cor. xv 9 He was less than the least of all saints that is, iii 8 called an apostle
ing
)

of His power

but yet the fact remained that to of all the holy People of God him this marvellous grace of God had been given.
:

To preach unto the Gentiles the unsearchable riches of Christ the verb of the original His mission was to bring as the gospel takes up again the gospel of v. 6 to the Gentiles the inexplorable wealth of the Christ. He can never sufficiently admire the marvel
. *

of the Divine inclusion of the Gentiles, or be sufficiently thankful that it is his privilege to make it known to them.
1

And

to

bring
the ages

to light

what

is the

dispensation of the mystery


. :

iii

which from

hath been hid in

God who created all

in the parallel already quoted he continues

So things the mystery that hath Col.

26

been hid from the ages and from the generations, but now it hath The purpose of God is an eternal been manifested to His saints a purpose of the ages , as he says below in v. 10. It has purpose
.

remained concealed since the beginning of things; but very purpose of Creation itself.

it

was the

As

the Creation includes other intelligences beside Man, so the


Version,
fellow-heirs,

makes an ugly sentence.


it

But because and because every word and syllable and stroke and point in the Divine Scriptures is
so stands in the Greek,
full of

and of the same

body, and partakers &c., fails to reproduce the reiterated compound (aw-) of the original ; and I have therefore

verbal

meaning, I prefer the risks of malformation to the risk of


the
sense
.

adopted the necessarily paraphrastic rendering of the Bevised Version,

missing

The English

80

EXPOSITION OF THE

[III

1013

iii

10

secret of the Divine purpose in Creation is published now to the whole universe, as the justification of the Divine dealing i to the
:

intent that

places

now unto the principalities and powers in the heavenly might be made known through the church the manifold wisdom
.

of God

The Apostle has found a


:

perfectly satisfying philosophy

of history
;

he believes that it is able to justify the ways of God to men and not to men only, but also to those enquiring spiritual powers of the heavenly sphere, who have vainly sought to explore the design and the methods of the Creator and Ruler of the world. This is only the second time that the Through the church
.

Comp. 122
iii

word

21

v 23

32

Church has been used in the epistle. We shall have it at the end of the chapter in an equally emphatic position again It recurs to Him be glory in the Church and in Christ Jesus St Paul six times in the important passage which closes chap. v. never uses the word in this epistle in the sense of a local Christian society, though he does in two out of the four times in which it
:
.

occurs in the Epistle to the Colossians. Through the Church the very-varied

wisdom

of

God

is

made

known

to the universe.

The metaphor

is

iii 1 1

beauty of an embroidered pattern. We iv 10, the manifold (or varied ) grace of God According to the purpose of the ages which He purposed in Christ The purpose of the ages is a Hebraistic phrase Jesus our Lord \
7
.

taken from the intricate have an echo of it in i Pet.

for

iii 1 2

the eternal purpose just as we say the rock of ages for the everlasting rock , from the Hebrew of Isaiah xxvi 4. In whom we have our boldness and access with confidence by the
: .

These words are an echo of ii 1 8, and form a similar faith of Him The issue of all is that we are brought near to God Him climax.
self
iii

through faith in Christ.


. :

13

Col.

i.

24

Wherefore I ask you that ye faint not at my tribulations for you, I ask you not to lose The meaning is which are your glory when you hear of my suffering as the prisoner of Christ on heart, It might seem to some as though the Apostle s your behalf sufferings and imprisonment augured ill for the cause which he This was not the view that he himself took of represented. he says to the I rejoice in my sufferings on your behalf them. in a remarkable passage to which we have already had Colossians,
.

Never for a moment did he occasion to refer at some length himself lose heart. He saw a deep meaning in his sufferings they were the glory of those for whom he suffered. He commends this
1
.

reason to his readers with a logic which


1

we can hardly

analyse.

See

p.

44.

Ill 13]

EPISTLE TO THE EPHESIANS.


it

81
It
is

Perhaps he could scarcely have explained language of the heart.

to them.

the

The

section

speaking, occasioned by the words, I Paul, the prisoner of Christ Jesus on behalf of you, the Gentiles But, though in form it is a which still further postpones the utterance of the digression,
.

which we have been considering forms, strictly It is a personal explanation mere parenthesis.

"i

13

Apostle s Prayer, yet in the general movement of the thought of the epistle it plays an essential part. Though he speaks from
his

own

and

after,

personal standpoint, the Apostle s thought ranges before and he is led to give us such a complete philosophy

of history as

had never been attempted

before.

He

is

confident

in possession of the secret of the Creator Himself: apocalypse the mystery has been known to me

that he

is

by

Hitherto he had been considering mainly the effect of the work in the reconciliation of the two opposed sections of humanity, in the reception of the Gentiles into the sacred common wealth, and in the nearer approach of Jew and Gentile alike to the one Father. But now he is bold to trace the whole course of the
of Christ,

Divine dealing with man ; to declare that through the ages one increasing Purpose runs ; and even to suggest that human history is intended to read a lesson to the universe.
c

the design of Creation

clear to him was included in was a hidden purpose, a Divine The secret, a mystery of which the apocalypse could not be as yet. sons of men had lived and died in ignorance of the secret of their own lives and of the universe. Generation followed generation until the time was ripe for the disclosure of the mystery of the Christ At last to the apostles and prophets of a new age the revelation was Indeed to the less than the least of them all the message given. had been primarily entrusted. His part it had been to flash the torch of light across the darkness ; to illuminate past, present and future at once, by shewing what is the dispensation of the mystery

The Purpose which

is

now made
But
it

itself.

iii

iii.

that hath been hidden from eternity in God who created all things It was a glorious task through incessant toil and suffering he
.
:

had accomplished

it

his

imprisonment at

Rome

could only remind

him that for his part the work was done. Yet in a wider sense it was only begun. The process which had been revealed to him was to move steadily on, in presence of all the spiritual forces of the For universe, who keenly watch the drama of this earthly theatre. they too through the Church are to learn the very-varied wisdom
of God, according to the purpose of the ages

iii

10

which

He

formed in
6

EPHES.

82

EXPOSITION OF THE
.

[III 14

the Christ, even Jesus our Lord And it is because the process must go forward, and not slacken for anything that may occur to him, that the prisoner in Christ Jesus bows his knees and lifts his heart in prayer to God.
iii

1421

4For this cause I bow

my

knees unto the Father,

whom all fatherhood He would grant you

in heaven

and on earth

according to be strengthened with power by His Spirit in the inner man, ^that Christ may dwell through faith in your hearts in love; ye l8 being rooted and founded, that ye may be able to comprehend

named, that the riches of His glory to


is

l6

with

all

the saints what

and depth, ^and

the breadth and length and height to know the love of Christ which passeth
is

knowledge, that ye may be filled unto all the fulness of God. 20 Now unto Him that is able to do exceeding abundantly above
all

that
2I

we ask
to
all

in us,

Him

or think, according to the power that worketh be glory in the church and in Christ Jesus,

throughout
iii

ages, world without end.


digressions, into

Amen.
his desire

14

After
to

many

which he has been led by

plain not only what he prays for, but on whose behalf he prays, and what is his relation to them which leads him so to pray, the Apostle succeeds at last in uttering the fulness of his Prayer.

make

The Prayer
iii
iii

is

in its final expression, as

it

was at the

outset, a

prayer for knowledge.


ig

20

indeed declared to pass man s comprehension ; but the brief doxology with which the petition closes recognises a Divine power to which nothing is
is

That knowledge

impossible.
iii

14

iii i

For this cause These words are resumptive of the opening words of the chapter, For this cause I Paul, the prisoner of Christ Jesus for you, the Gentiles Accordingly they carry us back to the great mercy of God to the Gentiles (expounded in c. ii) as the ground of the Apostle s Prayer. But the Prayer needed as its
l
. .

further preface a reference to his own peculiar mission as the publisher of the new declaration of that mercy, and to the sufferings

by which he rejoiced to seal his mission. After this reference has been made and fully explained, he knits up the connexion by repeating the words For this cause / bow my knees to the Father \ We shall miss the solemnity of this introduction unless we observe how seldom the attitude of kneeling in prayer is mentioned in the New Testament. Standing
.

Ill 14, 15]

EPISTLE TO THE EPHESIANS.


:

83

to pray was the rule comp. Matt, vi 5, Luke xviii 1 1, 13. Kneeling was expressive of unusual emotion comp. Luke xxii 41, Acts xxi 5. Indeed when we compare Luke xxii 41 kneeling down with Mark xiv 35 He fell upon the ground and Matt, xxvi 39 He fell upon His face the parallels point us to the fact that what there is meant is not our kneeling in an upright position, but kneeling
:

with the head touching the ground

the Eastern prostration.

This

was and
as
is

the sign of the deepest reverence and humiliation : and, well known, the posture was forbidden in the early Church on
is

the Lord

s day.

But the significance of St Paul s phrase becomes still clearer, when we note that it is, in its particular wording, derived from a passage of Isaiah (which he quotes in Rom. xiv 1 1 and alludes to in
Phil,
ii

10)
.

shall

bow

to

whom

it

I have sworn by Myself ... that unto Me every knee In that reverence, which is due only to the Supreme, must needs one day be rendered by all, he bends low
,

Isa. xiv
23

before the Father.

The Father, of

whom

all

named

At

the

first

commencement

fatherhood in heaven and on earth is of his prayer the Apostle had


.

iii

14, 15

In this we have one of the Father of glory several notable parallels between the prayer as essayed in the first chapter and the prayer as completed in the third chapter.
spoken of God as
It will be instructive to bring together here the various refer ences which St Paul makes in this epistle to the fatherhood of God.

17

In his opening salutation we find the words from God our Father and the Lord Jesus Christ and similar words occur at the close of the epistle. His great doxology opens with the words, Blessed be the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ ; and this title is resolved and emphasised, as we have seen, in the form the God of our Lord Jesus Christ, the Father of glory Presently he uses the name absolutely, in speaking of our access to the Father ; and
; *
.

vi 23
i

i 1 7

ii

18

f.

he follows it by the significant phrase, of the household of God Then we have our present description, which expands and interprets
.

the title the Father of glory ; and shortly afterwards we find the absoluteness and universality of the fatherhood yet further de clared in the words, one God and Father of all, who is over all
.

iv 6

and through all and in all Then, lastly, Christian duty is summed up in the obligation to give thanks always for all things in the v 20 name of our Lord Jesus Christ to Him who is God and Father This survey may help to shew us with what fulness of appreciation
.

the Apostle recognises the various aspects of the new truth of the Divine fatherhood as revealed to man in Jesus Christ.

The Father, of

whom

all fatherhood

in heaven and on earth

is

iii

14, 15

62

84

EXPOSITION OF TEE
named
.

[III 15,

The literal translation of the words rendered all father But this translation entirely obscures to hood is every family In Greek the an English reader the point of the Apostle s phrase. word for family (Trar/ata) is derived from the word for father But in English the family is not named from the (Trartjp). So that to reproduce the play upon words, which lends father
.

all its force to

phrase,

the original, we must necessarily resort to a para and say the Father, of whom all fatherhood is named 1 The addition of the words in heaven and on earth reminds us
.

of the large inclusiveness of the Divine purpose as declared to us by have had this collocation already, where the Apostle St Paul.

We

10

spoke of the
i

Col.

20

summing up of all things in Christ, both which are in the heavens and which are on earth Similarly he tells us elsewhere that the reconciliation in Christ includes all things, whether things
.

Phil,

ii

10

Eph.

17

And if in one place he adds on the earth or things in the heavens things which are under the earth as well, it is to declare that there is nothing anywhere which shall not ultimately be subject to In the present passage it would be irrelevant to enquire Christ. what families in heaven the Apostle had in his mind. His whole whom he has before called the Father point is that the Father is the source of all conceivable fatherhood, whether earthly of glory
.

or heavenly.

According to this notable utterance of St Paul, God is not only the universal Father, but the archetypal Father, the Father of whom all other fathers are derivatives and types. So far from
regarding the Divine fatherhood as a mode of speech in reference to the Godhead, derived by analogy from our conception of human fatherhood, the Apostle maintains that the very idea of fatherhood
exists primarily in the Divine nature, and only by derivation in The every other form of fatherhood, whether earthly or heavenly. All-Father is the source of fatherhood wherever it is found. This

may
is
iii 1 6

help us to understand something further of the meaning which wrapped up in the title the Father of glory
. .

That He would grant you according to the riches of His glory to We be strengthened with power by His Spirit in the inner man have already pointed to the close parallel between the language of the
prayer as
at first enunciated in chap, i and that of its fuller which we have now reached. In each case the prayer is expression the Father of glory (i 17), the Father, directed to the Father of whom all fatherhood in heaven and on earth is named (iii 14 f.). that In each case petition is made for a gift of the Holy Spirit
it is
1

The Latin and Syriac

versions, as

in the

same

difficulty

and escaped

it

will be seen in the

commentary, were

by a

like paraphrase.

Ill 16, 17]

EPISTLE TO THE EPHESIANS.

85

the Father of glory


that

may give you the Spirit of wisdom and revelation would grant (or give ) you according to the riches (i 17), of His glory to be strengthened with power by His Spirit (iii 16).

He

We

noted before how closely this corresponds with the promise of our Lord, as recorded by St Luke, The Father from heaven will Luke xi Again, the sphere of give the Holy Spirit to them that ask Him
.

13

action of the Spirit is in each case described in a striking phrase the eyes of your heart being enlightened (i 18), to be strengthened
in the inner (or inward ) man (iii 16). Finally, the ultimate aim that ye of all is knowledge of the fulness of the Divine purpose

may know what is the hope of His calling &c. (i i8f.), that ye may be able to comprehend what is the breadth and length and &c. (iii 18 f.). Knowledge and height and depth, and to know the prayer to know the power are inextricably linked together
, ,
:

mighty power (i 19) becomes the prayer to have the mighty power, in order to be strong enough to know (iii 19). That Christ may dwell through faith in your hearts in love Here we must bear in mind that it is for Gentiles that the Apostle He has already declared to them that they are in Christ he prays. now prays that they may find the converse also to be a realised truth, In writing to the Colossians that Christ may dwell in your hearts he speaks of this indwelling of Christ in the Gentiles as the climax of marvel in the Divine purpose God hath willed to make known what is the riches of the glory of this mystery in the Gentiles, which
,
:

iii

17

13,

ii

13

Col.

ii

27

is

Christ in you\

Thus we come to
.

see the force of the phrases

It is only through faith (or through through faith and in love the faith , if we prefer so to render it) that the Gentiles are par

takers of Christ: and

it is

in love

which binds

all

the saints

together, whether they be prehend with all the saints


is

now

or Gentiles (comp. v. 1 8 to com that the indwelling of the Christ, who ), the Christ of both alike, finds its manifestation and consum

Jews

mation.

We

may compare with

this

the words with which the


:

Wherefore I, having Apostle prefaced his prayer at the outset heard of your faith in the Lord Jesus and your love toward all the saints, cease not to give thanks on your behalf, making mention of

5 f

you in

my prayers Ye being rooted and founded We have parallels to these expressions in the Epistle to the Colossians, which help us to inter If ye are abiding in the faith, founded and firm, pret them here and not being shifted ; and Rooted and built up in Him, and
.

Col.
Col.

i ii

23
7

confirmed in the faith, as ye have been taught These parallels are a further justification of the separation of the participles from the words in love , and their connexion in thought with the faith
.

86

EXPOSITION OF THE

[III

1719

which has previously been mentioned. It is only as they have their roots struck deep and their foundation firmly laid in the faith as
to them, that they can hope to advance to the which he prays. knowledge That ye may be able to comprehend with all the saints what is the breadth and length and height and depth In the original the that ye may have the strength to expression is yet more forcible The clause depends on the participles rooted and comprehend but it has a further reference to the words to be founded strengthened with power by His Spirit in the inner man The object of the knowledge for which the Apostle prays was stated with some fulness in i 18 f. that ye may know what is the hope of His calling, what the riches of the glory of His inheritance in the saints, and what the exceeding might of His power to us-ward who believe Here it is indicated under vague terms, chosen to its immensity. For the Divine measures exceed human express
it

St Paul proclaims

full
iii 1 8

for

Isa. Iv 8

written, thoughts are not your thoughts And yet in this boldest of prayers the Apostle asks that they may be comprehended. The uttermost extent of the Divine purpose is

comprehension as
:

it is

My

the goal, however unattainable, of the knowledge for which the

Col. i.26f.

Apostle prays. To comprehend with all the saints The knowledge of the Divine purpose is the privilege of the saints So the Apostle to the Colossians of the mystery which was hidden... but speaks now it hath been made manifest to His saints, to whom God hath
.
.

willed to

make known
,

&c.

As
,

ye, says the

Apostle in

effect,

are

now

your love goes out towards all the saints in verification of your oneness with them so you may share with all the saints that knowledge which is God s will for them. We need not exclude a further thought, which, if it is not expressed in these words, at least is in full harmony with St Paul s
fellow-citizens of the saints

and

as

The conception of the unity of the saints in God s One Man. measures of the Divine purpose are indeed beyond the comprehension
intelligence but in union with all the saints we Each saint may grasp some be able to comprehend them. may the whole of the saints when we all come to the perfect portion man may know, as a whole, what must for ever transcend the
of

any individual
:

iv 13

iii

jp

knowledge of the isolated individual. And to know the love of Christ which passeth knowledge These words are a re-statement of the aim, with a recognition that it is indeed beyond attainment. The Father s purpose is coincident with the Son s love both alike are inconceivable, unknowable and yet
. :

the ultimate goal of knowledge.

Ill 19]

EPISTLE TO THE EPHESIANS.

87
.

all the fulness of God The climax of the Apostle prayer points to an issue even beyond knowledge. He has prayed for a superhuman strength, in order to the attain ment of an inconceivable knowledge, which is to result in what he

That ye

may
s

be filled

unto

iii

19

can only

call

fulness

all

the fulness of

God

What

is

this

which St Paul prays, as the crowning blessing of the Gentiles for whom he has laboured and suffered 1 Fulness, or fulfilment, is a conception which plays a prominent part in St Paul s thought both in this epistle and in that which he It is predicated sent at the same time to the Colossian Church. sometimes of Christ and sometimes of the Church. It is spoken of now as though already attained, and now as the ultimate goal of a
fulness for

long process.

Again and

again, in these

two

epistles,

we

find the

thought of

the complete restoration of the universe to its true order, of the ultimate correspondence of all things, earthly and heavenly, to the

Divine ideal. This issue is to be attained in Christ , and at the same time in and through the Church Thus, to recall some of the main passages, it is the purpose of God to gather up in one all things in Christ, both that are in the heavens and that are on earth and again, It hath pleased God...
.

10
i

Col.

19

f.

through Him to reconcile all things unto Himself... whether they be things on earth or things in the heavens Under the figure of
.

the universal headship of Christ we have the same thought is the head of every principality and authority ; He set
authority... and
.

"Who

Col.

ii

10

Him

at Eph.isoff.

His right hand in the heavenly places above every principality and gave Him to be head over all things to the And the Church s part in the great process by which Church... the result is to be attained is further indicated in the words that there might now be made known to the principalities and authorities in the heavenly places, through the Church, the manifold wisdom of
:

iii

10

God
.

to

whom

as the Apostle says later on,


all

Church and in Christ Jesus, throughout end

ages,

be the glory in the world without


all

iii

21

To express

this

complete attainment of the end of


fulness
,

things in
,

Christ and through the Church, the word with its verb Ho be filled or fulfilled

or

fulfilment

ways.

Christ Himself
,

is

used in very various spoken of not only as filling or fulis

iv 10

filling all

things but also as being all in all filled or fulfilled .123 In close connexion both with Christ s headship of the Church, and also with the reconciliation of all things, the Apostle speaks of all Col.

19

the fulness
in

Him

as residing in Christ should all the fulness dwell,


:

for it hath pleased God that and through to reconcile

Him

88
i

EXPOSITION OF THE
all

[III 19
*

23

things unto Himself.

The Church

is

expressly said to be

the

iv 13
iii

of Christ, fulfilling Him as the body fulfils the head. All the members of the Church are to meet at last in a perfect Man, and so to attain to the measure of the stature of the fulness of the

fulness

19

Col.

ii

And for the saints the Apostle here prays that they may unto all the fulness of God One remarkable passage remains, in which fulness is predicated at once of Christ and of the saints for in Him dwelleth all the fulness of the Deity in a bodily way, and ye are filled (or, fulfilled )
Christ
.

be

filled

in

Him

It

is

incarnation of Christ in His individual


as

usual to limit the reference of this passage to the human body, and to take it

Col.

19
iii

meaning that in that body resides the Godhead in all its com But this is to neglect St Paul s special use of the terms pleteness. fulness and body as they recur again and again in these For we have already had in the previous chapter the epistles. expression that in Him should all the fulness dwell ; and we have
*
,

Eph.

19 also to

fulness of

human
ii 1

reckon with the phrase that ye may be filled unto all the God Moreover, when St Paul refers to the individual of Christ in these epistles, he does so in unmistakeable body
*
. .

4 Col. i 22

terms, speaking either of His flesh or of the body of His flesh But the body of the Christ to St Paul is the Church.

When we

bear this in mind,


.

we

at once understand the appro


:

and ye are filled priateness of the second clause of this passage fulfilled in Him The relation of Christ to the Church is (or )
His fulness is of necessity also its fulness. And, whole passage thus interpreted harmonizes with its context. Take heed says the Apostle, if we may paraphrase his words, lest there be any who in his dealings with you is a despoiler through his philosophy (so-called) or empty deceit (as it is in for he Emptiness is all that he has to offer you truth). the tradition of the Christ, which you have received exchanges he gives you the world-elements (v. 6), for the tradition of men in place of the heavenly Christ. For in Christ dwells all the fulness (as I have already said), yea, all the fulness of the Deity, a body, in which you are incor expressing itself through a body
such that
further, the
c
,
: :

Col.

ii

ff .

porated, so that in Him the fulness is yours head is indeed universal head of all that
.

for

He who

is

your

stands for rule and

authority in the universe Thus St Paul looks forward to the ultimate issue of the Divine purpose for the universe. The present stage is a stage of imperfec
tion
:

the issue

the final stage will be perfection. All is now incomplete in all will be And this completeness, this fulfil complete.
:

ment, this attainment of purpose and realisation of

ideal, is

found

Ill 19

IV

i]

EPISTLE TO THE EPHESIANS.

89

is to be found (for to St Paul the present contains implicitly the future) in Christ in Christ by way of a body ; that is to as the whole, in which the head and the body are say, in Christ

and

inseparably one.

Even beyond

this the Apostle dares to look.

This
all

fulfilled

and

completed universe is of creative source, through Christ to God, that whom and unto whom are all things
,

in truth the return of

things to their
i

whom and through Eom. 2136 God may be all in Cor. xv


and unto which
,

all

Thus

the fulness

which

resides in Christ
all
all

28

the saints are to be

fulfilled, is

the fulness of the Deity


the fulness of

or, as

he says in our present passage,

God

prayer that has ever been framed has uttered a bolder It is a noble example of Trappier ia, of freedom of speech, of request.
that
above.
of which he has spoken Unabashed by the greatness of his petition, he triumphantly invokes a power which can do far more than he asks, far more than His prayer has risen into even his lofty imagination conceives.

No

boldness and access in confidence

iii

12

praise. all that

Now

unto

Him

that is able to

we ask or

think, according to the

do exceeding abundantly above power that worketh in us, to

iii

20

f.

Him

be glory in the church

and in

Christ Jesus, throughout all ages,

world without end.


According to reminded of his
closely
the

Amen\
power
that worketh in us
.

Once more we are


:

utter his prayer. It was at a attempt similar phrase that he began to digress that ye may
first

to

18

ff.

know... what

the exceeding greatness of His power to us- ward who believe, according to the working of the might of His strength, which He wrought in Christ, in that He raised Him etc. It is
is
,

the certainty of the present working of this Divine power that fills him with exultant confidence.

To Him be glory in the church and in Christ Jesus in the This is only the third time that the Body and in the Head. Apostle has named the Church in this epistle. He has spoken of it
as that which fulfils the Christ, as the body fulfils the head. He has spoken of it again as the medium through which lessons of the
i

23 10

iii

very-varied wisdom of God are being learned by spiritual intelli He now speaks of it, in terms not gences in the heavenly region. less remarkable, as the in which, even as in Christ Jesus sphere

Himself, the glory of

God

is

exhibited

and consummated.

I THEREFORE, the prisoner in the Lord, beseech you that ye walk worthy of the calling wherewith ye are called, 2 with all lowliness and meekness, with long-suffering, forbearing one

iv

90

EXPOSITION OF THE

[IV

another in love; sgiving diligence to keep the unity of the * There is one body and one Spirit, Spirit in the bond of peace. 5 one even as also ye are called in one hope of your calling
:

Lord, one faith, one baptism


is

6
:

one God and Father of


all.

all,

who

above

all

and through

all

and in

iv

title
iii

13

He repeats the you which he has already described himself; and prisoner by thereby he links this section to the long parenthesis in which he has
/ therefore,
the prisoner in the Lord, beseech
.

interpreted his use of

it.

He

seems to say

am

a prisoner now,

and no longer an active messenger of Jesus Christ. I can indeed But with yourselves hence write to you, and I can pray for you. forward rests the practical realisation of the ideal which it has been

my
It

mission to proclaim to you. have already had occasion to draw attention to the special usage of St Paul in regard to the names Christ and the Lord

We

harmony with this usage that he has previously called himself the prisoner of Christ Jesus emphasising his special mission to declare the new position of the Gentiles in Christ ; whereas now he says, the prisoner in the Lord , as he begins to speak of the outcome of the new position, the corporate life ruled by the Lord
is

in full

ii

15

That ye walk worthy of the calling wherewith ye are called The great human unity, which the Apostle regards as the goal of the Divine purpose, has been created and already exists in Christ. It is being progressively realised as a fact in the world of men by the
.

123
iii

10

Church, which is the body of the Christ and His fulfilment as fulfilling the Christ, the very-varied Through the Church wisdom of the Divine purpose is being taught to the intelligences of
.

iii

21

the spiritual sphere. In the Church and in Christ Jesus the Divine purpose is to find its consummation to the eternal glory
of God.

It

is

the responsibility of the members of the Church for the

preservation and manifestation of this unity, which the Apostle now seeks to enforce. You, he says, have been called into the
unity, which God has created in Christ : you have been chosen into this commonwealth of privilege, this household of God you are
:

This is your high stones in this Temple, members of this Body. vocation ; and, if you would be true to it, you must ever be mindful
of the

whole of which you are parts, making your conduct worthy of

iv 2

your incorporation into God s New Man. With all lowliness and meekness, with long-suffering, forbearing
1

See above, p. 72.

IV

2]

EPISTLE TO THE EPHESIANS.


.

91

It is the mental dispositions which promote one another in love the right relation of the parts to the whole and to each other in the His experience had whole, that the Apostle first demands of them.

taught him that these dispositions were indispensably necessary for the maintenance of unity.
This emphatic appeal for
virtues to which their
l

lowliness of

mind

as the first of

position pledged them, must have been to converts from heathenism. To the Greek peculiarly impressive mind humility was little else than a vice of nature. It was weak and mean-spirited ; it was the temper of the slave it was incon sistent with that self-respect which every true man owed to himself. The fulness of life, as it was then conceived, left no room for It was reserved for Christianity to unfold a different humility. conception of the fulness of life, in which service and self-sacrifice were shewn to be the highest manifestations of power, whether human or Divine. The largest life was seen to claim for itself the The Jew had indeed been taught right of humblest service. in the Old Testament, on the ground of the relation of humility man to God. The high and lofty One that inhabiteth eternity would only dwell with him that is of a contrite and humble spirit But the Gospel went far further and proclaimed that humility was not the virtue of weakness only. The highest life, in the fullest
;
.

new

Isa. Ivii 15

consciousness of its power, expresses itself in acts of the deepest * Jesus, knowing that the Father had given all things John humility. into His hands, and that He was come from God, and went to God ; 4 f

xiii

He riseth from supper, and laid aside His garments, and took a towel and girded Himself. After that he poureth water into a bason, and began to wash the disciples feet, and to wipe them with
the towel wherewith

He was girded It is in harmony with this that St Paul, in a great theological passage, treats humility as the characteristic lesson of the Incarnation itself. In lowliness of Phil,
.

ii

mind

he pleads, let each esteem other better than themselves... Let this mind be in you, which was also in Christ Jesus... who
,

humbled Himself. In our present passage the Apostle enforces humility on the ground of the relation of man to man in the great human unity. A larger life than that of the individual has been revealed to him. Its law is that of mutual service and its first requisite is the spirit of subordination, lowliness of mind and meekness With long-suffering, forbearing one another The patient spirit by which each makes allowance for the failures of the other, is closely related to the lowliness of mind by which each esteems the
:

other better than himself.

92
l
.

EXPOSITION OF THE

[IV

2,

ln love Here, as- so often in this epistle, love is introduced as the climax, the comprehensive virtue of the new life which includes all the rest In the Epistle to the Colossians the same thought is
1
.

Col. 12

iii
*

even more emphatically expressed


meekness, long-suffering;

Put ye

on... lowliness of

mind,

iv 3

forbearing one another... and, over and above all these, love, which is the bond of perfectness l Giving diligence to keep the unity of the Spirit in the bond of
.

peace

\ The word endeavouring which the Authorised Version employs in this place, has come to suggest in our modern usage too much of the possibility of failure to be strong enough to give the Apostle s meaning. The word which he uses has an eagerness about
,

it,

which is difficult to represent in English 2 The Church to him was the embodiment of the Divine purpose for the world it was What would become the witness to men of the unity of mankind.
. :

how should the purpose itself be realised, if the unity of the Church were not preserved 1 Well might he urge upon his readers eagerly and earnestly to maintain their oneness. They
of this witness,

must make a point of preserving it they must take care to keep it. The unity is spoken of as a thing which To keep the unity
:

already exists.

It

is

a reality of the spiritual world.


intact.

It is a gift of

God which
iv 13

is

committed to men to keep


:

At

as St Paul will presently shew, it is a unity which is until we all come to the unity its range and contents

the same time, ever enlarging


.

The unity

must be maintained in the


result.
*

process,

if it is

to be attained in the

ii

15

ff.

Hitherto St Paul has avoided the The unity of the Spirit abstract word, and has used concrete terms to express the thought Indeed the one man... in one body... in one Spirit of unity:
.
.

word to express the idea is not unity or oneness (li/o-n;?), but the more living and fruitful term com munion or fellowship (KOIVOWO,) a term implying not a meta see, for example, physical conception but an active relationship Acts ii 42, 2 Cor. xiii 14, Phil, ii i. Yet the more abstract term
characteristically Christian
:

has

its

value

of the

Holy

Spirit

the oneness of the Spirit underlies the fellowship which manifests and interprets it. ,

By
1

a mischievous carelessness of expression,


of in contrast to

unity of spirit
,

is

commonly spoken
Compare
for

corporate unity

and as though
in 2 Cor.
,
,

tion of the phrase


iv 15, 16.
2

the emphatic posiin love , i 4, iii 1 7,

which are used to render the correspending substantive


vii
i

(a-irovd^)
:

if.,
,

viii

f.,

16
,

carefulness

The range

of the

word and the


it

care

diligence

forwardness

difficulty of

adequately translating

earnest care

maybe illustrated by the five synonyms

IV 3 _6]
it

EPISTLE TO THE EPHESIANS.

93

might be accepted as a substitute for it. Such language would have been unintelligible to St Paul. He never employs the word
spirit

in a loose

way

to signify a disposition, as
.

we do when we

a kindly spirit To him spirit means spirit , and It is often hard to decide whether he is referring less. nothing In the present passage, to the Spirit of God or to the human spirit.

speak of

for example, we cannot be sure whether he wishes to express the unity which the Holy Spirit produces in the Christian Body, as in the parallel phrase the fellowship of the Holy Spirit ; or rather the

Cor. xiii

unity of the

one

spirit of the one

from the personal Holy Spirit. body and spirit is contemplated: and the notion that there could be several bodies with a unity of spirit is entirely alien to the thought of St Paul. It is especially out of place here, as the next words shew.

body regarded as distinguishable I4 But at any rate no separation of


,

There is one body and one Spirit, even as also ye are called in one hope of your calling ; one Lord, one faith, one baptism, ; one God and Father of all, who is above all and through all and in all The seven unities here enumerated fall into three groups one body, one
.
:

iv 4

ff.

one hope Father of all.


Spirit,

one Lord, one

faith,

one baptism

one God and

The Apostle begins from what is most immediately present to the one Body, vitalised by one Spirit, and progressing towards the goal of one Hope. This Body depends for its existence upon one Lord, its Divine Head, to whom it is united by one Faith and
view
one Baptism. Its ultimate source of being is to be found in one God, the All-Father, supreme over all, operative through all,

immanent in all. More succinctly we may express the thought


thus:

of the three groups


life

One Body

and
;

all

that this involves of inward

and ultimate

perfection

One Head One God

and that which unites us to


to

Him

whom
:

all else is

designed to lead
in words
s,

us.

Elsewhere St Paul has


progress of thought Who is above all

said,

which express a similar


is
.

Ye

are Christ

and through
;

all

and Christ and in all


,

God s

Cor.

iii

A timid gloss,

73

which changed the last clause into in you all has found its way but it is destitute of authority. The into our Authorised Version Greek in the true text is as vague as the English rendering given above so that we cannot at once decide whether St Paul is speaking of all persons or all things The words Father of all which immediately precede, may seem to make the former the more natural
:

94
interpretation
;

EXPOSITION OF THE
the wider meaning.

[IV.

6,

but they cannot in themselves compel us to abandon

The Apostle is indeed primarily thinking of the Body of Christ and all its members. The unity of that Body is the truth which he But when he has risen at length to find the source seeks to enforce.

iii

14

f-

human unity in the unity of the Divine fatherhood, his thought widens its scope. The words Father of all cannot be less inclusive than the earlier words, The Father of whom all fatherhood in And the final clause, Who is heaven and on earth is named above all and through all and in all is true not only of all intelli gent beings which can claim the Divine fatherhood, but of the total range of things, over which God is supreme, through which He moves and acts, and in which He dwells.
of
c
.

Col.

iii 1 1

Col.

iii

9,

It was a startling experiment in human life which the Apostle was striving to realise. Looked at from without, his new unity was Greek and Jew, circumcision a somewhat bizarre combination. and uncircumcision, barbarian, Scythian, bondman, freeman all these are no more, he boldly proclaims to the Colossians, but all in The putting on of the New Man he goes on to tell all is Christ
*
.

them, involved the welding into one of all these heterogeneous elements or rather the persistent disregard of these distinctions, in presence of the true human element, which should so far dominate
;

as practically to efface them. In every-day life this made a heavy de mand upon the new virtues of self-effacement and mutual forbearance.
Col.
iii

12

Accordingly he declares, in language closely parallel to that which he uses in this epistle, that to put on the New Man is to put on the heart of compassion, kindness, lowliness of mind, meekness, longsuffering j bearing one with another, and forgiving each other, if

Over and above all these any have a complaint against any must put on love, which is the bond of perfectness things they And the paramount consideration which must decide all issues is the peace of the Christ unto which they have been called in one
.

Body
iv

716

BUT unto

every one of us
gift of Christ.

is
8

given grace, according to the


it

measure of the

Wherefore

saith

When He ascended up on And gave gifts unto men.


9

high,

He
is

led a captivity captive,

Now

that,

He

ascended, what

it

but that

He

also

I0 He that descended into the lower parts of the earth ? He it is that also ascended above all heavens, that descended,

IY

7]
fill

EPISTLE TO THE EPHESIANS.


all
;

95

He might
teachers;

things.

"And

He

gave some, apostles; and


;

some, prophets
I2

for

and some, pastors and the perfecting of the saints for the work of
and some, evangelists

the body of Christ, J 3 till we all come to the unity of the faith and of the knowledge of the Son of God, to a perfect man, to the measure of the stature of the
ministry, for the building of
fulness of Christ
:

x*

that

we be no

longer children, tossed to

and carried about with every wind of doctrine, by the sleight of men, by craftiness according to the wiles of error; and
j

fro

all

sbut maintaining the truth in love, may grow up into Him in which is the head, even Christ, l6 from whom the things
;

whole body,
of
its

framed together and compacted by every joint supply, according to the effectual working in the measure of each several part, maketh the increase of the body, unto
fitly

the building thereof, in love.

of

the gift

But unto every one of us is given grace, according to the measure The recognition of the whole is to St Paul of Christ
.

iv 7

the starting-point for the consideration of the position of the indi For the unity of which he speaks is no barren vidual parts. it is a unity in diversity. It secures to the individual uniformity
:

his true place of responsibility and of honour. In order to appreciate the language of this passage
recall the

we must
iii

phraseology which the Apostle has used again and again He has there spoken of the grace in the earlier part of chap. iii. of God which was given to him on behalf of the Gentiles. He was

made

minister of the Gospel which included the Gentiles


:

according

iii

to the gift of that grace of God which was given to him to him for lie will repeat it the third time though less than the least of this grace was given, to preach to the Gentiles the holy people

iii

This reiterated identifica the unexplorable wealth of the Christ tion of his special mission with the gift of grace illustrates the To each individual, if not to all in like measure, passage before us.
.

the same grace has been given.


inclusiveness
is

The Divine mercy in its world- wide committed to each member of the holy people, not as a privilege only, but also as a responsibility \ The grace is According to the measure of the gift of Christ
.

Compare

Phil,

7,

where St Paul

nexion with

the defence and con,

* speaks of the Philippians as fellowwith him of grace , in conpartakers

firmation of the Gospel

96
the same
;

EXPOSITION OF THE
but Christ gives
it

[IV

710

in different measures, as the Apostle

proceeds to explain.

At this point we may usefully compare with the present context as a whole a parallel passage in the Epistle to the Romans, in which, after the Apostle has closed his discussion of the wide incluconduct of those to
siveness of the Divine mercy, he calls for a fitting response in the whom it has come. The language of the two

The opening phrase, with which passages offers several similarities. he passes from doxology to exhortation, is in each case the same
:

Horn, xii

There, as here, the grace which is given the grace which is given to us There too we find an appeal for humility on the ground of the one Body and the distribution of functions among its members, as God hath
I beseech you therefore to me leads the way to
<

man the measure of faith Having gifts the Apostle continues, which are diverse according to the grace which is given to us and he adds a catalogue of these gifts, which we shall presently have to compare with that which follows in this
dealt to every
.

These various functions, diverse according to the distribu epistle. tion of the grace such is the Apostle s teaching in both places are indispensable elements of a vital unity.
iv 8

Ps. Ixviii

saith : When He ascended up on high, He led a and gave gifts to men The Apostle has already connected the exaltation of Christ with the power that is at work in the members of His Church. The varied gifts bestowed by the exalted Christ now recall to his mind the ancient picture of the

Wherefore

it

captivity captive,

victorious king, who mounts the heights of the sacred citadel of Zion, with his captives in his train, and distributes his largess from

the

the spoils of war. It is the connexion between the ascension and and the only gifts, which the Apostle desires to emphasise words of the quotation on which he comments are He ascended
;

and
iv 9

He Now

gave
that,

He

into the lower parts

ascended, what is it but that He also descended of the earth ? Desiring to shew that the power

of Christ ranges throughout the universe, St Paul first notes that His ascent implies a previous descent. This descent was below the

earth, as the ascent is


iv 10

above the heavens.


also ascended above all heavens,
its

He that descended, He it is that that He might fill all things From


.

depths to

compassed the universe.

He

has

left

its heights He has nothing unvisited by His

For He is the Divine Fulfiller, to whom it appertains in presence. the purpose of God to fill all things with their appropriate fulness : to bring the universe to its destined goal, its final correspondence
with the Divine
ideal.

Compare what has been

said above

on

iii 1 9.

IV

1 1]

EPISTLE TO THE EPHESIANS.


some, apostles
;

97
1
.

And He gave
apostles , etc. to comment on

and
:

some, prophets
7

The nomina-

iv

tive is emphatic in

the original

Having commented on

He it is that gave some as He ascended St Paul goes on


,

ancient hymn.

He He
:

gave
it is
is

It

is

Christ

who
,

in each case fulfils the

that

ascended

and

He

it is

that

gave

The Ascended One


in a concrete form

His gifts are enumerated the giver of gifts. they are apostles, prophets, evangelists, pastors

and

All these in their diversity of functions are given by the Ascended Lord for the varied and harmonious development of
teachers.

His Church. In the passage of the Epistle to the Romans to which we have
already alluded, the gifts are catalogued in the abstract prophecy, Rom. Here the Apostle prefers to speak ministry, teaching, and the like.
:
"

xii

of the

members who

fulfil

given by

Christ to His Church.

these functions as being themselves gifts In another catalogue, in the First


i

Epistle to the Corinthians, he passes from the concrete method of God hath set some in the Church, description to the abstract first apostles, secondarily prophets, thirdly teachers, after that
:

Cor. xii

helps, governments, diversities of There too he has been speaking of the Body and its tongues members ; and the general thought is the same as here the diversity of gifts and functions is not only consistent with but
.

miracles, then gifts of healing,

necessary to corporate unity. Some, apostles ; and some, prophets ;


some, pastors

and

some, evangelists ;
if

and

teachers

We shall be

disappointed

and we come to

this passage, or either of the parallels referred to above, in the expectation of finding the official orders of the Church s ministry. The three familiar designations, bishops, presbyters and deacons, are all wanting. The evidence of the Acts of the Apostles, which

employs the

first

two

of these designations in

reference to the

leaders of the Ephesian Church, together with the evidence of the First Epistle to Timothy which employs all three in dealing with

the organisation and discipline of the same Church, forbids the suggestion that such officers are not mentioned here because they did not exist in the Asian communities to which St Paul s letter

was to

go, or because the

their position. direction. The

A reason

Apostle attached but little importance to for his silence must be sought in another

most intelligible explanation is that bishops, pres and deacons were primarily local officers, and St Paul is here byters concerned with the Church as a whole. Apostles, prophets and evangelists are divinely-gifted men who serve the Church at large ; and if a local ministry is alluded to at all it is only under the vaguer designation of pastors and teachers
.

EPHES.

98
This
is

EXPOSITION OF THE

[IV

not the place to discuss the development of the official but it may be pointed out that it rises in importance as ministry: the first generation of apostolic and prophetic teachers passes away, as the very designations of apostle and prophet gradually dis appear, and as all that is permanently essential to the Church of the apostolic and prophetic functions is gathered up and secured in the
official

ministry

itself.

The recovery of the Didache, or Teaching of the Apostles, has thrown fresh light on the history of the first two terms of St Paul s 1 It shews us a later generation of apostles who are what we list should rather term missionaries They pass from place to place, for a night s lodging and a day s rations. asking only They would seem to correspond to the evangelists of St Paul s catalogue, who carried the Gospel to regions hitherto unevangelised. This mention of them establishes beyond further question that wider use of the name apostle for the recognition of which Bishop Lightfoot had
.

already vigorously pleaded

Yet more

interesting

is

the picture which the Didache draws for

It shews us the prophets as pre us of the Christian prophets. eminent in the community which they may visit, or in which they may choose to settle. They appear to celebrate the Eucharist, and

They are to be regarded as genuineness as prophets has once been established. They are the proper recipients of the tithes and firstfor fruits of the community, and this for a noteworthy reason And when at the close of the book are your high-priests they bishops and deacons are for the first time mentioned, honour is
that with a special liturgical freedom.

beyond

criticism, if their

For they also minister claimed for them in these significant terms unto you the ministration of the prophets and teachers therefore despise them not for they are your honourable ones together with
:

In this primitive picture it is instruc the prophets and teachers tive to observe that the ministry of office is in the background, overshadowed at present by a ministry of enthusiasm, but destined
.

to absorb its functions


iv 12
l

and to survive
of
the saints

its fall,

For

the perfecting

for

the

work of ministry

The

The Didache was published by Archbp Bryennius in 1883. In its present form it is a composite work, which has embodied a very early (posIts sibly Jewish) manual of conduct. locality is uncertain, and it cannot
1

regard it as representative of the general condition of the Church at so late a period it would appear rather
:

to belong to some isolated community ? in which there lingered a condition of


life

and organisation which had


Lightfoot, Galatians, p. 95.

else-

be dated with prudence earlier than about 130 A.D. It is impossible to

where passed away,


2

IV

12, i3]

EPISTLE TO THE EPHESIANS.

99

second of these clauses must be taken as dependent on the first, and not (as in the Authorised Version) as coordinate with it. The

equipment of the members of the Body for their function of service to the whole is the end for which Christ has given these gifts to His Church. If the life and growth of the Body is to be secured, every member of it, and not only those who are technically called ministers must be taught to serve. More eminent service indeed is rendered those members to whom the Apostle has explicitly by referred; but their service is specially designed to promote the service in due measure of the rest for, as he tells us elsewhere, those members of the body which seem to be feebler are necessary
,
: ,

Thus

here spoken of corresponds to the to every one of us , which is the subject of this grace given

the work of ministry

i Cor. xii 22

iv 7

section.

An illustrative example of this ministry of saints to saints is to be found in St Paul s reference to an interesting group of Corinthian I beseech you, brethren, Christians ye know the house of Stethat it is the firstfruits of Achaia, and that they have phanas, that ye submit addicted themselves to the ministry of the saints \ unto such, and to every one that helpeth with us and yourselves
* :

i l

Cor. xvi
$

laboureth.

I
:

am

glad of the coming of Stephanas and Fortunatus


:

which was lacking on your part they have have refreshed my spirit and yours therefore supplied From words like these we acknowledge ye them that are such may see that every kind of mutual service is included in the early

and Achaicus
:

for that

for they

and

unofficial sense of this

word

ministry

If ministry such as this is characteristic of each member of the Body, it was preeminently characteristic of the Head Himself:

The Son
I

of Man came not to be ministered am among you as he that ministereth


.
.

unto, but to minister

Mark x 45 Luke xxii

For the building of the body of Christ This is the process to j v the forwarding of which all that has been spoken of is directed. In describing it St Paul combines, as he has done before, his two
favourite metaphors of the temple and the body. He has previously said that the building of the Temple grows here, conversely, he
:

ii

21

speaks of the
Till
the

Body
come
.

as being builded.
to the

we

all

Son of God
;

be kept

it is

unity of the faith and of the knowledge of has been spoken of, first of all, as a gift to Unity now regarded as a goal to be attained. Unity, as it

exists already and is to be eagerly guarded, is a spiritual rather than an intellectual oneness ; the vital unity of the one Spirit in
1

Literally,

they have appointed themselves unto ministry to the saints

72

100
the one body.

EXPOSITION OF THE
Unity, as
it is

[IV 13

ultimately to be reached by all the


:

saints together, will be a consciously realised oneness, produced by faith in and knowledge of the Son of God. are one now in "We

the end

we

all shall

know
.

ourselves to be one.

St Paul is so careful in his use of the various The Son of God of our Lord, that we may be confident that he has designations some reason here for inserting between two mentions of the Christ this title, the Son of God which does not occur elsewhere in the
,

epistle.

Gal.

ii

20

instructive to compare a passage in the Epistle to the I have been Galatians, where a similar change of titles is made. crucified with Christ , says the Apostle, and I no longer live, but
It
is

John xvii

me Christ lives and the life which now I live in the flesh, I live by the faith of the Son of God, who loved me and delivered Himself He with whom he has been crucified, He who now up for me Christ lives in him, is He whose love brought Him down to suffer is the Son of God The title is changed to one which recalls the glory which Christ had with the Father before the world was, in order to heighten the thought of His condescending love. And so in our present passage, when he is treating of the relation of our Lord to His Church, he speaks of Him as the Christ (for the but when he would article is used in both places in the original) describe Him as the object of that faith and knowledge, in which our unity will ultimately be realised, he uses the words the faith and the knowledge of the Son of God ; thereby suggesting, as it would seem, the thought of His eternal existence in relation to the Divine Father. Till we all come... to a perfect man : that is, all of us together
in
:
.

(for this is implied by the Greek) to God s Not to perfect men length to full manhood. iv 14
:

New Man, grown


:

at

for the Apostle

that we be no longer uses the plural of the lower stage only are to grow out of our indi children* is his own contrast.

We

vidualism into the corporate oneness of the full-grown Man.


1

To

the
:

measure of
is,

the stature

of

the fulness

of Christ

(or,

of the

23

to the full measure of the complete stature, or cannot forget that St Paul of the fulfilled Christ. maturity, has already called the Church the fulness of Him who all in all is
Christ)

that

We

being
Christ

fulfilled

But
.

in this place, he

in using the expression the fulness of the is thinking of more than the Church,

which is His Body For here we get once more to the background of St Paul s thought, in which the Body and the Head together are the Christ that is to be ultimately the one Christ In the New Man, grown to perfect manhood, St Paul finds the consummation of human life. He thus takes us on to the issue of There the one new the new creation which he spoke of in chap. ii.
.

IV

is, 14]
is

EPISTLE TO THE EPHESIANS.


:

IOI

man

created in the Christ

but he has a long growth before him.

More and more


Christ

are to claim their position as


to quote Origen s

members
1

of him.

is fulfilled

words again

in all that

come unto Him, whereas He is still lacking in respect of them When they shall all have come to the before they have come unity of the faith and of the knowledge of the Son of God, when
.

they shall

all

have come to a full-grown

Man; then

in the ripe
will itself

maturity of the have been attained.

New Man,

the fulness of the Christ

The
also

poet, who has spoken to us of the Christ that is to be has most clearly expressed for us a part at least of the truth of the
,

Making of Man Man as yet


2
:

is being made, and ere the crowning Age of ages, Shall not aeon after aeon pass and touch him into shape?

All about

him shadow

still,

but, while the races flower

and

fade,

Prophet-eyes may catch a glory slowly gaining on the shade, Till the peoples all are one, and all their voices blend in choric Hallelujah to the Maker It is finish d. Man is made
.

no longer children*. This expression, viewed from the mere standpoint of style, spoils the previous metaphor but it is The plural is to be obviously intended to form a sharp contrast.
be
:

That we

iv 14

noted.

Maturity belongs to the unity alone.

Individualism and

self-assertion are the foes of this maturity. are not to be babes , isolated individuals, stunted and imperfect. Out of indi

We

vidualism

we must grow,

if

we would

attain to our perfection in the

membership of the perfect Man. l No longer children, tossed to


every
ideal.

wind of

He
to

is

has

still

and fro and carried about with St Paul does not linger on the distant quickly back to the present stage of childhood, which pass the waves of this troublesome world in which
doctrine
.

ideals are too apt to suffer shipwreck. The new metaphor is drawn from the sea which the Apostle knew so well, the symbol of insta It suggests the jeopardy of the little boats, bility and insecurity. storm-tossed and swung round by each fresh blast, so that they cannot keep their head to the waves and are in danger of being

swamped.
of men, by craftiness according to the wiles of of the dice and the smart cleverness of the schemer are the figures which underlie the words here used.
sleight
l

By
.

the

error

The dexterous handling

They suggest the very opposite

of the Apostle s straightforwardness


* The Making of Man in The Death of Oenone and other Poems (1892).

1 The full quotation is given in the note on p. 45. 2 Tennyson, In Memoriam cvi: and

102
2 Cor. iv 2

EXPOSITION OF THE

[IV

14,

15

of teaching. Ours is not, he had once said to the Corinthians, the of the adept, which plays tricks with the Divine message. versatility So here he warns us that subtleties and over-refinements end in

iv 15

must keep to the simple way But maintaining the truth in love not controversial. He attacks no form
error.
"VVe
.

of truth

and

love.

this epistle St Paul is of false doctrine, but only

In

gives a general warning against the mischievous refinements of overWith the * error to which these things lead he subtle teachers.
briefly contrasts the

duty of maintaining the truth in love ; and then at once he returns to the central truth of the harmony and growth of God s one Man. The next words, which May grow up into Him in all things is the head seem at first sight to suggest that the Apostle s meaning is may grow up into Him as the head But although the limbs of the body are presently spoken of as deriving their growth from the head the head being regarded as the source of that harmony of the various parts which is essential to healthy development it would be difficult to give a meaning to the expression to grow up into the head Accordingly it is better to regard the words may grow
1
7
.

up

into Him in all things as complete in themselves. What St Paul desires to say is that the children are to grow up, not each into a separate man, but all into One, the perfect man who
,

none other than the Christ. The law of growth for the individual is this that he should learn more and more to live as a part of a great whole ; that he should consciously realise the life of membership, and contribute his appropriate share towards the completeness of the corporate unity ; and that thus his expanding faculties should find their full play in the large and ever enlarging life of the One Man. It is to this that St Paul points when he says, that we be no longer children, but grow up into Him every whit In one of the most remarkable poems of the In Memoriam
is
: .

ness

Tennyson suggests that the attainment of a definite self-conscious may be a primary purpose of the individual s earthly life
1 :

This use

may
else

lie in

blood and breath,

Which

were

fruitless of their due,

Had man

to learn himself

anew

Beyond the second

birth of Death.
is

We gather from
called to learn

St Paul that there

a further lesson which

we

are

sense

we

the consciousness of a larger life, in which in a lose ourselves, to find ourselves again, no longer isolated,
1

In J\Iemoriam y

xlv.

IV

15]

EPISTLE TO THE EPHESIANS.

103

but related and coordinated in the Body of the Christ. That the this surrender of the poet, too, knew something of the mystery of individual life may be seen from his Prologue
:

Thou seemest human and divine, The highest, holiest manhood, thou Our wills are ours, we know not how; Our wills are ours, to make them thine.
:

Backwards and forwards the Which is the head, even Christ Apostle moves, with no concern for logical consistency, between the conception of Christ as the Whole and the conception of Christ as the Head of the Body. The newness of the thought which he is
*
.

endeavouring to develope the thought of human unity realised through and in the Christ is doubtless responsible for these We feel that the conception is being worked out oscillations.
for the first time,

the

difficulties

and we watch the struggle of language in face of which present themselves. The initial difficulty is

of persons as forming in a real sense one parlance this difficulty is not recognised, because the word body is used merely to signify an aggregation of persons more or less loosely held in relation to one another, and its proper meaning of a structural unity is not seriously pressed.
to conceive of a

number

body

In

common

But just in proportion as a body is felt to mean a living organism, And St Paul makes it abundantly clear that the difficulty remains. it is a living organism a human frame with all its manifold struc
ture inspired by a single life which offers to tion of humanity as God will have it to be.

him the true concep

Body comes
its

further difficulty enters when the relation of Christ to this It is natural at once to think of Him as to be denned.
:

Head

for that

is

the seat of the brain which controls and unifies

the organism. But this conception does not always suffice. For Christ is more than the Head. The whole Body, in St Paul s Eom.
language,
is

xii 5

in

Him
this,

the several parts

grow up into
with

Him

Even more than

the whole

is identified

Him

for as

Cor. xii

the body is one and hath many members, and all the members of the body being many are one body ; so also is the Christ In the New Man Christ is all and in all Identified with the whole
.

I2

Col.

iii

Body,

He
its

grows with

its

growth and

will find

His own fulfilment


rapidity of the tran

only in
sition

complete maturity.

We are not therefore to be surprised at the

by which the Apostle here passes from the thought of Christ as the Whole, into which we are growing up, to the thought of Him as the Head, upon which the Body s harmony and growth depends.

104
iv 16
*

EXPOSITION OF THE
From whom
the whole body, fitly
.

[IV

16,

17

ii

21

Col.

ii

19

Col. iv 14

supply by every joint fitly framed together is repeated from the description of the building process which has already furnished a figure of structural, though not organic, unity. The remainder of the passage is found again, with slight verbal from whom the whole variations, in the Epistle to the Colossians furnished out and compacted by the joints and bands, body, increaseth with the increase of God The Apostle is using the physiological terms of the Greek medical writers. We can almost see him turn to the beloved physician of whose presence he tells

of its

framed The expression

together

and compacted
*

us in the companion epistle, before venturing to speak in technical language of every ligament of the whole apparatus of the human
frame.

There is no reference either here or in the Epistle to the Colossians to a supply of nourishment, but rather to the complete system of nerves and muscles by which the limbs are knit together and are connected with the head.

According to the effectual working in the measure of each several part : that is, as each several part in its due measure performs its Unity in variety is the Apostle s theme appropriate function. unity of structure in the whole, and variety of function in the
:

component parts these are the conditions of growth upon which he insists. Maketh the increase of the body, unto the building thereof, in
several
1
:

This recurrence to the companion metaphor of building reminds us that the reality which St Paul is endeavouring to illustrate is more than a physiological structure. The language derived from the body s growth needs to be supplemented by the language derived from the building of the sacred shrine of God.
love
.

The mingling of the metaphors helps us to rise above them, and thus prepares us for the phrase, with which the Apostle at once in love interprets his meaning and reaches hia climax,
.

10

iii5,iii4ff.

concluded a further stage in St Paul s exposition. To begin with we had the eternal purpose of God, to make Christ Then we had the the summing into one of all things that are.

We have thus

iv 3

ff.

mystery of Christ, consummated on the cross, by which Jew and Gentile passed into one new Man. Lastly we have had the unity

by which the Body


iv

of the Spirit, a unity in variety, containing a principle of growth, of the Christ is moving towards maturity.

17-24

^Tnis

I say therefore

and

testify in the Lord, that

ye no

the vanity of their longer walk as do the Gentiles walk, in l8 darkened in their understanding, being alienated from mind,

IV 1719]

EPISTLE TO THE EPHESIANS.

IO5

the life of God, through the ignorance that is in them because ^who being past feeling have of the blindness of their heart themselves over unto lasciviousness, to work all uncleangiven
;

ness with greediness. ^But ye have not so learned Christ; 21 if so be that ye have heard Him, and have been taught in
that ye put off as concerning your former manner of life the old man, which is corrupt 23 and be renewed in the according to the lusts of deceit; spirit of your mind, 2 and put on the new man, which after God is

Him,

as the truth

is

in Jesus

22

created in righteousness and holiness of the truth.


This I say therefore and testify in the Lord, that ye no longer iv The double use of the verb to walk as do the Gentiles walk walk points us back to the beginning of the chapter. There he had commenced his solemn injunction as to their walk ; but the first elements on which he had felt bound to lay stress, humble ness of mind and mutual forbearance, the prerequisites of the life of unity, led him on to describe the unity itself, and to shew that Now he returns to it was the harmony of a manifold variety. This I say therefore and his topic again with a renewed vigour
.

17

testify in

the
1
.

Lord

in

whom

am who

speak,

and you are

who hear

His injunction now takes a negative form they are not to This leads him to describe the walk as do the Gentiles walk characteristics of the heathen life which they have been called
:
.

to leave.

In the vanity of their mind, darkened in their understanding, being alienated from the life of God, through the ignorance that is in them because of the blindness of their heart They have no
1 .

iv 17

ruling purpose to guide them, no light by which to see their way, no Divine life to inspire them they cannot know, because their
:

heart

phrase may recall to us by way of contrast the Apostle s prayer for the Gentile converts, that the eyes of their And the whole description may be heart might be enlightened. with his account of their former state as in the world compared
is

blind.

The

last

18

ii

\i

without hope and without


1

God

being past feeling have given themselves over unto lascivi- iv 19 3 work all uncleanness with greediness They have not only the passive vice of ignorance, but the active vices which are
)usness,
to
.

Who

See above on

iv.

i.

WOODSTOCK

COLLtfit

106
Eom.
i.

EXPOSITION OF THE
21

[IV

1921

In the opening chapter of the Epistle to the is found they became vain, in their imaginations, and their foolish heart was darkened... wherefore God also gave them up to uncleanness...for this cause God gave them up unto vile affections... even as they did not like to retain God in their knowledge, God gave them up to a reprobate mind, to do those things which are not convenient There it is thrice
bred of recklessness.

Romans

the same sequence

said that

said that, having The emphasis which they gave themselves up in either case St Paul lays on want of knowledge corresponds with the stress which, as we have already seen, he lays upon
:

God gave them up

here

it

is

become

reckless,

true
iv

20

wisdom 1 But ye have not so learned Christ or, as it is in the original, the Christ*. That is to say, You are no longer in this darkness and ignorance you have learned the Christ and the lesson involves a
.

iv 1

wholly different life. If so be that ye have /ward


as the truth is in Jesus
.

used for

Him, and have been taught in Him, The conditional form of the sentence is the sake of emphasis, and does not imply a doubt. We
:

if indeed it be He whom it thus ye have heard The phrases to learn Christ, ye have been taught to hear Him, and to be taught in Him, are explanatory of each other. The Apostle s readers had not indeed heard Christ, in the

may

paraphrase

and in

whom

iv 15

But Christ was the message which sense of hearing Him speak. had been brought to them, He was the school in which they had been taught, He was the lesson which they had learnt. The expression to learn Christ has become familiar to our ears, and we do not at once realise how strangely it must have sounded when it was used for the first time. But the Apostle was well aware that his language was new, and he adds a clause even as the truth is in Jesus or which helps to interpret it He lays much stress more literally, even as truth is in Jesus on truth throughout the whole context. He has already called for the maintenance of the truth in opposition to the subtleties
c
: ,
.

iv 24

f.

of error

he will presently speak of the new


to

man
of

as

created
;

according

God

in

righteousness and holiness

the truth

and, led on

by the word, he

practical duty of the new truth each to his neighbour.

will require his readers as the first life to put away falsehood and speak

But truth

is

embodied in Jesus, who

is the Christ. Hence, instead of saying ye have learned the truth," have heard the truth, ye have been taught in the truth he says ye
,

See above, p. 30.

IV

2i

24]

EPISTLE TO THE EPHESIANS.

107

with a far more impressive emphasis, It is Christ whom ye have as learned, Him ye have heard, in Him ye have been taught, even
the truth
is

in Jesus

Nowhere else in this by itself. Nor does he


his

epistle does St

Paul use the name Jesus


*

captivity, if refers to the new honour which has accrued to the name Phil, specially Even in his earlier epistles it rarely occurs alone ; and, of Jesus
.

Roman

so use it again in any of the epistles of we except the one passage in which he

ii

10

when it does, there is generally an express reference to the death have already said something or resurrection of our Lord 1 He uses of the significance of St Paul s usage in this respect 2
.

We

the

name Jesus by
*

itself

when he wishes emphatically

to point

to the historic personality of the Christ. And this is plainly his The message which he pro intention in the present passage. claimed was this The Christ has come in the person of Jesus
:

the crucified, risen and ascended Jesus He has come, not only In as the Messiah of the Jew, but as the hope of all mankind. and so the truth has come to this Jesus is embodied the truth
:

you.

Him you have heard, in Him you have been taught, even as the truth is in Jesus. That ye put off as concerning your former manner of life iv the old man, which is corrupt according to the lusts of deceit; and be renewed in the spirit of your mind, and put on the new man, which after God is created in righteousness and holiness of The injunctions which St Paul has hitherto laid upon the truth
You have
learned the Christ
;
*
.

22

ff.

his readers have been gentle admonitions, arising directly out of the great thoughts which he has been expounding to them. His
first

injunction was Remember what you were and what you are. Cultivate that humble and forbearing temper, which naturally belongs to what you are, which tends to keep the unity.
:

ii

f.

The next was But now

iv i

ff.

his demand takes a severer tone I protest in the Lord, he that you be not what you were. says, The knife goes deep. As regards your former life, he declares, you must strip off the old man a miserable decaying thing, rotted
: * ,

with the passions of the old life of error. You must be made new You must array yourselves in the new man who in your spirits. has been created as God would have him to be, in that righteousness
,

and holiness
1

to

which the truth


i

leads.

So in

Thess.

10, iv

14,

Rom.

Jude.

But in Hebrews

it

occurs alone

viii ii, 2

Cor. iv 10, ii, 14. The remaining passages are Gal. vi 17, Eom. iii 26, 2 Cor. iv 5. The name is not

eight times; and this is, of course, the regular use in the Gospels,
2

See above, pp. 23

f.

used alone in James,

and

2 Peter, or

108

EXPOSITION OF THE

[IV 22

24

Rom.

vi 6

What is the old used the term in an earlier


to the

man who

is

epistle.

here spoken of 1 St Paul has Our old man he had written


,
.

Romans,

was

crucified

with Christ

From

the context of
:

that passage

I said that meaning by your baptism you were united with Christ in His death, you were buried with Him. "What was it that then died 1 I answer The former you. A certain man was living a life of sin he was the slave of sin, living in a body dominated by sin. That man, who lived that life, died. He was crucified with Christ. That is what I call your old man To the Romans, then, he has declared that their old man is
interpret his
as follows
:
:

we may

Kom.

vi 7

Gal.

ii

20

the true view of your life. It is God s which you are justified in His sight. And this view, the only true view, you are bound yourselves to take, and make it the ruling principle of all your conduct. Elsewhere he says This is my own case. I have been crucified with Christ I no longer live. Yet you see me living. What does it mean Christ is living in me. So great was the revolution which St Paul recognised as having taken place in his own moral experience, that he does not hesitate to speak of it as a change I am dead, he says, crucified on Christ s cross. of personality. Another has come to live in me and He has displaced me in
dead.

view of

This, he says, it, in virtue of

is

myself.

What was

true for

Christ, he says, has

him was true for come and claimed you.

his

readers likewise.

You have

admitted

His claim by your baptism. You are no longer yourselves. The old you then died Another came to live in you. In our present passage, and in the closely parallel passage of the Epistle to the Colossians, St Paul urges his readers to bring their
:

lives into

the old
Col.

man and

correspondence with their true position, by putting off That they had done putting on the new man
.

this already in their baptism


ii

was

not, to his mind, inconsistent

with

12,

such an admonition. Indeed he expressly reminds the Colossians that they had thus died and been buried with Christ, and had been
raised with

Col.iiiQff.

Him to a new life. None the less he urges them to a fresh act of will, which shall realise their baptismal position putting off the old man with his deeds, and putting on the new, who is ever being renewed unto knowledge according to the image
:

of

Him

that created him

where there
.

is

no Greek and Jew,

circumcision and uncircumcision, barbarian, Scythian, bondman, freeman ; but Christ is all and in all

The metaphor here employed is a favourite one with St Paul. They are to strip off the old self they are to clothe themselves with
:

IV

22

24]

EPISTLE TO THE EPHESIANS.

109

Another. This Other is sometimes said to be Christ Himself. Thus As many of you as were baptised Gal. iii 27 St Paul writes to the Galatians Put Bom. xiii into Christ did put on Christ ; and to the Romans he says
:
:

ye on the Lord Jesus Christ


for

Yet we could not substitute Christ


*

I4

the

new man
,

either here or in the Epistle to the Colossians.

For in both places the Apostle speaks of the new man as having been created a term which he could not apply directly to Christ. An earlier passage in this epistle, which likewise combines the term new man with the idea of creation may perhaps throw some light on this difficulty, even if it introduces us to a further In speaking of the union of the Jew and the Gentile complication. in Christ, St Paul uses the words that He might create the two in Himself into one new man As the new man who is to be put on is the same for all who are thus renewed, they all become But the one new Man is ulti inseparably one one new Man. We cannot perhaps mately the Christ who is all and in all these various expressions into perfect harmony but we must bring
,
:
.

ii

15

not neglect any one of them. Here, as often elsewhere with St Paul, the thought is too large and too many-sided for a complete
logical consistency in its exposition. The condition of the old man, which is corrupt according to the iv 22 lusts of deceit , is contrasted first with a renewal of youth, and

secondly with a fresh act of creation.


ceptions correspond to
.

These two distinct con two meanings which are combined in the For this may mean simply is being destroyed phrase is corrupt is on the way to perish ; as St Paul says elsewhere, our outward man perisheth using the same verb in a compound form. But
,

Cor. ivi6

again it may refer to moral pollution, as when the Apostle says to the Corinthians, I have espoused you to one husband, to present you as a pure virgin to Christ ; but I fear lest, as Satan deceived Eve, so your minds may be corrupted from the simplicity and purity
If in our present passage the words which is towards Christ which is corrupt stood alone, we might take the first meaning which waxeth corrupt or, better, which is only and render and this would correspond to the contrasted words, be perishing renewed in the spirit of your mind But the second meaning is also in the Apostle s mind for he adds the words according to the lusts of deceit and he offers a second contrast in the new man which is created after God or more literally according to God that is as he says more plainly to the Colossians according to the
.
:

2 Cor. xi 2 f
"

Col.

iii

10

image

The original purity of newlycreated man was corrupted by means of a deceit which worked The familiar story has perpetually repeated through the lusts
of

Him

that created

him

HO
itself

EXPOSITION OF THE
in

[IV 25

experience corrupt according to the lusts of deceit and a fresh creation after the original pattern
:

human

the old

man
the

is

has been necessitated


is

it is

found in
holiness

new man which

after

God

created in righteousness deceit ) of the truth


.

and

which are

(in contrast with

ivas

V2

putting away lying, speak every man truth with his neighbour for we are members one of another. 26 Be let not the sun go down upon your ye angry, and sin not 2? wrath neither give place to the devil. 28 Let him that stole
25
:
:

WHEREFORE

steal

but rather let him labour, working with his hands the thing which is good, that he may have to give to him that needeth. 2 ^Let no corrupt communication proceed

no more

out of your mouth, but that which is good, for building need may be, that it may give grace unto the hearers
:

up as 3and

grieve not the holy Spirit of God, whereby ye are sealed unto ^ Let all bitterness and wrath and the day of redemption.

anger and clamour and evil-speaking be put away from you, with all malice 32 and be ye kind one to another, tenderhearted,
:

V.
2

forgiving one another, even as God in Christ hath forgiven you. * Be ye therefore followers of God, as His beloved children

hath loved you, and hath given Himself for you, an offering and a sacrifice to God for a
in love, as Christ also

and walk

sweetsmelling savour.

The Apostle proceeds

his general injunction to put off the old turn from the life of error to the life

to interpret in a series of practical precepts man and put on the new, to

He
it

which belongs to the truth. to the large interests of their common life : appeals throughout is the Spirit of fellowship which supplies the motive for this moral
Six sins are struck at
:

revolution.

lying, resentment, stealing,

bad

language, bad temper, lust.


iv 25 iv 26

iv 28
iv 29

to be exchanged for truthfulness, for the Body s sake. to give way to reconciliation, lest Satan get a footing in their midst. Stealing must make place for honest work, to help

Lying

is

.Resentment

is

iv 31

bad language for gracious speech, unto building up and lest the one holy Spirit be grieved. Bad temper must yield to kindliness and forgivingness, for God has forgiven them all ; yea, to love, the
others
:

v 3

love of self-giving, shewn in Christ s sacrifice. Lastly lust, and all the unfruitful works of the dark, must be banished by the light.

IV

25, 26]

EPISTLE TO THE EPHESIANS.

Ill

the false

Thus the Apostle bids them displace the old man by the new, life by the righteousness and holiness of the truth
:

Eing out the old, ring in the new; Eing out the false, ring in the true; Eing in the Christ that is to be.
*

Wherefore putting
:

away

lying, speak every


.

man

truth with his iv 25

In the original the neighbour for we are members one of another connexion with what has immediately preceded is very clearly marked. For the word rendered putting away is the same as that
which has been used for
putting off the old man, though the metaphor of the garment is now dropped: and lying or false hood as it could be more generally rendered, is directly suggested by the word truth with which the last sentence closes. Truthful ness of speech is an obvious necessity, if they are to live the life of
3

the truth

enforces his command by a quotation from the These are the things that ye shall do Speak Zech. prophet Zechariah man the truth with his neighbour truth and the judge- I ye every But he gives a character of ment of peace judge ye in your gates for we are his own to the precept in the reason which he adds

The Apostle

viii

members one
is

of another

5
.

These words remind us how practical he

The mystical conception that individual in all his mysticism. are but limbs of the body of a greater Man is at once made the basis of an appeal for truthfulness in our dealings one with another.

men

Falsehood, a modern moralist would say,


trust

is a sin against the mutual on which all civilised society rests. St Paul said it long ago, and still more forcibly. It is absurd, he says, that you should deceive one another just as it would be absurd for the limbs of a The habit of lying was congenial to body to play each other false. St Paul strikes at the Greek, as it was to his Oriental neighbours.
:

the root of the sin by shewing of the corporate life.

its

inconsistency with the realisation

Be ye angry, and sin not: let not the sun go down upon yourivi6L The first words of this wrath; neither give place to the devil are another quotation from the Old Testament. passage They are taken from the Greek version of the fourth Psalm, and are perhaps Ps. iv 4 a nearer representation of the original than is given by our English That there is a righteous rendering, Stand in awe, and sin not but he warns us that, if is thus allowed by the Apostle anger cherished, it quickly passes into sin. According to the Mosaic law the sun was not to set on a cloke held as a surety, or the unpaid wage Deut. xxiv of the needy and again, the sun was not to set on a malefactor put r 3 *5
1

H2
Deut. xxi.
...

EXPOSITION OF THE
to death

[172729

*j*

29,

x 27)

and left unburied. This phraseology furnishes the Apostle with the form of his injunction. Its meaning is, as an old commentator observes, Let the day of your anger he the day of your
1
.

reconciliation

to give place to the devil means to give him room or scope for action. Anger, which suspends as it were the har monious relation between one member and another in the Body,

The phrase

iv 2 8

an immediate opportunity for the entry of the evil spirit 2 Let him that stole steal no more : but rather let him labour, work ing with his hands the thing which is good, that he may have to give to him that needeth This is indeed to put off the old, and to put on the new. It is a complete reversal of the moral attitude. Instead of taking what is another s, seek with the sweat of your brow to be in a position to give to another what you have honestly made your
gives
.

own.
iv 29

Matt,
I
>

vii
ii
33>

7.?

The Let no corrupt communication proceed out of your raoutli word here rendered corrupt is used in the Gospels of the worthless it is opposed to tree, and of the worthless fish good in the sense But the corrupt speech here con O f being good-for-nothing demned is foul talk, and not merely idle talk. It is probable that St Paul in his choice of the word had in mind its original meaning
. *

Col. iv 6

for in a parallel passage of the comcorrupted Let your speech be alway with grace, he says panion epistle seasoned with salt ; the use of salt being not only to flavour, but to
of

rotten

or

preserve.

But that which words edify and


is

is

good, for building

up

as need

may

be

The
it

edification

have become so hackneyed, that


if

the Apostle s How vividly he realised the is to retain its original force. language metaphor which he employed may be seen from a passage in the
Epistle to the

almost necessary to avoid them in translation,

Bom.

xiv

literally
1

Romans, where he says, if we render his words Let us follow after the things that belong to peace and to
s
2

It is

worth while to repeat Fuller


loc. p. 141):

The Didache,

in a

list

of warnings

comment quoted from Eadie by Dr


Abbott (ad
the Apostle

Let us take

directed against certain sins on the ground of what they lead to , says
(c. iii):

meaning rather than his

Be not angry;
;

for auger leads

words with all possible speed to depose our passion not understanding him
;

so literally that

we may take

leave to

might our wrath lengthen with the days; and men in Greenland, where days last above a quarter of a year, have plentiful scope
be angry
till

sunset, then

murder: nor jealous, nor quarrelsome, nor passionate for of all these In the same things murders are bred chapter comes another precept which
to
.

it is

interesting to

compare with the


s injunctions

sequence of St Paul
this place:

in

My

child,

be not a liar;
.

of revenge

since lying leads to thieving

IVao]

EPISTLE TO THE EPHESIANS.


:

113

the building up of one another do not for the sake of food pull down Moreover in the present chapter he has twice spoken iy God s work u of c the building up of the body ; while in an earlier chapter he has
.

12, 16

elaborated the metaphor of the building in relation to the Christian In the present passage he recurs to this metaphor, as society.
in

he recurred to the figure of the body. Speech, like everything else, he would have us use for the help of others who for building up as occasion are linked with us in the corporate life
v.

25

may

offer

That
grace

it

may

may

The phrase to give give grace unto the hearers also be rendered to give gratification : and this is
.

which would at once be suggested to the ordinary to St Paul s mind the deeper meaning of grace This is not the only place where he seems to play predominates. Thus, upon the various meanings of the Greek word for grace for example, in the passage which we have quoted above from the Epistle to the Colossians, the obvious sense of his words to a Greek mind would be Let your speech be always with graciousness or charm and another instance will come before us later on graceful
certainly the idea

Greek reader.

But

Col. iv 6

in the present epistle And grieve not the holy Spirit of God, whereby ye are sealed unto iv 30 the day of redemption Each of St Paul s injunctions is enforced
.

by a grave consideration.
ship in a Body.

Falsehood

is

inconsistent with

member
spirit.

Cherished irritation makes room for the evil

Stealing is the direct contrary of the labour that toils to help others. Speech that is corrupt not only pulls down instead of building up,

but actually pains the Holy Spirit of God.

The Spirit specially claims to find expression in the utterances of Christians, as St Paul tells us later on in this epistle, where he Be filled with the Spirit ; speaking to one another in psalms v says
:

8 f

and hymns and


is

spiritual songs

accordingly a wrong done to, it. The addition of the words, whereby (or in whom ) ye are sealed unto the day of redemption carries us back to the
control
,

The misuse of the organ of speech and felt by, the Spirit who claims to

mention of the sealing of the Gentiles with the holy Spirit of the that is, the Spirit promised of old to the chosen people. promise This is the one Spirit of which the Apostle says in an earlier epistle that in one Spirit we have all been baptized into one body, whether Jews or Greeks Thus the Holy Spirit stands in the closest relation to the new corporate life, and is specially wronged
l
,

i 1

i
J

Cor. xii
3

See below, p. 116.


of

meanings

grace

in the Old

For the various and

New Testaments
on

see the detached note

EPHES. 2

114

EXPOSITION OF THE
when the opportunity
defilement and ruin.
of building it

[IV 31

up becomes an occasion

for its

iv 31

f.

speaking be put

and wrath and anger and clamour and evil away from you, with all malice : and be ye kind one to another, tenderhearted, forgiving one another, even as God in Christ The fifth injunction, to put away bitter feelings, hath forgiven you
Let all bitterness
.

and the quarrelling and evil-speaking to which they give rise, is enforced by an appeal to the character and action of God Himself. You must forgive each other, says the Apostle, because God in
Christ has forgiven you
all.
c

vi

Luke
35
ff>

vi

imitators ) of God, as His beloved These words must be taken closely with what precedes, children The imitation of God in His mercifulas well as with what follows. Love your enemies, and do ness is the characteristic of sonship. them good, and lend hoping for nothing again ; and your reward

Be ye
.

therefore followers (or

shall be great, and ye shall be sons of the Most High ; for He is kind to the unthankful and evil. Be merciful, even as your Father
is

merciful

as Christ also hath loved you, and hath given an offering and a sacrifice to God for a sweetHimself for you, The Apostle has invoked the Divine example smelling savour He now extends its reference first of all in regard to forgiveness. by making it the basis of the wider command to walk in love Take, he says, God as your pattern copy Him for you are His

And walk

in
1

love,

children

whom He
us,

loves.

Walk

therefore in love

such love as

Christ has

shewn to you.

the love of God is supremely manifested in the love of who gave Himself up on our behalf, an offering and a Christ, We then are to love sacrifice to God for an odour of a sweet smell

For

with the love that gives itself for St Paul thus points to Christ s sacrifice others, the love of sacrifice. of the love which Christians are to shew to one as an example Your acts of love to one another, he implies, will be another. even as Christ loved us
;

that

is,

even as the supreme act of truly a sacrifice acceptable to God; Christ s love to you is the supremely acceptable Sacrifice.
this teaching and the passages may help to illustrate One of these is found later phraseology in which it is conveyed. on in this chapter, where the Apostle charges husbands to love their wives even as Christ loved the church and gave Himself The other offers us another example of the application for it

Two

725

up
of

the sacrificial phraseology of the Old Testament to actions which manifest love. The language in which St Paul dignifies the kindness shewn to himself by the Philippian Church is strikingly

Vs]
similar to

EPISTLE TO THE EPHESIANS.


that of

115
Phil, iv 18

our present passage: Having received of Epaphroditus the things which were sent from you, an odour of a sweet smell, a sacrifice acceptable, well pleasing to God
.

BUT

fornication

and

all

uncleanness, or covetousness, let


you, as

it v 3

14

becometh saints; 4 neither filthiness nor foolish talking nor jesting, which are not befitting; 5 For this but rather giving of thanks. ye know of a surety,
is

not even be

named among

that no fornicator nor unclean person, nor covetous man, which an idolater, hath any inheritance in the kingdom of Christ
6

Let no man deceive you with vain words; for because of these things cometh the wrath of God upon the 7 Be not children of disobedience. ye therefore partakers with 8 them. For ye were in time past darkness, but now are ye

and of God.

light in the

Lord

light is in all

walk as children of light 9 for the fruit of I0 goodness and righteousness and truth proving
:
:

acceptable unto the Lord. "And have no fellowship with the unfruitful works of darkness, but rather expose them 12 for of the things which are done of them in secret it is a
is
:

what

shame even
by
is light.
J4

to speak

^but
it

all
;

things

the light are

made manifest
saith

for

whatsoever

when they are exposed is made manifest

Wherefore

Awake, thou that

sleepest,

And And
*

arise

from the dead,

Christ shall shine

upon

thee.

even be
to link

But fornication and named among you,


them

all uncleanness, or covetousness, let it not v 3

as becometh saints

The

five prohibitions

which have preceded stand side by side with no connecting particles


to each other.
it is

unusual in Greek than

This, as a point of style, is far more in English. Accordingly the adversative

particle with which the final prohibition is introduced deserves the more attention. The Apostle has called upon his readers to put

away

falsehood, irritation, theft, corrupt speech, bitter feelings. But, he seems to say, there is another class of sins which I do not even bid you put away I say that you may not so much as name
:

them one to another. As becometh saints


1

Ye

He appeals to a new Christian decorum, are fellow-citizens with the saints noblesse oblige.
.

ii

19

82

Il6
v4
*

EXPOSITION OF THE
befitting ; but rather

[V

4, 5

Neither flthiness nor foolish talking nor jesting, which are not The first of these nomina giving of thanks tives might be taken with the preceding verb, let it not even be
.

named

but not the other two.

The meaning however


these

is

plain:

neither let there be

among you

things which

degrade

conversation, or at least relax its tone. Having summarily dismissed the grosser forms of sin, the Apostle forbids the approaches to them
in unseemly talk, in foolishness of speech, even in mere frivolous The seemingly abrupt introduction of thanksgiving in
jesting is due to a play upon the two words in the Greek which cannot be reproduced in translation. Instead of the lightness of witty talk, which played too often on the border-line of

jesting.

contrast to

ff.

impropriety, theirs should be the true grace of speech, the utter ance of a grace or thanksgiving to God He developes the thought at greater length below, when he contrasts the merriment
1 .

14

"*

wine with the sober gladness of sacred psalmody. For this ye know of a surety, that no fornicator nor unclean person, nor covetous man, which is an idolater, hath any inheritance St Paul has spoken of the in the kingdom of Christ and of God Gentile Christians as having received the earnest of the inheritance and as being fellow-heirs with the Jews. Here however he declares that those who commit the sins of which he has been speaking are thereby excluded from such inheritance. They have indeed practically returned to idolatry, and renounced Christ and God. They have disinherited themselves.
of
.

This extension of the metaphor of inheritance is a Hebrew form of speech which has passed over into the Greek of the New Testament. Thus we have in the Gospel the phrase to inherit

Cor. vi
*

The connexion of inheritance with the kingdom found in Matt, xxv 34, inherit the kingdom prepared for you and in James ii 5, Hath not God chosen the poor of this world, In St Paul we find etc. rich in faith, and heirs of the kingdom only the negative form of the phrase, as in i Cor. xv 50, flesh The two other and blood shall not inherit the kingdom of God passages in which it occurs present close parallels to our present Know ye not that the unrighteous shall not inherit passage. the kingdom of God 1 Be not deceived neither fornicators, nor idolaters, nor adulterers, nor effeminate, nor abusers of themselves with mankind, nor thieves, nor covetous, nor drunkards, nor revilers,
eternal life
.

is

1
*

For a similar play on the word


,

x 25: comp.
of Solomon xiv

Tit. iii 7.
is

grace
*

see above p. 113.


1

to inherit life

The phrase found in Psalms

Mark x

and

parallels,

Luke

6.

EPISTLE TO THE EPHESIANS.

And in closing nor extortioners, shall inherit the kingdom of God Of the which his list of the works of the flesh the Apostle says I foretell you, as I have also foretold you, that they which do such This repetition things shall not inherit the kingdom of God almost suggest that he was employing a formula of teaching might Know which had become fixed and could be referred to as familiar This ye I foretell you, as I have also foretold you ye not ?
. *
:

Gal. v 2 r

know

assuredly

The epithet of God The kingdom of Christ and of God to the nature of the kingdom, as opposed to a temporal points kingdom hence it is that in St Matthew s Gospel the epithet The epithet of of heaven can be so often substituted for it. Christ is more rare 1 it points to the Messiah as the king set upon the Divine Son, the Anointed of Jehovah the holy hill of Sion who reigns in His name. So St Paul says that the Father... hath The transplanted us into the kingdom of the Son of His love
.

Ps.

ii

Col.

13

two thoughts are brought into final harmony in i Cor. xv 24 f Then cometh the end, when He shall deliver up the kingdom to God, even the Father... that God may be all in all
:
.

Let no

man

deceive

you with vain words

for because of
:

these v 6

things cometh the wrath of God upon the children of disobedience \ The Apostle recurs to language which he has used already he has spoken of the children (or sons ) of disobedience , and has called

ii

f.

them

The wrath of God falls Comp. children of (the Divine) wrath l the heathen world especially on account of the sins of the upon 8 J^ flesh which are closely connected with idolatry.
.

Be not ye therefore partakers with them darkness, but now are ye light in the Lord
list

for ye were in time past v

7 f.

Having completed
his

his

special prohibitions, the Apostle returns to Be not like the Gentiles. Once more he principle
of
:

general
iv
1

reminds his

7
ii

readers of

They
old.

in time past they were, and of what they now are. Comp. have been taken into a new fellowship, and cannot retain the I x f The Gentiles whom they have left are still darkened in their iv 18

what

but they themselves have been rescued out of the understanding of darkness and made meet to be partakers of the inherit power ance of the saints in light Here the Apostle does not say merely
:

Col.

i 1

f.

that they were in time past in the darkness and now are in the light but, heightening his figure to the utmost, he speaks of them as once darkness but now light
:

For

the

kingdom of Christ
Matt,
xiii

in
41,

we have
29
f.,

"Thy

glory

),

Luke

33, xxii

the

Gospel compare

xxiii 42,

John

xviii 36.
15.

See also

xvi 28, xx 21

(where in Mark x 37

2 Pet.

in,

Apoc. xi

Il8
v 8
i

EXPOSITION OF THE
.

[V

813

Thess.
f

v 4

Walk as children of light may compare St Paul s words But ye, brethren, are not in darkness... for While speaking ye are all children of light and children of the day of their position and privilege the Apostle has called them light
"We

to the Thessalonians

itself

his

that he comes to speak of their conduct, he returns to metaphor of walking , and bids them walk as children of
: .

now

light
v 9
*
c

truth
Gal. v 22

of light is in all goodness and righteousness and the fruit of light in this passage we may compare the fruit of the Spirit in the Epistle to the Galatians. Indeed

For
.

the fruit

With

v.

TO

some manuscripts have transferred the latter phrase to this place, where it is found in our Authorised Version. Proving what is acceptable unto the Lord\ These words belong
in construction to the

command
1
.

Walk

as children of light

the

17

intervening verse being a parenthesis. The light will enable them to test and discern the Lord s will So below he bids them under

stand what the will of the Lord

is

vii GaL v

19,

works of darkness Just as in the Epistle to the Galatians the Apostle contrasted the so here, while he fruit of the Spirit with the works of the flesh he will not speak of the fruit of of the fruit of light speaks
the unfruitful
.

And have

no fellowship with

1 1

f.

works But rather expose them ; for of the things which are done of them in secret it is a shame even to speak; but all things when they are exposed by the light are made manifest ; for whatsoever is made The Apostle is not content with the negative manifest is light which bids his readers abstain from association with the precept works of darkness. Being themselves of the nature of light, they must remember that it is the property of light to dispel darkness, to expose what is hidden and secret. Nay more, in the moral and
darkness
,

but of

its

fruitless

spiritual world, the Apostle


it

seems to say, light has a further power can actually transform the darkness. The hidden is darkness; the manifested is light ; by the action of light darkness itself can be
:

he has said, but now ye are light : and , this is only the beginning of a great series of recurring transforma tions. You, the new light, have your part to play in the conversion
of darkness into
light. Right produces right it rights wrong. Or, as St Paul prefers to say, light produces light: it lightens darkness.
:

turned into light. Ye were darkness

On

the use of the


72, 90.

title

the Lord

in these places, see

what has been

said above pp.

4 15]
,

EPISTLE TO THE EPHESIANS.


it saith,

119
arise

Wherefore
dead,

Awake, thou that

sleepest,

and

from
is

the v

and

Christ shall shine

upon

thee

This quotation

not to

be found in any book that

we know.

It is probably a fragment of

an

early Christian hymn possibly a baptismal hymn ; or possibly again a hymn commemorating the descent of Christ into the under
:

world

1 .

We

may compare with


i

it

another fragment of

early

hymnology in
15

Tim.

iii

16.

TAKE

therefore careful heed


l6

how ye

walk, not as unwise v

33

but as

redeeming the time, because the days are evil. ^Wherefore be ye not fools, but understand what the will of
wise,
is.

the Lord

l8

And

be not drunk with wine, wherein


T9

is

excess

but be

filled

with the Spirit,

speaking to yourselves in psalms

and hymns and spiritual songs, singing and making melody with your heart to the Lord 20 giving thanks always for all things in the name of our Lord Jesus Christ unto our God and
;

Father;
Christ.

2I

22

submitting yourselves one to another in the fear of Wives, submit yourselves unto your own husbands,
shall shine

1 Two early suggestions are of suffi cient interest to be noted here. One

upon

Christ

shall touch

thee [^7rt0a^cret], but thee [eTrtif/aixret] :

is

found as a note on the passage in

John Damasc. (quoted by Tischendorf):


have received by tradition that sounded by the archangel s trump to those who have fallen asleep since the world began The other is a story told by St Jerome
this is the voice to be
,

because forsooth by the touch of His blood and His body that hung there

We

he

should

be
;

should arise should be


true
raising the
is

brought to life and and so that type also


of the dead Elisha

fulfilled

dead.
not,

Whether
I

all this

remember once hearing a preacher discourse on this passage in


(ad
Zoc.)
:

to the reader s judgment. There is no doubt that the saying of it delighted the

or

leave

He wished to please the church. people by a startling novelty; so he said: This quotation is an utterance
addressed to

congregation; they stamped with their

applauded and
feet.

All that I

know

is

that such a

meaning does

Adam, who was buried on

Calvary (the place of a skull), where the Lord was crucified. It was called
the place of a head of the
skull,
first

not harmonise with the context of the There are other traces of passage the legend that Adam was buried on
.

because there the

man was

buried.

Calvary, which was regarded as the centre of the world. The skull often
depicted at the foot of the crucifix
is

Accordingly at the

time when

the

Lord was hanging on the cross over Adam s sepulchre this prophecy was fulfilled which says Awake, thou Adam that sleepest, and arise from the
:

not impossible that the strange preacher was going on tradition in connecting the words with the release of Adam from Hades
s skull.

Adam

It

is

dead, and, not as

we read

it

Christ

at the time of the

Lord

Descent.

120
as unto the Lord
2
:

EXPOSITION OF THE
3for the

[V

15,

16

husband

is

the head of the wife,

the head of the church, being Himself the 2 saviour of the body. But as the church is subject unto
is

even as Christ

husbands in every thing. Husbands, love your wives, even as Christ also loved the 26 that He might sanctify church, and gave Himself for it; 2 7that it, cleansing it by the washing of water with the word;
25

Christ, so let the wives be to their

present the church to Himself all-glorious, not having spot or wrinkle or any such thing ; but that it should be holy and without blemish. 28 So ought the husbands also to
love their wives as their

He might

own
it,

bodies

he that loveth his wife

loveth himself;

9for

no

man

nourisheth and cherisheth

ever yet hated his own flesh, but even as Christ the church ; 3for
31

we

are

leave

members of His body. his father and mother, and


shall be

For

this cause shall

man
wife,
;

shall

be joined unto his


is

and they two


I speak
it

mystery great but and the church. 33 Nevertheless let concerning Christ one of you in particular so love his wife even as himself; every and the wife see that she reverence her husband.
flesh.
c

one

32 This

5 f.

Take therefore careful heed how ye walk, not as unwise but as In his desire to redeeming the time, because the days are evil pursue his metaphor of the conflict between light and darkness the Apostle has been led away from his practical precepts of conduct. To these he now returns, and he marks his return by once more Four times already he has used it with a using the verb to walk
wise,
. .

iv iv

i
1

I beseech you special emphasis in this and the preceding chapter 1 1 that ye walk worthy of the calling wherewith ye are called
*
: :

i f.

Be protest that ye no longer walk as do the Gentiles walk followers of God, as His beloved children, and walk in love, as
:

v 8

* Christ also hath loved you Once ye were darkness, now ye are And now he sums up what he walk as children of light light ; has just been saying, and prepares the way for further injunctions,
: .

Take therefore careful heed how ye walk *. in the emphatic words, The contrast between the darkness and the light finds practical The power expression in the phrase not as unwise, but as wise
.

of the light to transform the darkness suggests that the wise have a
1

The rendering

of the Authorised

Version,

See that ye walk circum-

spectly , is based on a slightly different reading of the original.

I?,

8]

EPISTLE TO THE EPHESIANS.

121

The days are evil mission to redeem the time in which they live. and the unwise are borne along in the drift of wickedness. indeed,

The wise may stand their ground in the evil day nay more, they may ransom the time from loss or misuse, release it from the bondage
:

of evil and claim

it

for the highest good.

Thus the redemptive


There
is

power

of the

new

faith finds a fresh illustration.


:

a Divine

purpose making

for good in the midst of evil

the children of light


1

can perceive it and follow its guidance, proving what is well* Wherefore , v Only heedless folly can miss it pleasing to the Lord he adds, be ye not fools, but understand what the will of the
.
:

Lord is\
drunk with wine, wherein is excess Elsewhere riot The Apostle s meaning is that drunkenness leads to excess in a more general sense, to dissoluteness and ruin. The actual words Be not drunk with wine are
*

And

be not
is

v 18
Tit.
r

this last

word

translated

6; 1V 4

borrowed, as other precepts have been borrowed in the former chapter, from the Old Testament They are found in the Greek
1
.

translation of Proverbs xxiii 31, where they are followed


contrast,
.

by the

but converse with righteous men 2 But be filled with the Spirit ; more literally in or through the Spirit There is a fulness, which is above all carnal satis faction ; a spiritual fulness wrought by the Holy Spirit. It issues not, as fulness of wine, in disorder and moral wreck, but in a
.

gladness of cheerful intercourse, psalm and hymn and spiritual song, a melody of hearts chanting to the Lord.

The

first

age of the Christian Church was characterised by a

vivid enthusiasm which found expression in ways which recall the It was a period of wonder and delight. simplicity of childhood.

The

a supernatural dread floodgates of emotion were opened Thus we read at one moment Acts alternated with an unspeakable joy. that fear came upon every soul and at the next that they did eat
:

ii

^
v

43,

their

Great fear meat with exultation and simplicity of heart from a Divine manifestation of judgment great joy from a Divine manifestation of healing power. Thus the Church went in The the fear of the Lord and in the consolation of the Holy Spirit as they left the council that they had been Apostles openly rejoiced allowed to suffer for the Name Paul and Silas in the prison at Philippi prayed and sang hymns to God, so that the prisoners heard them. Nowhere in literature is the transition from passionate grief to enthusiastic delight more glowingly pourtrayed than in St Paul s
.

5,

results

viii 8

ix 31

v 41
xvi 25

1 2

See above on iv 25

f.

is

quite different:

Look not thou


it is

The Hebrew

text of the passage

upon the wine when

red

etc.

122

EXPOSITION OF THE

[19,20

v 19

ff.

second epistle to the Corinthian Church. Prom such a writer in such an age we can understand the combination of the precepts to set free the emotion of a perpetual thankfulness in outbursts of hearty song, and at the same time to preserve the orderliness of social relations under the influence of an overmastering awe speak
:

ing

to

yourselves in psalms

and hymns and

spiritual songs, singing

and making melody with your heart to the Lord; giving thanks always for all things in the name of our Lord Jesus Christ unto our God and Father ; submitting yourselves one to aiwther in the fear
of Christ
.

The implied contrast with the revelry

of drunkenness

makes

it

plain that in speaking of Christian psalmody the Apostle is not primarily referring to public worship, but to social gatherings in

which a common meal was accompanied by sacred song.

For the

early Christians these gatherings took the place of the many public feasts in the Greek cities from which they found themselves

by reason of the idolatrous rites with which such banquets were associated. The agapae, or charity-suppers, afforded an opportunity by which the richer members of the com munity could gather their poorer brethren in hospitable fellowship.
necessarily excluded,
earliest times these suppers were hallowed by the solemn followed by singing, exhortations and breaking of the bread And even when the Eucharist of the Church had ceased prayers. to be connected with a common supper, these banquets retained a
,

In the

semi-eucharistic character,
still

and the element

of praise

and thanks

v 20

held an important place in them. giving Giving thanks always for all things in the

name of our Lord

Jesus Christ unto our

parallel passage in the companion epistle enforces the duty of thanksgiving no less After urging upon the Colossians gentleness, forgiveness forcibly.
Col.
iii

God and Father \

The

15

and peace, he proceeds: And be ye thankful. Let the word of Christ dwell in you richly in all wisdom teaching and admonishing one another in psalms and hymns and spiritual songs with grace, singing in your hearts to God and whatsoever ye do in word or in deed, do all in the name of the Lord Jesus, giving thanks unto God
: :

the Father through

Him

The expression, which occurs in both these passages, *in the name of\ corresponds to the reiterated expressions in Christ and in the Lord Believers are in Him they must speak and act in His name. Unto our God and Father The rendering in the Authorised Version, unto God and the Father does not satisfactorily represent the original, which means to Him who is at once God and the
. :
.

V2i,

22]
.

EPISTLE TO THE EPHESIANS.

123

We are to give thanks to God, who in Christ has now Father been revealed to us as the Father
{
.

The v Submitting yourselves one to another in the fear of Christ enthusiasm of which the Apostle has spoken is far removed from The glad life of the Christian community is a life of fanaticism. The Apostle of liberty is the Apostle of constituted order. duly
.

21

This is strikingly illustrated by the fact to submit oneself (often rendered to be subject ) is used twenty-three times by St Paul. If we except i St Peter, which is not independent of St Paul s epistles, it occurs but nine times in
that the verb

order and subordination.

New Testament. may recall a few passages Let every soul be subject to the higher powers ; The spirits of Eom.xiiii * the prophets are subject to the prophets ; Then shall even the Son Himself be subject to Him that hath subjected all things unto Him Recognise, says the Apostle, that in the Divine ordering of human life one is subject to another. We must not press this to mean that even the highest is in some sense subject to those who are beneath him. St Jerome indeed takes this view, and proceeds to commend the passage to bishops, with whom he sometimes found
the rest of the
"We
:
. .

himself in collision.

make

stultify his precept by telling husbands to be subject to their wives, but to love them ; nor parents to be subject to their children, but to nurture them in

his

But the Apostle is careful meaning abundantly clear, and does not

in

what

follows to

the discipline of the Lord. The motive of due subordination

phrase

the fear of Christ

is given in the remarkable In the Old Testament the guiding

principle of human life is again of the Lord or the fear of


,

and again declared to be

the fear

God

This
.

is

the beginning of

wisdom and the whole duty of man St Paul boldly recasts the principle for the Christian society in the unique expression the fear of Christ He will interpret his meaning as he shews by
,
.

repeated illustrations that the authority which corresponds to natural relationships finds its pattern and its sanction in the authority of Christ over His Church.
Wives, submit yourselves unto your own husbands, as unto the v 22 Having struck the key-note of subordination the recogni tion of the sacred principles of authority and obedience the Apostle

Lord

proceeds to give a series of positive precepts for the regulation of social life, which is divinely founded on the unchanging institution
of the family. He deals in turn with the duties of wives and husbands, of children and parents, of servants and masters; beginning in each case with the responsibility of obedience, and

124

EXPOSITION OF THE

[V 23

25

passing from that to the responsibility which rests on those to whom obedience is due. Those who obey must obey as though

they were obeying Christ: those who are obeyed must find the pattern of their conduct in the love and care of Christ, and must remember that they themselves owe obedience in their turn to
Christ.

iii

14

f.

The thought of the parallel between earthly and heavenly relationships has already found expression at an early point in the epistle, where the Apostle speaks of the Father from whom
all

fatherhood in heaven and on earth


it

is

named

In the present

passage Christ to the Church

leads

him back

to his special topic of the relation of as a whole. It enables him to link the

simplest precepts of social morality with the most transcendent doctrines of the Christian faith. The common life of the home is

discovered to be fraught with a far-reaching mystery. relationships are hallowed by their heavenly patterns.
v 23
f.

The natural

r the husband is the headoftJie wife, even as Christ is the head of the church, being Himself the saviour of the body\ This last clause is added to interpret the special sense in which Christ is here

have already had occasion to the head of the church observe that this metaphor of headship does not to St Paul s mind 1 For, in exhaustively express the relation of Christ to His Body Christ is more than the Head He is the Whole of which fact,
called
l
.

We

Cor. xii

12

His members are parts. For as the body is one and hath many are one members, and all the members including the head To this more intimate relation, not body so also is the Christ of headship, but of identification, the Apostle will point us a little later on in this passage. For the moment he contents himself with Christ the special thought which he has here in view. explaining is the head of the church, as being Himself the saviour of the body It is the function of the head to plan the safety of the body, to In the highest secure it from danger and to provide for its welfare. sense this function is fulfilled by Christ for the Church in a lower In either case the sense it is fulfilled by the husband for the wife.
*
: .

responsibility to protect is inseparably linked with the right to rule

the head
v 24

obeyed by the body. This is the Apostle s point ; and he checks himself, as it were, from a fuller exposition of accordingly the thoughts towards which he is being led but for this is the
is
:

matter in hand as the church is subject unto Christy so wives be to their husbands in every thing
.

let

the

v 25

Husbands,

love

your
.

and gave Himself for it


1

wives, even as Christ also loved the church, Subordination must be met by love. The
f.,

See above pp. 41

103.

V26,

27]

EPISTLE TO THE EPHESIANS.


Church
.

125

relation of Christ to the

still

Hast thou seen

says St Chrysostom,

supplies the heavenly pattern. the measure of obedience 1

hear also the measure of love

Just as the Apostle interpreted the headship of Christ by the insertion of the clause being Himself the saviour of the body ; so here he interprets the love of Christ by a group of sentences which lift him for the moment high above his immediate theme. This is a Christ loved the church, and gave Himself for it
.

repetition of duty of love

words which he has used already in urging the general Christ loved us, and gave Himself for us Here, as v the love is denned as the love of self-surrender but the there, sequel is different there it was that He might Himself be a sweetsmelling offering to God; here it is that He might hallow and
: .
: :

cleanse His Bride the Church.


it, cleansing it by the washing of water v 26 reminded of St Paul s appeal to the Corinthians: Such were some of you fornicators, idolaters, and iCor.vin the like but ye were washed, but ye were sanctified, but ye were justified, in the name of our Lord Jesus Christ and by the Spirit of our God
1

That

He

might sanctify
.

with the

word
{

We

are

The

word
of

that
is
,

washing of the Lord Jesus


sins.

water

the of as accompanying some solemn mention of the name plainly in which they were washed from their former
is

here spoken

The candidate

for baptism confessed his faith in the

Name

the rite of baptism was administered in the Name. The actual phrase which is here used is vague literally translated it is in a
:

that is to say, accompanied by a solemn word or formula, word which expressed the intention of baptiser and baptised, and thus The purpose gave its spiritual meaning to the washing of water of Christ was accordingly that He might hallow His Bride by the
: .

cleansing waters of a sacrament in which, in response to her confes


sion,

His
That

church to Himself all-glorious, not v 27 present or wrinkle or any such thing, but that it should be holy having spot and without blemish*. More literally, that He might Himself
the

Name was He might

laid

upon

her.

present the church to Himself, glorious , etc. may contrast the language which the Apostle uses to the Corinthian Church
:

We

you with the jealousy of God ; for I betrothed to one husband, to present you as a chaste virgin to Christ you Here no human agency is allowed to intervene. The heavenly Bridegroom cleanses and sanctifies the Church His Bride, and then Himself presents her to Himself in the glory of immaculate beauty and unfading youth.
I
jealous over
.

am

Cor. xi 2

126

EXPOSITION OF THE
Such
is

[2832
His Bride, of Christ

the love of the Divine


wives as their
it

Husband
/So
.

to

v 28

the

Head
if

to

His own Body the Church.

to love their

own

bodies

ought the husbands also The conclusion follows at


is

once,
v 29

indeed

be true that the husband


is if

the body.
f.

Nay, the relation

possible

the head, and the wife more intimate still the


:

man
For
it,

in fact loving himself. no man ever yet hated his


is

He that loveth his wife loveth himself. own flesh, but nourisheth and cherisheth
.

even as Christ the church ; for we are members of His body The Apostle is gradually passing away from the thought of headship to the more mysterious thought of complete oneness, This thought he will not expand he will only point to it as the spiritual significance
:

Gen.

ii

24

31

fundamental principle enunciated from the beginning in the words they two shall be one flesh Some manuscripts anticipate his reference to the book of Genesis by inserting at this place of But the words appear to be a gloss, His flesh and of His bones and the passage is complete without them. For this cause shall a man leave his father arid mother, and shall
of the
.

be

joined unto his wife,

and

they two shall be one flesh

To

these

Mark x

v 32

words our Lord appeals in the Gospel, when He is confronted by the comparative laxity of the Mosaic legislation in regard to divorce. They are no more twain is the conclusion He draws, but one what therefore God hath joined together let not man put flesh asunder St Paul makes his appeal to the same words with a He is justifying his statement that he that different purpose. This must be so, he declares, for it loveth his wife loveth himself But if it be true in the two shall be one flesh is written, they natural sphere, it is true also of the heavenly pattern. Hence he This mystery is great,- but I speak it concerning Christ and adds The Apostle does not mean that the complete union the church which is declared in the words of husband and wife as one flesh which he has cited, is a very mysterious thing, hard to be understood. In English we can speak of a great mystery in this sense, using the
,
:

epithet
it is

great simply to emphasise or heighten the word to which attached; as in the familiar phrases a great inconvenience But the corresponding word in Greek is not so a great pity
,
. :

used
that

it retains its proper meaning of magnitude or importance so a great mystery means an important or far-reaching mystery Here the word mystery probably signifies either something which
:
* .

itself.

contains a secret meaning not obvious to all, or the secret meaning Accordingly the Apostle s words mean either that the state
is a symbolical statement of wide import, In or that the secret meaning therein contained is of wide import. either case he is practically saying There is more here than appears
:

ment which he has quoted

V 33

VIi]
;

EPISTLE TO THE EPHESIANS.


there
is
:

27

an inner meaning of high importance of Christ and the Church. or, In conclusion he returns to the practical lesson which it is the Neverthe- v duty of his readers to draw for themselves in daily life.
on the surface
I speak
it

I use the words

33

every one of you in particular so love his wife even as himself; and the wife see that she reverence her husband . The word translated
less let

reverence

would be more

literally

rendered

fear

At

the close

of the section the Apostle strikes again the key-note with which he the fear of the Church for Christ v 21 The fear of Christ began.

which

is

the pattern of the fear of the wife for her husband

is

no

Just as the word is often slavish fear, but a fear of reverence. in the Old Testament to the reverence due to God, so it is applied

Ye shall fear every man his Lev. xix 3 used of the reverence due to parents mother, and his father Moreover, of Joshua it is said, they Josh, iv 14 and in feared him, as they feared Moses, all the days of his life
:

Proverbs

we

read,

My

son, fear

thou the Lord and the king

Prov.
.

21
i

CHILDREN, obey your parents in the Lord: for this is vi 2 Honour thy father and mother; which is the first right. commandment with promise 3 that it may be well with thee,
;

4 And, ye fathers, long on the earth. not your children to wrath but bring them up in provoke the discipline and admonition of the Lord.

and thou mayest

live

Servants, be obedient to your masters according to the flesh, with fear and trembling, in singleness of your heart, as to Christ; 6 not with eyeservice as menpleasers, but as
5

servants of Christ,

doing the will of God doing service heartily with good-will, as to the Lord, and not to men: 8 knowing that whatsoever good thing any man doeth, the
7
;

same
free.

shall
9

he receive of the Lord, whether he be bond or And, ye masters, do the same things unto them, for
;

bearing threatening

knowing that both

their

Master and

yours him.

is

in heaven; neither is there respect of persons with

or Children, obey your parents in the Lord : for this is right The precept accords at once with natural right, and righteous with the righteousness enforced by the Divine law. That the latter
,
.

vi

point of view

is

not excluded

is

shewn by the

citation

from the

Decalogue.

128
vi 2
f.

EXPOSITION OF THE

[VI

25

Honour thy father and mother ; which is the first command ment with promise ; that it may be well with thee, and thou mayest live long on the earth The importance of this obligation, in the Mosaic legislation may be seen by the prominent place which it
.

Lev. xix
1

holds in the following passage of the Book of Leviticus : Speak unto all the congregation of the children of Israel, and say unto

be holy, for I the Lord your God am holy. Ye man his mother, and his father, and keep My sabbaths I am the Lord your God In characterising the Gentiles of whom he thrice says that God gave them up the Apostle notes among other signs of their

them

Ye
:

shall

shall fear every

Kom.

30 depravity that they were disobedient to parents Similarly the 2 Tim. iii 2 evil men of the last days* are described as disobedient to parents and without natural affection .
i
.

Obedience is to be rendered in the Lord\ Although the does not expand the thought, he returns in this expression Apostle to the key-note which was first struck in the phrase in the fear
l

of Christ
vi

to wrath ; but bring them up in the discipline and admonition of the Lord . After

And, ye fathers, provoke not your children

insisting on obedience, the Apostle enforces the right exercise of His demand is not only negative the avoidance of authority. a capricious exercise of authority, which irritates and disheartens

the child (compare Col.


is

iii

21,

lest

they be discouraged ): but

it

also positive. For parents are as obedience as children are to render it.

much bound

to

insist

on

the Lord

There is a discipline of which is the responsibility of the parent, just as obedience in the Lord is the duty of the child.
the flesh\

vi 5

to

Servants (slaves), be obedient to your masters (lords) according This passage gains in force when we observe that

in several instances the

same Greek word is repeated where in English a variety of renderings is almost unavoidable. Thus the word which in v. i has been rendered obey must here be rendered
be obedient to
,

in order to bring out the parallel

your same word for master same word for servant and for slave equally well be rendered
primarily intended.

masters... as to Christ*.

(obedient) to the Greek has throughout the Again, and for Lord ; and in like manner the

bond
:

for

it

This latter word might is bondservice that is


as to

With fear and trembling, in singleness of your


Christ
.

heart,

which
Gal.
iii

relation of slaves to their masters offered a problem The could not be overlooked in the new Christian society.

The

28 spiritual liberty

and equality proclaimed by St Paul

there can

VI

69]

EPISTLE TO THE EPHESIANS.

129

be no bond nor free... for all of you are one man in Christ Jesus might easily be misinterpreted with disastrous results. The Apostle of liberty, however, was, as we have already seen, the Apostle of order. Spiritual freedom was to him not inconsistent with subjec tion in the fear of Christ Accordingly he rules out at once in the plainest terms the notion that the Gospel affords any pretext to the slave for insubordination or for a careless attitude towards On the contrary he declares that the Gospel his earthly master.
.

-21

heightens obligations, by regarding the service rendered to the It thus earthly lord as service rendered to the heavenly Lord. brought a new meaning into the life of the Christian slave. He

was Christ s slave, doing God s will in his daily tasks. sideration would affect the thoroughness of his work
of God
will^
:

This con
:

not with

vi 6 f .

eye-service as menpleasers, but as servants of Christ, doing the will

and
to

also its

temper

doing service heartily with good


to
.

men further thought of encouragement is added. Work has its value and its reward, whether the condition of the worker be bond or free whatever good has been done, whether by slave or by master, will be repaid knowing that whatsoever good thing vi by the Master of both alike any man doeth, the same shall he receive of the Lord, whether he be bond or free If the burden of hopelessness is thus lifted from the slave, a new burden of responsibility is fastened on the shoulders of the master. Willing and thorough service must be met by a kindly and considerate rule: And, ye masters, do the same vi
as
the Lord,

and not

things unto them, forbearing threatening ; knowing that both their Master and yours is in heaven; neither is there respect of persons

with

Him\

we are to judge aright the message which the Gospel brought to the slave in apostolic days, we must needs make an effort of the historical imagination. For we of the present time think of
If

the institution of slavery in the lurid light of the African slavetraffic and its attendant horrors. It is not solely the ownership
of one

man by

another

man which

revolts us.

It

is

still

more

the crushing of a savage by a civilised race, and the treating of a black man as less than human by a white. But the Greek
slave at Corinth

from

was not separated by so wide and deep a gulf master ; nor was his lot so intolerable as the term slavery If it had been, then surely we should suggests to modern ears. have found St Paul proclaiming to Christian masters the immediate
his

duty of emancipating their slaves. He does not, however, speak of slavery as a social evil crying for a remedy. Philemon indeed
EPHES. 2

130

EXPOSITION OF THE

[VI 10
:

Philem. 16 is to treat Onesiraus as

more than a slave, a brother beloved but Onesimus must go back to Philemon. Apostolic Christianity did not present itself to the world with a social programme of It undertook to create a new human unity under present reform. conditions, teaching master and slave that they were members of
the same body, sharers in a common life, both alike related to one Lord. It strove to make this human unity the one new

Man

a visible reality in the Christian Church.


it

the conditions which

It dealt with and shewed how they might be found,

turned by master and slave alike into opportunities for doing good which would be rewarded by the common Master of them
both.

At

the same time

it

planted a seed which was to grow in

secret to a distant

and glorious harvest.

vi

1020

FIN ALLY, be strong in the Lord, and in the might of His strength. "Put on the armour of God, that ye may be I2 For we wrestle able to stand against the wiles of the devil.
not against flesh and blood, but against the principalities, against the powers, against the rulers of the darkness of this world, against the spiritual hosts of wickedness in the heavenly
places.

I0

^Wherefore take unto you the armour of God, that be able to withstand in the evil day, and having done ye may ^ Stand therefore, having your loins girt about all to stand.
with truth, and having on the breastplate of righteousness, J 5and your feet shod with the preparation of the gospel of
withal taking the shield of faith, wherewith ye shall be able to quench all the fiery darts of the wicked one. ?And take the helmet of salvation, and the sword of the l8 with all prayer and sup Spirit, which is the word of God,
l6

peace;
J

plication praying always in the Spirit,

and watching thereunto 9 and with all perseverance and supplication for all the saints for me, that utterance may be given unto me, in the opening
X
;

of

my mouth
20

to

make known with

gospel,

for

which I

am

boldness the mystery of the an ambassador in bonds ; that therein

may

speak boldly, as I ought to speak.


the close of the epistle
it is

As we approach

well that

we

The Apostle should look back and try to realise its main drift. with a disclosure of the great purpose of God for the world began

VI

IQ]

EPISTLE TO THE EPHESIANS.


i i

131
10
18

He prayed that the gathering into one of all things in the Christ. have the eyes of their hearts opened to see and his readers might understand this purpose and their own share in the realisation of
He shewed that while hitherto they, as Gentiles, had stood outside the sphere of the special development of the purpose, they were now no longer outside it, but within. For a new beginning
it.

ii 1 1 ff.

had been made: Jew and Gentile had been welded together in The proclamation of this oneness Christ to form God s New Man. of mankind in Christ was the mission which was specially entrusted That they should to St Paul, and for which he was in bonds. know and understand all this was his earnest prayer, as their knowledge of it was an essential preliminary of its realisation. Having been given this unity, they must keep it. They had been
called to be parts of the

iii i

f.

iv 3

One Man,

to be limbs of the

which Christ was


rule their
life

fulfilling

Himself; and this

Body through consideration must


:

in every detail. Here was the ground of the distinc some were iv tion of functions in the various members of the Body

1 1 ff.

given by Christ to be apostles, others to be prophets, and so forth, to fit the saints as a whole for the service which they were called
to render,
till all

and to forward the building of the Body of the Christ ; should meet in one grown Man, who should at length have reached the complete stature of the fulness of the Christ. Here
:

the reason, too was the ground of the commonest of obligations for example, why they should not lie to one another was that they
:

iv 25

were members one of another. The positive duties of social life found their sanction in the same doctrine of unity in the Christ the reason why wives should be subject to their husbands, and why v 22 husbands should love their wives, was that husband and wife stand to each other even as Christ and the Church ; in a relation of authority and obedience, and yet in a relation of perfect oneness not twain, but one. Children and parents, slaves and masters, were vi i ft.
in like

manner
last

to exemplify the ordered


close.

harmony

of the

new

life

in Christ.

At

he draws to a

He

comes back from these special

injunctions which deal with particular relationships to a general exhortation which concerns the whole. For there is one thing

more to be said. It is not enough to remember that harmony and mutual helpfulness are the conditions of the Body s growth and health. If all be well within, there is yet an outside foe to be continually faced. A struggle is to be maintained with no visible human enemy, but with superhuman and invisible forces
of evil.

And

for this conflict a divine strength is needed.

God s

New Man

must be clad in the very armour of God.

92

132
vi iof.

EXPOSITION OF THE
Finally, be strong in the Lord,
the
.

[VI

1012

ip

f.

and in the might of His strength. armour of God This note of strength was sounded The Apostle prayed that they might know the ex at the outset. ceeding greatness of His power to us-ward who believe, according to the working of the might of His strength, which He hath wrought in Christ as the Resurrection and Ascension have testified. There the triumph of Christ occupied the Apostle s mind Christ s exalta
Put on
,
:

tion in the heavenly sphere above all forces, good or evil, of the Here he has in view the need of the same mighty spiritual world.
strength, in order that the

vi

that triumph. comparison of the two passages will shew how much of the earlier language is repeated in this final charge. Put on the armour of God, that ye may be able to stand against

Church may

realise

and consummate

vi 13

The word whole which is inserted in the of the devil Authorised Version is redundant, and tends to obscure the Apostle s meaning. It is God s panoply, or armour, which must be put on. The divineness, rather than the completeness, of the outfit is emphasised and this becomes clear when the phrase is repeated and The contrast here is between the armour of explained later on.
the wiles
.

God and the


yi 12

wiles of the devil

and the Apostle

is

led

by
.

this

latter phrase to define more expressly the nature of the conflict 1 For we wrestle not against flesh and blood : literally, for to

us the wrestling is not against blood and flesh The emphasis falls on the personal pronoun: we have not to wrestle with a human foe not on the metaphor of wrestling, which is only introduced
. :

by the way, and is not further alluded to. But against the principalities, against
.

the powers, against

the

rulers of the darkness of this world, against the spiritual hosts of

wickedness in the heavenly places have seen already that St Paul speaks in the language of his time when he describes the
iii

We

world as subject to spiritual powers who have fallen from their In his first mention first estate and are in rebellion against God. of them he left it open to us to regard them as not necessarily evil his one point was that whatever they might be Christ powers was exalted above them all in the heavenly sphere. In a later
:

iii

10

passage he spoke of them again in neutral language, as watching the development of God s eternal purpose for man, and learning
6

Col.

i 1

Similarly through the Church the very-varied wisdom of God the companion epistle he declares that they have all been created in Christ; and some of them at least appear to be not
.

in

Tyndale,

So Wiclif renders rightly, Clothe you with the armure of God Put on the armour of God*.

and

VI

12

14]

EPISTLE TO THE EPHESIANS.


c

133

irretrievably lost, but to be included in the reconciliation of things In a later passage indeed they Col. in earth and things in heaven
.

ii 1 5

appear as enemies over whom Christ has triumphed and this is For in harmony with the words which we are now considering. here they are declared to be the dangerous foe which meets the
:

Church in that heavenly sphere, the


spiritual life is lived
*
l
.

invisible world, in

which the
vi 13

Wherefore take unto you the armour of God, that ye may be able to withstand in the evil day, and having done all to stand The Apostle returns to his original metaphor of warfare, which he
.

will
foe,

now
and

proceed to expand. The struggle is with a superhuman necessitates a superhuman armour. Terrible as is the

foe,

conflict.

who

the Apostle never doubts for a moment of the issue of the The battle has been already won by Christ Himself, on His cross stripped off and flung aside the principalities

Col.

ii

15

and the powers and put them to open shame. His triumph has to be realised in His Body the Church. He was pictured by the prophets as the Divine warrior who came forth clad in Divine armour to battle with iniquity. In the same armour He goes forth again in the person of His Church, conquering and to conquer
.

Apoc. vi t

Hence the Apostle never contemplates the


:

defeat

he is but pointing the be consummated.

way

possibility of to a victory which needs to

Stand having on

therefore,

having your loins girt about with


of righteousness
.

truth,

and vi
suit

14

the breastplate

The panoply, or
.

of armour, of the

Roman heavy

by

Polybius,

this passage, of the outfit

no stress on the completeness indeed he omits two of its essential portions, the greaves and the spear ; while on the other hand he emphasises the need of being girded and shod, requirements of all active The fact is service, and by no means peculiar to the soldier. that, as his language proves, he is thinking far less of the Roman soldiers, who from time to time had guarded him, than of the Divine warrior who was depicted more than once by the Old Testament prophets. Two passages of the Book of Isaiah were specially in his mind. In one the prophet has described what was indeed an
said, lays
:

who enters as we have

infantry is fully described for us 2 into its minutest details St Paul in

evil
1

day

See above, pp. 20 ff., 49,80. On the whole subject the reader may consult with advantage Mr H. St J.

St Paul

to

especially the chapter

contemporary thought on The world


,

of spirits
2

Thackeray

essay on

The

relation of

Polybius vi 23.

134
Isa. lix

EXPOSITION OF THE
Judgment
is

[VI 14

turned away backward,

14

And
And

righteousness standeth afar off: For truth is fallen in the street,

uprightness cannot enter.


:

Yea, truth is lacking; And he that departeth from evil maketh himself a prey And the Lord saw it, and it displeased Him that there was

no judgment.

Then the Divine warrior

steps forth to

do battle with iniquity

He saw that there was no man, And wondered that there was none
Therefore His

own arm brought

to interpose salvation to Him;


:

And And And And And

His righteousness, it upheld Him. He put on righteousness as a breastplate, an helmet of salvation upon His head ; He put on garments of vengeance for clothing, was clad with zeal as a cloke.
prophecy had pictured the Divine King of the future and going forth to make first
:

An

earlier

as anointed with the sevenfold Spirit, war, and then peace, in the earth
Isa.

xi4f.

He shall smite And with the


wicked
:

the earth with the


Spirit

word of His mouth 1 ; through His lips shall He slay the


about with righteousness,

And He shall have His loins girt And His reins girdled with truth.
Wisd. v
I

7 fi -

notable passage in the Book of Wisdom shews how these descriptions of the armour of God had impressed themselves on
the

mind

of another

Jew

besides St Paul

He shall take His jealousy as a panoply, And shall make the whole creation His weapons
on His enemies
:

for

vengeance

He shall put on And shall array


a helmet;

righteousness as a breastplate, Himself with judgment unfeigned as with

He shall And He

shall

take holiness as an invincible shield, sharpen stern wrath as a sword.

The Apostle does not hesitate, then, to take the words of ancient prophecy and transfer them from God and the Divine representative King to the New Man in Christ, whom he arms
1

So the Greek Bible renders

it.

VI 1417]
for the

EPISTLE TO THE EPHESIANS.


.

135

same conflict with the very armour of God he was in harmony with the spirit of the prophet of voice which cried, Awake, awake, put on strength,

old.

In so doing For the


of the
.

Sion strength, And your feet shod with the preparation (or, readiness ) of the vi 15 gospel of peace : prepared, as it were, from the outset to announce
,

Lord

cried also,

Awake, awake, put on thy

O arm O

laa.

li

9;

of peace of Isaiah

peace as the outcome of victory. The readiness of the messenger is a thought derived from another passage of the Book How beautiful upon the mountains are the feet of him
*
:

Isa.

lii

that bringeth good tidings, that publisheth peace ; that bringeth good tidings of good, that publisheth salvation; that saith unto

Thy God reigneth Withal taking the shield of faith, wherewith ye shall be able to quench all the fiery darts of the wicked one : and take the helmet
Zion,
*
!

vi i6f.

Girded, guarded, and of salvation and the sword of the Spirit shod, with truth, with righteousness, and with readiness to publish the good tidings of peace while all that the foe can see 13 the great oblong shield, the crested helm, and the pointed two-edged blade the shield of faith, the helmet of salvation, and the sword
.
:

of the Spirit.

The sword of the Spirit, which is the word of God The of speech to a sword is frequent in the Old Testament comparison whose teeth are spears and arrows, and their tongue a sharp p s Ivii 4 sword who have whet their tongue like a sword, and shoot out lxiv 3 their arrows, even bitter words He hath made my mouth like Isa. xlix 2 a sharp sword And in the Apocalypse Christ is represented as Apoc. 116; xix J 5 having a sword proceeding out of His mouth. The passage which is immediately in the Apostle s mind is one which we have already He shall smite the earth with the word of His mouth, Isa. xi 4 quoted and with the Spirit (or, breath) through His lips shall He slay the wicked St Paul gathers up these words into a new combina the sword of the Spirit, which is the word (or, utterance) tion,
.

of

of as

of God, as uttered through His prophets, is spoken an instrument of vengeance Therefore have I hewed them Hos. by the prophets I have slain them by the words of My mouth But from such a thought as this the Apostle rapidly passed to the mention of prayer as the natural utterance of Christian lips, and the effective instrument of success in the conflict with evil. We the sword of the Spirit... pray ing in the may note the repetition It is almost as though the Apostle had said, For the Spirit Divine warrior the sword of the Spirit is His own utterance which puts His enemies to flight for you it is the utterance of prayer
: : .

God The word


.

vi 5

136

EXPOSITION OF THE

[VI

1720

If this is not clearly expressed, yet it seems to be in the Spirit. the close connexion which binds the whole passage to implied by

Eom.
J

viii

Take.,. the sword of the Spirit, which is the word of God, with Prayer is prayer and supplication praying always in the Spirit indeed the utterance of the Spirit in us, crying Abba, Father, and making intercession for us according to the will of God. And watching thereunto with all perseverance and supplication If the military metaphor is not distinctly for all the saints carried on by the word watching the injunction is at any rate

gether
all

God s warrior, fully armed, peculiarly appropriate at this point. must be wakeful and alert, or all his preparation will be vain.
c

vi 19

f.

And for

me,

that

utterance
to

may

be given

unto me,
the

in the
mystery

opening of

my mouth

of

the gospel,

make known with boldness for which I am an ambassador in bonds ;

that therein

I may

ought to speak \ At this point the s language again runs parallel with that which he uses Apostle For there the exhortation to in the Epistle to the Colossians.
speak boldly, as

Col. iv i

ff.

slaves

and

their masters is followed at once

by the words

Perse

vere in prayer, watching therein with thanksgiving, praying withal for us also, that God would open unto us a door of utterance, to

speak the mystery of the Christ, for which also I am in bonds, This parallel that I may make it manifest, as I ought to speak determines the meaning of the phrase the opening of my mouth It is not, as our Authorised Version renders it, that I may open
.

my mouth

but rather

that

God may open my mouth

He

is

the giver of the utterance. The Apostle is His spokesman, His ambassador, though, by a strange paradox, he wears a chain.
vi2i
24

that ye also may know my affairs, and how I do, Tychicus, the beloved brother and faithful minister in the 22 whom I have Lord, shall make known unto you all things:
2I

Bux

sent unto you for the same purpose, that ye might affairs, and that he might comfort your hearts.

know our
from God

Peace be to the brethren, and love with the Father and the Lord Jesus Christ.
2
<

23

faith,

Grace be with

all

them that

love our

Lord Jesus Christ

in incorruptibility.

The words which concern the mission


Col. iv 7

of Tychicus are found also

in the Epistle to the Colossians, with hardly a difference, except that there Onesimus is joined with him. Tychicus is mentioned
in the Acts together with

Acts xx 4

Trophimus as a native

of proconsular

VI

2i

24]

EPISTLE TO THE EPHESIANS.

137

Asia, who met St Paul at Troas on his return from Greece through Macedonia in the year 58 A.D. This was the memorable journey which issued in the Apostle s arrest in the temple at Jerusalem and his imprisonment at Caesarea. It is probable that as a dele gate of the Colossian Church he went, as Trophimus did on behalf But at least of the Ephesians, the whole of the way to Jerusalem. we may think of him as present when the Apostle preached and broke bread at Troas, and when he addressed the Ephesian Elders This was five years before the date of the present at Miletus. which he carried from Rome to the several Asian Churches. epistle, Five years later we find him again with St Paul, who speaks of sending him or Artemas to visit Titus in Crete, and who actually So by acts of service sent him not long afterwards to Ephesus. over a period of ten years he justified his title of the extending beloved brother and the Apostles faithful minister Peace be to the brethren, and love with faith, from God the Father and the Lord Jesus Christ In sharp contrast with the
.
.

Acts xxi 29

Tit.

iii
-

Tim

12 iv

vi 23

full list of salutations

addressed to individuals in the Colossian


alike for

Church stands
each

this general greeting, which will serve of the Churches to which the letter is brought.
all

Grace be with
.

them that

love

our Lord Jesus Christ in

in- vi 24

St Paul invariably closes his epistles by invoking corruptibility upon his readers the gift of that grace which holds so prominent

a place in

The

all his thought. In one of his earliest epistles we read salutation of me Paul with mine own hand, which is the
:
:

token in every epistle thus I write The grace of our Lord Jesus Christ be with you all We may suppose then that after he had
:
.

2 Thess.
I

dictated the general salutation which took the place of individual greetings, he himself wrote with his own hand what he regarded
as his sign-manual.

This final salutation is still general in its terms, being couched in the third person contrary to his custom. The words have in part a familiar ring. Again and again in the

Old Testament and the


to or invoked

later

upon

them that
.

Jewish writings mercy is promised Exod. xx It comes naturally etc love God.
"

therefore to the Apostle to invoke grace upon all them that But to this he adds a new phrase, love our Lord Jesus Christ

to which

in incorruptibility parallel There is nothing in the immediate context which leads up to or helps to explain this phrase. The word incorruptibility* has
.

we have no

not occurred in the epistle but the Apostle uses it elsewhere in the following passages To them who by patient continuance Kom.
:
:

ii

in well doing seek for glory and honour and immortality It is sown in corruption: it is raised in incorruption...or this cor-

^
f.

53

138
i

EXPOSITION OF THE EPISTLE TO THE EPHESIANS.


i

[VI 24

Tim.

10

ruptible

who hath
Eom. i23; which
im
1

must put on incorruption &c. ; Our Saviour Jesus Christ, abolished death, and hath brought life and immortality
,
.

to light through the Gospel It signifies that imperishableness is an attribute of God Himself, and which belongs to the *? unchanging order of the eternal world, Imperishableness is the
characteristic of our

That

new life in Christ and of our love to Him. and that love are in truth immortal; they belong to a region which is beyond the touch of decay and death. So the epistle which opened with a bold glance into the eternal past closes with the outlook of an immortal hope.
life

HPOS E*ESIOYS

"Qo-irfp

dia TOV croo^aros 6 o~(&TT)p


TrpcxpTjrooi
,

eXaXei

/ecu

iciro,

OVTCOS
ra>v

/ecu

irporepov
r\

(j.V Sia

ra>i/

vvv Se 5ia

rcoi/

aTrooToAtoi/ KOL

$i$a.(TKd\a>v.

KK\r](ria

yap
tva

virrjpeTel
Si*

ry TOV

Kvpiov
ra>

evepyfia. 6f\^fjLan
TTJV

evBfv

KOL

Tore

av6po>7rov

dveXaftev

avrov

vrrrjpcTTjoy

TOV Trarpos,

KOI

irdvroTe
Trporepoi/

avBpwirov 6 (pi\dv6pa)Tros
fj,v

vo~vTai deos fls


tiuc\r)(rtav.

dv0p<oTrcov

o~o>TT)piav 1

TOVS

7rpo(pj/ras,

vvv de TTJV

Even as through

the body the Saviour used to speak

and

heal, so afore

time through the prophets and

now through
man,

the apostles

and

teachers.

For

the

Church subserves

the

mighty working of the Lord.


that through

Whence

both

at that time

He

took

upon

Him

serve the

Father s will; and at

all

times in

him He might sub His love to man God clothes

Himself with

man for

the salvation

of men, aforetime with the prophets,

now with

the Church.

CLEMENT OF ALEXANDRIA,

Eclog.

Proph.

23.

HPOS E*ESIOYS.
TAYAO2
*
-*

ctTTOO-ToAos XpLCTTOv

Irja ov
[ei/

6eov

Tols

dyiois

TO??

OVCTIV

KO.L

TricrTols eV

\pio"Tco

lri(rov

^^dpis VJMV
Irjcrov

dnro

6eov TraTOO?

/uitov

Kai KVpiov

\picrTOv.

i, 2. PAUL, an apostle of Christ Jesus by the will of God, to the members of God s consecrated Peo

an epithet in which the two senses of belief and fidelity appear Trto-ris, to be blended see Lightfoot Gala,
:

ple who are [in EPHESUS, believers in Christ Jesus.

faithful I

tians
2.

p. 157.

you the new Grace and peace be with you, from God our Father and from the Lord
Jesus Christ
i.
.

give watchword with the old

For the transference of the technical description of the ancient People to the members of the Christian Church, see Lightfoot on
Tolsayiois]
Col.
i

Kal flprjvri] The Greek was ^at peti/, which occurs in the letter of the Apostles and Elders to the Gentiles, Acts xv 23, in that of Claudias Lysias, Acts xxiii 26, and in the Epistle of St James. The oriental salutation was Peace see Ezra iv 17 ( Peace, and at such a
x**P ts

v^w

salutation

time

and

Phil,

i.

See the note on the fv E$e The omission of various readings. the words leaves us with two possible to the saints interpretations: (i)
o-6>]

), v 7, [vii 12], Ban. iv i, vi 25; and contrast the Greek recensions 1 Esdr. vi 7, viii 9, Esther xvi i, where we have ^atpetv.

and the faithful in Christ Jesus a space being left, to be filled in each case by the name of the particular Church to which the letter was brought by Tychicus its bearer or (2} to the saints which are also faith The former ful in Christ Jesus interpretation is supported by the
which are
,

The present combination occurs in the Pauline epistles (except i and 2 Tim. and Titus [?], where eXeos intervenes: comp. 2 John 3). It is also found in Apoc. i 4, and with In Jude irXrjOvvQeirj in i and 2 Peter. we have eXeos, fipr/vrj and aydirq. Whether x^P ls was m anv way suggested by x a P* LV must remain
all
L

parallels in and Phil, i

Rom. i
I

7 rot? ovo-tv eV PeoVfl?

rots ovo-tv Iv &i\t7nrots.

a parallel may possibly be found in the emphatic introduction


doubtful
:

strong objection to the latter is the unusual stress which is thrown upon Kal TTto-rot? by the intervention of rots unaccompanied by the mention of a locality.
ov<riv

KOI TTto-rots] The saints are further defined as faithful in Christ Jesus
,

I J nn i 4What is plain is of x a P a that St Paul prefixes to the character istic blessing of the Old Dispensation (comp. Numb, vi 26) the characteristic blessing of the New. The combination is typical of his position as the Hebrew Apostle to the Gentiles. See further the detached note on

EPISTLE TO THE EPHESIANS.


*
<

[I 3
/
<

(76OS

/3

/->

KCU
/

TTaTrjp
t^/mas
,

TOV

KVplOV

f]jUL(jOV

XpKTTOv, ~
,

6
-

evXoyricras
,

ev Trdcrrj

ev TOLS eTrovpaviois ev
I begin by blessing God blessed us, not with an earthly blessing of the basket and the

,.

evXoyia

10.

Here St Paul combines the two

signifi

who has

store, but with all spiritual blessing in the heavenly region in Christ.

cations: JLv\oyr)Tbs...6 ev\oyijo~as Jy/xay. 6 dcos KO.I 7rar7/p] The first, as well as the second of these titles, is to be

Such was the design of His eternal selection of us to walk before Him in holiness and love. From the first He marked us out to be made His sons by adoption through Jesus Christ. The good-pleasure of His will was the sole ground of this selection as the praise of the glory of His grace was its contemplated end. His grace, I say; for He has showered grace on us in Him
;

taken with the following genitive. A sufficient warrant for this is found in
V. 17, o Qeos TOV Kvpiov yptov *\r)(rov XptoTov, o irarrip rf)s dogrjs (comp. also

John xx

17).

Some

early interpreters

however take the genitive with Trcmyp alone. Thus Theodore allows this latter construction, and Theodoret insists upon it. Moreover the Peshito renders: Blessed be God, the Father of our Lord Jesus Christ and the
;

who is the Beloved,

the Bringer of the

earlier Syriac version, as witnessed to


in

is wrought by His death and which delivers us from sin such is the wealth of His The abundance of grace too grace. brings wisdom and practical under
:

great Emancipation, which

by Ephraim s commentary (extant only an Armenian translation), seems to have had: Blessed be our Father, the Father of our Lord , etc. On
the other hand Hilary, in Ps.

standing: for

know

has allowed us to His secret, the hidden purpose

He

which underlies all and interprets all. Long ago His good-pleasure was deter

stands alone (for quotes only Benedictus deus, qui benedixit nos, etc.) in omitting KOI Tranjp.
Ixvi,

ev

7rdo"rj

evXoyia

TrvevpaTticf)]
.

mined now, as the times are ripening,


:

all spiritual blessing


*

It

with might be

out His plan. And the the summing up, the focussing, the gathering into one, of the whole Universe, heavenly things and earthly things alike, in Christ This word is used 3. EvXoyrjros ] only of God in the New Testament. It recurs in the present phrase, 2 Cor. i i 3, Pet. i 3; and in the phrase
issue of all
is

He is working

this

rendered with every spiritual bless but it is better to regard ing


;

evXoyia as abstract: compare


7rdo~T] O~O(f)iq.

v.

8 ev

The interpre ev rols eTTovpaviois] tation of this phrase, which occurs again in i 20, ii 6, iii 10, vi 12, and not elsewhere, is discussed at length
is

evXoyrjTos els TOVS cuooi/as , Rom. i 25, ix 5, 2 Cor. xi 31. The only other instances are Mark xiv 61, Luke i 68.
1

in the exposition. in caelestibus


>i<__jnr=3

The Latin rendering The Peshito has


.

= ev

TOIS ovpavois) in all

fj.vos is
i

Of men, on the other hand, evXoyrjused, e.g. Matt, xxv 34, Luke
42.

It is inte instances except the last. resting to note that in i 20 B and a few other authorities read ev rols
ovpavois.

EvXoyrjros implies that blessing


;

is

due ev\oyr][j.fvos, that blessing has been received. The blessing of man
spiritual
praise.
:

by God confers material or


benefits the blessing of is a return of gratitude

eeAe aro] 4. may render this l either He hath chosen or He chose ; and so with the aorists throughout
the passage. In Greek the aorist is the natural tense to use ; but it does

We

God by man
and

5,

6]

EPISTLE TO THE EPHESIANS.

143

d<yiovs

opi(ras
KCLTOL

ev avTto Trpo KaTa/3o\fjs icocr/mov, eivai tji Kai d/mcojULOV^ KaTevwTTiov CIVTOV ev yaTrr], 7rpoek vlodecriav Sid Irjcrov \picrTOV eis CCVTOV, rjfjids
TY\V

Tov 6e\v[JiaTOs avTov,


but
offers
:

eis

eTraivov

not of necessity confine our attention to the moment of action.


Trpo
Kara(3o\fjs /eooyioti]

caritate

Here only

in

St Paul: but see John xvii 24, I Pet. i 20. The phrase oVo narapo\rjs Koo-fj-ov is several times used in the New Testament, but not by St
Paul.
ayiovs KOI d/ico/zovs] These adjec tives are again combined in v 27 ; and, with the addition of dvfyK\r)Tos, in
Col.
i

no interpretation of in Ambrosiaster has it, and explains the words of our love to God which produces holiness Jerome also has it, and gives as alternatives the connexion with what immediately precedes, and Origen s view which connects the words with Trpoopio-as.
:

The Vulgate rendering (found also in /) in caritate qui praedestinauit*


precludes the connexion with
opicras.

Trpo-

22.

In the LXX

a/Luo/ios

is

almost exclusively found as a ren dering of D^DD, which occurs very


frequently of sacrificial animals, in But the sense of without blemish is also freely used of moral rectitude, and has other renderings,
.

which

D^n
such

The simplest interpretation is that is indicated by the punctuation given in the text. It is supported by the rhythm of the sentence, and also by the frequent recurrence in this epistle (iii 17, iv 2, 15, 16, v 2) of the
phrase ev
0707717 in

as

reXeios,
oo-ios.

apfpirros,

KaOapos,

reference to the

OKOKOS,

Accordingly a sacri not necessarily is ficial metaphor implied in the use of the word in
this place. ev dyairrj] This has
(i)

love which Christians should have one


to another.
5.

word
1 5,

els viodecriav] vioGea-ia five

St Paul uses the times; Rom. viii

been interpreted of our love, whether (a) to God or (5) to each other. Origen adopts the first view he connects ev dyanr] with irpoopio-as us ) ( in love having foreordained but he allows as a possible alternative the connexion with e^eXe^aro. This alternative (He hath chosen us... in love) is the view taken by Ephraim and The connexion with by Pelagius.
of

23, ix 4, Gal. iv 5,

and here.

It is

God s

love,

(2)

found in no other Biblical writer. Although the word does not seem to occur in the earlier literary Greek, it In addi is frequent in inscriptions.
tion to the ordinary references, see

p.

Deissmann Neue Bibelstudien (1897) He cites from pre-Christian 66.

inscriptions the formulae Kaff vlodeo-iav 8c and Kara Ovyarpoiroiiav 8e, occurring

npoopio-as,

however, is more usual: is it accepted by Theodore and the Peshito precludes Chrysostom any other view by rendering and in love He &c. but Ephraim s comment shews that the conjunction cannot have been present in the Old Syriac
:

in contrast to Kara yevecriv. In Rom. ix 4 St Paul uses the term in enumerating the privileges of the

ancient Israel,

<0>v

77

vioQco-ia KOL

T)

Soa

KOI ai SiatffjKai K.r.X. it falls into line with

Here therefore
the other expres

sions which

he transfers to the
,

New

People

such as

ayioi, aVoXvrpajo-ts,

version.

In Latin the rendering in caritate praedestinans (d2gs ) left the question open. Victorinus has this rendering,

eVayyeXia, 7repuroirj(ris. v Oe\rjfj.aTos] Comp. V.

and for the emphatic reiteration comp.


V.

II Kara TTJV ftov\T)V TOV

144

EPISTLE TO THE EPHESIANS.

[I

7-10

%piTOS avTOV,
ev
a)

e^apiTcocrev

rjjuias

ev

e^o/zei/
d<pe(Tiv

aTroXvTpworiv

Sta
KO.TO,

avToi), TY\V

TO 7r\ovTos
77/zas

Trjs

%dpLTOs avTov,
6e\.r\fJiaTO^

*r]s

eTrepicrcrevcrev

eis

ev Trdcrri

(ro<pia

Kai (ppovricrei

9r

yvwpicras
Trjv

r}/uuv

TO

jULV(TTr]pLOV

TOV

avTOv,
I0

/caret

avTOv

fjv

7Tpoe6eTO ev avTio

ek oiKovo/uiav TOV

avrov.

Fritzsche (on Rom. x i) dis cusses evSoicelv and evSo/aa. He shews


that the verb
is

pretations of the word in this place, see the detached note on x^P LS
-

freely

used by the

The

relative $s has
it

been attracted
It is

later

Greek writers, and especially Polybius, where earlier writers would have said eSo|ei> and the like. The

into the case of its antecedent.

simplest to regard
rj.

noun appears to be Alexandrian. The translators of the Greek Psalter, who


uniformly employ ev&oKflv for H"l, render J1") by ei o/ua (7 times) and

N C D 2 G 3 KL, (in qua\ read ev rj

as standing for with the Latin version


:

but this is probably the grammatical change of a scribe.


ev The reasons for qyatnipvy>] regarding o ijyairripevos as a current Messianic designation are given in a detached note. In the parallel passage, Col. i 13 f., St Paul writes KOI pereT<J)

by QeXypa (6 times). Apart from this evdoKia is found twice only, except in Ecclesiasticus where it occurs 16 In Enoch i 8 we have KO\ rrjv times.
evdoKiav
yrjo-ei.
<a<ret

<rr7](rV

fls TTJV ftacriXeiav

rov viov
/c.r.X.

TTJS

avrois KOL irdvra? fv\o-

aydirrjs avroi), ev

e^o/zev

In

Like it is used largely of the Divine good-pleasure (comp.


)1^"l,

Ps.

cxlix

4 on

cvftoKei

Kvpios

ev

that passage the desire to emphasise the Divine Sonship of Christ may account for his paraphrase of the
title.

Xaoi avroO), but also of the goodpleasure , satisfaction or happiness of

7.

ev

o>

exofjiev

TTJV

a^roXvrpaxTtv]
v. 14.

men.
6.
is
risxapi<Tvrifj.as]

So

in Col.

14.

For the meaning of


Probably by comp.
:

The Apostle
x"P

diro\vTpco<ris

see note on

emphasising his own word


instructive to

ls

It

8.

rjs

eTrepia-a-cva-cv]

is

phrases in followed by its cognate verb: as in V. 19 Kara TTJV fvepyiav...r)v cvrjpyrjKcv, ii 4 dia TTJV iro\\r)v dydtrrjv avrov t)v
IV jydirrjo-ev TJ/zay,
K\ij6rjTf.
I

compare certain other which a substantive is

attraction for

f)v errfpia-a-fva-ev

2 Cor. ix 8 dvvarel de 6 6*0?


9.

Tracrav

TO

fjLvarrjpiov]

32, vi

19:

Comp. iii 3, 4, 9, and see the detached

Trjs

K\r)trfa)S
*

rjs

note on

^v(Trr)piov.

The meaning is His grace wherewith He hath endued us with which is a more emphatic way grace
;

TTpoedcro]

He

hath purposed

His grace which He hath shewn toward us or * hath bestowed So that the phrase does upon us not greatly differ from that of v. 8 His grace which He hath made to For other uses abound toward us
of saying
.
.

preposition in this word has the signification not of time, but of place He set before Himself. So we have

The

irp60<ns,

purpose

in v. 11.

10.

els olKovofjilav]

The word

OIKO-

vopia means primarily either the office of a steward or household manage

ment

The

latter

meaning however

of xapirovi/, and for the early inter

received a large extension, so that

I 10]

EPISTLE TO THE EPHESIANS.

145

TWV Kcupwv,
\

dvaKe<pa\cua)craa

6ai TO. TravTa ev


67TI

TW
ev
is

TO,
elv

TOIS OVpdVOLS
were used
in

KCtl

T7/9

and

oiKovofj.ia

dvaK(pa\ai(&(ra(T0ai ]

The Verb

the most general sense of provision or arrangement. This wider use of

derived not directly from Ke^aXr),

head

the words
Polybius.
iv

may be

illustrated

from

The verb occurs


o\a>v

in Polyb.

26 6

virep TCOV

obtovoftsiv (the

a sum mary or sum total (comp. Heb. viii i). Accordingly it means to sum up or present as a whole ; as in
,

but from

Kc<pa\aiov,

Aetolians refuse to ments with Philip

make arrange
previous
to

Rom.

xiii

9,

where

after

naming

general assembly); and in iv 67 9 Tavra Se olKovoprjaas (of appointing a rendezvous], when he had made these dispositions (comp. 2 Mace, iii 14,3 Mace, iii 2). The noun is exceedingly common e.g. Polyb. 143 rrjv Se Ka66\ov
:

various precepts St Paul declares that they are summed up in this word,

Thou

shalt love thy neighbour as thy

self (eVrovTwro) Xoyo) dvaKfCpaXaiovrai).

The Peshito has


ut
;

SD
cuncta

denuo

KOI (rv\\rj^8r]v oiKovopiav

ra>v

ycyovorajv,

pleading for a broad historical view of the general course of events ; ii 47 IO TavTT]v cirticpv-

where he

is

^rc(r6ai rrjv oixoi/o/iiai/,

to conceal this
line of action
;

his actual policy

or

V 40 3
TTJV

"ra^fiav

eXa/n/3az/e

TO Trpay/na

the project quickly out ; vi 9 10 (in closing a discussion of the way in which one form of polity succeeds to another) avrrj TroXirf i&v araKUKXoxm,
oiKovopiav,

began to work

itself

nouarentur and Ephraim s Commen tary shews that this was the Old Syriac rendering. Similarly the Latin version has l instaurare or restaurare , though Tertullian and the translator of Irenaeus seek to re produce the Greek word more closely In both Syriac by recapitulare\ and Latin versions the preposition ova. has been interpreted of repetition. But its meaning here is rather that which we find in such compounds as
dvaanoneiv
so that in usage the
seriously differ
:

avrrj (frvo-eats olKovopia, K.r.X.,

i.e.,

SO

forms of government recur in a cycle, so things naturally work themselves out Both here and in iii 9, n s 77 OIKOvo/j,ia TOV ftwmjplou K.T.X., the word is used of the manner in which the purpose of God is being worked out in human history. At a later time otKovopia acquired a more concrete meaning; so that, for example, the
.

word does not


<rvyKc<pa\aiovv,

from

the slight shade of distinction being that between to gather up (with the stress on the elements to be united) and to gather together (with the stress on their ultimate union). See
Lightfoot
ii
14.

ad

loc.

(Notes on Epistles
Col.
i

ofSt Paul) and on

16.

Christian dispensation came to be contrasted with the Mosaic dispen sation As the rendering for the
.

whom

In Christ, I repeat, in we have been chosen as the


:

(or a) dispensation of the fulness of the times is not free from ambiguity,
it is preferable to render /or dispen sation in the fulness of the times . In any case 7rXr;pa>/iaros is a genitive of further definition. Compare with

the whole phrase


peorai
o

Mark
i

15 7rrXjjii

Kaipo?,
2

and

Tim.

6 TO

Portion of God for long ago He set His choice upon us, in accordance with a purpose linked with almighty power and issuing in the fulfilment of His sovereign will. We have thus been chosen to be to the praise of the glory of God we Jews ; for we have been the first to hope in Christ. But yet not we alone. You too, you Gen tiles, have heard the message of truth, the good news of a salvation which is

EPHES.

10

14^

EPISTLE TO THE EPHESIANS.


"ei/

[I

13

avTw 9
decrLV

ft)

Kai

TOV

TO.

K\ripco6rj/uiev 7rpoopio~6evTS KaTa. TrpdTrdvTa evepyovvTos KaTa Tr\v fiov\r\v TOV


13
7

6e\rjiuiaTOS

avTOv

et9

TO

eivai

rj^iias

et?

eirctivov
*3

aVTOV TOVS TTpOrjXTTLKOTaS 6V aKOvcravTes TOV \oyov


yours as much as ours. You too have believed in Christ, and have been sealed with the Spirit, the Holy
lot

TO)
Trjs

XplCTTl
dXtideias,

.V

KCtl

TO evay-

who

Spirit promised to the holy People, is at once the pledge and the

or the portion of God : as, e.gv in Deut. IX 29 ovroi \aos a-ov Kai K\fjp6s a-ov (comp. Esth. iv 17, an addition in the LXX). The rendering of the R.V., we were made a heri

first instalment of our common heri tage; sealed, I say, for the full and final emancipation, that you, no less than we, may contribute to the praise of the glory of God
.

tage is more correct than that of the A.V., but it introduces the idea of inheritance (K\r)povofj.ia), which is not "We necessarily implied by the word. might perhaps be content to render
,

II.

<0

KOI

K\r)p(a0T)fj.V TTpoopio--

eeXearo

(v.

5)

and

K\T)p^6r]p.V

by

This is practically a restate GfVTcs] ment in the passive voice of eeXe aro
r^iaS
-

irpoopidas
KOI

rjp.as

(w.
:

4,

5).

So
6
K\rj-

Chrysostom comments
eK\fdp,fvos

tiebs

yap

K\r)pQMrdfji.fvos.

chosen , as was done in the Geneva Bible of 1557 an ancient precedent for this is found in the Peshito, which employs the same verb in both verses
:

chose and

to choose by lot or Ho povv is appoint by lot . In the passive it is to be chosen (or appointed ) by lot . But the image of the lot tends to disappear ; so that the word means to assign , or (mid.) to assign to to choose ; and in the oneself, passive to be assigned or chosen . The passive, however, could be used with a following accusative in the sense of to be assigned a thing , and to acquire as a portion Thus in the Berlin Papyri (n 405) we read, in a contract of the year 348 A.D.

ra irdvra fvepyovvTos]
all things : see the
tvtpyeiv,
12.

who worketh

detached note on

rovs TrpoqXTTtKoras]
.

who have

so

eVlSr)

\LBoV (TlTOKOTTTrjV Ka\ (TlTaXfTlKrjV


qv,
,

been the first to hope For this use of Trpo in composition ( before an other ) compare I Cor. xi 21 exaoT-os yap TO l&iov dfiTTVov irpo\afj,(3dvi cv So far as the word in itself (payelv. is concerned it might be rendered who aforetime hoped but the meaning thus given is questionable: see the exposition.
r<5

irarp^a

ypav
is

ovra,

K\T]p<-

K.r.X.

given

in

A.V. ( in an inheritance ) but there appears to be no justification for it, except when
:

meaning the present passage by the whom also we have obtained

This

the

Kai vp.f is] cv It is simplest 13. to take vpeis as the nominative to


o>

the accusative of the object assigned is expressed. Accordingly the meaning must be l we have been chosen as God s por tion and the word is perhaps se lected because Israel was called the
:

regarding the second up the sentence, which has been broken to insert the em phatic phrase the good tidings of a salvation which was yours as well as somewhat similar repetition ours is found in ii II, 12 on TTOTC v/ieis...
eo-(ppayi(T0T)T,

cv

o>

as picking

on

Tyre K.r.X.

TOV \6yov TTJS d\T)0fias] The teach ing which told you the truth of things

I 14]

EPISTLE TO THE EPHESIANS.


(rcoTrjpas VJJLWV, ev yicr6riTe TCO TrvevfJiaTi Trjs
KCLI
67ra<yye\ias

147

r
6<r(f>pa

Tip

14

e<TTLV

dppa(3cov Trjs
y

K\t]povofJiias

fj/zo)i/,

ek diroXvavTOv.

eJs eiraivov Trjs So^rjs


os Icrnv

14.

(comp. iv 21), to wit, that you were included in the Divine purpose the good tidings of your salvation. In Col. i 5 we have the same thought the hope laid up for you in the heavens, whereof ye heard aforetime in the word of the truth of the gospel which came unto you &c. Compare also 2 Cor. vi 7 ev d\rj6eias and
:

meaningless as a note on pignus: thus his attention was drawn to the inadequacy of the Latin version but nevertheless in revising that version (if indeed to any serious extent he did revise it in the Epistles) he forgot, or did not care, to insist on the proper
:

distinction.

\6ya>

With the whole context compare


2 Cor.
i

James

l8

\6ya>

aXrjdeias.

21

f.

o de

/3r/3a5i>

was

vvv

o~<ppayio-0r)T

K.T.\.]

Compare
$eoC,

iv

30
co

TO nvevfjLa TO

ayiov

TOV

ev

vfuv fls Xpioroi> KOI xpio~as Ty/xas 6eos, o KOI o~(ppayto~aiJ,vos Tjfjias KOL 8ovs TOV

oVoAvrpcoo eeos, and 2 Cor. i 21 f. (quoted below). 14. dppafiuv] Lightfoot has treated this word fully in the last of his notes

O~(ppayio~6T]Te els rjp.epav

on this
It
is
2")17,

epistle (Notes on Epp. p. 323). the Hebrew word |11iy (from to entwine , and so to pledge ). It is found in classical Greek writers ; so that it was probably brought to Greece by the Phoenician traders, and not by the Hebrews, who knew little of the Greeks in early days. It

TOV irve^paros ev rats Kap(for the technical term ibelstudien ficfiaiovv, see Deissmann pp. 100 ff. and Gradenwitz Einfuhrung in die Papyruskunde, 1900, p. 59). Gradenwitz (ibid. pp. 81 ff.) shews that the appajSwi/, as it appears in the papyri, was a large proportion of the payment if the transaction was not
appaftaiva.

diais

ijfjuuv

if the seller, repaid the dppapcov twofold with in terest; if the buyer, he lost the

completed the defaulter,

came

also into Latin, and is found in a clipped form in the law books as arra. In usage it means strictly not a pledge (eW^vpoi/), but an earnest (though in the only place in the LXX where it occurs, Gen. xxxviii I7ff., it has the former sense). That is to say, it is a part given in advance as a security that the whole will be paid

dppa/3(ai>.

T^&jj/]

person.

It is

Note the return to the our inheritance


l

first
:

we

and you
iii 6.

are

o~uvi<Xr)pov6p.oi,

comp.
AvrpoO-

redemption of Israel from Egypt in Exod. vi 6, xv 13 (7K3),


<r6ai

els aTroAuVpcoo-ii is used of the

The verb

and
In

six times in

Deuteronomy (HID).
it

hereafter

first
loc.

instalment.

the

Psalms
:

Jerome ad

points out that the

Latin version had pignus in this place instead of arrdbo. Yet in his

Hebrew words; the first of them

in

represents both Isaiah generally


it is

and

frequently

Vulgate he
2 Cor.
i

left

22,
is

pignus here and in The explanation 5.

found in other parts of the Old Tes tament. The Redemption from Egypt is the ground of the conception
throughout; and emancipation* is perhaps the word which expresses the meaning most clearly. In English the word redemption almost inevit-

probably

that in his

Commentary

he was

translating from Origen, and found a careful note on


practically
,

which

would

have

been

148

EPISTLE TO THE EPHESIANS.


:

[I.

14

ably suggests a price paid but there is no such necessary suggestion where \vTpova-6at is used of the People, even if occasionally the primary sense
is felt

the meaning in this place.

With the Hebrew we may compare Exod. xix 5 rtao ^ DJV ni, which the LXX ren
eveo-Be
/iot Aaoff Trepiovo-tos,

dered

in

and played upon.

In

cwroAv-

Tpwis (and even

in the \vTpa>o-is Testament) the idea of emanci pation is dominant, and that of pay ment seems wholly to have disap peared. In the Old Testament the form diroXvTpcoa-ts is only found in Dan. iv 30 (LXX), of Nebuchadnezzar s

serting

New

Xaos from a recollection of Deut. vii 6, xiv 2, xxvi 18. The peri

phrasis eo-oi/reu /zoi els Trepnroirjo-iv is Hebraistic ; comp. Jer. xxxviii (xxxi) 33 ea-ovrai p.oi els \aov although ill
:

Malachi
in Ps.

we have
cxxxv 4
i

n?)!D,
;

not n?JD? (as


Trepiova-iao-fj-ov

els

recovery
/zov).

(o

XP

VOS T^s airoXvrpua-eas

LXX).

In

Pet.

ii

we have
:

Aaos

els

See further Westcott Hebrews pp. 295 ff., and T. K. Abbott Ephesians pp. 1 1 ff.
elo-Bai is

TTfpnroiTjo-iv,

The verb TrepiTroifound in two senses in the Old Testament: (i) to preserve alive
rrjs TrepiTroijJcrecoff]

where the passage in Exodus is chiefly in mind and where it would seem that \a6s is a reminis cence of the LXX of Exodus, and els
TTfpuroiTjo-iv

(nearly always for flin), (2) to ac quire . Corresponding to the former

sense

we have

the noun

Trepnroirjo-iS)

(HTID), in 2 preservation of life Chron. xiv 13 (12) ; corresponding to the latter we have MaL iii 17 ea-ovrai
fj.oi,...is ij/iepav rjv
eya>

rroiw, els irepi-

^
day
sure

1TTI

they shall be to Me,.. .in the ), that I do make, a peculiar trea


:

of the LXX of Malachi: both passages were doubtless very familiar. The view that Trepnroirjats had a recognised meaning in con nexion with Israel seems to be con firmed by Isa. xliii 21 This people have I formed for Myself, which the LXX rendered AaoV pov bv TrepieiroiTjcrafj,r)v comp. Acts xx 28 (quoted above). Accordingly we may render the whole phrase unto the redemption of God s own possession , understand
:

these are the only places (exc. Hag. ii 9, LXX only) where the noun is used. In the New Testament the verb is found, probably in the sense of pre serving alive , in Luke xvii 33 (irtpi-

and

BL D

but X A

etc.

a>oyovrjo-ai\

have where in

the second member of the verse we have faoyovjo-ei. In the sense of acquiring it is found in Acts xx 28
4

ing by this the emancipation of God s The metaphor from peculiar people a mercantile transaction has by this time been wholly dropped, and the Apostle has returned to the phrase ology of the Old Testament. The Old Latin rendering is in redemptionem adoptionit ; that of the Vulgate in redemptionem acIn I Pet. ii 9 both quisitionis l forms of the version have populus
. .

acquisitionis
l

though Augustine and


,
.

(r)V TTfptfTToifJcraTO

dta rot) at/xaroy TOV


(Patipbv in Heb.

and in i Tim. iii 13 The noun is found X 39 V 9

Ambrose have in adoptionem and The PeHilary ad possidendum


shito renders

unto the redemption


of

els Trepnroirja-iv ^rvxn$, I Thess. els irepmoirja-iv and arcoTrjpias,


I

of the saved

(lit.

them that

live );

2 Thess. ii 14 els irepnroirjo-iv 86r]s in each of these places the meaning is debated; see Lightfoot on the two
last (Notes

on Epp. pp.

The passage

76, 121). in Malachi is specially

but Ephraim s commentary makes it doubtful whether the redemption of your possession was not the render Origen and ing of the Old Syriac. Theodore seem to have understood
sense of God s irepnroirjo-ts in the claiming us as His own. The former

important for the determination of

15-18]
I<5

EPISTLE TO THE EPHESIANS.

149
V/ULO.^

AicJ

TOVTO KaycOj
lrj(TOV

dicovcras TY\V
Tr\v

Ka6
ets

TTLCTTLV

ev

TO*

Kvpico
1<5

Kai

dyaTrrjv

TTCLVTCL^

TOI/S

dyiovs,

oi/
\TTL

Travo/mai.

ev^apLO"T(jov

VTrep vmcov, jjiveiav TTOL-

Tcov Trpocrev^cov /MOV, *l\va 6 deos TOV Kupiov Irjcrov XjOfCTToi/, 6 TraTrip
crcHpias

Kai d

ev

CIVTOV,

ek
15.

om
Col.
1

(Cramer Catena
Iva
^eo>

p.

121) paraphrases,
r<

T7)V TTI&TIV

VfJ,(UV

a7roAurpco$o3<ri
:

KOI irfpiiroiTjdwcri

L/o-oC.

The same

loose construction

the latter (ibid. p. 122), TTJV Trpbs avTov oiKeidxriv Xafifidveiv. This is no

occurs immediately afterwards with


TTJV dydirriv.

Other examples in this


i
i
:

doubt a possible alternative, and it is probably the meaning of the Old Latin
rendering.
1

epistle are ii 1 1 TO. edvrj ev a-apri, iv o deo-pios fv Kvpia) comp. also Phil,
5
r!

rfj

Koivavia
i

vfj.cov

els

TO fvayye-

519.

With

all

this in mind, the

\iov, Col.
6.

TTJV

vfJLoiiv

dydirrjv ev irvev-

tidings of your faith which believes in the Lord Jesus, and your charity

fjiveiav
v/zc5j/

jroiovfuvos]

which loves

all

the privilege choice, cannot but stir

who share with you of God s consecrating


to per your behalf.

sion of

after this phrase,

The omis when

me

has immediately preceded, irepl has an exact parallel in i Thess. i 2 Ji5/z<3i>

petual thanksgiving on And in my prayers I ask that the God of our Lord Jesus Christ, His Father and ours in the heavenly glory, may give you His promised gift, the Spirit of wisdom, who is also the Spirit of revelation, the Unveiler of the Mystery. I pray that your heart s

Xapi<rrovfj.ev...7repl

irdvrcov

v/ncoi/,

fiveiav
is

Trot.ovp.fvoi K.r.X.

The meaning

not

remembering (which would be p.vrj/j.ovvovTSf comp. i Thess. i 3), but making remembrance or mention and so interceding See the de
,
.

tached
phrases.
17.

note

on

current

epistolary
titles

eyes may be filled with His light, that you may know God with a three fold knowledge that you may know what a hope His calling brings ; that you may know what a wealth of glory is laid up in His inheritance iii His consecrated People; that you may know what an immensity charac
terises

6 06os K.T.A.]

These

variation

upon the
Xpiorov.

titles of
7raTr)p

are a the dox-

ology in
r}/j.Q)v

V.

3 6 6fbs KOL

TOV Kvpiov
it is

Irjcrov

The fatherhood
is

is

widened and emphasised, as

again

when the prayer


in
iii

recurred to

and expanded

14.

His power, which goes forth


believe
.

aTTOKaXv^fcos] ATroKoAv^ts is the correlative of HVO-TTJPIOV: compare iii

to us
15.

who

3,57r/crT4z>]

TTJV K.a.6* vfj-ds

peri

phrasis for the more ordinary phrase see in the note on TTJV Tricmv v/L5i/ various readings, where the reading
:

in the know or advanced knowledge see the detached note on the meaning of eTriyvucris.
ev eTTiyvuxret
l

avTov"]

ledge of

Him
:

not

*full

dycnrrjv is discussed. ev ncvpt o) ITJO-OV]


r<5

stricter

con

struction

of

TTJV

would require the repetition before this phrase. But comp.

literally being en <ap8ias v/xcoi/] lightened as to the eyes of your heart The construction is irregular; for after
TTJS
.

ISO

EPISTLE TO THE EPHESIANS.


eioevai i)juas TLS e&Ttv
r\

[I

1921

TO

e\7Tis

avrov

6 TT\OVTOS Tt]S
*9
,

So^5

TfJ?

avTOv
KCITCC

ev

TOs

K.ai

TL

TO

i>7rep/3d\Xov

TY\V

evep<yeiav

TOV KpaTOVS
Xpi<rT(j)

ia"xyos

avTOv,
2I

eyeipas avTov e/c avTov ev TO?S ejrovpaviois


20.

*rjv evtip^rjKev ev veKpcov, Kai Ka dicras ev


v7repdva)
ing... which

TracT^s

dp%fjs

we should have expected

irc<pa>-

but the sense is plain. There is an allusion to this passage in Clem. Rom. 36, did TOVTOV (sc. fyo-oC
XpioToC) TJveaxdrjcrav rjfjiwv of d<pda\p,o\ Trjs Kapdiay did TOVTOV 77 do-vveTos Kal didvoia ypaiv dva6d\\et els the former of these sentences confirms the reading Kapdias in this place ; the latter recalls at once Rom. i 21 and Eph. iv 18.

He hath wrought : see detached note on evcpyelv and its cog


ToO Kpdrovs
TTJS LO~XVOS

nates.

avToOj
TO>

The

same combination
vdvvafjLovo-6e ev
TTJS

is

found in vi 10

Kvpia KOL ev /eparet iV^vos avroO. Comp. also Col. Iv TrdcTT) dvvd/jiei dvva.fjLovfji.evoi Kara TO

in

The measure of the might 19 23. of His strength you may see first of all in what He has wrought in Christ Himself. He has raised Him from the dead ; He has seated Him at His

KpaTos Tr)s dogrjs CLVTOV. With perhaps but one exception (Heb. ii 14) the word KpaTos in the New Testament is only used of the Divine might. 20. eV TOIS eTTovpaviois] On this ex pression see the note on v. 3.
21. vnepdvo)} above . The only other places in the New Testament in which the word occurs are iv 10 o
dvafias
V7repdva>

own right hand in the heavenly region He has made Him supreme above
all

iravrcnv Ttov

ovpavu>v y

conceivable rivals, principalities, authorities, powers, lordships, be they what they may, in this world or the next. And, thus supreme, He has made Him the Head of a Body the Church, which thus supplements and completes Him; that so the Christ

and Heb.
Kt/3a>roC)

ix 5 vrrepdva de avTfjs (sc. TTJS The latter Xepov/3eti/ do^rjs.

form
its

passage shews that the duplicated is not intensive; as neither is


counterpart
ii
v7roKara>

Heb.
da>v

8 = Ps.

(compare

viii
v.

avTov with

may have no
19.

part lacking, but


fulfilled

may
.

be wholly completed and

TO virfpftdXXov peyeQos] participle comes again in ii 7 TO /SoXXoi/ TrXoOroy, and in iii 19 TTJV

The

have a striking parallel to the language of this passage in Philo de somn. i 25 (M. p. 644) E^i/ue 8e TO
:

We

7 ^TTOKOTO) T&V TTO22 of this chapter).

6vap (Gen. xxviii 13) ctm/piypt&o? nrl TTJS /cXi/iaKOff TOV dp%dyye\ov Kuptoj/. vnepavQ) yap (as apfjiaros rjvlo^ov rj
a>y

wise

only found in 2 Cor. iii 10 (with 5o|a), ix 14 (with have the adverb in 2 Cor. xi 23. The noun oc curs seven times in St Paul s epistles,
it is

V(a>s

Kv(3epvrjTT]V

VTroXrjrrTfov

to~Tao-6at
>

We

TO ov enl
depoSj fn
fj.a>v,

o-a>p.a,Ta>v,

eVi

^yxfly,..fc
oo-anep
/eooyiov

ovpavov,
dopaTdiv dQeara.

eV

ala OrjT^v bvvd-

fir

(pvo-tcov,

Qeara
airavTa.

KCU

TOV

yap

but not elsewhere in the ment.


fvepyetav. ..fjv (vjpyrjKcv]

New
l

Testa

f^d^as eavrov
yviO%cl
/c.T.X.]

Kal

dvapTijo~as

TT)V TOO~a.VTT)V

(f)VO~lV.

the

work-

7r<rr)s

every princi-

I 22]

EPISTLE TO THE EPHESIANS.

Kai KvpioTtjTOs Kai TTCLVTOS ovoe^ovcrias Kai SiWjuews ov IJLOVOV ev Tto aiwvi TOVTW d\\a jULctTOS ovojJLa^ofJLevov
Kai ev
1

TW jUL\\ovTr ^Kai
&c.

TTANTA

Yne~r&leu

yno royc

TTO AAC

polity
in Col.

The corresponding Kst


where the words are in

1 6,

In the New Testament HTH is represented by o almv OVTOS again in

DV

the plural (ctre Bpovoi cire KvpiorrjTes tT dpxal ire eovo-u), shews that these are concrete terms. Otherwise we might render all rule 1 &c. We have the plurals dpxai and eov<riai below in iii 10 and vi 12. On these terms see Lightfoot ColossianSj loc. dt. Although the Apostle in writing to the Colossians treats them with

Luke
i

xvi
ii

8,

xx

34,

20,

6, 8, iii 18,
fV<TT(os

ala>v

xii 2, i Cor. 2 Cor. iv 4 ; by o in Gal. i 4 ; by 6 vvv

Rom.

alvv in the Pastoral Epistles, i Tim. vi 17, 2 Tim. iv 10, Tit. ii 12: and
also

by 6 /cooyzos OVTOS in I Cor. iii 19, 10, vii 31, and in the Johannine

writings, in which alwv only occurs in the phrases ets rbv cucSj/a, e/c TOV aloovos

something like scorn, yet his refer ences to them in this epistle shew that he regarded them as actually
existent and intelligent forces, if in part at any rate opposed to the Divine
will.

In (or in the plural, as in Apoc.). the same sense we often have o alt&v
or o
Acdcr/ioy,

just as D71JJ

is

used for

In the present passage, how

ever, they are mentioned only to phasise the exaltation of Christ.


Travros ovoparos oVo/iab/ieVov] * wo/xa in the sense of a title of

em
For

may compare also o Kaipos OVTOS, Mark x 30 (=Luke xviii Rom. 30), Luke xii 56; o vvv
<aip6s,

Htn D?iy.

We

iii

26, viii 18, xi 5 cm)K(0s, Heb. ix 9.

and

6 Kaipos 6

vt-

rank
ii

On
o-pos

or * dignity

see Lightfoot on Phil,


i

and

the other hand the words KOKaipos cannot enter into the
o

and compare
(sc. rfjs

Clem. 43,
ifpQ)o~vvr)s)

r<5

eVow

representation of

6v6fj.an
p.fvr),

KeKoo~fj.r]-

we have 6 atwz/

/M

N2H D?W. Por this AXa/ again in Heb.

and

o~av...oTL

epis

44, ol diro&ToXoi TUJL^V eyvcoearai errl TOV dv6p.aros

vi 5 (fivvafieis T fjieXXovros al&vos); 6 alav 6 epxoufvos in Mark x 30 and the

TTJS eTTio-KOTrfjs.

Among the Oxyrhyn(Grenfell

chus Papyri
pt

and

Hunt,

Luke xviii 30 o aubv CKCIVOS in Luke xx 35. We may note however


parallel
;

i no. 58) is a complaint (A.D. 288) of the needless multiplication of of ficials TroXXot j3ov\6p,voi ras rafiiaKas
:

TTJV oiKov/J-evr^v Trjv /ieXXovcraj/

in

Heb.

ii5.

ovcrias KOTfcrQifiv oi/o/xara eavrols e^evpovres, ol fj,fv ^etpiorcoi;, ot fie ypa/j.paTea>,

We have below in this epistle the remarkable phrases o auttv TOV Koo-p.ov TOVTOV in ii 2, and ot alatves ol eVep^opcvoi in
22.
ii 7.

01 Se (frpovTurrav, K.T.X.,

closing

with the order: ra de \onra ovo^ara


naixrrjTat.

allusion KOI irdvra /crA.] to Ps. viii 7 irdvra vneTaas viroKaTn

An

cv

TO>

aiaJi/t

K.r.X.]

The same con


xii

trast is
rouTQ)

found in Matt,
aZcoi/t

32 ovre ev
pe\\ovri.

T&V TTod&v avTov, which is quoted so similar from the T.YX in Heb. ii 8.

TO)

ovrc cv

ra>

It is the familiar Rabbinic contrast between PITH D?iy, the present age, and Kin D71U, the age to come. Daiman, who fully discusses these terms (Die Worte Jesu i 120 if.), declares that there is no trace of them in preChristian Jewish literature.

Cor. xv 27 irdvra yap vireTa^ev VTTO TOVS irodas avTov.


allusion is
in
i

made

With the whole context compare I Pet. iii 22 os fo~riv ev 8cia 0eov
Tropevdels els ovpavov vnoraytvTtov avrw Kai dvvdfj,co)v, ^ovo~ia>v ayyeXeov *cai

which

is

plainly

dependent on

this

passage.

152

EPISTLE TO THE EPHESIANS.


Kai CLVTOV
K<f>a\rjv

[I

23-H

cra,

earTiv

TO

VTrep Trdvra T era pa avTOV, TO TrXripcofjia


II.
x

TOV

TO.

ev Traariv TrXripovfjievov.
repeats the Trdvra of VTrep Trdvrdl the quotation, which itself points back
the fulness (or fulfilment) of Him who all in all is being filled (or fidOn the meaning of TrX^pco/xa, filled]
.

Kca

vfuas

to Troops... Trairos in V. 21. ro TrXrypco/ia K.r.X.] 23.

St Paul does indeed speak of Christ as ascending that He might fill all things ; but then he uses the active Voice, Iva ir\rjpa>a-rj ra irdvra.
sense.

see the detached note.

The phrase is TO. Trdvra ev rracriv] used adverbially. It is more emphatic than the classical adverb iram-anao-iv, which does not occur in the New Testament. It is found, though not adverbially, in i Cor. xii 6 o avrbs
6e6s,
*

evepyav
;

TO.

irdvra

ev

TTCKTIV

Had his meaning been the 10). same here, we can hardly doubt that he would have said TrXrjpovvros. The passive sense is supported by the early versions, (i) The Latin. Cod. Claromont. has supplementum qui omnia et in omnibus impletur. The usual Latin is plenitudo eius qui omnia in omnibus adimpletur: so Victorinus, Ambrosiaster and the The Syriac. The Vulgate. (2)
(iv

(where however ev ndo-iv may mean in all men ) and as a predicate in I Cor. XV 28 Iva r) o 6eos irdvra ev jrdcriv, and with a slight variation in CoL iii II aXXa TrdvTa KCU ev ndo-iv In each of the last two Xpiaroy. cases there is some evidence for reading ra Trdvra but the absence of the article is natural in the predicate. This use of the phrase as applied to God and to Christ makes it the more St Paul uses appropriate here.
:

Peshito indeed gives an active mean but we have evidence that the earlier Syriac version, of which the Peshito was a revision, took the word as passive; for it is so taken in ing
:

Ephraim s commentary, which is pre served in an Armenian translation. (3) The Egyptian. Both the Bohairic and the Sahidic take the verb in the
passive sense.

Origen and Chrysostom gave a pas


sive sense to the participle (see the citations in the footnote to the expo
sition).

iravra adverbially in
(rrdvra
irdariv

Cor. ix 25,
irdvra

x 33

dpecrKon), xi 2,

Phil, iv

13; ra

and likewise ra
.

in this

interpretation

So did Theodore, though his is involved: he says


etirev OTI p. 129) dXX* OTI avTos ev Trdcri
ov<

epistle iv 15 iva. .av^crto^ev els avrov

(Cramer Catena,
TO. irdvTO. ir\ijpo1 t

an important parallel. There is no justifica TrXrjpovfjLcvov]


7rai/ra,

tion for the rendering that filleth all in all ( A. V.). The only ancient version

Tovre(TTiv, ev irdo-i 7T\ijpr)s TrXrjpovTai The Latin commentators ecrriv K.r.X.

which gives

this interpretation is

the

In English it ap Syriac Vulgate. pears first in Tyndale s translation


(1534).

had adimpletur, and could not give any other than a passive meaning. II. i, 2. Next, you may see that power as it has been at work in your

The

chief instances cited for


is

irXrjpovo-dai

as middle are those in

which a captain

said to

man

his

ship (vavv TT\r]pov(T6ai\ i.e. to get it filled . But this idiomatic use of the

middle
affords

(comp.

Tralfia

diddo-Keo-tiai)

no

justification for taking it


is

here in

what

really the

active

You also it has raised from selves. the dead. For you were dead not with a physical death such as was the death of Christ, but dead in your sins. Your former life was a death rather than a life. You shaped your con duct after the fashion of the present world, after the will of the power

II 2]

EPISTLE TO THE EPHESIANS.


7rapa7rTa)]ULa<nv

153

veKpovs TO?? *ev OLS 7TOT6

Kat rats afjiapTiais


KCLTO,

7repi7raT^a"aT

TOV aicova TOV

KOCT/ULOV

that dominates it Satan and his un seen satellites the inspiring force of those who refuse obedience to God
.

writings another word takes its place, namely 7ropeveo~0at a word also used four times in this sense by St

1.

vfKpovs Tols Trapa.TrTwp.ao iv]

You

Luke (Luke i 6

viii 14,

were dead not indeed with a physi cal death; but yet really dead in virtue of your trespasses and sins
.

place; Acts ix 31, xiv neither St Paul nor St


ploys this word so. This metaphor of
*

a noteworthy but 16)


:

John em

The dative
mental
(if

is

not properly instru

the meaning had been put to death by , we should have had v(VKpwfj.vovs], but is attached to the adjective by way of definition. The dative in Col. ii 14, TO naff THJL&V
Xfipoypa(pov ro
similar.
s
oy/*ao-ij>,is

or walking not Greek, but Hebrew in its origin. It is in harmony with the fact that from the first Christianity was proclaimed as a Way (Acts ix 2,

going

is

xviii 25, 26, &c.).

somewhat

CoL

ii

parallel passage 13, veKpovf ovTas rois TrapaTTTCoTTJ

In

the

There are two words which express the same idea from the Greek point a of view: 7roXireuecr$ai, (l)
characteristically for conduct to a

p.ao~iv

KOI.

d/tpo/3iOT/a

TTJS

o~ap<bs

vp&v,
cision

it is

clear that the uncircum-

Greek expression Greek was mainly a


:

is not the instrument of death. cannot render the dative better than by the preposition in

We

question of relation to the State

so

Acts

xxiii

I
eya>

iraarj
ra>

(rvvftdijo-ei
$e<a,

2.

TrfptfTranjcraTf]

used to once in the Synoptic Gospels,

HepnraTelv is express a manner of life only


viz. in
i

7re7roXireu/iat ayadrj Phil, i 27 IJLOVOV ai

and

o>ff

TOV euayyeX/ov

vii 5 ov rrpi7rarova-iv...KaTa TTJV It IS Trapdo ocriv T&V 7rpe(7/3tiTepa>i>.

Mark

TOV Xptoroi) 7ToXirevecr$e. (2) dva&Tptcpea-dat (once in 2 Cor., Eph., i Tim. twice in Heb. ; once in i Pet., 2 Pet),

with
i

its
i

noun di/aorpo^ (once in Gal,


;

similarly used once in the Acts (xxi 21, Toty edecriv TrepiTrareu ), and once in

Eph.,

Tim., Heb., Jas. Pet., twice in 2 Pet.).

six times in

the Epistle to the Hebrews (xiii 9, cv ols OVK ol /3pco/za(rii>, These three instances TrepnrarovvTes). refer to the regulation of life in accordance with certain external ordinances. They do not refer to general moral conduct. This latter sense is found in the New Testament only in the writings of St Paul and Thus it occurs twice in St John. St John s Gospel (the metaphor of
co<peXj7$77crai>

While we recognise the picturesque metaphor involved in the use of TrepurciTflv for moral conduct, we must not suppose that it was consciously
present to the Apostle s mind when ever he used the word. Here, for

example, it is clearly synonymous with dvao-TpfCpeo-dat, which he employs in the parallel phrase of v. 3.
KOTO.

TOV alStva TOV

K.OO~(JLOV

TOVTOV~\

walking being strongly felt), and ten times in his Epistles. It is in St Paul s specially frequent writings, being found in every epistle, if we except the Pastoral Epistles. It occurs seven times in this epistle. It is not found in I Peter, 2 Peter, Jude or the Apocalypse in these
:

a unique combination of two phrases, each of which is frequently found in St Paul s writings o alwv OVTOS and o Koo-fj.os OVTOS see the note on i 21. The combination of syn onyms for the sake of emphasis may be illustrated by several phrases
This
is
i

of this epistle

aurov,

5 Kara TTJV cvSoiciav II KOTO. rr)v

154

EPISTLE TO THE EPHESIANS.


KCLTO.

[II 2

TOVTOV,

TTvevjuLctTOs
fiov\rjv
TTJV

TOV ap^ovTa Trjs TOV vvv evep^ovvTos

ej~ovo"ias

TOV

ae^oos,

TOV

ev TO?S viols
:

TOV 6e\rjp.aTos avrov, 19 Kara evepyeiav TOV KpaTovs TTJS Zcr^vos avrov, iv 23 Trvevfj-aTi, TOV vobsvpav.
r<5

of evil

ascended into the c. 7, firmament... and there I beheld Sam-

We

mael [who elsewhere (c.


with Malkira,

i) is

identified

The Apostle Kara TOV apxovra.] takes term after term from the current phraseology, and adds them together to bring out his meaning. Compare with the whole of this
passage, both for style and for subject matter, vi 12 Trpbs Tas dpxds, TTpos Tas eovo ias ) Trpbs TOVS Koo~fioKpaTopas TOV Q-KOTOVS TOVTOV, Trpbs TO.
irvevfjiaTiKa
TTJS

the prince of evil ] and his powers , &c. There can be no doubt, however, that the air was regarded by the Jews, as well as by others, as peopled by spirits, and

more

especially

by

evil spirits.
2,

Com

pare Philo de gigant.


p. 263), ovs aXXot

(Mangey,
daip.ovas t

<^uXo<ro<poi

dyye\ovs

M.a>vo~fjs

e iatOev

6vop,dfiv
:

Trovrjpias ev Tols eirov-

^^al

df

clo-i

paviois.

There

he represents his

readers

as struggling against the world-forces, in accordance with which their former life, as here described,

and more especially of Jacob s Dream


p.

Kara TOV depa TTCTopevai in his exposition


(de somn. i 22, TOLVVV ev p.ev
TO>

641)

KXZ/xa

/eo(r/Li<0

(rufi/3oXiKo5s
O~Ti y?},

Xeyerat o a^p, ov
Kopv(pf) de ovpavos*
. . .

had been lived. With the term


pare

/Sao-ty p.cv

6
apx<*>v

/c.r.X.

com
r<5

dirb

yap

TTJS creX^i/taK^s o~(paipas

a^pi

22 (Matt, ix 34) ev apxovn T&V 8aijj.(ivL(0v, and Matt, xii 24


iii

Mark

yfjs ccrxarrjs 6 drjp irdvrrj

Tadels

(pdaKV

OVTOS de
K.T.\.

ffOTi

tyvxtov

acrcD/Ltaro)!/ olicos,

(Luke xi 15)
T>V

ev

ro Bee^e/3ovX apxovri
also

8cufiovio>v:

John
TOVTOV)

xii

apx<ov

TOV

Koo~p.ov

31 o xiv 30?

For the Palestinian doctrine of evil spirits reference may be made to the instructive chapter Die Sunde

xvi

ii.

The

alaivos

TOVTOV

is

plural 01 apxovTes TOV found in i Cor. ii 6, 8,

und die Damonen

in

Weber

Altsyn.

In apparently in a similar sense. 2 Cor. iv 4 we read of 6 Bebs TOV ale


fovtrias TOV depos] Compare 13 os cpvaaTO ijfj.as fK TTJS egovo-ias TOV (TKOTOVS, and Acts xxvi 18 TOV
TTJS
i

Theol. pp. 242 ff. ; see also Thackeray, as referred to in the note on p. 133

above.

Col.

In a curious passage in Athanasius, de incarn. 25, our Lord s crucifixion is regarded as purifying the air povos yap ev oYpt TIS
:
r<5

diroBvrjo~K.fi

eViOTpe^at

TTJS egovo-ias

O~KOTOVS els (pas KOI TOV 2arai/a eVt TOV 6e6v also our Lord s words to those who
:

OTTO

crravpco TeXeiov/j-evos dib Kal eiKOTQ)s TOVTOV vTrepfivev 6 Kvpios ovTO) yap v-^aOels TOV p.ev depa

fKaOdpifcv airo T
7rdo~r)s

TTJS

dta(3o\iKr)s Kal

arrested
CLVTT)

Him, Luke
Tj

xxii
K.OI

fO~T\V V/LKDV

(OpO.

53 aXX ij fovO~ia

rcav

daip.6va>v

eTrifiovXrjs, K.T.\.

TOV TrvevpaTos]

We

should have

TOV 0-KOTOVS.

In the Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs (Benj. 3) we have vnb TOV dcpiov TTvevpaTos TOV BcXtop but we cannot be sure that this language is
:

independent of the present passage. The same must be said of the con ception of the firmament in the Ascension of Isaiah, as a region between the earth and the first heaven, filled with contending spirits

expected rather ro irvevfjia, in apposi It may be tion with TOV apxovra. that this was the Apostle s meaning, and that the genitive is due to an un conscious assimilation to the genitives which immediately precede. If this explanation be not accepted, we must
regard TOV irvev^aros as in apposition with Trjs eovo~ias and governed by In i Cor. ii 12 we find TOV apxovra.
ro irvfii^a TOV
KOCT/LIOU

opposed to TO

II 3 ]
diets*
z

EPISTLE TO THE EPHESIANS.


iv ols
KCLL

155

TCUS

eTTiBvjuLicus

q^eis TraWes at/ecrTjOa^^eV Trore ev Tf?s crapKos r^av, Troiovvres TO. QeXri^aTa
TCOV Siavoicov,
But we have
rov

(rapKOs
TO

KCLI

Kai

rj/uLeda

Tewa
<f>v(76L

K rov Qeov.

vened the neuter

is

parallel to the expression apX ovra T v 7rvevp.aTos K.r.\.


"

no

and that the word

TrapaTrrco/xao-tv

more natural; was


Kal
is

principally present to the Apostle s

rov vvv evfpyovvros] is spoken of as 6 vvv


17,

So
ii

this

ald>v

in

world Tim. vi

mind
rats

is

shown by the omission of

d/jLapriais

when the phrase

2 Tim. iv

10, Tit.

12.

The word

evepyelv, like the word 7n>ev/za, seems purposely chosen in order to suggest a rivalry with the Divine Spirit: see the detached note on evepyelv.
*

repeated. The change from TrepiiraTciv to dvao-rpe<po~6ai (on these syno see the note on v. 2) does not help to justify the supposed change in the meaning of the preposition for and dvao~rpo(pr) are dvao-rp<peo-6at frequently followed by ev to denote condition or circumstances. For the working out of the parallel,

nyms

3
sin,

7.

Not that we Jews were


case.

in

any better

We

also lived in
less

following

the

dictates

lower desires.

We, no

of our than the

Gentiles, were objects in ourselves of the Divine wrath. In ourselves, I say: but the merciful God has not left us to ourselves. Dead as we

compare i
ev
o>

1 1

3 ev

<p

Kal

vfjLfis,

and

ii

Kal eK\rip^e^fv. . fraa-a 21, 22 ev


.
G>

OlKodofL1J...V In the eto-&.

G>

Kttl

VUels (TVVOlKOO OfJi-

were, Gentiles and

Jews
!

alike,

He

has quickened us with Christ, Grace, free grace, has saved you and raised us with Him, and seated us with Him in the heavenly sphere and all this, in Christ Jesus. For His purpose has been to display to the ages that are yet to come the surpassing wealth of His grace, in the goodness shewn toward us in Christ Jesus
:

present instance the parallel is yet further developed by the correspondence of ev viols TTJS anemias (v. 2) and tfpeQa (pvcrei
TO"LS

re<va

opyrjs (v. 3). ev rat? eiridvfjLtais]

The preposition

3.

ev ols Kal
:

also
0. 2,

wherein we so the Latin in quibus as in


rj/teis]
.

here has the same sense as in the phrase ev ols K.T.\. ; so that the latter of the two phrases is to be regarded as an expansion of the former. TO 6e\rip,ara} The plural is found in Acts xiii 22, and as a variant in

Mark

iii

35.
1 .

inter quos At first sight it seems as though ev ols must be rendered as among whom , i.e. * among the sons of disobedience .

not

parallel which the Apostle is drawing is brought out more forcibly Thus by the rendering wherein We have (v. l) -upas ovras veKpovs rols
.

But the

TrapaTTTGOjtiao

ii

KOI rats dfj.apriais

v[j.<ov t

ev ais Trore 7repif7ranjo~aTe...(v. 3) ev ols Kai rjv-fis Trdvres dveo~rpd(pr]fjiev Trore...


(v. 5) KCU
7TTK>fjiao~iv.

T&V diavoi&v] our minds With this and with TTJS o-apKoswe must supply ?;/i(5v, which was used with Tfjs o-apKot at its first mention and therefore is not repeated. For the rendering thoughts no parallel is to be found in the New Testament. In Luke i 51 didvoia Kapdias avT&v means strictly the mind of their heart ; comp. i Chron. xxix 18. In the T,XT we
usually find Kapdta as the rendering

ovras

ijfj.as

vetcpovs rols irapais

of

^ p:&)

That the relative

in the

Sim/oia,

but 38 times we have ; which is only very exceptionally

first

due

instance in the feminine is merely to the proximity of d^apriais. After the sentence which has inter

used to represent any other word. That the plural is used only in the
case of diavoiwv
is

due to the impos-

156
(JO

EPISTLE TO THE EPHESIANS.


S

[II

48

KCtl OL

\OL7TOL
d<yd7rrjv

6 $

060S 7T\oJcTfO9 COV


rjv

!/

\el 9

TY\V 7roAAf}j/

avTOV

oWas

TrapaTTTcojULacnv <rvve(coo7roiri(rV 6 ecrre crecraxrfjievoi Kai xdpiTi p, crvveKadicrev ev TO!? eTrovpaviois ev XjOi(TTO) ev TO? aiajcriv TO?S TO eTrepxojULev
Tfjs

veKpovs

TO?

V7Tp(3d\\OV 7T\OVTOS
e<p*

%dplTOS aVTOV
8

rj/xa?

CTJUL6VOL
sibility of

ey \pi(TTcp Irjcrov. T*/ ya^o ^dpiTL ecrre Sid 7T/CTTeft)S fCa? TOVTO OVK 6 VJUIWV, 06OV
<rvv

TO

saying TW^ o-apKw in such a

context.

InHebraistic phrases of this kind re /ci/a and viol are used


re /<i/a...opy^]

although Xpto-ro) is implied by the preceding verbs for ev XpioroJ I^o-ov states the relation in the completest form, and accordingly the Apostle
:

indifferently as representatives of *02

repeats
7.

it

again and again (w.

7, id).
.

compare

v 8. by nature , in the sense of in ourselves Other examples of this adverbial use are Rom. ii 14 orai/ yap ra TOV vofiov 0vr)...<pvo-i
ii 2,
l

<pva-ei]

used in Rom. ix 22 V&eiao 6ai, TTJV el de 6e\cov 6 6eo$ opyriv, where it is suggested by a

word

vdcigrjTcu] is similarly

shew forth

The

citation in
evo"eia>p,ai

v.

17 of Ex. ix 16
dvvap.iv pov.
l

OTTCOS

Gal.
iv 8 rois
5.

ii

15

^eis

lov<f>vo-i

ev

croi 717^

(frvarei /ii)

ov(riv deois.

(rvi/e^&)07roij;o-ev]

The word
in
a~vv

OC13,

curs only here

and

Col.
avrcp.

ii

The thought there expressed makes it


oTroirjo fv vp.as

kindness \ or good The word is used of the Divine kindness in Rom. ii 4 TOV irXovrov rfjs ^p^oroT^ros auroC, and in Rom. xi 22,
XP^O-TOTTJTL]
.

ness

where
with
vi 35

it is

the right xP reading here, and not Iv as is found in B and some other The mistake has arisen authorities.
plain that
r<5

xpior<3

is

also in Tit.

contrasted with aVoro/xia : iii 4, where it is linked


:

TO>

L<TT

&

<pi\av6p(t>7ria

compare

also

Luke

from a dittography of GN. xapm] In pointed or proverbial expressions the article is by preference omitted. When the phrase, which is here suddenly interjected, is taken up again and dwelt upon in v. 8, we have
T7J

avrbs ^pT/oToff COTIV K.T.\. * 8 10. Grace, I say, free grace has saved you, grace responded to by
faith.

on

It is not

this salvation

yap xapiri
6.

ic.r.X.

the gift is It is He in it boasting is excluded. that hath made us, and not we ourselves: He has created us afresh in Christ
:

from yourselves that comes it is a gift, and God s. Merit has no part
:

crvvyyeipfv Kat (TWKa6icrtv] i.e., together with Christ , as in the case

Jesus, that

which
doing.
is

He

has

we may do good works made ready for our

of o-vvefaoTToirjo-fv just before.


Col.
ii

So

in

12, arvvTa(f)vTS avroi...(rvi^yep-

0Tjre.

fyeipas
fv

The compound verbs echo the and KaQicras of i 2O. rols enovpaviois] Compare i 3,

Not of works, but unto works, the Divine order of our salvation . and that\ as in KOI TOVTO] 8.
xiii

Rom.
Kaipov.

II

*at

TOVTO fiSoYe?

TOV

This completes the parallel with 20. Ev Xpiorw the exaltation of Christ.
u
is

added, as

ev

in
Xpt<rr<5

3,

a resumptive expression, independent of the construction. It may be pleaded that, as dia Trio-Teas is an important element, added to the
It is

II 9

n]

EPISTLE TO THE EPHESIANS.


ovK
e

157

epywv,
ots

va

/urj

TIS

Kaw%ii<rr]Tai.

avTOV
ITTC

yap

ecr/uev

Troirifta,

KTicrOevTes

ev

dyaBols
o
phrase of

TrporiToijuLao ev 6

Xpia-Tco Irjaov 6eos iva ev

lULvri/uioveveTe

OTL TTOTC

TO, edvn ev crapKi,

v. 5 when that phrase is re peated, Koi TOVTO should be interpreted as specially referring to irio-ns. The difference of gender is not fatal to such a view : but the context demands the wider reference ; more especially the phrase OVK eg epya>v shews that the subject of the clause is not faith but salvation by grace . 6fov TO Scopoi/] Literally God s is the gift\ 6cov being the predicate. But this is somewhat harsh as a rendering; and the sense is sufficiently given in our English version: it is the gift of God
, .

10.

7roi77/ia]

The

word

occurs
voovpfva
it
:

again in the

New
TOIS

Testament only in
iroujp-aa-LV

Rom.
which

2O
quite

Kadoparai.

We

have no single word


renders

suitably

workmanship is a little unfortunate, as suggesting a play upon works , which does not exist in the Greek.
7Tt epyois ayadols] with d view to good works Compare i Thess. iv 7 ov yap Ka\(rV TJ^JLCLS 6 6eos ejrl aKaOapand Gal. V 13 v/zeis yap eV See also Wisd. ii 23 o cK\rj0r)T.
l
.
<riq,

fKTicrev

rov

avdpwrrov

eV

d
irpos avTovs

Ep. ad Diognet. 7 TOVTOV


dTT<TTt\v

apa yc, co? dvOpwirav av TIS XoyicraiTO, eiri rvpavvidi /cat 0o$o> /cai
KaraTrX^fi;

The interval between

this

usage and the idiom by which eV! with a dative gives the condition of a transaction is bridged by such a phrase
as

we

find, for
i

Memordb.

example, in Xenoph. 4 4 irpeTrci ptv ra eif


evai epya.
ei ]

eia yiyvofieva yvwp.r)s ols TrpoTjroi fiao

a TrpoTjToinaa-fv.

by attraction for The verb is found in


eXfovs, a rrpo-

ii 1 8. Remember what you were: you, the Gentiles since we must speak of distinctions in the flesh the Uncircumcision as opposed to the Circumcision. Then, when you were without Christ, you were aliens and foreigners; you had no share in the privileges of Israel you were in the world with no hope, no God. Now all is changed for you are in Christ Jesus and accordingly, though you were far off, you are made near by the covenant-blood of Christ. For it is He who is our peace. He has made the two parts one whole. He has broken down the balustrade that was erected to keep us asunder He has ended in His own person the He has hostility that it symbolised abrogated the legal code of separating ordinances. For His purpose was by a new creation to make the two men one man in Himself; and so not only to make peace between the two, but to reconcile both in one body to God through the cross, by which He killed the old hostility. And He came with the Gospel of peace peace to far and near alike: not only making the two near to each other, but giving them both in one Spirit access to the Father 1 1. The term Gen v/LteTs ra edvrj] tiles which has been implied in vpcls so often before, is now for the first tune expressly used. In an instructive article On some political terms em ployed in the New Testament (Class. Rev. vol. i pp. 4ff, 42 ff.) Canon E. L. Hicks says (p. 42) *E8vos, the corre
;
: : : :

lative of Xaoff in the


istic

Rom.

ix 23, eVt
Is

a-Kfvr}

TjToifjLa(Tv

mouth of Hellen Jews, was a word that never had any importance as a political term

158
ol

EPISTLE TO THE EPHESIANS.


Xeyo/uLevoi

[II 12

aKpofiva-ria VTTO i
7ro\iTetas
This
is

XpicrTOV
until after Alexander.

dTrrjhXoTpiwfJLevoi
It

TT/S

TOV

was when

TTJS

\eyopevr) s]

directly

Hellenism pushed on eastward, and the policy of Alexander and his suc cessors founded cities as outposts of trade and civilization, that the con
trast

was felt and expressed between 7roXr and edvrj. Hellenic life found its normal type in the iroXis, and
barbarians

suggested by of Xe-yo/xei/ot. The Apostle may have intended to suggest that he himself repudiated both terms alike. In Rom. ii 28 f. he refuses to recognise the mere outward sign of
circumcision: ovde
o~a.pKi TrepLTopr/
77
.

ev

ro>
<jf>ai>epo>

ev

some

less

who lived Kara KGJ/ZOS or in organised form were lOvy .


Droysen Hellenismus
for illustrations,
f.

He
iii

refers to
i,

dXXa. .rrepiro/ir) Kapdias cv Trvevfjiart, ov ypa/x/nart. He thus claims the word, as it were, for higher uses ; as he says of the Gentiles them
selves in Col.
ii

pp. 31
iro\eis

and
9,

II, irepier^OrjTf jrepiTreptro/ir}

mentions among others Polybius vii

TOfj.7] a^eip07ro?V&>...eV TT}

TOV

and Wvr) are repeatedly contrasted. The word Wvr\ was thus ready to hand when the LXX came to
where
express the invidious sense of D^J,

This

is

the only place

where

this

epistles.

word occurs in St Paul s But we have a^etpoTro/^roff in


oiKiav dxeipoTroirjTov alaviov and in Col. ii 1 1

found so commonly in Deu teronomy, the Psalms and the Pro phets. It is curious that, while St Paul freely employs eOvrj, he never uses the contrasted term Xadr, except where he is directly referring to a passage of the Old Testament.

which

is

2 Cor. V
ev
rolff

ovpavols,

The addition of these words suggests the external and tem porary nature of the distinction. For
ev
o-apKi]
TO. e6vrj see the note on i 15. Here it was perhaps unavoidable for ra ev o-a/m eOvrj or TO. e Qvr) ra ev a-ap/a Would suggest the existence of another class of edvr) whereas the meaning is those who are the Gentiles according to a dis tinction which is in the flesh . Simi larly we have rrjs \eyop,evrjs 7TpiTopr)s

(quoted above). It serves to empha sise the transience of the distinction, though it casts no doubt on the validity of it while it lasted. l without \ or apart 12. St Paul does not use avev, from, which is found only in Matt, x 29 avev TOV Trarpos v/xaj^, in an inter
x<opis]
.

their position after

polation into Mark xiii 2 avev x fl P** v and twice in i Peter, where ^oopls is not used. It is usual to take ^oopls
>

comma
T<5

Xpio-Tov as a predicate and to place a This is perfectly after it.

permissible

but the parallel between

ev o-apKi.
ol

XpioroG and vvvl makes it preferable to regard the words as the condition which leads up to the predicates which
Kcupo) eKfLvco xeopts

8e tv Xpto-ro) Ir/o-oO

Xeyo/iei/oi]
is

which are called

follow.
aTTT/XXorptco/^ i/ot]

The phrase

not depreciatory, as

The Apostle seems


Ixviii (Ixix)

the so-called

would be in English.
irepi-

to have in

mind Ps.

To/ir;,

The Jews called themselves 77 and called the Gentiles j

a*po-

dde\(pois pov, Kal


fjirjTpos fiov.

evos Tols viols rr^9

jSuoTt a.

St Paul does not here use

the latter name, which was one of contempt; but he cites it as used

by

others.

This will account for his choice of a word which does not appear to be a term of Greek civic life. Its ordinary use is either of the alienation

EPISTLE TO THE EPHESIANS.

159

Kal aQeoi ev

*3
TO>

KOCTJULCO.

vvvt Se ev

of property, or of alienation of feeling the latter sense prevails in CoL i 2 1 , KOL


:

that I have no share in the aforesaid

vpas ex^povs

Trore OVTUS aTnjXXorpteo/Liei Ovff Kal


TTJ

diavoia

diroKanj\\afV,

grinding-machine, but am a stranger and alien therefrom (dXXa lvov pe eivai Kal d\\6rpiov aur^y)
.

where estrangement from God is in The participial sense is question. not to be pressed: strictly speaking the Gentiles could not have been alien ated from the sacred commonwealth of which they had never been members. The word is used almost as a noun, as may be seen from its construction with ovrfs in iv 18 and in Col. i 21. So too here we have ori jfr e... 07717 AXoTptw/zeVoi. . .Kal gevoi. It thus scarcely differs from dXXorpto? comp. Clem.
:

TCOI/

also

diadrjK&v] The plural is found in Rom. ix 4 o5j/...af dta^xac.

For the covenant with Abraham, see


Gen. xvii 7; for the covenant with the People under Moses, see Exod. xxiv 8.

Comp. i 13 and irayyc\ias] where the Gentiles are declared to share in the Promise through
TT)S
iii 6,

Christ.

fXniSa
in a

p.}

more

cxovrts] The same phrase, restricted sense, occurs in

Rom. 7, of the
TToXireias]

Ninevites, ZXaftov o-amj-

pi ai/, KctiTrep dXAorptoi TOV

0ov

ovres.
,

commonwealth

or

I Thess. iv. 13 Ka6a>s Kal ol \onrol ol pr) exovTfs eXn-tda. Christ as the hope of the Gentiles was foretold by the

polity

In the only other place

where the word occurs in the

New

prophets

(Isa.

xi 10,
*

xlii

4;

comp.

Rom. xv
*

12

and Matt,
i 27).

xii 21),

and was

Testament, Acts xxii 28, it is used of In later the Roman citizenship. Greek it was commonly used for

the secret or to St Paul (Col.

mystery

entrusted

manner of life compare TroXirevon Trepmarelv fo-Qai, and see the note
:

in

ii 2.

In this sense
.

it is

taken here

by the Latin version, which renders But the contrast it by conuersatio


in v. 19 (o-wTToAirot) this view.
gcvoi]
is

decisive against
4vos with
:

The use of

genitive is not common Soph. Oed. Rex 2i9f. and Plato Apol. i (gcvas Here the construc ex***) are cited.
tion is

no doubt suggested by the


after
i

The word does not occur adeoi] elsewhere in the whole of the Greek It is used here not as a term Bible. of reproach, but as marking the mournful climax of Gentile disability. These words are not ev to be taken as a separate item in the description: but yet they are not otiose. They belong to the two pre ceding terms. The Gentiles were in the world without a hope and with no God: in the world, that is, with no thing to lift them above its material
TO>

Koo>iQ>]

genitive

aTn/XXoTpico/Ltei ot.

In
rrjs

ising influences.

Clem. Rom.

we have a
cvr)S

dative,

re dXXorpi a? Kal

TOIS

ocXf/crots

rot) Geovj jjuapas Kai avocricrv

crao eco?

on which Lightfoot cites Clem. Horn.


VI 14
gfvrjv.
<us

dXrjdfias dXXorpiav ovo~av Kal

St Paul uses the word Koo-pos with various shades of meaning. The fun damental conception is that of the outward order of things, considered more especially in relation to man.
It is rarely found without any moral reference, as in phrases of time, Rom.
i

In the papyrus of 348 A.D., cited above on i n, the sister who has taken the \iQos a-iTOKOTrrrjs as her
share of the inheritance declares that she has no claim whatever on the
*

20, Eph. i 4, or of place, Rom. i 8, But the moral reference is Col. i 6.

hereby I admit

often quite a general one, with no suggestion of evil as in i Cor. vii 31


:

i6o
Iricrov

EPISTLE TO THE EPHESIANS.


oi TTOTC

[II 14

TO* al/uLaTi
,

TOV xpicrTOV.

oWes MA K PAN eje^6r]T6 errYc ev 14 eipHism yap ecTTiv


co/T<k

r\

6 Trouicras TCL d/uKpoTepa ev Kal


TOV
/COO /AOV,
r<5

TO /mecroToi^ov TOV
act of creation into

2 Cor.

12 dve-

o-Tpd(pr]iJiev

ev

/coV/xo), Trepio-o-orepo)?

made by a fresh one new man.


TO
this
/Lieo-oTot^oi/]

de Trpbs vpas.

In the phrase 6

KOO-/AO?

The only

parallel to

ovroy there is however a suggestion of opposition to the true order see


:

word appears

to be o /*eo-oToi^oy

the note on i 21. Again, noo-pos is used of the whole world of men in contrast with the elect people of
Israel,

in a passage of Eratosthenes (apud Athen. vii 14, p. 281 D), in which he 8e TTOTC says of Aristo the Stoic,

Kal

Rom.

iv

13, xi 12,

15.

The

^dovrjs TTJS Kal dpfTTJs p,eo~OTOi^ov StopuTToj^ra, KOI


7re(pcopaK.a

TOVTOV

TOV

world, as in opposition to God, falls under the Divine judgment, Rom. iii
6, 19,
i

dva<f)aiv6[j.vov

Trapa
*

Trj ydovfj.

TOV

(ppayiJiov]

Cor. xi 32
,

the saints shall

partition*.

The

the fence , or the allusion is to the

judge the world i Cor. vi 2. Yet the world finds reconciliation with God in Christ, 2 Cor. v 19. In three passages St Paul uses the remarkable
expression TO. o-roi^eia TOV KOOTAOU, of world-forces which held men in bond

8pv(paKTos or balustrade in the Temple, which marked the limit to which a

Gentile might advance. Compare Joseph. B. J. V 5 2 8ia TOVTOV ?rpoiOVTUV eirl TO SevTepov lepbv 8pv(paKTOs
TrepiftefSXrjTO Xiflivos, Tpirrrj^vs fiev vyjfos,

age until

they were

delivered

by

rravv

de

%apievT(i)s

dieipyao~fievos

ev

In Christ, Gal. iv 3, Col. ii 8, 20. the last of these passages the expres
sion

avTto de eio-Trjieeo-av e
o~rij\ai
)

io~ov diao-TrjpaTos

TOV

TTJS

dyveias 7rpoo r)iJ.aivovo~ai


Peo/zaiKOts

followed by a phrase which is parallel to that of our text, rt cos


is

at

pev
/,

lEXXijviKols al Se

nrjdeva d\\6(pv\ov CVTOS TOV

a)vres ev KGcr/iO) doyp,aTi^o-6e; Limi tation to the world was the hopeless

and godless
from Christ.
13.

lot of the Gentiles

apart

dyiov irapievaf TO yap devTepov lepbv One of these inscrip ayiov eKaXeiTo. tions was discovered by M. Clermont

fjMKpav...yyvs] These words, and elpTJvr) in the next verse, are from Isa. Ivii 19 see below, v. 17.
:

Ganneau in May 1871. Owing to the troubles in Paris lie announced his discovery in a letter to the Athe

naeum, and afterwards published a


full discussion,

ev TO) at/urn]
elpr]voTroirj(Tas

Compare

Col.

20

accompanied by a fac

Sia TOV at/xaros TOV orav-

simile, in the

Revue ArcJitologique
pp.

pov avTov.
14.

1872, vol.

xxiii

214
is

ff.,

290
at

avror]

He, in His own person ;


1

The

inscription,

which

now
:

Con

compare
TO.

ev avVco, v.

5.

stantinople, runs as follows

TOVS

Below have dfjicpoTepa ev\ 8vo...els eva av6p(O7rov (v. 15), and
.

we

TOVS dp.(poTepovs (v. 1 6). Comp. i Cor. lil 8 6 (pVTeVQiV KOI O TTOTlfalt V fl(TlV and, on the other hand, Gal. iii 28
TrdvTes
ITJO-OV.

MHGENAAAAOrENHEIZTTO PEYESOAIENTOITOYTTE
PITOIEPONTPY0AKTOYKAI TTEPIBOAOYOIAANAH
4>OHEAYTniAITIOIES

yap

vp.fls
first

fls

eVrc ev Xpttrrw

the Apostle is con tent to speak of Jew and Gentile as the two parts which are combined into one whole in the sequel he
:

At

TAIAIATOEEAKOAOY

0EINOANATON
Further references to this barrier are found in Joseph. Antt. xv 5 (epKiov \i6ivov dpvfpaKTov

prefers to regard

them as two men,

KO>-

ypa<j>fj

II

5,

i6]

EPISTLE TO THE EPHESIANS.


I5

161

(ppajjuiov Ai/cras,

rr}v

ev

crapKi avTOv,

TOV

ev

iva

duo

KTicrri ev
l6

avTw

e2s

Kai

eva KCLIVOV dvOpcoTrov TTOLCOV TOVS djUi<poTepovs ev evi y

eiprj-

Xvov elo~ivai TOV d\\oe6vr)


direi\ovp.fvr)s TTJS
r)[j,ias),

B. J.

vi 2

governed by one of the other parti ciples, presumably by /carapy^Vay.


fv
1

comp. Philo Leg. ad Caium 3 1 (M. ir Past this barrier it was sup 577). posed that St Paul had brought Trophimus the Ephesian (ov evo
OTI ets ro

TTJ

trap/a

avrou]

Compare

Col.
r<3

21, 22 vuvl de dTTOKaTT)\\dyr]T ev CTtf/iori TTJS (rapKOS avrov 8ta TOV Bava-

TOV
TOV v6fj.ov] In Rom. iii 31 the Apostle refuses to use KaTapyeiv of TOV i/ofioj/, although he is willing to say
vii 6.

lepbv eio-qyayev 6

Acts xxi
Xucray]
is

29.

In the

literal
:

sense

more common but we have the simple verb in John ii 19 Xvo-are TOV

vaov TOUTOV.
15. rrjv e%6pav\ If these words be taken with \vo-as, a metaphorical sense must be attributed to the participle, as well as the literal. This in itself is an objection, though not a fatal one, to such a construction. It is in any case simpler to take TTJV e%6pav with KOTapyijo-as, although that verb is chosen by an afterthought as speci

TOV VOJJLOV in Rom. Here however he twice limits TOV vopov, and then employs the word It is as a code of mani Ka.Tapyrjo~as.
KaTJjpyijdrjfjiev drro

fold precepts,

ordinances, that he declares been annulled.


ev
86y/j.ao-iv~]

expressed in definite it to have

The word

is

used of

imperial decrees, Luke ii i, Acts xvii 7 ; and of the ordinances decreed by the Apostles and Elders in Jerusalem, Acts xvi 4. Its use here is parallel
to that in Col.
f\\iwv
ii

ally applicable to TOV vopov K.T.\.

The

14, e aAen//-ay ro Kati*


.

sense remains the same whichever construction is adopted. The barrier in the Temple court, the hostility between Jew and Gentile, and the law of commandments (limited as the term is by the defining phrase doy/jiao-iv) are parallel descriptions of the separation which was done away
ei>

See Lightfoot s note on the meaning of the word, and on the strange mis interpretation of the Greek commen tators, who took it in both passages * of the doctrines or precepts of the Gospel by which the law was abro
^eipoypcKpov roTs doyp.ao~iv

gated.
imtrp] XptoroS

Comp.

also

Col.

ii

20 (8oy-

in Christ.
It has been suggested fxQp av *v TJy (rapid OVTOV

that
is

TT/V

parallel to

airoKTfivas

TT/V

closely e^dpav ev

iT/crou,

Compare and
l

v.

10 KTicrOevTes ev

IV

24 TOV KOIVOV
.

avdp&irov TOV KOTO. 6eov K-TiuBivra.

at

16; and that the intended to write dnoKreivas in the former place, but was led away into an explanatory digression, and took up his phrase later on by a repetition. This may be a true explanation, so far as the intention of the writer is concerned but as a matter of fact he has left TJ)I/ ^ its earlier mention to be
(sic}

in

v.

Apostle

had

in Himself ev The earlier MSS have AYTCO, the later for the most part Whether we write
avT<u\

<\YTCO.

avro) or

avr<u,

the sense

is

reflexive.

See

Lightfoot

undoubtedly s note on
the double

Col.
1

20.

6.

aTroKaraXXa^j;]

On

compound see Lightfoot s note on CoL i 20.

EPHES.

2
1 1

162
Qeat

EPISTLE TO THE EPHESIANS.


%ia
17 /cca

[II

1719

MAK

p A N

KA

TOV (TTavpov, ctTTOKTeivas Trjv e^Gpav ev e p H N H N VJMV T o ? c e\6d)V eyHrreAic *8 aVTOV OTL eipH NHN TO?C f T Y C
i

Trpocraywyriv ol djuKpoTepoi ev evl Trvev/maTL Trpos *9 TOV TraTepa. apa ovv OVKCTL ecrre evoL Kai TrapoiKOi,
juev Trjv
avTa] This may be rendered thereby , i.e. by the cross, or in Himself. The latter is the inter * pretation of the Latin, in semetipso
ev

SO in
yo>yf]v

Rom. V
:

2,

&

ov

<al

rrjv npoa-a-

either

ccrxipeapey

[r^

Trio-ret]

els

rr)V

probably following an interpretation of Origen s, says (ValIn ea\ non ut in lars. vii 581): Latinis codicibus habetur in semet ipso, propter Graeci pronominis amev aural enim et in biguitatem semetipso et in ea, id est cruce,
is
:

Jerome, who

Xaptv ravrrjv and, absolutely, in Eph. ill 12 ev o) e^ofiev rrjv Trapprjcriav KOL The last ev iriroi6r)(ri. Trpo<raya>yr)v passage is decisive against the alter

native rendering introduction , not withstanding the parallel in i Pet. iii 1 8 iva v/zas IT poo-ay dyrj rto
6ea>.

ev evl irvevfiaTi] The close paral lelism between TOVS dutyorepovs ev ev\
0-cofj.aTi ro)

intelligi

potest,

trravpos, iuxta culini est


.

quia crux, id est Graecos generis mas-

6eco (v.

6)

and

01 a/

ev evl TTvevfiaTi rrpos TOV Trarepa that the ev irvevpa is that which cor

interpretation thereby would be impossible if, as some suppose, 8ia

The

TOV o-Tavpov is to be taken with airoKTeivas but that this is not the
:

natural construction is shewn by the parallel in Col. i 22 wvl de diroKaTaX\dyr)T e...dia TOV 6avdrov [avrov], COmp.
Col. i 20. Either interpretation is accordingly admissible. In favour of the second may be urged the avros of v. 14 and the ev avroi of v. 15. On the suggested parallel with ev rfj o-opjct avroC see the note on v. 15.

responds to the ev o-cG/ia, as in iv 4. That the one spirit is ultimately indistinguishable from the personal Holy Spirit is true, just in the same way that the one body is indistin guishable from the Body of Christ but we could not in either case sub stitute one term for the other with out obscuring the Apostle s meaning. You are, then, no longer 22. 19
:

foreigners resident on sufferance only. You are full citizens of the sacred

TheApOStle illustrates and enforces his argument by selecting words from two prophetic passages, to one of which he has
17. evrjyyeXla-aTO K.r.X.]

you are God s own, the sons of His house. Nay, you are constituent parts of the house that is in building, of which Christ s apostles and prophets are the foundation, and

commonwealth

already alluded in passing : Isa. lii 7, eVi rcoi/ 6pO>v t cos nodes evayo>pa
<as

ye\i^0fj.vov anorjv

elptfvrjs, cos

evayyeXieir

6p.vos
etprjvrjv

ayaQa:
roty

Ivii

/za/cpai/

19, Kal

elprjvr)V

rols

eyyvs

OIXTLV.

The first of these is quoted (somewhat differently) in Rom. x 15, and alluded to again in this epistle, The second is alluded to by vi 15. St Peter on the day of Pentecost, Acts ii 39. 1 8. our access rr)v irpoo-ayvyrjv]

Himself the predicted corner-stone. In Him all that is builded is fitted and morticed into unity, and is grow ing into a holy temple in the Lord. In Him you too are being builded in with us, to form a dwellingplace of

God
tion

in the Spirit
irdpoiKoi]

19.

The technical distinc between the gevos and the ndpoi-

KOS is that the latter has acquired by the payment of a tax certain limited But both alike are non-citirights.

II 20]

EPISTLE TO THE EPHESIANS.


a*T

163

aAAa

orvv7ro\iTai Ttav

dyiwv Kai
TU>V

oiKeioi

TOV ueov,
Kai
Irjcrov,

^67roLKoSo]ULrj6evTe^ ejrc
7rpo<pr]Tcov,

TW

OejULeXio)

aTrocrroAft)!/

oVros aKpoytoviaiov avTOV XpiarTOv


the
oixoftopif.

zens, which is St Paul s point here. So the Christians themselves, in relation to the world, are spoken of in
i

Apart from

this

sug

gestion the abruptness of the intro duction of the metaphor, which is

Pet

ii

n, from

Ps. xxxviii (xxxix)


7rape7ridrjp.oi
.

13,

as TrdpoiKOt Kai

and

language was widely adopted, see Lightfoot on Clem. Rom. pref. For irdpoiKos and its equivalent P.CTOIKOS see E. L. Hicks in Class. Rev. i $,
this

considerably elaborated, would be very strange. eVi This corresponds $e/zeX/<] with the 677i of the verb, which itself
r<

signifies
I

to build
iii

upon
<ro(pos

compare

Deissmann Neue Bibelst. pp. 54 f. o-vvTroXlrai] The word was objected to by the Atticists comp. Pollux iii
:

Jlo yap

o~v[j.Tro\iTT)s

ov SoKi/iov,

ei Kai

Evpnridrjs aura> Ke^prjrai eV Hpa/cXet8ais Tf Kai e^o-ei (Heracleid. 826, in the speech of the fapcnruv). It is

found in Josephus (Antt. xix 2

2),

and in inscriptions and papyri (Berl. Pap. ii 632, 9, 2nd cent. A.D.). TCBI/ ayiW] See the note on i i. The thought here is specially, if not exclusively, of the holy People whose privileges they have come to share. OIKC IOS is the formal oppo oiKeloi]
site of dXXorpios
:

a ok 6ep.\iov edrjKttj aXXoy de er In that passage Jesus Christ is said to be the 6ep,e\ios. Here the meta phor is differently handled; and the Christian teachers are not the build ers, but themselves the foundation of the building. irpocpTjTvv] that is, prophets of the Christian Church. There can be no doubt that this is the Apostle s mean ing. Not only does the order apostles
Cor.

10

and prophets point

in this direction
(iii 5)

but a few verses lower down

the

phrase is repeated, and in iv have TOVS fiev aVooroXovs, TOVS


7rpo(pr;ray,

we
Se

trast to another s

one s own in con comp. Arist. Rhet.


rj

TOVS dc evayyeXioraff,

K.r.X.,

157
<TTIV),

TOV orav

o~e

oiKfia flvai
aur<5

fir)

(opos
all

e<p

77

aTraXXorptcocrai.

The word has various meanings,


.

derived from olicos in the sense of When used household or family of persons it means of one s family , strictly of kinsmen, sometimes loose then more ly of familiar friends or even * ac generally devoted to quainted with , e.g. (ptXoo-ocpi a?. In St Paul the word has a strong sense see Gal. vi 10 /xaXio-ra Se irpos TOVS and I Tim. V 8 oiKiovs rfjs 7ri
:

where Old Testament prophets are obviously out of the question. That Origen and Chrysostom suppose that the latter are here intended is a proof of the oblivion into which the activity of the prophets in the early Church had already fallen.

The word is taken aKpoytoviaiov] from the LXX of Isa. xxviii 16, where it comes in connexion with $e/zeXio.
"IDID

<rrea>s,

rutv
V.

Iditov

Kai /noXiora oiKfiwv

(comp.
ot-

IDID. I lay as a foundation in Sion a stone, a stone of proof, a precious corner stone of a founded foundation
.

The Hebrew of this passage ruQ jra px p


mp>

is

"ID*

tvvi

4 TOV
2O.

tdiov OLKOV evcreftflv}.

The LXX rendering


/SaXXto
els
TO.

is

Ifiov e yco

ep.-

eTrotKodop.rjdevTfs l

The word

fleplXia

Scicov

\i6ov

KOS underlying oiVetoi at once suggests to the Apostle one of his favourite

TToXvTfXfJ

K\KTOV

CLKpOymVLoloV

fVTlfJiOV,

els TO. $e/ie Xta avTrjs.

metaphors. From the oucos, playing on its double meaning, he passes to

a/cpoy&watoi/

whether we

It is plain that H3E5, corresponds to regard it as masculine

II

164
e
(sc.

EPISTLE TO THE EPHESIANS.


Travel
j

[II 21

<ruvapfjLO\oyovfjLevri
;

av^ei
here

et?

vaov
in

\i6ov), or as a neuter substantive

corner-stone
i

both
stone\

and

see

Hort s note on

Pet.

ii

6,

the

xxxviii

passage is quoted. 6 \l6os yuvialos stands for nJB pfct in Jer. xxviii (li) 26 \i6os fls yuviav for HJD? ptf and in Ps.
:

where In Job

Pet.

ii

6; though in Isa. xxviii 16


affords

we

liave

corner

Neither the

Hebrew nor the Greek


corner-stone
ya)vialos as
.

any
chief

justification for the rendering


A/tpoycoi/talos

cxvii (cxviii) 22 els Ke(pa\r)v ycovias for


ilJB

Wb.

In the

last of these places


*

Symmachus had aKpoywiaios, as he had also for mnD, chapiter in


,

stands to stands to eVl ya>vias the first part of the com pound merely heightens the second.

eV

aicpas ycovias

21.

iracra oiKodop.^]

all (the] build.

Kings xxv 17. In Ps. cxliii (cxliv) 12 Aquila had cos eiriywvia for JVITD,
as corners

ing\not each several building The difficulty which is presented by the


absence of the article (see the note

or

corner-stones

A/cpoyomaZof is not found again apart from allusions to the biblical passages. The Attic word is yuviaios, which is found in a series of inscrip tions containing contracts for stones
.

on various readings)

we bear
pleted,

is removed when mind that St Paul is speaking not of the building as com

in

i.e.

the edifice

but of the

for the

(CIA

iv

temple buildings at Eleusis eVe pous 1054 b ff.) e.g.


:
<al

building as still growing towards completion. The whole edifice could but such an not be said to grow
:

(Xt#ovy) ywviaiovs e
XeZ] &vo
els

7roS[c5i/]

7r[ai/ra-

Order for
TO

1. 83): also, in an entKpava TWV AUDI/COP irpoo-Tcoov TO EXevcrm, it is

(10540,
TO.

TU>V

1 2 are to be of certain dimensions, TO. 8e ycoviaia dvo are to be of the same height, but of greater

stipulated that

expression is legitimate enough if used of the work in process. This is the proper sense of oiKodo/x^ which is in its earlier usage an abstract noun, but like other abstract nouns has a
,

tendency to become concrete, and is sometimes found, as here, in a kind


of transitional sense. Our own word building has just the same range of

length and breadth Sim. ix 2 3 KV*Acp de

(comp.

Herm.

TTJS nvXrjs ecrri;-

Kfio-av irapQfvoi ScoSefca* at ovv ft at fls ras ytovlas eo-TrjKvlai evdooTfpai /not cdoKovv flvai they are spoken of in
:

meaning
render
that
is

and

we
.

might
as
all

almost
building

iracra olKodo/j,^

carried on
is

as Icrxvporepai). In Dion. Hal. iii 22 the Pila Horatio, in the Forum is spoken of as ?) yaviaia orvXisBut, of course, in none of these in
15.
I

The word

condemned by Phry;
:

stances
tion.

proper, which

have we the corner-stone is an Eastern concep That even for a late Christian

nichus (Lobeck, p. 421 comp. pp. 487 ff.) as non- Attic e avTov Ae yerar avr The second part of this judgment proves that by the middle of the
familiar in

writer yuviaios was the

more natural

word may be gathered from a com ment of Theodore of Heraclea (Corderius in Psalm, cxvii 22, p. 345),
Kara TOP yutvialov \i6ov
TO eKarepov

century A.D. OIKOO/AJ/ was a concrete sense. The earliest instances of its use are how ever abstract In the Tabulae Heracl.

second

(CISI
dop.av.

645,

146)

we have
l>\OlS

Se

TO.

fTTOlKld Xpl]O OVTai

TOV OLKO-

Latin rendering was angularis lapis (d^gz Ambrst., and so Jerome in some places) the later,
earlier
1
:

The

by Suidas
ae
AajSoc,

(s.

building
luxuries.
(p.

lapis\ which has been followed in the A.V. ( chief

s-ummus

angularis

1137

b,

Laconian proverb quoted v. "imros) ran Ot/coSo/xa K.r.A., May you take to as one of the wasteful In Aristot. Eth. Nic. v 14 30) we have ucnrep Kai TTJS
:

II 21]

EPISTLE TO THE EPHESIANS.

165

Aetr/Sias olKo8ofj.fjS 6 p.oh.ifio ivos

where the variant ofcodo/ita? gives the sense, and witnesses to the rarity of oiKo8ofj.il, which is not elsewhere

The concrete found in Aristotle. sense seems to appear first in passages where the plural is used, though even in some of these the meaning is * than rather building-operations
Lucull. 39 otKodo/uu TToXuTeXeiy). In the LXX the word occurs 17 times. With one or
edifices
(e.g.
7

time in the abstract sense. Apart from St Paul it is found in the New Testament only in Mark xiii i, 2 (Matt, xxiv i), where we have the plural, of the buildings of the temple This is the only certain (icpov). instance of the concrete sense (of finished buildings) to be found in
biblical Greek.

Plut.

In

the

elaborate
9,

metaphor

of
els

Ignatius, Ephes. abstract use in


olKo8oiJ.Tjv

we have the

7rporjToifjLa.o~p.evot

two possible exceptions, where the


text
it
is uncertain or the sense obscure, an edifice , but never means always the operation of building. In St Paul s epistles oiVodo/*^ occurs eleven times (apart from the present Nine times it is used in the epistle). edification , a abstract sense of meaning which Lightfoot thinks owes its origin to the Apostle s metaphor of the building of the Church (Notes

6eov

Trarposj

aforetime for God too in Hennas, again and again, of the building of the Tower ( Vis. iii 2, etc.) ; but the plural is concrete in Sim. i i. In Barn. Ep, xvi I the word is perhaps concrete, of the fabric of the temple as contrasted with God the builder of a spiritual

prepared to build with . So

temple

{els TTJV oiKoo~op,T)v r)\7rio~av}.


1

on Epp.

p. 191).

The two remaining

The Latin rendering is omnis omnis structura* aedificatio (or


Ambrst.),

passages give a sense which is either abstract or transitional, but not In i Cor. iii 9 the strictly concrete.

not

omne

aedificium

The Greek commentators, who

for

words 6eov yeapyiov, 6eov ot/codo/x?/ eVre form the point of passage from the metaphor from agriculture to the metaphor from architecture. It can hardly be questioned that y^pyiov here means husbandry and not a
,

the most part read rrao-a olKodopij, have no conception that a plurality of edifices was intended. They do in deed suggest that Jew and Gentile are portions of the building which are
linked together (els piav oi/toSo/^i/) by Christ the corner-stone. If, however, the Apostle had meant to convey this
idea,

field
t Aov

(comp. Ecclus. xxvii 6 yfvpytov


K(paivi
6

KapTTov

avrov}

similarly
built,
:

olKo8o/j.r/ is

not the house as

he would certainly not have said Tracra oiKo8op.Tj in the sense of


Tracrai at otKoSojiuu,

but the building regarded as in process we might almost say God s or architecture God s structure The Latin rendering is clearly right del agricultura^ del aedificatio estis.

but possibly

dp.<p6-

repat ai otKodo/uu , or something of the kind.


lish

The nearest representation in Eng would perhaps be all that is


,

The language
2 Cor. v
i,

of the other passage,

builded

is

remarkable:

whatever building is i.e. being done. But this is practically the same as -all the building which
,

not but

coming from God , a building proceeding from God as builder The sense of operation is the strongly felt in the word
an
edifice
. :

result of the operation is afterwards

expressed by oliciav d^fipoTroir/rov, In the present epistle the word comes again three times (iv 12, 16, 29), each

accordingly be retained, though the words have the disadvantage of being ambiguous if they are severed from their context. If we allow our selves a like freedom with St Paul in the interweaving of his two metaphors, we may construct an analogous sentence thus Iv 7rao~a avrjo~is

may

o>

i66

EPISTLE TO THE EPHESIANS.


aa
ei/

[II 22

III

ayiov ev
III.
*

KO.L

v fuels

crwot/coSo//e?<T0

TOV 6eov ev

TOVTOV
:

TIavXos 6
*

0-vvapnoXoyovp.evr] oiKoSo/xerrat els trcS/na this would be TfXfiov (v Kvpito


fairly

growth

we

rendered as in whom all the etc. ; nor should is builded expect in such a case naa-a r}
,

III. i All this 7. afresh to pray for you. And who am I, that I should so pray? Paul, the prisoner of the Christ, His prisoner

TOV impels me

aV^T]O~LS.

is

This compound not found again apart from St Paul. In iv 1 6 he applies it to the structure of the body. There is some authority in other writers for ap/zoXoy/. For the meaning see the detached note.
<rvvapij,o\oyovfjivr)]

you you Gentiles. You must have heard of my peculiar task, of the dispensation of that grace of God which has been given me to bring to The Secret has been disclosed you. to me by the great Revealer. I have already said something of it enough to let you see that I have knowledge
for

au]
TT/V

Compare

Col.

ii

19

avgfi

of the Secret of the Christ.

Of

old

avr)o-iv rov 6eov.

Both

avo>

and

avgavu are Attic forms of the present. The intransitive use of the active is not found before Aristotle. It pre vails in the New Testament, though we have the transitive use in I Cor. iii 6 f., 2 Cor. ix 10. In the New 22. KaroiKTjTripiov]

not now it has been unveiled to the apostles and prophets of the holy people. The Spirit has revealed to their spirit the new ex tension of privilege. The Gentiles are
it
:

men knew

co-heirs, concorporate, co-partakers of

the Promise.

This

new

position has

become

Testament

this

word comes again


1 1

theirs in Christ Jesus through the Gospel which I was appointed to


serve, in accordance with the gift of that grace, of which I have spoken, which has been given to me in all the fulness of God s power. TOVTOV xapw] The actual phrase i. occurs again only in v. 14, where it marks the resumption of this sentence,

only in Apoc. xviii 2 baqtovunt (comp. Jer. ix


Trjpiov SpaKovruv).

els

It is found in the LXX, together with Karoi/a a, KaToiKrjo-is and KaroiKecri a, for a habitation of any but in a considerable group of sort passages it is used of the Divine dwelling-place, whether that is con ceived of as on earth or in heaven. Thus the phrase eroi/nof KaroiKrjT^ptov
:

and
iii

in Tit.

Luke
find

vii 47,

12.

We have ov x^P lv m and x^P lv T LVOS m I John In the Old Testament we


i 5.

comes in Exod. xv 17, and three times in Solomon s prayer (i Kings


a-ov
viii,

TOVTOV
i

(yap)

x^P iV

Prov.

xvii 17,
eya>

Mace,

xii 45, xiii 4.

2 Chron. vi)
14.

comp

Ps.

xxxii

IlaCXos]

For the emphatic

(xxxiii)

These Old Testament

associations fitted

it to stand as the climax of the present passage. ev TrvevfjMTi\ The Gentiles are builded along with the Jews to form a dwell l ing-place for God in (the) Spirit*. This stands in contrast with their separation one from the other in
l

introduction of the personal name compare i Thess. ii 18, 2 Cor. x i,


Col.

123; and especially Gal. v


first

2.

In

the

three instances other

names
:

have been joined with St Paul s in the opening salutation of the epistle but this is not the case in the Epistle to the Galatians or in the present
epistle.

(the) flesh , on which stress is laid at the outset of this passage, v. ra

deo-pios
i

TOV Xpto-Tov

iTjcroC]

In
8 TOV

e&VT)

ev trapK.L..Tris Xeyo/jLtvrjs

Philem.
XpirrroC

ev (rap/a.

and 9 we have l^oroG, and in 2 Tim.

Seo-pios
i

Ill

24]
v

EPISTLE TO THE EPHESIANS.


Irjcrov vTrep v

167

TWV

ei/wi/,

ei

ye
Sodetcrris
JULOL

TY\V oiKOVofJiLav
3

TOV 6eov
Ka-ra

Trjs

JJLOL

^uas,
Vi

aTTOKcXv^Lv KaBcos TTpoeypa^a ev oXiyw,


TOV Kvpiov the expression
Gal.
is
ii

oTi

eyvap urOr}
4

TO

7Tpos o Si

avrov

(sc.
i,

2,

Below, in
different,
VTrep
TO.

iv
e
y<

parallel in

and the more striking Rom. xvi 25 Kara


K.r.X.

o 3eo*/uo$ eV Kvpia.
T<BI>

Xv^iv
II,
is
is

/^voTTjpiov

vp.au>

e6va>v\

So

ill ii

vpeis

c0vT).

The expression

the natural correlative of /uvo-rr/ptov, on which see the detached note.


fyvo>pio-0r]~\

His cham intentionally emphatic. pionship of the equal position of the


Gentiles was the true cause of his

Compare
in

vv. 5, 10.

The
i

word comes,

connexion with TO

imprisonment.

Compare

v.

13

eV
O~T\V

pvo-TJpiov, in Rom. xvi 26, vi 19, CoL i 27.


Trpoe ypa^a]

Eph.

9,

rais ffXtyecriv /AOV vircp


2.
ei

v/i<5i>,

fjris

This
in

is

the

epistolary
is

aorist

which

English
perfect.

ye rjKovo-are] The practical effect of this clause is to throw new

sented

by the

For

repre the

emphasis on the words immediately It is on your behalf preceding. as (vTrep VIJLWV) that I am a prisoner you must know, if indeed you have heard of my special mission to you We have a close parallel (ets- vfiasY.
21 ei ye avrov iJKov<raTe K.r.X. Apostle s language does not imply a doubt as to whether they had heard of his mission it does imply that some at least among them had
in iv

temporal force of the preposition in this verb, compare Rom. xv 4 6Va yap 7rpoeypa07/. Here, however, the meaning is scarcely more than that of I have written already eypa^a
:

The

heard, and had no personal acquaintance with himself. See the note on i 10 ; oiKovopiav] only

aforetime ). The technical sense of 7rpoypa0eti/ found in Gal. iii i does not seem suitable to this context. fv oXiyoj] in a few words more exactly, in brief compass , or, as we The only other New say, in brief. Testament passage in which the phrase occurs is Acts xxvi 28 f. The
(not
:

phrase is perhaps most frequently used of time as in Wisd. iv 13


;

and compare
below in

rjolKovo/j-iaTov /xvcrr^piov,

TeXeio>$et?

ev oX/yo) eVX^pcoo e xpovovs

i 25 we have TOV $eov T^V 8o#eiaav p.oi fls vfias, TrXr/pcoa-at TOV \6yov TOV 0(OV, TO fJ.V<TTTIplOV AC.T.A. In all these passages God is o ol<ovopa)v so

v. 9.

In Col.

paKpovs.
iii

/caret rrjv oiKoi/ofuai/

that they are not parallel to


IX 17
olK.ovofj.iav

Cor.

however, Rhet. 14126, 20), in discussing pithy sayings, says that their virtue consists in brevity and antithesis, and adds 77 padija-is 8ia p.v TO dvTiKflcrdai df TO ev oXi yo) darrov fj.aX\ov, 8ia
Aristotle,
ii
(p.

TreTTicrrev/xat,

where

ylvfTai.

A useful illustration is
1

cited
II.

the Apostle himself is the ol<ovop.os (comp. i Cor. iv i, 2). For the use of this word XapiTos] in connexion with St Paul s mission to the Gentiles, and in particular for the combination ) x^P ls *7 Sodelo-d p.oi
(i

by
ii,

"Wetstein

from Eustathius in
77

p. 339,

8, OVTOO p-CV

OfJLTJplKT)

fV

oXiyo)

tOTopta /cara /te pos avTijs roiavTa.


8iao~co~d<pr)Tai

TO,

&

4.

TTpo?
,

Cor.

iii

10, Gal.

ii

9,

Rom.

xii

3,

which and so

o] that is, looking to having regard whereunto ; but the judging whereby
:

xv 1 5, Eph. iii 7), see the detached note on x^P iS


-

3.

Kara

a7ro/<aXv\^ii/]

Compare

expression is unu sual. The force of the preposition receives some illustration from 2 Cor. V IO Iva KOfucnjTat eKacrrosr

68

EPISTLE TO THE EPHESIANS.


JJLOV

[Ill

5,

dvayivcocTKovTes vofjcrai TY\V crvvecriv

ev

TW
TCHS

TOV
wots
T(JOV

OVK
vvv

aVTOV Ka
TO.

dyiois d7T6Ka\u(p6r] 6 S 6V TTVeVfJiaTl, 6lVCCl


TT}V
O"VVTIV

TO?S

8ia TOV

0-CO/iOTOff

TTpOS

O.

fJLOV

V K.T.X.]
i

A
i

Ac.r.A.

The

seems to be

participle dvayivao-KovTfs thrown in epexegetically.

parallel is
trvvcffeo):

found in
avrov fv

(3)
ra>

Esdr.
j/o/j,&>

rfjs

Kvpiou.

Judging by what he has already


written, they can, as they read, per ceive that he has a true grasp of

In the LXX a-vvUvai Iv

is

a frequent

the Divine purpose, and accordingly, as he hints, a true claim to inter


pret
it.

construction: but it is a mere repro duction of a Hebrew idiom, and we need not look to it for the explana tion of our present phrase. For the
/ivo-r^pto),

The Latin rendering prout potestis


legentes intelligere , i.e. so far as ye are able... to understand , has much in its favour. This is also the inter pretation of most, if not all, of the

omission of the article before ev see the note on i 15. in other gene 5. cTfpais yevfals] rations , the dative of time; compare
TO>

Rom.
is

xvi 25 xpovots alwviois.

Fei/ea

Greek commentators:
TTJV

o-vvefj-erp^o-aro

$i8a(TKaXiav

TTpbs

OTTfp
loc.}.

\<opovv

used as a subdivision of attoV, and the two words are sometimes brought into combination for the sake of
emphasis, as in iii 21 and CoL i 26. The rendering * to other generations is excluded by the d is followed by roTy viols
TG>V

(Severian, eaten,

ad

makes

avayivaxTKovres

But it somewhat more


it

difficult,

unless

we
.

press

to

mean

by reading only

The suggestion that

dvayivnaa-Kovres

rots

viols

refer to the reading of the pro phetic parts of the Old Testament in

may

remarkable

It dvdpaiT(Dv] that this well-known


ru>v

is

He

the light of (Trpos o) what the Apostle has written (Hort, Romans and Ephesians, pp. isof.) is beset with
difficulties
o~<iv

braism, frequent in the LXX, occurs again but once in the New Testament, viz. in Mark iii 28 (in Matt, xii 31
this

is

where dvayivuused of the Old Testament


:

for

(i)

The

special

becomes simply rols ). and restricted use of the


di>dpa>7rois

scriptures, the reference

is

made
;

clear

by the context, and not left to be gathered from the word itself i Tim. iv. 1 3 Trpoo-e^e rrj dvayvojo-ei cannot be proved to refer solely to the public reading of the Old Testament (2) the same verb is quite naturally used
:

phrase o vios TOV dv6pu>7rov may account for the general avoidance of the idiom, which however is regularly recalled by the Syriac versions in
their rendering
v. ig, et

of avdponroi

(Matt,

passim}.

of the reading of Apostolic writings, Acts xv 31, i Thess. v 27, Col. iv 16, Apoc. i 3 (3) the close proximity of
:

In Tols dyiois dirocrroXois K.r.A.] the parallel passage, Col. i 26, we have vvv de (f)avp(i)0r) Tols dyiois
avTOV, ois
K.r.X.

i]6e\r)o-(V

The

o 0eos yzxopurat, difference is in part at

Trpotypa^a suggests that what they are spoken of as reading is what he has written (4) in the whole context Old Testament revelation falls for the moment out of sight (see especially v. 5), and the newness of the message
:

least accounted for

by the prominent mention of apostles and prophets in the immediately preceding section
20).

(ii

(v 7rvvfj.aTi]
1 8,

See

and the notes

ii 22, v 18 and vi in these places.

is

insisted on.

Ill

7-9]
eBvrj

EPISTLE TO THE EPHESIANS.


crvvK\ripovofJLa Kai crvvcrw/uLa KO.I

169

TO.

a? ev XpLCTTco
SictKOVos
KCLTCL

Irjcrov

$id TOV evayyeXiov,

ov

6eov Trjs Sodeicrtis

avTOv
r\

^ejJLol

TW

TV\V Stopedv Trjs %dpiTO$ Kcrra Trjv evep^eiav Trjs (JLOI, e\a^i(TTOTepto TTOLVT^V

TOV

f xdpis avTri TO?S edvecriv evay y6\i<raa 6ai TO 9 KCtt (cOTLCTai T7S 7T\OVTOS TOV lCTTOV,

Y\

9.

0arricrat]

+ Trayras.
eternal working, the Secret of the Creator of the universe that not
:

6. Of tho o~vvK\r)pov6fjLa K.T.X.] three compounds two are rare (awKXr]-

povopos, Rom. viii 17, Heb. xi. 9, i Pet. iii 7, Philo o-wneroxos, v. 7, Aristotle and Josephus). The third
:

but all the potencies of the unseen world might learn through the
only,

man

(o-iWw/ios) was perhaps St Paul for this occasion.


(rvfo-co/iaroTroteli/, if it

formed by
Aristotle s

Church new lessons of the very varied wisdom of God learn that one pur
pose runs through the ages of eter a purpose which God has nity, formed in the Christ, even in Jesus our Lord, in whom we have our bold access to God. So lose not heart, I pray you, because I suffer in so great a cause. My pain is your glory 8. eXa^toTore poj] Wetstein ad loc. has collected examples of heightened forms of the comparative and super
.

implied an adjec tive at all, would imply o-vixroo/zaro? (but it is probably a compound of o-vv and cre0/iaro7rote>). In later Greek are found side by side with ao co/zaros, eVcrayiaros.
a<Toofj.os,

evcra>fjLos

Compare Col. i 23, 25, where however we have eyevo^Tjv, which is read by some MSS The two forms of the aorist here. are interchangeable in the LXX and
7.
cyevijdrjv
Sia/toi/oy]

lative.

of Jannaris, Historical

in

the

New

Testament, as in the later


generally.

mar,

The most recent list is that Greek Gram For the most part they 506.
:

Greek writers

are doubled comparatives or doubled


superlatives
fjLfyio-TOTepos

the ministration spoken of in each of these passages is that special ministration to the Gentiles which was committed to St Paul, and as the article is naturally omitted with the
predicate,

As

but Jannaris cites from Gr. Pap. Br. Mus.

A.D.). 134, 49 (cent, i rots Wvcviv evayycKiaavOai]

The

order

of

the

words

render minister (or even the minister }. But it is not necessary to depart from the familiar rendering a minister See the notes xapiTos...cvepyiav]
fairly
:

we may

whereof

I was made

emphasis on rols Gospel (TO fvayyeKiov /iou, see especially Rom. xvi 25) is the Gospel of God s
grace to the Gentiles.
dvf^ixviao-Tov]

throws the eQveo-iv. St Paul s

Compare Rom.
parallels

xi 33
al

*Q

on

v.

and

13.

19 respectively. Yes, to me this grace has


to

fiados oSot OVTOV.

ir\ovTov...di>egixviacrToi

The only
9, ix

to be
"ipn

Job v
in

been

given

me,

the

meanest

ftf is

so

10, xxxiv 24, rendered by the LXX,


fyi/os

seem where

member of the holy people that I should be the one to bring to the Gentiles the tidings of the inexplorable wealth of the Christ that I should publish the plan of God s
:

who
"ipn.

that book employ

for

Apart from i Tim. vi 17, TrXovTos] no instance of TT\OVTOS in the sense of material wealth is to be found in St

fVBOOSTOCK COLLEfit

I/O
OLKOVOjULia

EPISTLE TO THE EPHESIANS.

[Ill 10

TOV

JJLVCTTripioV

TOV

dTTOKeKpVfJifJLeVOV
I0

CtTTO

TtoV

u/a ryva)vvv Ta?5 appals Kai TCUS e^ovcricus ev TO!? eVoi;picrOij TOV paviois $ia Trjs eKK\rjo~ias r\ 7ro\v7ro iKi\os
aitovcov

ev

TW

veto

TCO TO. TTCLVTCL KTicravTi,

<ro<pia

Paul s writings. On the other hand, his figurative use of the word has no parallel in the rest of the Greek Bible.

TOV alovov
xvi
ev

KOI drro

25

pvo-rripiov
:

TOV yeveov Rom. xP OVOLS aloviois


:

o-eo-iyrjpevov

Cor.
*

ii

7 Beov

o~o<piav

Of fourteen
in

instances of

this epistle.

occur In the uses of the


it,

five

/zvo-r^p/a),

TTJV
TO>V

irpO(opio~fv o 6fo? Trpb


r>v

alatvotv.

The
:

derivates
Tflv,

7r\ovo~ios,

7r\ovo~i(o$,

?rXov-

n\ovTifiv, the same rule will be found to hold, though there are some
interesting exceptions.
9.
(pa>Tio-ai

alavuv is the converse phrase OTTO of the more frequent els TOVS almvas comp. dif al&vos, Luke i 70, Acts
iii

21,

XV

CITTO

TOV alo&vos KOL els

TIS
is
i

r)

K.r.X.]

to

bring
1
.

to

light

what
Col.
K.T.X.,

Compare
TT\OVTOS

the dispensation 27 yva>pio-ai rl TO

TOV auova, Ps. xl (xli) 14, etc. The meaning is that from eternity until

now the mystery has been


KTio-avri]

hidden.

where the whole con

The addition
"Irjo-ov

in the later

text

is

&a>Tieiv

parallel to the present passage. is a natural word for the

public disclosure of what has been kept secret: see Polyb. xxx 8 i
erreiTa 8e

XpurTov points to a understand the propriety of the simple mention of creation in this The true text hints that the context.
of 8ia
failure to

MSS

TOV

ypafji/jiaTov
.

eaXaxoTov KOI
<fra)TLfiv

purpose of
ation
10.
itself.

God was
yva>pio-6fj]

involved in cre

7re(pa)Tio~p.ev(0v

also SuidaS

els (pos ayeiv, eayyc\\eiv, followed by a quotation in which occur the words (pa>Tieiv TO KCITO. TTJV vTo\r)v aTTopprjTov. Compare I Cor. iV 5 TCt KpVTTTCl TOV VKOTOVS, and 2 Tim. i 10 (patTio-avTos d* farjv KOI d<p6apo-iav (with the context). There is considerable authority (see the note on various readings) for the addition of irdvra? after (poTta-ai. The construction thus gained is like that in Judg. xiii 8 (A text),

atTiaTiKT]-

iva

Compare

yv(opio-as
yv(0pio~drj

yfuv
/iot,

TO
5

pwrrqptav,
irapprjo-tq

iii

fTepats yfveals

3 OVK

yvo)piar6r], vi

19 ev

yva>pio-fu

<<TlO-ei

rejection of the gloss Trdvras (see on v. 9) leaves us the more free to take this clause closely

TO HVO-TTJPIOV.

The

with

tjxoTio-ai

to publish

what from

eternity has been hidden, in order that now what has hitherto been impossible of comprehension may be

<oma-ara>

made known throughout


sphere.
dpx<ut...tiravpaviois]

the widest

rjp.as TL

7roiTJo-a>iJ.cv

o-ui>/3i/3ao-areo).

(B has But the sense given to


TOJ Traidapia

See the notes

instead of * to is less appropriate to the publish present context ; moreover the inser tion of Trdvras lessens the force of the
(poTio-ai

to instruct

on

21, and the exposition pp. 20 f. dia TTJS eKK\r)o-ias] Compare ev 777
i

KK\rjO~iq

below,

V.

21.
is

TToXv-rroiKiXos]

The word

found

emphatic rots eSvea-iv. The change was probably a grammatical one, due to the desire for an expressed accusative
:

in

Greek poetry

in the literal sense of

John

1
9>

TO (f)oo...o (DoTifei

jravro, av~

dpoirov, is no true parallel, but it may have influenced the reading here. OTTO TOV alovov] Compare Col. i 26

very- varied ; Eur. Jph. in Taur. then. 1149, of robes; Eubulus ap. XV 24, p. 679^? O~T(f)aVOV TToXvTToiKlXoV dvdfvv: also, figuratively, in the

Orphic hymns vi II (reXerr? ), Ixi 4 In Iren. i iv i (Mass. p. 19) we have nddovs ... 7ro\vp.fpovs KU\
(Xoyos).

Ill 11]

EPISTLE TO THE EPHESIANS.


TUJV

I/I

6eov,
TToXvrroiKiXov vnapxovTos. the word is heard in i
iroiKiXrjs
1 1.

awvcov
Again,
vii 6,

r\v
/car

ev

TU>

An

echo of

we have

cirirayyv (l Cor.

Pet. iv 10

\apcros deov. Kara irp60c<rtv] This expression occurs adverbially in Rom. viii 28 It rot? Kara irp66f(nv K\r)Tois ovcriv. there signifies in accordance with deliberate purpose , on the part, that the mean is, of Him who has called ing is made clear by the words which follow (on ovs Trpoeyvo) /c.r.X.) and by the subsequent phrase of ix 77 K.OT K\oyr]v 7rp60o-is TOV 6eov, the
:

and KO.T cirirayriv TOV alwviov 6fov (Rom. xvi 26) also KO.T ar K\oyrjv (Rom. ix ii) and xdptTos (Rom. xi 5). Compare
2 Cor.
viii 8)
:

fK\oyr)i>

further

Rom.
KOTO,

ii

7,

xvi

5,
i

25, Phil,
1 1

iii

also in this epistle,


irpofleo-iv

irpoopi-

TOV

TO.

Trdvra

evepyovvTos
rjv cTroirjo-ev]

These words involve a

serious difficulty. If they are taken as equivalent to r\v ITpoetic (comp. i


10),

we suppose a breach

of the rule

purpose of
tion
.

God which works by


is

elec

by which the resolution of such verbs


not with Troieurtfcu, other instance of this can be found in St Paul, while we have on the contrary in this epistle, for
is
iroifiv.

made with

In Aristotle npodco-is
:

a technical

No

term for the setting out of the topic of a treatise or speech thus we have
the four divisions (RJiet. iii 13, p. 14145, 8) Trpooipiov, irpodfo-is, Trurru,
*

example, iwelav

Troielo-dat

(i

1 6)

and

eViXoyor, prelude, proposition, proof, In Polybius irpoQtvis is peroration of frequent occurrence in the sense of a deliberate plan or scheme and this sense is found in 2 and 3 Maccabees;
. ;

avfro-iv noielvQai (iv 1 6). like feXrjpa TToieti/, which is

phrase sometimes

comp. Symm.,
terpr.
al.,

Ps. ix 38 (x 17), inPs. cxlv (cxlvi) 4. In Polyb. xii ii 6 we have the actual adverbial

phrase, of lying
7rp6deo~iv

deliberately

Kara

cited, is obviously not parallel, as it is not a resolution of deXeiv. It was probably this difficulty, rather than the omission of the article before Trpotfecrti/, that led early interpreters to regard Kara irpodfa-iv TOOV aicuvcoj/ as a semi-adverbial phrase parentheti cally introduced, and to take r/v eiroi-

In no writer previous to St Paul does it appear to be used of the Divine purpose or plan. The addition of the defining genitive destroys only to a certain extent the adverbial character of the expression. The result is diffi cult to express in English neither according to the purpose of the ages (which would strictly presuppose Kara TTJV irp66f<rtv auoixai/), nor accord ing to a purpose of the ages gives the exact shade of meaning, which is rather in accordance with deliberate purpose, and that purpose not new, but running through the whole of eternity This construction is frequent in St Paul s writings. Thus we have
rv/feuoyieVo).
ra>v

as referring to o-o0t a. Jerome so interprets, though he mentions the possibility of a reference either to
rjo-cv

atooj/coi>]

cKK\r)o-ias

or to

TTpo&om

It is pro

bable that here, as so often, he is reproducing the view of Origen. But the Old Latin version, which he follows in the text, also interpreted
so
:

secundum proposit um seculorum,


:

T<0>v

a rendering which rules out the connexion irpo6fcriv...^v. So too the translator of Theodore (MSS, non ed.\ but of Theodore s own view

quam fecit

we have no

evidence.

Theophylact

KO.T

fvepyeiav (iv
in the

1 6)

TOV Sarai/a (2 Thess.

ii

and nar evepyfiav 9), on which see


e

and Euthymius Zigabenus expressly refer f}v to Chrysostom s text at this point is in some confusion but he suggests, if he did not actually read, aloavcov &v eTroirjo~ev (comp. Heb.
<ro<piav.

5i

ou

Atai

firoirjo~ev

TOVS

ataii/ar).

below

detached note on

The Vulgate

(so too Victorinus) sub-

EPISTLE TO THE EPHESIANS.


l^CTOV TO) KVplCt)
pricriav KCCI
V
CO

[Ill 12

TY\V Trap-

7rpo(raya)yt]v ev TreTroidr^creL Sia TTJS

stitutes praefinilionem for proposi-

tum, and thus restores the ambiguity of the original, which the simpler change of quod for quam would have
avoided.
It is noticeable that

On the whole it is preferable to suppose that the Apostle is referring to the original formation of the pur
pose, and not to its subsequent working out in history. may even doubt

Jerome
alter

We

had suggested propositio as an

native rendering of irpodea-is. The absence of quam fecit from Ambrosiaster s text points to another attempt to get rid of the difficulty. This construction, however, is ex ceedingly harsh, and it presents us with the phrase iroiflv, which seems
<ro<piav

whether here he would have used the past tense, if he had been speaking of
its realisation.

found in the Testament writers other than St Paul, in which iroiflv is used where we should expect
Instances
in

may be

LXX and

New

<r0ai

to have no parallel Another way out of the difficulty has met with more

comp. Isa. xxix 1 5, xxx i, and see Blass JV. T. Gram. 53, 3 and Jannaris Hist. Gr. Gram.
:

TroteTf,

favour in recent times; namely, to take cnoirjo-ev in the sense of wrought out But it may be doubted whether irp66f(TLv Troielv could bear such a meaning we should certainly have expected a stronger verb such as eiriT\elv or This view, KTT\ripovv.
.
:

1484.

Further,
TToielv

we may remember

that

in biblical literature often

has a strong sense, derived from the

Hebrew,
of

in reference to creative acts

God

(comp.

ii

10).

The framing

of the Purpose in the Christ may be regarded as the initial act of creation,

indeed, seems at first sight to be favoured by the full title given to Christ, and the relative clause which
follows
it.

and the word

hroir)<rtv

may be
it.

appropriately applied to

not in In other

But a

closer examination

shews that the


viii 39, i

title itself is

unique combination.

an almost In Rom. vi 23,


iii

words Trpofieo-iv ciroiijmv is a stronger form of expression than irpoQeo-iv cVoij/Varo, which is the mere equivalent of Trpoe0To: and it suggests that the
purpose of the ages, like the ages themselves (Heb. i 2), has been called into existence by a Divine creative
act.

Cor. xv 31, (PhiL


irjo-ovs

8)

we

have Xpio-ros
(pov), in itself

Kvpios

ynwv

an uncommon order:

but no

Only

article is prefixed to Xpia-Tos. in Col. ii 6 have we an exact

parallel, cos ovv 7rap6Aa/3ere TOV ^ptorov

TOV Kvptov, K.r.A.; where Lightpunctuates after xP l(rrov an ^ renders the Christ, even Jesus the Lord Accordingly, in the present passage, even if we are unwilling to press the distinction in an English rendering, we may feel that an exact observation of the Greek weakens the force of the argument derived from the fulness of the title, and leaves us free to accept an interpretation which regards fTroirja-ev as referring to the formation of the eternal purpose in the Christ.
irjcrovv

foot

With this passage, and indeed with the whole of this section, should be compared 2 Tim. i 8 12, where there are striking parallels of language and of thought, which are the more notice able in the absence of any explicit reference to the Gentiles.
12.
ii
1

TT}V irapprjcriav K.r.A.]

Compare
napprja-ia

8.

For the meanings of

see Lightfoot on Col. ii 1 5. Ordinarily it is used of boldness in relation to men here it is of the attitude of man to God: there seems to be no other example of this use in St Paul; but
:

see Heb.
ii

iii

6, iv 16,

x
14.

19, 35,

John

28,

iii

21, iv 17,

Ill 13, 14]

EPISTLE TO THE EPHESIANS.


io

1/3

avTOV.
I4

aLTOVjJLai

<v/uias>

vK.aK.ev ev iv

Taw

6\i-

ecrTiv \jse(TLV juov vTrep VJULWV, //Vis

Toi7TOf

TO,
bable that
it

fJLOV

TOV

The word is used six times by St Paul, but is found nowhere else in the New Testament, and but once in the LXX. Compare Mark xi 22 e^ere
iii

has been lost by homoeo:

teleuton, Y MAC having fallen out after the -y/v\Ai of AITOYMAI compare Gal. iv 1 1, where in several YMAC

MSS

#eoC, 22, Phil,

Rom.
iii

iii

22, 26, Gal.

ii

16,

9, in all of

which cases
article.

however

TTIO-TIS is
ii

without the
ii

Apoc. article is prefixed, but the meaning is different. Here TT/S may be regarded
i,

In James

13, xiv 12 the

as parallel to 7-171* before 7rappr)<riav so that the meaning would be our faith
:

in

Him
13.

pray that I may not or (2) I pray that you lose heart may not lose heart or (3) I ask you not to lose heart ? Whichever inter
this
,

mean

aiTovp-at (i) I

/LIT)

eWaKe>]

Does

pretation is adopted, the omission of the subject of fvnax-eiv is a serious Theodore gives the first difficulty.

which may plead in favour that the subject of the second verb is most naturally supplied from the first, and that, as the suffer ings are St Paul s, it is he who needs
interpretation,
its

has been dropped after <OBOYM<M. I have accordingly inserted vpas pro visionally in the text. lose heart from KCKOS fVKdKelv] in the sense of cowardly On the form of this word, eyKaKelv (eW-) or KKaKflv, see Lightfoot on 2 Thess. iii It occurs 13 (Notes on Epp. p. 132). five times in St Paul s epistles else where in the New Testament it is found only in Luke xviii i. In 2 Cor. iv 1 6 it is, as here, followed by a reference to o eVco av6pa>7ros in the immediate context. This connexion of thought confirms the view that the subject of evKaKflv here is the readers of the epistle, for whom the Apostle goes on to pray that they may be strengthened in the inward man .
i
:

1419. All this, I repeat, im In the pels me afresh to prayer. lowliest attitude of reverence I pros
trate myself before

Him,

to

whom

to

guard against discouragement. But

the absolute use of alrov^ai, as ( I ask of God/ where prayer has not been already spoken of, seems unjustifiable and that the Apostle should here interpose such a prayer for himself
:

knee shall bow before the Father from whom all fatherhood everywhere derives its name. I ask the Father to give you, through the Spirit s working on your spiritual nature, an inward might the very
every
indwelling of the Christ in your hearts,
realised through faith, consummated in love. I pray that your roots may

is

exceedingly improbable, especially his language elsewhere with regard to sufferings is considered, e.g. in Col. i 24. Origen at first offers this interpretation, but passes on to plead for the second as more agree able to the context. Jerome, who read in his Latin peto ne deficiatis/ points out that the Greek may mean peto ne deficiam/ and then repro duces the comments of Origen.

when

The third

interpretation
:

is

by far

the most satisfactory but we sadly miss the accusative v^as. It is pro-

be struck deep, your foundations laid secure, that so you may have strength enough to claim your share in the knowledge which belongs to the holy people to comprehend the full mea sures of the Divine purpose to know though it is beyond all knowledge the love of Christ and so to attain to the Divine completeness, to be filled unto all the fulness of God iV ] TOVTOV The repetition 14.
:

x<*P

174
1S

EPISTLE TO THE EPHESIANS.


ov Tracra TraTpia iv ovpavois Kal
marks the close con and 14, and shews that

[Ill 15

Trare/oa,
of this phrase nexion of vv. i

ITTC

version of the LXX. Patria is occa sionally so used, and is found also in

what has intervened is a digression. The usual phrase for K.r.X.]


Kap.Trr<B

a quotation of our present passage


in the metrical treatise [Tert.] adv. Marcionem iv 35.

kneeling

in the

New

Testament

is

6els TO. yovaTa.

The present phrase

is

Similarly

the

rendering

of

the

found again only in a quotation from i Kings xix 18 in Rom. xi 4; in a quotation from Isa. xlv 23, on e/ioi
Kop^ci
in Phil,
TTCLV
TTO.V
ii

Peshito

^i\ooi=^
fatherhood
the
:

A^

must

mean

all

comp. *^=nxof father

yow,

in

Rom.
ro>

xiv

1 1

and

^Jrtooa=3n<n

name

10, Iva Iv
Ka/z>J/77,

oVo/xari

IT/O-OV

an allusion to the yow same passage of Isaiah. Trarepa] The insertion after this word of roO Kvpiov ijamv irjo-ov Xpiorov is a mischievous gloss, which obscures
the intimate connexion between the absolute Trarr/p and Trao-a Trarpia. It is absent from K*ABCP.
Tracra Trarpia] 15Ilarpia denotes a group of persons united by descent from a common father or, more gene rally, a common ancestor. It has thus the narrower meaning of family or the wider meaning of tribe It is exceedingly common in the genea
.

hood in Aphrahat ( Wright 472 f .). The Latin and Syriac versions there
fore warrant us in rendering the pas sage in English as the Father of
.

whom
On

all fatherhood... is named the teaching of the passage it is worth while to compare Athanasius Oral, contra Arian. i 23 ov yap 6 6eos aXXa jzaXXoi/ 01 av6p(i)7rov /zi/uelrai"
av6pu)Troi dia TOV 0eov9 Kvpicos Kal v.ovov ovra Trare pa TOV eaurou viov, *ai

d\T)6<us

avTol Trarcpe? wvondo-drja av


TfKvojv
(

ra>i>

avTov yap
erri

irao-a
oi>o/iaerai
:

ovpavols Kal

yrjs

and
159)

Severian
TO

ad loc. (Cramer Oaten, vi


Trarpos

ovopa TOV
a>s

OVK

d(p

logical passages of the LXX, where it often stands in connexion with OIKOS

drjXovoTL
fJLOVOV.

(pvo~ei

ov Kal

ov<

St Paul plays on the deri vation of the word Trarpia is derived from Trarqp every Trarpia, in the visible or the invisible world, is ultimately named from the one true Father (o Trar?7p), the source of all fatherhood.
<pv\rj.
: :

and

The

difficulty

supposed to exist in
families
in

St Paul s speaking of

heaven may have led to the mistrans lation, of the A.Y. the whole family/ The same difficulty led Theodore to
adopt (perhaps to invent) the reading (paTpia (so the Paris codex the form is found both in Inscrr. and MSS for
:

rendering is every but the point of the passage cannot be given in English without a paraphrase. The Latin rendering omnis paternitas seems to be a bold
family
;

The

literal

(ppaTpia, see
i

effort in this direction


tas, like

for paterni

fatherhood

in English, is

an abstract term and does not appear to be used in the sense of a family It is true that Jerome (ad loc. and
adv. Helvid. 14), in order to bring out a parallel, renders Trarpia/ of the

DieterichHyzant.Archiv. on the curious ground that this word denoted not a o-vyycveia but merely a o-vor^a. The insertion of the gloss referred to above had pro
123),
.

LXX by paternitates but in his own version (Numb, i 2, etc.) he does not introduce the word, nor does it occur as a rendering of Trarpia in the Latin
:

bably blinded him to the connexion, Trarpos. .Trarpid, upon which the whole sense depends. The difficulty is not a serious one: for the addition eV ovpavols KOI errl the similar phrase in i 21, yrjs, like
ovofjui^op,vov ov rovra) aXXa Kal
fiovov

ev

r<5

atcoi/t

ev

r<5

yueXXovri,

is

Ill 16, 17]


l6

EPISTLE TO THE EPHESIANS.


*iva

1/5

TO TT\OVTOS Trjs oo^rjs TOV TrvevjUiaTOS avTOV CCVTOV dvvdjULei KpaTaicodfjvai I? otd ek TOV KaToiKrja~ai TOV dvdpcoTrov,
ovofJLdFeTCLi)
So)
VJULLV

K.OLTOL

Sid

e<ra)

TT/crrews ev Ta?s Kapoiais


perhaps only made for the sake of emphasis. We may, however, note the the Rabbinic use of N^IDB (familia) family above and the family below see Taylor Sayings of Jewish Fathers ed. 2, p. 125, and Thackeray St Paul
:

V/ULCOV
17.

ev dyaTrri
KaToiKelv is rare

KaToiK^a-ai]

in St Paul,

who more
ii

frequently uses
KUTOIKT]-

oiKelv or evoiKelv.

It occurs again only

in Col.

19,

9,

and we have
22.

Tijpiov in

Eph.

ii

When

used in

and Contemp. Jewish Thought


149.
l

p.

contrast to rrapoiKflv the word implies a permanent as opposed to a tem

6vop,deTai\ is named , i.e. derives its name: for the construction with
fK

compare Soph. O. T. 1036


eK

oW

porary residence (see Lightfoot s note on Clem. Rom.pref.); where it occurs by itself it suggests as much of

f0vop,do~6r)s

Qidiirovs},
5 12
e(prj

and

TV%T)S Tavrrjs os ei (sc. Xenoph. Memorab. iv

permanence as but no more.

OIKCIV necessarily does,

5e Kal TO 8ia\eyea~6ai oi/o/na-

<rdf)Vai

6.

K TOV K.T.X. TOV eo-Q) avOp&TTov]


full

finds its
IV
1

This phrase explanation in 2 Cor.


evKa.Kovfj.ev,

6 810 OVK
o
eo-co
*

aXX

el

Kal

dXX*

rnLa>v

dvaKaivovTai

ij/J-fpa

ev ayaTT?;] Reasons for joining these words with what precedes have been given in the exposition. In favour of this collocation it may also be observed (i) that ev dydirri forms the emphatic close of a sentence several times in this epistle ; see i 4 and note, iv 2, 16 and (2) that the
:

KOI T//iepa.

Our outward man


s
olttia

is

in

the Apostle
ciriyeios

subsequent phrase 77 TOV CTK^OVS, which our inward is subject to dissolution man is that part of our nature which has fellowship with the eternal, which looks not at the things which are seen, but at the things which are not There is no reason to seek for seen. a philosophical precedent for the
T^/UCOJ/
:

anacoluthon which follows appears to be more natural if the fresh start is made by the participles and not by an
adverbial phrase
dve^6p,evoi
ii
;

compare,

e.g.,

iv 2

ev dydnr) 2 o-vvfttl3ao-6evTes ev dydirrj.


aXX^Xo>

and CoL

St Paul is fond of eppifaiJLevot] passing suddenly to the nominative of a participle, as in the two passages
last quoted, to which may be Col. iii l6 6 \6yoS . -evoiKeiTOJ ev
:

added
vfj.lv...

at any rate Plato Rep. 5 89 A, which is persistently quoted, offers no parallel ; for there 6 eVro? avOpu-rros, the man who is within him , is only one of three contending constituents (the others being a multiform beast

phrase

and a

lion) which the Platonic parable supposes to be united under what is outwardly a human form. In St Paul the phrase occurs again

see Lightfoot s note on dtSdo-Kovres that passage. There is therefore no reason for supposing that tva is be lated, as was suggested by Origen, and as is implied in the rendering of the A.Y., that ye, being rooted , &c.

in

Rom. vii

22.

And in
and
ev

Pet.

iii

f.

we
TTJS

On the contrary, Iva depends directly on the participles which precede it. For the metaphors compare (i) Col. ii 7 ipptfapbM Kal eTroiKodopovfievot
7ri

have a contrast between o Zfadev...


iftariW
Kapbias
Kooyzos

ev

avVoi

Kal
i

/3e/3atov/i/oi

777

o
TO)

KpvrrTos
d<t>6dpTa>

0T, and
irio-Tet
i

(2) Col.

23

et

ye

eirifj-eveTe

avdpa>iros

TOV

Trj

re^f/xtXico/iei/ot

Kal

edpaloi,

Kal irpaeos

and

Pet. v 10,

where

6cpe\iwcret is

176

EPISTLE TO THE EPHESIANS.

[Ill

1820

crw
u\lsos

TTCLCTLV

Tols dyiots TL
I9f

TO TrAaros Kal

/uifJKOS

Kal
Trjs

Kal /3a6os,
d^airr\v

yvti)vai

T6 Tr\v V7rep/3d\\ovorav
7T\rjpct)6fJTe
ets

yvcocrecos

TOV xpicrTOv, u/a


a
.

irav

TO

7r\^pa)]ULa

TOV Beov

TO) $6 ^vva/uLevco vTrep TrdvTa

Troifjcrai

vTrepeKTrepicra ov

cov

aLTOVjueda
els K.T.X.]

rj

voov/uev /cara

found in KKLP, though not in AB. For the combination of the metaphors Wetstein cites Lucian de Salt at. 34
ducrirep

up to the measure of: 13 fiS p>TpOV T^XtKt a? TOV TOV xpio-Tov. The Apostle s ir\T)pa>lJia.Tos
IV

Tives
rjo~av.

piai

KOI

r)s

6pxrjo~e(i>s

A late word, found elsewhere in the Greek but NAC Bible, Ecclus. vii 6 (B have the simple verb). It suggests the difficulty of the task, which calls
1

8.

egio-xvo-rjTe]

prayer finds its climax in the request that they may attain to the complete ness towards which God is working
in which God will be all in all. Ideally this position is theirs already in Christ, as he says to the Colossians

but

once

and

(ii

9)

ev

aur<5

Karoifcei

irav

TO

TrXr/

for all their strength.

patfia TTJS 6eoTT)Tos (rco^tariKeos, Kal

care

KaraXa/3eo-&u] The middle is found thrice (Acts iv 13, x 34, xxv 25), and,

Its reali ev avra) TreTrX^pw/iei/ot, K.r.X. sation is the Divine purpose and,

as here, in the sense of to perceive Theodore s comment TrXaros *.r.X.]


.

accordingly,

the

Apostle s

highest

is

admirable and

sufficient

Iva e lirrj
r<5i>

On the sense of TO TrX^peo/za prayer. TOV 6eov see the exposition. may

We

rfjs

^apiTos TO [leyetios OTTO


oi/o/mra>i>.

Trap*

usefully

r/jutSi/

ing

of the
,

St Paul is not think measures of the f holy

phrase
the

compare with the whole CoL ii 19, where St Paul

temple

as

some of the moderns

describes the intermediate stage of process, saying of the Body:

suggest nor of the shape of the cross, as many of the ancients prettily
;

The reading of

and a few cur

fancied.

He

is

speaking in vague

terms of the magnitude of that which it will take them all their strength the Divine mercy, to apprehend especially as now manifested in the inclusion of the Gentiles, the Divine secret, the Divine purpose for man kind in Christ. To supply Trjs ayanrjs f tn e following TOV xP lcrT v ou ^ sentence is at once needless and
unjustifiable.

sives, Iva ir\rjpo)6rj TTCLV TO TrX^ pco/ia TOV 6eov, offers an easier construction, but

an

inferior sense.
20,
21.

thing?

Have I asked a hard have asked it of Him who can do far more than this ; who can vastly transcend our petition, even our imagining of Him whose mighty
I
:

With the intentional vagueness of the phrase we may com pare Didache C. 12 o~vveo~iv yap eere
dft-iav KOI dpiCTTepdv.

working is actually at work in us. Glory be to Him! Glory in the Church and in Christ Jesus glory in
the Body alike and in the Head through all the ages of eternity de dwap.eva>] 20. Compare the
.
ra>

IQ.

WTrep/SaXXouo-av] YirfpjBdXXfiv IS

used with either an accusative or a


genitive (Aesch. Plat. Arist.) of the object surpassed. So too vrrepe ^eu/
:

doxology in Rom. xvi 25, p.V(o vp,as tmjpi&U, K.r.X.

r<5

Be

8wa-

COmp. Phil, ii 3 VTrepe^ovray eavrcov with PhiL iv 7 y VTrepc^ovcra iravra vovv.

This word occurs v7rpeK7repio~o~ov] twice in St Paul s earliest epistle, but not elsewhere i Thess. iii 10 WKTOS
:

Kal rjfiepas virepeKTrepio-o-ov deopevoi,

III. 21

IV

2]

EPISTLE TO THE EPHESIANS.


\>

177
"
> <

<

->

21 sx

^\r\C-rt

eKK\rj(ria Kal ev KpiCTTcp Irjcrov eis Tracras if ^ if y ~ TOV aicovos TCOV aicovcov a/mrjv.
~

ras yeveas

IV.
dfcicos
r

ev Kvpicp *TlapaKa\a) ovv i5//as ejco 6 SeV^o? crews j^s /c\77 1/17x6, [jLeTct TrepiTTctTticrai T^S K\rj
t

Tracrrjs

Ta7reivo<ppoarvvris

13 Tjyeicr&u awrovs vxrepeKTrepKrcrot) V Here it is employed as a dydirr).


1

preposition to govern eov alrov^Oa so that the construction is, to Him that is able to do more than all, far
.

The phrase beyond what we ask vircp irdvra, which was to have been followed by a alrovpedaj has thus become isolated through the exuber ance with which the Apostle empha
.

and see Kal drro TWV yeveuv the note on v. 5 above. IV. 16. I have declared to you the Divine purpose, and the calling whereby you have been called to take your place in it. I have prayed that you may know its uttermost meaning for yourselves. Prisoner as I am, I can do no more. But I plead with
:

you that you


calling.

will

respond to your

sises his

meaning.

Make your conduct worthy

voov/j-ev]
eipr/vT)

Compare
77

Phil,

iv

TOV Oeov

uTrepe ^ouo-a

7 77 iravra

of your position. First and foremost, cultivate the meek and lowly mind,

TTJV evpyovp,evr]v^

thdt worketh*

the patient forbearance, the charity,, without which a common life is im

sufficient rendering, though the force of the passive can only be given if we see the say that is made to work detached note on eVepyeti/. Compare CoL i 29 Kara rrjv evepyciav avrov TTJV
:

For you must eagerly pre possible. serve your spiritual oneness. Oneness is characteristic of the Gospel Con sider its present working and its pre destined issue there is one Body,
:

Vpyovp.VT]v ev
21.
ev
rfi

fj,ol

v 8vvdfj.fi.
i

K.T.X.]

in the church

and
text.
in

in Christ Jesus \

The
is is

help to shew

how

striking
is

For
;

(i)

the order
<a\

variants the true reversed


in

D 2 G 3 and (2) KLP etc., whence


we may comment ad loc.
timidity
gloria
:
:

animated by one Spirit, cherishing one Hope. Look back to its imme diate origin there is one Lord, to whom we are united by one Faith in Him, by one Baptism in His name.
:

dropped

Rise to

its

ultimate source

there

is

the rendering of the Authorised Version, in the church by Christ Jesus With this
.

one God, the Father of all, who over all, through all and in all
.

is

I.

IIapaKaXa>

ovv vp,ds]

The same

contrast

Jerome s
deo
sit

Ipsi itaque

primum in ecclesia, quae est non habens maculam neque rugam, et quae propterea gloriani
pura,

words occur in Rom. xii i, after a doxology which, as here, closes the preceding chapter.

Comp.
roO Kvpiov,
fias

Col.
I

i ii

Thess.

12 els TO

dei recipere potest, quia corpus est Christi deinde in Christo Jesu, quia in corpore assumpti hominis, cuius sunt uniuersa membra credentium,
:

TOV KaXoVVTOS VfJLllS, Phil. 1 27 fJLOVOV dlO)S TOV evayyf\iov TOV xpia-TovTroAtreiWtfe.

aiW

TOU

6cov

For

TTfpuraTflv
ii

and

its

omnis diuinitas
liter
.

synonyms see

inhabitet
i

corporad-rro

the note on

2.

yeveds]

Compare CoL

26

rv

2. For the low Taneivo^poo-vvrjs] sense of this word in other writers,

EPHES. 2

12

78
,

EPISTLE TO THE EPHESIANS.


dve^ofJievoi
4

[IV

3-6

d\\rj\a)v ev dyaTrri,

Tripelv Trjv evoTrjTa

eV (rcojua

TOV TrvevjmaTOs ev TO) erf] Kal ev KaOws Kal eK\tidriTe


,

ev

ev
/3a7TTLO"iuLa

eis
l

6eos

KO.I

TravTwv 6
the

Trvrcov

and

for the place of humility in the moral code of Christianity, see Lightfoot s note on PhiL ii 3 and for TrpavTTjs and paKpodvpia, see his note on Col. iii 12.
:

For the transition to dvex6fj.evoi] the nominative participle see the note
on
iii

first two may be regarded as in apposition to the participles being, as ye are, one body and one spirit . The others are then loosely attached with no definite construction. In translation, however, it is convenient to prefix the words there is to the

17.

whole
dili
solli-

series.
, ,

giving (nrovdd^ovTes] i satis agentes* Cypr., gence


3.
:

citi

Vulg.

For the eagerness which

For the one spirit which corresponds to the one body see the note on ii 18 ev evl irvevpaTi.
ev nvevfjia]
e\7ridi
TTJS

the word implies, see the exposition. Considering that St Paul evoTTjTa]
so much stress on unity, it is remarkable that he uses the abstract word oneness only here and in v. In each case he quickly passes 13. to its concrete embodiment here ev In o-topa, in V. 13 els avdpa reXeiov. both places it is followed by denning lays

K.T.\.]

Comp.

77

eXiris

K\ijo-eo)s

avTov.

God s

calling is

calling

the general ground of hope: your i.e. His calling of you, makes you sharers in the one common hope.
,

5.

els Kvpios]

Comp.
e
/cat els

Cor.
TO,

viii

yfilv els

6ebs 6 Ttar^p,
avTOVj

ov

Trdvra

KO.I impels els

Kvpios Irja-ovs

genitives
TTJS

TOV rrvevpaTos
Kal
TTJS

and

(v.

13)

Xptoros, dt ov TO, irdvra KOL rjfj,els di avTov also i Tim. ii 5 els yap 6e6s,
:

Trio-Teas

vlov TOV 6eov. TOV irvevpaTos here of the Holy Spirit, as the producer and maintainer of unity comp. rj Kotvwvia TOV dyiov TTvevpaTos, 2 Cor. xiii 13 ; and so
:

emyvwo-ecos TOV It is possible to take

els Kal fj.eo~irr)s K.r.A.


/zta irlo-Tis]

One
all

faith in the
:

one

Lord united Rom. iii 30


TrepiTOfjLTjv

believers
6 6e6s,

comp.

els

os dwcaiooo-et

eK iri&rettis Kai d.Kpoj3vo~riav

perhaps

KOIVGOVIO.

7ri>ev/zaro,

Phil,

ii I.

dia TTJS TriWetos. ev /3a7rrto-/ia] Baptism in

the

name
It

But

equally possible to regard the spirit as the one spirit of the one body see the next verse.
it

is

of the

Lord Jesus was the

act which

gave defiuiteness to faith in Him.

o-vj/SeV/Lia)]

of oneness.
is

Peace is here the bond In Col. iii 14 f. Move

was at the same time, for all alike, the instrument of embodiment in the I Cor. xii 1 3 Kal yap ev one body
:

the bond of perfectness , while peace is the ruling consideration which decides all such controversies as might threaten the unity of the Body see Lightfoot s notes on that
:

evl irvev^aTi 77/1615 Trdvres els ev o-ea/za


ejBaTrTio-drjfj.ev,

elre lou&aioi elre ^EXX?/-

ves, e ire 8ov\oi. elre eXevBepoi.

6.

7rlirdvT<0vK.T.\.]

Comp. Rom. ix 5

&v

eTrl

TrdvTwv Beos evXoyrjTos els TOVS


all,

passage.
4.

altovas.

his

Having already broken construction by the introduction


ev o-cG/xa]

through
iraa-iv

Supreme over all, He moves and rests in all. With ev we may compare i Cor. xv 28
6 6ebs irdvra ev Trao-tv,
falls

of the nominative participles, St Paul adds a series of nominatives, of which

iva

f)

though

there the emphasis

on

IV
Kat

7, 8]

EPISTLE TO THE EPHESIANS.


ev iraoriv.
7

1/9
e/cotcrTft)

Sia TrdvTwv Kai

ew

Se

KaT(*

T
H
T
<\

jueTpov Trjs Swpeds TOV

ANA
KCCl

eic

fyoc
A6

A 00 K 6 N

<\

TO?C AN6pcbnOIC.
the complete maturity of the fulfilled Christ . ls l BD 2 with some others 7. 77 x^P omit the article but it has probably fallen out after edodr). /LteVpoi/] Comp. Rom. xii 3 CKOOTW
:
o>y

The text of

undoubtedly right.

NABCP (ev jraa-tv) is D 2 G3 KL, with the


T)/UI>:

and a Syriac and Latin, add few cursives have vfuv, which is repre sented in the A.V. When we have restored the reading, we have to ask what is the gender of iravTwv and The Latin translators were rrao-iv.
compelled to face this question when rendering eVi rrdvrcov and dia irdvrcw. All possible variations are found, but the most usual rendering seems to be
that of the Vulgate, super omnes et per omnia which also has good early authority. The fact that Trarrjp irdvrwv precedes might suggest that the mas
,
*

6 deos efjiepurev fj.fTpov7ri(TTfaiS.

The

word, which is found in only one other passage of St Paul, 2 Cor. x 13, occurs thrice in this context; see vv. This repetition of an un 13, 1 6. accustomed word, when it has been once used, is illustrated by the re currence of fvorrjs, vv. 3, 13. 8. dib Ae y] The exact phrase
recurs in v 14. "We find /ecu iraXiv Aeyet, following yfypcnrrai, in Rom. xv 10 ; corn p. also 2 Cor. vi 2, Gal. iii 1 6. may supply 77 ypa^, as in

culine

intended throughout but eVi irdvToiv at once admits of the wider reference, see Rom. ix 5 quoted
is
:

We
is

probably be right in refusing to limit the Apostle s meaning. Not indeed that this one 7 13. ness implies uniformity of endowment or of function. On the contrary, to each individual in varying measures by the gift of Christ has been en trusted the grace which I have already spoken of as entrusted to me. The distribution of gifts is involved in the When very fact of the Ascension.
;

above

and we

shall

Rom. xii and


native

elsewhere, if a

nomi

required.

(Ixviii)

dvapds] In the LXX of Ps. Ixvii 19 the words are: Am/Sas els c\av\lsos T^/iaXcorevfras atx/zaAaxri
aj>,

ftes So/xara fv dvdpcoTrots


*

The

(dvOpamat B* ). Psalmist pictures to himself a

He

gifts.

ascended, we read, He gave He, the All-fulfiller, descended to ascend and He it is that gave
:

apostles, prophets, evangelists, pastors

and teachers
for unity
:

to

fit

a rich variety, but all the members of the

triumphal procession, winding up the newly-conquered hill of Zion, the figure being that of a victor, taking possession of the enemy s citadel, and with his train of captives and spoil following him in the triumph.... In the words following, Hast received gifts among men, the Psalmist alludes to the tribute offered either by the van quished foes themselves, or by others who come forward spontaneously to

holy people to fulfil their appropriate service, for the building of the body of the Christ, until we all reach the goal of the consciously realised unity, which cannot be reached while any are left behind the full-grown Man,

own the
pp. 194

victor,

(Driver, /Sermons
f.).

and secure his favour on the O. T., 1892,

St Paul makes two alterations in the text of the LXX (i) he changes the verbs from the second person to
:

12

i8o
9

EPISTLE TO THE EPHESIANS.


oe

[IV

9,

10

TO

ANCBH

TL e&Tiv
7775
;

el
I0

OTL KCCI KaT/3rj ek TO. fuiri d KaTa/3ds CCVTOS Kal


<TTLV

6 dvapas vTrepavu)

Ttov ovpavwv, iva


T^r[\ + irp&rov

the third,
rols
dvOpto-rrois.

(2)

he reads

dvQpaTTOis for eXa/Sej

Sofiara

eV

Accordingly of the two

words which he selects to comment on, dvaftas and edoxef, the second is entirely absent from the original of
the text.

earth or the parts below the earth a matter of indifference, as in either case the underworld is the region in question. The descent is to the lowest, as the ascent is to the highest, that nothing may remain unis

The explanation

is

thus
:

visited.
10. aVTOS (TTIV K.T.X.] He it IS that also ascended* so in v Kal
:

197 f.) St Paul is not here following the genuine text of the Psalm, but is in all probability guided by an old Jewish interpretation with which he was familiar, and which, instead of received gifts among men, para
(ibid. pp.

given by

Dr Driver

above , not see the note on i 21.


TrdvTOiv
TO>V

far

above

ovpava>v\
1 .

all

heavens

or

all the

heavens

The

plural ov-

phrased gave gifts to men.... The Targum on the Psalms renders "Thou ascendedst up to the firma ment, prophet Moses, thou tookest captives captive, thou didst teach the words of the law, thou gavest them as
gifts to

pavoi, which,

though not classical, is frequent in the New Testament, is generally to be accounted for by the fact that the Hebrew word for heaven is only used in the plural. But certain passages, such as the present and
2 Cor. xii 2
eicos

the children of men" The Peshito Syriac likewise has: Thou didst ascend on high and lead capti
.

rplrov ovpavov (comp.

vity captive, the sons of

and didst give gifts to men For other ex


.

imply the Jewish series of heavens, rising one above the other.
also
iv
14),

Heb.

doctrine

of a

seven-fold

For
in

this doctrine,

and

for its history

amples of the influence of traditional Jewish interpretations in St Paul s


writings, see

the

Christian
S.

Heaven by Dr

Church, see art. D. F. Salmond in

Dr

Driver s

art. in

the

Expositor, 1889,
9.
KaTefirj ]
irp<0rov,

vol. ix, pp.

20 ff.

For the addition of see the note on various read

ings.

The Hastings Bible Dictionary. descent and ascent of the Beloved through the Seven Heavens are de picted at length in the Ascension of Isaiah (on which see my art. in the
same
dictionary).

So far as the Greek concerned, it might be allow able to explain this as meaning this lower earth But the contrast vTrep/carcortpa]
is

alone

The context, which de scribes the descent to the lowest and the ascent to the highest regions,
ir\T)pvo-Tj]

ava>

T&V ovpav&v

is

interpretation.

And

against such an the phrase is

Hebraistic, that of Ps.


is TO.

and

Ixii (Ixiii)

closely parallel to 10 etVeXevo-owcu

suggests the literal meaning of filling with His presence: the universe comp. Jer. xxiii 24 ou^t TOV ovpa

vov KOI
Kvpios.

rrjv

Karomzra

rfjs yfjs, i.e.

Sheol, or
TTJS

But
its

TrX^pco ; \4yei in view of the use of the


yfjv
eya>

Hades; and of
I

Ps. cxxxviii (cxxxix)

verb and

substantive in this epistle


,

5 fV TOtS KaTGOTOTOlS

(B

KaTQ>Ta.T(i>)

fit.

Whether we
*

as signifying

interpret the phrase the lower parts of the

fulfilment it would be unwise to limit the meaning here. He who is Himself all in all fulfilled *
in the sense of

IV
TO,

ii,

12]
11

EPISTLE TO THE EPHESIANS.


Kal
CCI/TOS e A co K
N

l8l

Trvra.
Se
/ecu

TOI)S

fjiev

dTrocrTO/Vous,

TO us

TOVS TTpcHptiTas,
ia

TO 19
7T|Oos

e TTOt-

TOV KaTapTLcrjJLOV
The term
evange

at the same time the fulfiller things that are, whether in heaven or on earth. may not lose sight of the Apostle s earlier words in
(i

23)

is

of

all

We

denotes those who are specially engaged in the extension of the


lists

TO.

Travra ev

T<

ra
TTJS
yrjs.

The

rot? ovpavols /cat ra eVi local terminology of

Gospel to new regions. It is found again only in Acts xxi 8, 2 Tim. iv 5. iroiaevas] Used only here of Christ
ian teachers, though it is applied to our Lord in Heb. xiii 20, i Pet. ii 25

descent,

ascent,

and omnipresence

thus gains its spiritual interpretation. II. He it is avTos edvKfv K.T.\.] 1 that gave some for apostles etc. Compare i Cor. xii 28 Kal ovs pev

and v 4
1 1, 14.

0TO

6fOS
,

T7J

KK\rj(ria

TTpatTOV

(dpxiiroiprjv); comp. John x Comp. also the use of iroiuaiveiv in John xxi 16, Acts xx 28, i Pet. v 2, Jude 12. It suggests the feeding, protection and rule of the
flock.

is

devTfpov TrpotpT/ray, K.T.\. here used, because the


eS<o/c

commenting on the The So/zara dofiara of his quotation. of the ascended Christ are some of them apostles, some prophets, and so forth. With avrbs eduKev compare
Apostle
is

Teachers are joined Mao-KaXovs] with prophets in Acts xiii i, and they follow them in the list in i Cor. xii 28 but we have no other refer ence to them as a class, except in
;

Rom.
X/a).

xii 7 (o diddcrKoWj

TTJ

StSaovca-

avTos

ceding

KCU 6 dvaftds in the verse.


(TTiv
*
.

pre

also

and teachers mentioned in the Didache


Prophets

are
c. 1 5

Apostles already been spoken of as the foundation of the Divine house (ii 20), and as those members of the holy people to whom the mystery of the Christ is primarily revealed (iii 5). Under the term apostles no doubt the Twelve and St Paul are chiefly referred to: but that the designation was not confined to them

aTrooToXovs. .TrpocpTjras]

and prophets

have

in the exposition). The pastors and teachers are here sepa rated from the foregoing and linked together by the bond of a common

(quoted

It is probable that their sphere of activity was the settled congregation, whereas the apostles, prophets and evangelists had a wider
article.

range.

TL&IV

was shewn by Lightfoot (Gal. pp. 95 f.), and has since been illustrated by the mention of apostles in the Didache. Prophets are referred to in Acts xi 27 f. (Agabus and others), xiii i, xv 32 (Judas and Silas), xxi 9 (prophet
esses),

The verb Karapdiscussed by Lightfoot on i Thess. iii 10 (Notes on Epp. p. 47). He illustrates its prominent idea of
12.

Karaprioytoi/]

is

fitting

together

by

its classical

use

for

10

Cor. xii 28, xiv

296*".

For the prominent place which they


hold in the Didache, see the exposi tion. For a discussion of both terms
I

reconciling political factions, and its use in surgery for setting bones. In the New Testament it is used of bringing a thing into its proper condition, whether for the
first

time

lapse.

or, as more commonly, Thus we have (i) Heb.

after
xi 3

must

refer to
,

my

articles

Apostle

Prophet BiUica.

in

the

Encyclopaedia

KaTT)pri(r0ai TOVS alatvas pijp.aTi 0fov, xiii 21 KarapTia-ai -upas ev Travrl dya6(c
et?

ro

irotfjcrat.

TO

tfe

Xi/jua auroiJ, I

Pet.

82

EPISTLE TO THE EPHESIANS.

[IV 13

dyitov ek epyov Sta/ccmas, ek OLKO^OJJLYIV TOV TOV YOKTTOV, I3 yU6V/oi K.aTavTri(ru>u.ev ol


V IO
(2)

TV]V

KaTapTicret,

o-nypit-ei,
i

o-6eva>o~i:

literally,

Mark

nets in order ; restoration of an offender, Gal. vi I KarapTi^eTe TOIOVTOV, and of the rectifi cation of short-comings, i Thess. iii 10
Ka.TapTL<rai

of putting metaphorically, of
19,

of any service which the saints render to one another, or to the Body of which they are members, or (which is

the same thing) to the Lord


their Head.

who

is

The phrase

els

epyov diaKOvias is

TO. TJcrrepT^iara rfjs

TTIOTCWS

vpaiv. The sense of restoration prevails in 2 Cor. xiii 9 rovro KOI evxopeQa, TTJV
,

most naturally taken as dependent on The change of preposi Ka.TapTicrp.6v.


tions (irpos...els) points in this direc tion, but is not in itself conclusive:

which
v.
ra>

in
Karr]pTi(rp.evoi

followed by ii: in i Cor. i 10


is
aura>

ev

VOL follows

the mention of a^iV/iara. For the form see Clem. Strom, iv 26 (P. 638) TOV o-wTrjpos Karapnoyzw
ra>

TfXfiovpevov
i

and
to

Swete Introd.

LXX
rpo7ro>i>

comp.

Aristeas,
544, irpbs
^apTio~[J.6v.

dyvfjv eirio~Ke ^fiv KOI

In this passage KarapTio-^os sug gests the bringing of the saints to a condition of fitness for the discharge of their functions in the Body, without
implying restoration from

the absence of the definite articles however, with the consequent com pactness of the phrase, is strongly confirmatory of this view. The mean for the complete ing accordingly is equipment of the saints for the work of service building rather than olKodon^v] edification for the picturesqueness of the metaphor must be pre
: .
:

served.
...avt-ei,

Comp. ii 21 Trao-a oiKobonrj and the note there. The

a disor

dered

state.

phrase els otKo5o/ii)</ *c.r.X. gives the general result of all that has hitherto

els epyov dtaKovias] The nearest parallel is 2 Tim. iv 5 epyov TTOITJO-OV fvayyf\io~Tov (for epyov TriVreeoy in

been spoken of; as in


is

v. 16,

where

it

repeated.

2 Thess.
faith
,

ii is
i

activity inspired

by

comp.
is
els

Thess.

sense here
if

much more

3): but the general than

we had

/a is

epyov SiciKovfov. the action of a servant who waits at table, etc.:

13. KaTavr^cro)fj,v] This verb is used nine times in the Acts, of travellers reaching a place of destination. Other wise it is confined in the New Testa ment to St Paul. In i Cor. xiv 36 it y is contrasted with f^e\6elv: rj d(p

vpMV

6 \6yos TOV 6eov


KamjvTTja-ev
;

^f)\6evy
(

f)

els

comp. Luke x 40, xvii 8, xxii 26 f., Acts vi i f. But it has the same * extension as our word service*, and it was at once applied to all forms of
Christian ministration.

vfias povovs

were you

its starting-point,

or were you its only destination? ): see also i Cor. x els ovs ra T\rj Kcmjv-

ra>v

ala>va>v

>,

Thus

77

8iaTTJV

PhiL

iii 1 1 e i

iras KdTavnjcra) els

Kovia TOV \6yov is contrasted with 77 in Acts VI I, 4. Ka0r)fj.epivt) $L(iKovia

And it is used with a wide range extending from the work of the apostolate (Acts i 17, 25, Rom. xi 13) to the informal service to the saints to which the household of Stephanas had appointed themselves (els fitaxoviav Tols dytois erat-av eavTovs
I

Unity is our journey s end, our destination. all of us together ol frdvres] i.e. As often in the phrase ra navra, when it means the universe of things , the definite article gathers all the particulars under one view: comp.
eavao~racriv K.T.\.
.

Cor.
it

xvi

15).

Here we may

interpret

RonL xi 32 <rvvcKketo~ev yap 6 6ebs TOVS ircanas fls direifliav Iva TOVS irdvras Af77077, I Cor. X 17 OTt els &PTOS, ev

IV

14]

EPISTLE TO THE EPHESIANS.


Trjs TritrTews

183

eVOTTf]

Kal
el

Ttjs
ri\iK.ias
jU.rjK6Tl
tdfJL6V

6eov, ek av$pa TeXeiov, TOV


01 rroXXoi eV/zei/, ol

TOV vtov TOV TOV

cp<3/ia

yap

iravTes CK

TOV evos apTov pfTexopev. els... eh... els] The three clauses are co-ordinate. In accordance with the general rule KCLTCLVTCLV is followed by els to indicate destination.

so here, in the next verse, we have by way of contrast Iva ^KCTI


dvrfp
:

co/u,ei/

v^moi. It is specially to

be observed that
els

St Paul does not say


ovs,

avdpas r\ei-

See above, on

v. 3.

though even Origen incidentally so interprets him (Cramer Catena,

Comp. /iia TTiWiy, V. 5. Both TTtoTetos and eiriyvao fas are to be taken with the following genitive
TOV vlov TOV Beov comp. Gal. ii 20 cv The THO-ret TTJ TOV VlOV TOV 0OV.
:
o>

ad

loc. y p.

171).

Out of the imma

turity of individualism (I^TTIOI), we are to reach the predestined unity of

the one full-grown T\lOv).


*

Man

(els

av8pa

unity springs from a

common

faith in,

/le rpoi/]

the

and a common knowledge as the Son of God.


eViyj/coo-etos]

of,

Christ
full

of

the

full

measure measure

in the sense
;

as
II.

in

the

knowledge
:

not

phrases p.Tpov fifths Horn. p.Tpov, Solon iv 52.


cro<pir]s

xi 225,

further knowledge see the de tached note on fafyv&cns. TOV vlov TOV 6eov] St Paul s first

or

TTJS

ijXiKi as

is

To peTpov quoted by Wetstein

from Lucian Imag. 6 and PhilostraSoph, i 25, 26, p. 543. A stage of growth, whether measured by age or stature. It is used for maturity in the phrase i7\cKtoy fyfiv (John ix 21, as also in classical Greek). We cannot separate ir\T)pctfj.aTos ] the fulness of the Christ in this passage from the statement in i 23 that the Christ is being fulfilled and finds His fulness in the Church. When all the saints have come to the unity which is their destined goal, or, in other words, to the full-grown Man, the Christ will have been ful
iJXt/c/as]

tus, Vit.

preaching at Damascus is thus de scribed in Acts ix 20, eK^pva-a-tv TOV t Ir)O*OVV oYl OVTOS O~TIV 6 vloS TOV @OV. In his earliest epistle we have the Divine sonship mentioned in con i nexion with the resurrection Thess. i IO dvafifvctv TOV vlov avTov K TWV j/e/cpwj/, TUV ovpavwv, ov rjyeipcv Ijyo-oOi/, K.T.X.: and this connexion is
:
e<

emphasised in Rom.
TOS vlov 6eov ev
e

3 TOV 6pto~0ev-

Kara TTVvp.a dvacrrao-f&s vcKpnv. On the special point of the title in the
dvvd[j.ci

present context see the exposition. av&pa] The new human unity is in St Paul s language efs KCUVOS avQpnTTOS (ii 15). Here, however, he uses dvfjp Tf\ toy, because his point is the maturity of the full-grown organism. Man as distinguished from angels or the lower animals is avtipviros. He is dvrip as distinguished either (a) from woman, or (b) from boy. It is in view of this last distinction that dvrip is here used, to signify a human being grown to manhood . Comp. i Cor.
xiii

Thus they will have together reached the full measure of the ma turity of the fulness of the Christ . 1416. So shall we be babes no
filled.

and swung round by shifting winds, the sport of clever and unscrupulous in
longer, like little boats tossed
structors ; but

we

shall hold the truth

in love,

and so grow up into the


:

II

ore

\pr\v

VTJ7rios...oTf

yeyova

Christ. He is the Head from Him the whole Body, an organic unity articulated and compacted by all the joints of its system, active in all the

84

EPISTLE TO THE EPHESIANS.

[IV 14

Kat TrepifyepojuLevoi TTCLVTI dvefjitp Trjs ev Trj Kvfiia TWV ev Travovpyia irpos TY\V juedodvOpcoTrcov
functions of its several parts, grows with its proper growth and builds itself in love .
14.
xiii
iii

Origen ad
of which

loc.

uses the expression

KvftevTLKws 8i8da-Kiv, for the

meaning
Gels, iii

we may compare
KCLL

c.

VIJTTIOI]

In addition to

Cor.

39 OVC)V VO&OV
TrXacrfjifvov

KvfteVTlKOV KCU 7T-

I Cor. OVK qdvvrjdrjv \a\f)<rai vplv coy cos Trvfvfj.aTiKo is dXX* crapKivois, co?
I f.

n, quoted above, compare

Kai

Travovpyov e^ovrtov (of

the Evangelists).
rcov
dvQpayjra>v\

jTjiriois ev Xpicrrco

yd\a

Vfias eTroricra,

ciatory use of 01
Col.
ii

av6pa>Troi

similar depre is found in

ov

/3p<5/ia,

OVTTCO -yap

fbvvavOc.

K\vda>vi6p.cvoi]

Comp.

Luke

viii

passages

24

TU>

dvCfJiO)
i

KCU TCO K\v8(i)Vl TOV


6

James
K\vdcavL

yap

8iaKptv6p,fvos
di/eju.ib/neyco

6a\dcrcrr]s
"When

KOI

puriopfv<a.

used metaphori * cally K\vda)v is storm rather than *wave : comp. Demosth. de feds. leg.
p.

the latter of which based on Isa. xxix 13. In classical Greek iraviravovpyia] * ovpyos, which originally means ready to do anything , has a better and a worse meaning, like our word cun
8,

22,

is

ning in biblical English. The better meaning is found e.g. in Plato Rep.

442

K\vd<ova

KOI

paviav

TO.

<a6e-

409 C

TTctvovpyos

re

KCU

crocpos.

It

crrrjKOTa

TT

paypara

qyovp-evoov, Philo

de

congr. erud. grat. 12 (M. 528) crdXov KOI K\vd(ova rroXvv dub TOV
evdfanfvr), Plut.
V
^Ct/iCOVt

prevails in the LXX, where the word is used to render Dl"iy, of which (ppovi-

Coriol. 32
KO.I

TToXXcS

K\vd(0Vl

TTJS

So we find the verb used in Josephus Ant. ix 1 1 3, o dfjfjios rapao-TroXccos.


<r6p.vos

KCU

K\v$a>vi6iJ.vos.

7Tfpi<pep6pfvoi\

i.e.

swung round.

It

occurs, but only as an ill-attested variant for 7rapa<pe peer#ai to be carried


aside, out of course
,

both in Heb.

xiii

9 (diba^als
(pfpfcrOe),

TroiKtXais KCU

evais pr) irapa(i/e<peXcu

and

in

Jude 12

avvbpoi. VTTO dveficov irapafpfpofievai). iravrl dvefjLQ)} This is to be taken

pos is another equivalent comp. Prov. xiii I vibs iravovpyos vtr^Koos The only place where the ad TrarpL jective occurs in the New Testament is 2 Cor. xii 16, where St Paul play fully uses it of himself, virapx^v iravovpyos vpas eXa/3oi>. St Luke uses Travovpyia of the craftiness of our Lord s questioners in reference to the tribute-money, thus hinting at the cleverness with which the trap was laid, whereas St Mark and St Matthew employ harsher words (viroKpicris,
:

86\q>

TTovripia).

with both participles the K\VCJOV is due to the avepos, as in Luke viii 23 f. the rfjs dicjaa-KoXias] of doctrine article marks the abstract use of the word. Kvfiia] playing with dice (/cv/3oi),
:

v 13 in

Cor.

In his quotation from Job iii 19 St Paul renders

DlO^n by fv T7J iravovpyiq avrcov, where the LXX has *v rfj (ppovrjcrci In 2 Cor. xi 3 he says o ocpts CLVT&V.
~Evav ev rfi Travovpyia avrov, referring to Gen. iii i, where Dliy is represented in the LXX by <poi>i/icoVact-Tjndrrjcrev

* *

gaming , and so, metaphorically, Ev is instrumental: by trickery the sleight of men Kvficveiv is used in the sense of to cheat in Arrian
. . 3

ros.

Lastly,
prj

we

find the

word

in 2

Cor. iv 2,
yia
p.r)de

TrepiTrarovvTCs ev Travovp )0\ovvTfS TOV \6yov TOV 6eov.

Epictet.

xxxiv

19 28. Epiphanius Haer. describes Marcus as pa-yiKrjs


ii

vTrapx<*>v

21 says that

Kvfieias fpTreiporaTos, and ibid. no KvfievrtKr) eirlvoia can

There it is the context which deter mines that a bad cleverness is meant. In our present passage Origen links
the

word

with

eWpe^eta,
.

another
clever-

stand

against

the

light

of

truth.

word

for cleverness

But the

IV

is,

16]

EPISTLE TO THE EPHESIANS.


r\dvrjs,
\

185

*5

d\rj6evovTes
*f

I
<

ev

yaTrrj

TO, TravTa,

os e(TTiv

rj

ov Trdv TO
ness
is

(rcojULa

(rvvapfjioXoyoviJLevov
reference,

Kai crvvfiipa^o-

condemned by

its

found in the

New

Testament.

The

Trpbs TT)v p.eOoo ia.v rrjs ir\dvr)s. p.ffloo iav] Comp. vi 1 1 ras

rov 6\a/3oXov.

MetfoS/a

and

come from pedodos, which is originally a way of search after something, and
so an inquiry (used e.g. by Plato of a scientific investigation), and so * ultimately method . The verb favfiv, however, came to have a bad to employ craft , sense, to scheme Polyb. xxxviii 4 10. In the T/ET it is so used in 2 Sam. xix 27 fiedatdevcrfv 6 dov\6s 0-ov. No other instance of ftedodia is cited but for p.edodos in the bad sense see Plut. Moral. 176 A, Artemid. Oneir. iii 25, Cone. Ancyr. I. In all the passages where TrXavrjs] it occurs in the New Testament rrXdvij will bear the passive meaning, error/, * though the active meaning, deceit ,
p<-6o-

large meaning of d\^6fia in the Christ ian vocabulary, and especially the immediate contrast with TrAaw? in this passage, may justify us in the render

ing given above. The clause must not be limited to mean being true in your love , or dealing truly in love . fv d-yaTT?/] For the frequent repeti tion of this phrase in the epistle, see the notes on i 4, iii 17. Truth and love are here put forward as the twin conditions of growth.
(

TO.

TrdvTa.]

in all things

,
:

in all

com entirely pare the adverbial use of TO. iravra tV Tracnv in i 23.
respects, wholly

and

would sometimes be equally appro There is no reason therefore priate. for departing from the first meaning of the word, wandering from the way , and so, metaphorically, error ,
as opposed to truth . Here it stands in sharp contrast with aXrjfavovres. It seems best to take irpbs rrjv
p,fdodiav rfjs 7r\dvr]s in close connexion with fv Travovpyia, which otherwise would be strangely isolated. The pre

os foriv] This introduces a new thought, by way of supplement the position of els avrbv before ra travra shews that the former sentence is in a sense complete. feel the difference, if for the moment we transpose the phrases and read avgijra iravra els avrov, os eariv r) such an arrangement would practically give us the phrase av^:

We

K*<l>a\r)

(ro>fjLV

fls rrjv

KffpaXyv,

which Would

almost defy explanation. Similarly in Col. ii 10 eV avry is separated by


TrfTrXrjptofjievoi

from

os

(rTivf

which
after

position Trpos will then introduce the standard of reference, somewhat as in Gal. 11 14 OVK 6p6o7To8ovoriV TTpOS TTJV
a\rj6eiav
*

again introduces a the sentence has

new thought

been practically
parallel
rrjv
ra>v

completed.
1 6.

rov

evayyeXiov.

We may

passage,
Kf(f>a\r)V t

ov] Col.
e

Compare the
ii

19

ov

Kparwv
dta

render, by craftiness in accordance with the wiles of error .


1 5.
.

ov

TTCLV

rb
eT

crco/ia

d(pwv KOI

<rvvdf(rp,(i)i>

dXriOcvovrcs]

maintaining the
.

vfi

rrjv avrjcriv

truth The Latin version renders, t ueritatem autem facientes The verb need not be restricted to truth fulness in speech, though that is its obvious meaning in Gal. iv 16 coo-re
exdpbs vfiav ycyova aXrjdcvow vplv ; the only other place where it is

rov 6cov. Here, however, the inser tion of Xpioros in apposition to /ce(fraXj gives us a smoother construc
tion.

not

This word does occur in the parallel passage. Its presence here is doubtless due
<Tvvapfj.o\oyov[jLfvov\

86

EPISTLE TO THE EPHESIANS.


Trdcrrjs d(prj$ Trjs
K.OLT

[IV 16

pevov Sia

evepyeiav ev

to its having been used in the meta phor of the building in ii 21. See the detached note on o-wapnoXoyelv. In CoL il 2 crvvcrvv{:ii(3a6p,j>ov]
fitpao-Gevres

and even of
Alcib.
2.

his gripping arms, Id.

ed as and in
,

it

probably means instruct does in the LXX. But here * Col. ii 19 it means united .
is

That dtprj in the sense of a band or ligament may have been a term of ancient physiology is suggested by an entry in Galen s lexicon of words used by Hippocrates (Gal. xix p. 87) dcpds
:

In classical Greek it

commonly used

of bringing together or reconciling persons. It is possible that in its

present context it is a term borrowed from the medical writers.


a<f)rjs]

from it seems clear that the word could be used in the general sense of a band

Trapa TO ax/mi, i.e. bands, the verb to bind . At any rate

The word

mpjf

has

very

Besides its com use (i) for touching touch and a point of contact from aVrojuai, it also signifies (2) from kindling OTTTO) in a special sense, (3) sand as a technical term of the arena (see my note on Passio Perpet. 10), (4) a plague often in the LXX. None of these senses suits the present context or the parallel in Col. ii 19 nav TO
various meanings.

mon

or fastening (from aTrrco), and that we need not in our explanation of St Paul s language start from dcpij in the sense of touch Lightfoot indeed, in his note on Col. ii 19, adopts the latter course, and seeks to bridge the gulf by means of certain passages of Aristotle. But
.

a$jf

Aristotle again and again contrasts cohe contact* with


o~i>fj.<j>vo-is

most important of the passages cited he is not speaking


sion
;

and

in the

dta

TO>V

dfpwv
KCU

KOI

For in both places the function assigned to the afyai is that of hold ing the body together in the unity which is necessary to growth. But the word has another sense which connects it with aWeo, I fasten or tie . The wrestler fastens on his a<v*ror opponent with a comp.
a<p^
:

of living bodies, but of certain dia phanous substances, which some suppose to be diaphanous by reason of certain pores ; de gen. et corr. i 8 (p. 326) OVTC yap Kara Tas d(pas (i.e. at the points of contact ) e

In
appears to

fact

in

Aristotle

d(pij

mean touching without

joining
(p.

Plut.

Anton. 27
a>i>

a<f>r)V

ft^ev

77

(TW-

a(pvKTov, moral. 86 P eZ /3XaraXXa KCU dvo~pcTax(ipio~ro?


dcprjv evdidaxriv ai/rov,

Dion.

hence e.g. in de caelo i 12 , 280) he argues that contact can cease to be contact without <0opo. C then may be interpreted as a general term for a band or fastening,
A<PT;

H. deDem. 18
vfjs

Xe

ea>s

rois dSXrjTals rfjs d\T)6ifrrgvp&f Tas irpocrflvai


d(f>as

8fl KOI dcpvKTovs ras Xa/3ay.

The word,

which possibly may have been used in the technical sense of a ligament, and which in Col. ii 19 is elucidated
through being linked by the vinculum of a common definite article with ovv&etrpas, a recognised physiological
term.
mxoprjyias] The word occurs again in PhiL i 19 8ui TTJS vpatv o~fijcra>s KOI f7rt^op?; yiaff TOV TTvevpaTos ITJ&OV Xpwr<

together with some kindred wrest ling terms, was used of the union of the Democritean atoms Plut. Moral. Kal 769 F TOLS /car ETTtKovpov
:

d<pais

TreptTrXofcaTs,

A then.
in the

comp.

Damoxenus
find
C/Z/LUZ

op.

IO2E

Kal a~vfjL7r\KOfj.evTjs ov^t

crvfj.(p(0vovs

d(f>ds.

We

used

same sense of the wrestler s

TO,

grip, Plut. Fab. 23

a^ara

*a\ Xa/3a?,

through your prayer and the supply of the Spirit of Jesus Christ .

IV

EPISTLE TO THE EPHESIANS.

187

Commentators are wont to explain it as meaning an abundant supply , thus


a it from ^oprjyia, But this interpretation of supply the preposition in this word, as in to be sub ciriyvtocris, does not appear
differentiating
.

stantiated by usage.

The xoprjyos supplied the means of putting a play on the Athenian stage. The verb xPW" t soon came to mean to furnish or supply in the widest sense. little later the compound verb fmxoprjye iv was similarly used. There is a tendency in later Greek to

are the conditions of growth on which the Apostle is insisting. Aristotle, who does not employ the compound forms, frequently uses iy xoprjyflv and xP r ia i Q contrast with and (pvo-Lf. In Pol. iv I 7Tf<j)vKevai (p. 1288) he says that education has two pre-requisites, natural gifts and fortunate circumstances, cpucri? and Xoprjyia Tv\r)pa (a provision or equip

ment which depends on fortune). The best physical training will be


that which is adapted to the body best framed by nature and best pro vided or equipped (KoAAiora TTC^VKOTI
KOI

compound to simple verbs, probably for no other cause than the


prefer

greater fulness of sound. The force of the preposition, before it ceased to be felt, was probably that of direction, to supply to compare the Latin compounds with sub, such as supplere, subministrare and see 2 Cor. ix IO o 8e eirtxoprjy^v <rirfp[i.a (Tirfipovri, Gal. iii 5 o ovv TO irvcvpa. Even vfjiiv additional allowances in means Athen. Deipnosoph. iv 8 (p. 1400), this
: :
r<5

1295).

KtxP rryrll * V(?) So again,


JL

vii

comp. iv ii (p. 4 (p. 1325) ou


yevecrBaL
xoprj-ytay,
TTJV

yap olov
dpio-TT)V

TC

TroXiTfiav
o~vp.fJ.fTpov

(p.

13 1331) detrai yap nal ^opr/yt a? TWOS TO rjv KaXeor, Eth. NlC. X 8 (p. 1178) av [17 TOV vov apcTrj] ical TTJS Soeie CKTOS xoprj-yiW ewi fiiKpov rj eV eXarrov
8fio-0ai TTJS jdiKrjs,
1 1 1 (p.

avev

KaXvfi
iKavws

Ae-yeti/ fv8ai(j.ova
<a\

I I0l) TI ovv TOV Kar dpfTrjv

T\fiav evepyovvra

Tols CKTOS dyadois

does not prove a corresponding use for the other compounds and in any * case an additional supply is some thing quite different from an abun dant supply . The present passage must be read in close connexion with Col. ii 19, where <re5/Aa...e7rt^op7you/tfj/oJ/ offers a use of the passive (for the person supplied ) which is also commonly found with ^opj/yeio-^at. But in what sense is the body supplied by means
:

K*T.\.; and many more instances might be quoted. The

KfxP r]yr]p * vov

it

limitation to a supply of food, where occurs, comes from the context, and does not belong to the word itself,

which

is

almost

KaTao-Kfvj,

and

differs

synonymous with from it mainly

by suggesting that the provision or equipment is afforded from outside and not self-originated. This general meaning of provision or equipment is in place here. The body may properly be said to be
together, by

its bands and ligaments? It is usual to suppose that a supply of nutriment is intended, and the men tion of growth in the context appears to bear this out. But we cannot imagine that the Greek physicians held that nutriment was conveyed by the bands and ligaments, whose func tion is to keep the limbs in position and check the play of the muscles (Galen iv pp. 2 f.). Nor is there any reference to nutriment in the context of either passage: order and unity

of

equipped or furnished, as well as held means of its bands and


ligaments; and accordingly we may speak of every band or ligament of its equipment or furniture The rendering of the Geneva Bible (1560), if a little clumsy, gives the true sense by euerie ioynt, for the furni ture thereof. But as the word equip does not belong to biblical English, we must perhaps be content with the rendering, l by every joint of its supply \ The Latin renders, per
. :

188

EPISTLE TO THE EPHESIANS.


eves eKacTTOv /uepovs TYIV av^rjcriv oiKo^ofJiriv avTOv ev dyaTrrj.

[IV 17

TOV

Kai /mapTvpojuai ev Kvpiw, TrepLTraTetv Kadcos Kai TO. e6vr] TrepiTraTel ev

ovv

Xeyw

omnem iuncturam [some


rities

O.L. autho have tactum\suhministrationis\ which adequately represents the ori


KOT cvepyeiav] These words are to be taken closely with eV evos Kao~Tov pepovs. For the further de finition of an anarthrous substantive by a prepositional clause, comp. v. 14
/*erpo>

and

ginal.

fv Travovpyia Trpos TTJV fjifdodiav rrjs It is just possible that we 7T\dvr)s. are here again in presence of a tech

This then is my meaning solemn protestation. Your conduct must no longer be that of the Gentile world. They drift without a purpose in the darkness, strangers to the Divine life ; for they are igno rant, because their heart is blind and dead: they have ceased to care what they do, and so have surrendered themselves to outrageous living, de

1724.

my

term of Greek physiology. nical Galen (de facult. natural, i. 2, 4, 5) work distinguishes between epyov,
working

filing their own bodies and wronging others withal. How different is the lesson you have learned: I mean, the

and eWpyeta, the , function the process , impulse that produces the evcpyeia being Swapis. The meaning would
done
,

result

the message you the school of your instruction ? In the person of Jesus you have truth embodied. And the
Christ
:

for

is

not
to,

He

have listened

accordingly be function in the


several part
,

in accordance with
full

purport of your lesson is that you must abandon the old life once and for all ; you must strip off the old man, that

measure of each

as each part duly fulfils its proper function . At the same time we must not lose sight of the

strong meaning of eVpyeia in St Paul see the detached note on evfpyelv and
:

outworn and perishing garment fouled by the passions of deceit you must renew your youth in the spiritual centre of your being you must clothe yourselves with the new man, God s fresh creation in His own image,
:

its

cognates.
avgrjo-iv
K.r.A.]

rrjv

increase of the l>ody\ of the nominative, irav TO is the cause of the redundant TOV a-apa.?. All that was required was avgfi, but the resolved phrase lends a further
o-<5/ia,

maketh the The distance

fashioned in righteousness and holi ness which spring from truth


.

impressiveness
els
ol<o8oij.r)v

comp. CoL
i

ii

19

aei

ing thereof.

unto the build recurs to the meta phor which he has already so used in V. 12 (ets otKodofjLTjv TOV (rco/xaros), and
O.VTOV]

He

pap pofjiai] / testify or* pro test See Lightfoot on Gal. v 3 and i Thess. ii 1 1 (Notes on Epp. p. 29). v to bear witness and papto be borne witness to are to be distinguished in the New Testa ment, as in classical Greek, from papTvpco-6ai, which means first to call to witness and then absolutely to pro
17.
.

test or asseverate
fv
Kvpi(t>]

See the exposition on

v. i.

has again touched upon in


\oyovfjLfvov.

o-vi/ap/xo-

vp.as]

emphatic, as vp-fls in v. 20. See the note on ii 2.

fv dyanrf] Once again this phrase closes a sentence : see the notes on
i

4,

Hi i?.

alternative reading, has but a weak attesta tion see the note on various readings.
TO.

The

XotTra edvr),
:

IV

8,

19]

EPISTLE TO THE EPHESIANS.


j/oos

189
civoa,
Tr\v

OTYJTL

TOV

avTwv,

Tr

TOV
Trjv

ayvoiav

ovcrav

ev

avTols

TY\V

Trwpaxriv

avTcov,

**dlTtves

aTrrjXyrjKOTes

eavTOVs

dcre\yeia ek epycuriav ctKadapcrias


St Paul s usage varies: (i) they had not ceased to be edvrj as contrasted with loudaiot, Rom. xi 13 vplv Se
Xeya>

7rap6$a)Kav Tracnjs ev
is

ledge because their heart


of perception,
TTtOpCOO
tl/J

incapable
tO

HtOpOXTt?

TTJS Kap($UZ? is

Tols

0veo-iv, also

1 1 ; yet (2) in longer etivrj, I Cor.

6 and Eph. ii a sense they were no

xv

xii 2 oiSare

on

ore

be distinguished from a-K\r]poKap8ia, as obtuseness from obstinacy JSee the additional note on irwpuo-is.
.

e Ovrj rfre K.T.X. Here at any rate the there is a conduct meaning is plain which characterises the Gentile world: that you have done with St Paul uses the word /xaratorjjrt] again only in Rom. viii 20, rfj yap
:

19.

a7ri]\yr] KoYes]
;

feeling

i.e.
(

A.Tra\yelv

They are past they have ceased to care. to cease to feel pain for ,

61) comes to have two mean ings: (i) despair, as in Polyb. i 35 5 TO TreTrrtoKop apdrjv iroXi-

Thuc.

ii

7rpo<j>avas

fjMTaiOTrjTi

It suggests either absence of purpose or failure


rj

KTifris VTTfrayr).

TfVfj.0.

Kal rets a.7rrj\yrjKvias


(sc.

^v^as

ratv

to attain any true purpose:


Eccl.
i

comp.

Vj

militum) CTTI TO Kpelrrov and so elsewhere; (2) reck

2, etc.

We have similar language used of the


Gentile world in
0rjcrav

paTatoTTjs itaTaioTiJTcav.

lessness, Polyb. XVi 12 J TO yap (frao-Kftv evia ev (ptort Tidf^eva fj.rj cra>/zfircoi/
TO>V

Rom.

21,

e/zarata>-

iroiflv cFKiav a7TT]\yr]Kvt.as


i.e.

fo~rl

tyvxrjs,

lv Tols SiaXoyicrjuois ffTKoritrOri T) acrvveros avratv


1 8.

ovres] to

be taken with

dr

such a statement shews a perfectly reckless mind. and Desperation recklessness of most unclean living
(misspelt
xvii) are

XoTpitB/iefoi, as in Col. i 21 KOI -upas To Trore ovras aTTiyXXorpiwfiei ov? K.r.X.

wretchlessness

in Article

join

it with eV/corto/iei/ot would give us a very unusual construction whereas is used almost as a a.7rr)\\oTpia>fj.voi noun, see the note on ii 12. Accord ingly being alienated from the life of God does not imply that they had at one time enjoyed that life it means simply being aliens from it.
;
:

apart.

moods which stand not far The Latin rendering despe-

rantes does not necessarily imply the variant AHHAniKorec (for <MTHA|-H-

KOTGC) which
ao-eXyeia]
is,

is

found in

D 2 (G 3

).

The meaning of

ao-e Xyeta

rfjs

farjs

TOV

0eoi>]

the Divine

life

communicated to man: to this the Gentiles were strangers, for they were For the proclamation of afaoi, ii 12. the Gospel as life see Acts v 20
iravra
TO. prj/iara rfjs
Q>TJS

first, outrageous conduct of any kind then it comes to mean specially a wanton violence; and then, in the later writers, wantonness in the sense of lewdness. See Lightfoot on Gal. v 19: a man may be aKaQapTos and he does not become hide his sin do-\yr}s until he shocks public de
; ;

TCLVTTJS.

cency
if

TTJV ova-av]

This
it

is

not to be taken
of
/

cpyatriav]
ep-yoj/,

From

as emphatic, as

would have to be
avrols.

work

the early meaning in the fields (comp.


,

we

punctuated after

It

introduces the cause of the ignorance. They have no life, because they have no knowledge: and, again, no know

Hesiod s "Epya Kal TJp,epcu) comes fpyda field- labourer as in Matt, ix 37, etc., and Ipyafccr&u, which is properly Ho till the ground The verb is then
TTJS
.

EPISTLE TO THE EPHESIANS.

[IV
e

2022
OVTOV

TOV
Ka
ev
Tea
Ir]<rov,

ev
aa

avTw
a7ro6ecr6aL
i)

ecrTiv
/caret

d\i$eia

TY]V

widened to mean the producing of any result by means of labour. Epyao-ia is used in Acts xvi 16, 19, xix 24 f.
in the sense of business or the gains of business ; and still more generally in

Luke

xii

58

6s

epyao-iav

= da

without further definition; and, as the context does not fix a particular mo ment, they may be rendered in Eng lish either by the simple past tense or, perhaps more naturally, by the
perfect.
21. el ye QVTOV qKovo-are] See the note on iii 2. Ei ye does not imply a doubt, but gives emphasis. It is closely connected with aurov, which
itself is in

operawi) aTr^AXd^^ai In the New Testament cpydeo-0ai, like epyov, is transferred to moral action (as cpydeo-6ai TO dyadov Rom. ii 10, KaKov xiii 10). Here els ipyanrfav Trdo-rjs aKadapffias is a resolved expres sion used for convenience of construc
tion instead of epydeo-dai iravav duaIt means no more than 6apo-iav.

OTT aurou.

indeed

it is

cv auro)]

an emphatic position: if He whom ye have heard in Him as the sphere of


.

instruction; not the instructor.

by

Him

(A. V.)as

in operaperformance or practice tionem omnis immunditiae\ with greediness^ or ev ir\eoveia\


:

KaOas K.r.A.] This clause is ex planatory of the unfamiliar phrase ology which has been used. For T^V
d\ij0eiav pavOdveiv, aKOveiv, ev TTJ d\T]6ela dtodo-Kco-0ai, would present no

rapacity ; i.e. with entire disregard of the rights of others , as Lightfoot

explains

it

in his note

on Col.

iii

5.

UXfovej-ia

often
:

means more than

covetousness irXeoveKTelv is used in the sense of to defraud in the


special

matter
in
i

of

irpdypaTi)

adultery (cv Thess. iv 6. Com

r<5

Truth is found in the per difficulty. son of Jesus, who is the Christ He is Himself the truth (John xiv 6) hence we can be said to learn Him . d\^6eia] In the older MSS no dis
: :

tinction

was made between d\^6eia


:
T<U

menting on
mer,

ev ir\eove%ia

Origen (Cra
TOVS ydpovs
df fv

and
as

ad loc.} says

p-cra TOV ir\ov*KTfiv


17)
a>v

d\rj6eia so that it is possible to read K.a&w$ CO~TLV dXrjdetq, ev Ir/troi),

fKeivovs Se (fors.
vo0vofjifv,

He is in

truth, in Jesus

Or

re

and below aKadapaiav


TTJV fioi^eiav oiojuai ftvat.

ir\ovciq
20.

See

taining the nominative d\ij6eia, and still making o xpicrros the subject, we

further the notes on v

3, 5

below.

may
is

render as

He

is

truth in Jesus

f/za&re] The expression pavhas no exact paral 6dviv TOV lel ; for p.avddvciv is not used with an
xpi<J"r6v

Of these two constructions the former


preferable; but neither suits the context so well as that which has been given above. The clause intro 22. diroQea-QaC] duced by the infinitive is epexegetical of the general thought of the preced ing sentence: this is the lesson that
etc.

accusative of the person who is the object of knowledge. But it may be

compared with other Pauline expres


such as TOV xpicrrov TrapaXa(Col.ii 6), cvftvo-ao-dai (Gal. iii 27), yv&vai (Phil, iii 10), and indeed dxoveiv
sions,
/3eii/

in the next verse, which does not refer to hearing with the bodily ear.

The

aorists at this point are not to

ye have been taught that ye put ATTO&V&U, standing in contrast with cv8vorao-0ai, is equivalent to the direKovo-ao-Oai of the parallel passage,
off"*

be pressed to point to the moment of


conversion:

Col.

iii

>

direKOvardfjievoi

TOV 7ra\atov
/cat

they indicate the past

avdpatirov o~vv rats irpdeo~iv avroi),

IV

23, 24]

EPISTLE TO THE EPHESIANS.

191

dvacrTpo<priv

KCCTO.

ras

av6po)7rov TOV <f>deipo]uevov a3 dvaveovcrBat, Se TW eTTiBv/uiias Trjs ctTraT^s, ^ Kal ev$v(ra(r6ai TOV KCLIVOV TOV voos VJULCOV)

TOV

TraXaiov

TOV KaTa 6eov

KTi<r6evTa

ev

$ucaLO<rvvii

TOV veov. The metaphor that of stripping off one garment to put on another. Compare also Rom. xiii 12 drro&a/ie^a ovv ra pya TOV O-KOTOVS, fvdvO~C0p6a df TO. 6V\a TOV
is

body of our Lord,


24.

Col.

22,

ii
:

ii.

KOTO
is

6eov]

after

God

God

Himself
Gen.
i

the
KCIT

TWOS

after

which the
fTToiycrcv

new man is created. The allusion is to


27
eluova

6eov

dvao~rpo(pTjv\ Trore in ii 35

Comp. &nd for

avTov, the language of which is more closely followed in CoL iii 10 TOV veov
dvao~rpe(pfo~6ai

as a synonym of irfpnraTelv see the

note on
vi 6

ii 2.
av0pa>7rov]

TOV dva.Kaivovp,vov els eTriyvwo iv Kar KTiaavros avTov. For the usual distinction

iraXaiov

Comp.

Rom.

between

OO-IOTTJS

and

ftuuuoov)*},

as

avdpuTros avveIlaXau s stands in contrast a-Tavpatirj. alike to <aiv6s (v. 24), new in the sense
o TraXaioy
T^/XCOV

representing respectively duty to.wards


(Plato, Philo), see Lightfoot s note on i Thess. ii 10 oo-iW KCU dizains (Notes on Epp.
p.

God and duty towards men

of fresh, and to veos (Col. iii 10), new in the sense of young. The old man is here spoken of as <p6fip6p,evos, in process of decay, as well as morally

27
75-

f.).

familiar
i

one

The combination was a comp. Wisd. ix 3, Luke


;

corrupt ; we need in exchange a per petual renewal of youth (dvaveovo-Qai), as well as a fresh moral personality
(/can/or

The interchange avdpoiiros). of tenses deserves attention: diroQtViewed as a change of gar a-ao-dat. ments the process is momentary; viewed as an altered life it is con
tinuous.
23. 7rvvp.aTi TOV voos]

crdai...(p6ipbiJ.(vov. . .dvavfovadai.. .evdv-

d\r]6fias] to be taken with both the preceding substantives, in righteous ness and holiness which are of the truth not as A. V. in righteousness and true holiness There is an im mediate contrast with the lusts of
l ;
.

v.

deceit KOTO. Tas eTTidv/J-ias TTJS dnarris 22 ; just as in v. 15 d\T)6cvovTes stands in contrast with TTJS ir\dvr]s.
,

The mind
(ev
17),

v.

Truth as applied to conduct (see also 21) is a leading thought of this

had been devoid of true purpose


/xaraioTTjn

TOV

voost

V.

for the
TTJV

section, and gives the starting-point for the next.

heart had been dull and dead (Sta


7T(op(t>o~iv

25

V.

2.

TTJS

Kapdias, v.

ritual principle

The spi of the mind must


1 8).

must

strip off the old

have said that you and put on the

acquire a

youth, susceptible of The addition spiritual impressions. of rov voos indicates that the Apostle is speaking of the spirit in the individual in itself dvave ovo~6ai
vp.<uv
:

new

TOJ

TTvcvpaTi would biguous in meaning.

have been

am
com

We may
o-<5/Aa

pare his use of TO in speaking of

TTJS

o-apubs

the

earthly

new, renounce the passions of deceit and live the life of truth. Begin then by putting away lying it is con trary to the truth of the Body that one limb should play another false. See that anger lead not to sin ; if you harbour it, the devil will find a place among you. Instead of steal ing, let a man do honest work, that he may have the means of giving to
:

192
a<5

EPISTLE TO THE EPHESIANS.

[IV
?

2527
i

Aid
M

CLTToGefJievoi
e

TO
AHC
I

->Jsev$os

AAAe

Te

AA H6e AN

6 K

ACTOC

TA
a

TOY
z

TT

AYTOY, OTt

eCT/ULei/

Opri

C0

KAI

MH AMApTA NeTe
vfjiwv, ^imrj^e
sin not

S/SoT6 TOTTOV

Corrupt talk must give way good words, which may build up your corporate life, words of grace in the truest sense: otherwise you will pain the Holy Spirit, the seal of your present unity and your future re demption. The bitter temper must be exchanged for the sweet for kind ness and tenderheartedness and forothers.

to

(but R. V. marg. has Be ye angry ). The Hebrew means literally * tremble so Aquila but it is also used of anger. o tfXtos K.T.A.] Grotius and others cite the remarkable parallel from Plut. de amore fratr. 488 B clra
:
(KAoz>ei<r0e)

pifjielo-Qai

rovs HvdayopiKovs, oi yevet


( more

givingness.

God

in Christ

has for

Here^ovreSf

given

Him,

you all, and you must copy you are His children whom He loves. In* love you too must live, such love as Christ s, which is the
for
.

aAAa KOIVOV Ao-yov Trpoa^delev els AoiSopias vrf opyfjs, irpiv 17 TOV rj\iov dvvai TO.S deias e/ji/SaAAoiTes dAArjAot? Ka!
\ur\6tv

Trpoar/Kovres

aa Trao d/xe^oi die\vovro. For the form of the precept compare Deut. xxiv
15
av6rjfj.pov
(sc.

love of sacrifice
25.

aTToSwo-eip
TrevrjTos}, OVK.
:

TOV

p.t(r6bv

dn-ode/iei/ot]

oOeo-Oai,

v. 22; of the garment is dropped, and the sense is now more general, not put ting off but putting away\ So in Col. iii 8 wvl 8e dirodeo-fle /cat vpsis TO. iravrct, opyijv, K.r.A., before the meta

repeated from oVbut the metaphor

avTOv

TOV

7ri8vo~fTai,

o ffXios

and Evang. Petri and the passages quoted by Dr Swete ad loc. The word does not Trapopyia-p.^] appear to be found outside biblical

eV aurw

2, 5,

phor has been introduced by


o-dpevoi (v. 9).

direit&v-

(pass.) Greek, although 7rapopyi sometimes occurs. In the LXX. it


Co/i<u

We

cannot with pro

priety give the same rendering here and in v. 22, as putting away a gar ment does not in English signify put
ting it off. TO ^evSos]

(with the exception of a variant in A) has an active meaning,

always
4

suggested by rrjs dXrjdeia? in the preceding verse ; but it is used not in its more general sense of falsehood but in the nar rower sense of lying as is shewn by the next words. Comp. John viii
,

The word

is

provocation , whereas napo^o-pos used in the passive sense, indigna tion Trapopyifriv and irapogvveiv are of common occurrence and often ren der the same Hebrew words. Here is the state of feeling irapopyio-fjibs l Hapopyi&iv oc provocation, wrath
is
:

curs below, vi 4. 27. Si Sore TOTTOV]


TOITOV
rfj

44 orav

XaXf) TO -ty-evdos, K.r.A.


*e.r.X.]

AaAetre

An

exact quotation

from Zech. viii 16, except that there we have irpbs rbv for p,era TOV. In
Col.
iii

In Rom. xii 19 Sore the context ( Vengeance is Mine ) shews that the meaning is make way for the Divine wrath . The phrase occurs in Ecclus. iv 5 /*r)
opyrj
Scoff

9 the precept
occurs,

/XT)

^evdca-de els

TOTTOV dv0p(0TT(0 Ka.Tapd(Ta.cr6al ae,

but without the reason here given, which is specially suggested by the thought of this
d\\r)\ovs
epistle. 26. opyi&o-Qe K.T.A.]

XIX 17 8bs TOTTOV po/ico Y^tVrou (give room for it to work), xxxviii 12 /cat
tarpai o*bs TOTTOV (allow
is

him

scope).

It

Ps. iv 4, LXX.

found in the later Greek writers, as in Plutarch, Moral. 462 B Set de


p.f)T

where we render

Stand in awe and

iraifrvTas avrfj (sc.

TTJ

opyrj] St-

IV

28,

29 ]

EPISTLE TO THE EPHESIANS.


jULrjKCTL *
, \

193

TW

iua\\oi

&
e/c

TO

TOV
Trpos

jj.r]

d\\d

ei

Trjs

iva
contrasted with the good fish (ra In these places the word is *aXa). used in the sense of worthless ; and
:

but it is perhaps almost a comp. locum dare (Cic. al.). There is no ground for &a/3oX<u] interpreting this with some of the older commentators as meaning here a slanderer for although the word is not used by St Paul outside this
SoVai TOTTOV
:

Latinism

epistle

and the Pastoral


unmistakeable in
6 /cXeVrtai/]

Epistles, its
vi.
1 1.

sense
28.

is

The man who has

been given to stealing, as distinguished from o K\TTT7js, a common thief, and also from o xXe^ay, one who has stolen on a particular occasion.
KOTTidrca K.r.X.]

the original meaning of corruptness has entirely disappeared. It does not follow that the word as used by St Paul means only idle* or worthless , like the pfjfut dpyov of Matt, xii 36. The context requires a stronger sense; the sin rebuked is on a level with lying and stealing. If it does not go so far as the alcrxpoXoyia of Col. iii 8, it certainly includes the papoXoyia and evrpcnreXia which are appended
in
s]

Compare
iv. 1 1

Cor. iv
Idiais

12

KOTrioj/Mei/

cpya^o/zei/ot

rats

Eph. v 4. For ns, whatever

Xfpo-iv,

epydeo-0ai On the other hand Tals xepcrii> V^IMV. we have in Rom. ii 10 and Gal. vi 10 the phrase cpydc(r0ai TO dyaBov (which

and

Thess.

Ayatfc p is morally good, in contrast to o-aTrpos, and not merely good for a purpose, which

comp.

Phil. iv. 8.

to be compared with ipy&*<r6tu ryv dvopiav, frequent in the Psalms and Here the found in Matt, vii 23). combination of the two phrases gives
is

would be expressed by evdeTo?. Com pare Hom. XV 2 eKacTTos dpeaxe ro) els TO dyaOov TTpos
ro>

f)\i>v

7r\r)crioi>

rrjs

xpei ay]

Xpei a

is (l)

need,

(2)

an effective contrast with K\e7rriv. For the addition of Idiots see the note on various readings.
29* SaTrpos Xoyos (raTrpos ] pri * marily means rotten or corrupt but in a derived sense it signifies
:
1

an occasion of need, (3) the matter in hand. For the last sense compare Acts vi 3 ovs KaTCKTrrjo-o/JLev e-rrl TTJS Xpeias Tavrrjs, and Tit. iii 14. Wetstein
quotes Plut. Pericl. 8 6 Ilept/cX^ Trepi TOV \6yov fvXaftrjs $v, o>W del trpbs TO
O.KOVTOS O.VTOV TTpOS
TT)V

It is and so worthless. effete, often joined with TraXaios, which it approaches so nearly in meaning that
it

old

can even be used in a good sense of and mellow wines. Ordinarily,


:

The meaning here is, for building up as the matter may require , or
l

however, it signifies old and worn out see the passages collected by Wetstein on Matt vii 18. In the Gospels it stands as the antithesis of dya66s and KaX6s: Matt, vii 17 f., xii 5 33, Luke vi 43, of the bad as con trasted with the good tree and bad as fruit; Matt, xiii 48 of the

as need

may be

The Old Latin had ad


tionemjfidei,
2

aedifica-

and the

D *G3 read TriVreeos for xpftas.

bilingual

MSS

Jerome

substituted opportunitatis forfidei*. Further evidence is given in the note on various readings.

For

x<*P

ls

respect

of

EPHES.

13

194

EPISTLE TO THE EPHESIANS.


3

[IV 30

32

aKOVOVGLV
6eov,
3I

icca

jULrj

\V7relT

TO

Trvevjuia

TO

d<yiov

TOV

ev

ft)
(T<l)pa<yi(r6riT6

eis

rjfjtepav

aTroXvTpwcrews.

7racra TTiKpia Kai Bu^os Kal opyr] Kai Kpavyrj Kai fi\ad(f>

VJULOOV

(Tvv Trdcrri KaKia.

speech compare
vp.a>v

Col.

iv

6 d \6yos
r)pTvp.evos

TTJS

Trepnrot^crecos.

The

irdvroTe ev ^apiri,

aXan
true

Spirit

was the

seal of the

complete

(seasoned
speech),
TiKats cv

with
Col.

the
iii

salt

of
also

and

16 wdals irvcvpa-

xapm

K.r.A.

Compare
;

incorporation of the Gentiles. Com pare further i Cor. xii 13 Kal yap ev evl TTvevpaTt ^pels irdvres els ev o-apa
ej3airTi<r6r)fj.ev,

the contrast between cvTpaire\ia and and see the evxapio-ria below in v 4 We cannot detached note on x aP iS reproduce in English the play upon s the two meanings of x aP ls * n
-

eire

louSatot eire^EXA^-

VS,

K.T.A.

31.

TriKpia]

sages

in

which

The three other pas this word occurs

passage.
30.

AvTreZre]

Compare

Isa. Ixiii.

borrow their phraseology directly or from the Old Testament (Acts viii 23, Rom. iii 14, Heb. xii 1 5).
indirectly

IO

7rapa>vvav

TO Trvevpa TO dyiov avTov.

our present passage is founded the remarkable injunction of the Shepherd of Hernias in regard to
\virrj

On

Here the usage is genuinely Greek, and may be compared with Col. iii 19
Aristotle TTiKpaiveo-tie irpbs avTas. in discussing various forms of anger says (Eth. Nic. iv n): ol p.ev ovv
/*>}

(Mand.

x).

The

interpretation

capricious and purely individualistic apov ovv drro travro rrjv \V7TT]V KCU (MTJ $At/3e TO Trvevpa TO

there given

is

opylXoi Taxeas pev dpyiovTai, KOL OLS ov Set, Kal ois ov 8ei, Kal p.aX\ov tj
e<p*

del"

Travovrai de

ra^eo>s...oi

de iriKpol

ayiov TO ev (roi KaToiKovv...To yap irvfvpa TOV 6eov TO doBev els TTJV aapKa
TOVTTjV XvTTTjV OV^ V7TO(j)fpl Ovd (TTfVOevdvo-ai ovv TTJV i\ap6rr)Ta t Xcvpiav.
K.T.X.

dvo~8idXvToi } Kal iro\vv


Tai

XP VOV opyiov-

Spirit is the
life,

To St Paul on the contrary the bond of the corporate and that grieves Him which

It KaTcxovtri yap TOV 6vp.6v. appears, then, that inKpla is an em bittered and resentful spirit which refuses reconciliation.
tivpos
K.T.A.]

Compare

Col.

iii

8
ai-

opyrjv, 6v}ioVj KaKiav,

/SAao-cpTj/xiW,

does not tend to the building-up of the Christian society. We may com

pare Rom. xiv 15


dycnrrjv ircpiiraTels : Ezek. xviii 7 ( ValL

et

yap dia

jSpeo/id

o-xpoAoyiai/, and see Lightfoot s notes on these words. The Stoics distin guished between 0vp.6s, the outburst

o dde\(p6s (rov XvTretrai, ovxert jcara

gelio

and Jerome On v 207) in euanquod iuxta Hebraeos Nazaraei


:

consueuerunt inter maxima ponitur crimina, qui fratris sui spiritum contristawrit 1 . That which tends not to build but to cast down, that which grieves the brother, grieves the Spirit which is alike iu him and
legere
in you.
ecr(ppayi<r6r)T]

of passion, and opyr/, the settled feel ing of anger. but, here only, in Kpavyij] outcry the bad sense of clamouring against Its meaning is defined by another. its position after dpyj, and before ( evil speaking or slander:
/3Aacr</>?7/z/a

ing )dp^Vco]
ap6rf
ett.

Compare
vp.a>v

Cor.

v.

2 Iva

pea-ov
i

6 TO epyov TOVTO

irpdgas.

St Paul uses the word again


Cor.
vi

The whole
f.
T<

clause

is

only in
14.

15

and

Col.

ii

an echo of
TTJS

13

r<5

o~<f>pay[o-6r)T

CTTayyeXias

oyio>...etff

malice

not

wickedness

IV

3 2]

EPISTLE TO THE EPHESIANS.


d\\.rj\ov$
ls
Tit.

195

Kadats
iii

Kcti

6 6eos ev

Xpi<TTcp

e^apicraTO

VJULIV.

comp.
32.

3 tv KaKta Kal
K.T.X.]

it is

so on account of the clause which


:

didyovTfs.
xprjo-roi
iii

The

parallel

passage, Col.

12,

has:

eVSi5crao-0e...

7Tivo<ppo(TvvT)v 7

they among themselves must do for themselves what God has done for them. Origen, who noted the variation, was led by it to interpret x aP CP- V0i
follows
l

dvxdfj.evot

d\\ij\<ov,

KOI

in the sense of

eavTots, fdv rts irpos nva Ka6<os KO.I 6 Kvpios e^apiVaro vfiiv, ovro> In our epistle the demand KCU vfjiels.

giving as God has * given to us, as in Horn, viii 32 TTW?


i

o~vv avro) TO, iravTCL r^i

for humility

and forbearance has been


(iv 2);

made

before

ness, forgivingness are

evcnr\ayxvot] again only in i found in the LXX, but occurs in the

kindness, tender now enforced. The word occurs Pet. iii 8. It is not

The kindness and tender heartedness which we shew els d Xovs, he says, is in fact shewn rather
<rercu;

to ourselves, Sta TO
.

o-va-craJ/^ov?

facts
o<ra

aval. .TOVTCL $e eavrols ^apto/ne$a, Kal o flebs ijfjuv ev Xptcrrw e^apiVaro.

Prayer of Manasses (. 7) which is one of the Canticles appended to the Greek Psalter. It is also found, with
substantive eva-nXayxvia, in the Testam. xii patriarch. Hippocrates uses it in a literal sense of a healthy condition of the <rir\dyxva, as he also
its

But the parallel in CoL iii 13, where edv TLS irpos nva exu f*op.(pijv is added, is in itself decisive against this view. The Latin rendering donantes...
donauit lends it no support, as may be seen at once from Col. ii 13 dol

uses peyaXocrirXayxvos of their enlarge ment by disease. Euripides, Rhes. 192, has eva-TrXayxvia metaphorically The use of the for a stout heart word for tenderness of heart would thus seem to be not classical, but Jewish in origin, as Lightfoot suggests
.

nantes uobis omnia delicta\ a use of donare which is Ciceronian. in Christ , not for eV Xpt<rrw] Christ s sake as in A.V. The expres
sion is intentionally brief and preg nant. Compare 2 Cor. v 19 0ebs r\v
ev Xpio-ro) Koa-fiov KaraXXdo-o-coi/ eaurw, where the omission of the definite
articles,

frequent in pointed or pro

regard to note on Phil,


in

<nr\ayxvi&<r6ai

in his

8.

Tio\\><rrr\ayxvos

verbial sayings, has the effect of pre senting this as a concise summary of

occurs in Jas. v
iro\vcv(nr\ayxvos on Herm. Vis. i 3
:

n, with a variant see Harnack s note


2.

For the variation of the favrois] pronoun after the preceding els dXXif\ovs see Lightfoot s note on Col. iii 13

the truth (o \6yos rfjs KaraXXayrjs). In Col. iii 13 we have simply o Kvpios Here however the (or 6 XpioT-os). mention of o 6e6s enables the Apostle
to expand his precept and to say yiV<r6e ovv p.tp.r]Tal TOV 6fov K.T.\.

To the instances there cited should be added Luke xxiii 12 cycTOIS.

vovro de
Trfjpxov

$&M...fMr

aXX;Xo>i/

Trpoij-

yap ev ex^pq ovres irpbs avTovs, where the change is made for variety s sake (Blass Gram. N. T. 48, 9).

hath forgiven Tor13 A.V.) is an equally permissible rendering. It is an error to suppose that either is more faithful than the other to the sense of the
fxapia-aro]
.

gave

(Col.

iii

aorist,

which, unless the context decides otherwise, represents an in

The same reason suffices to explain the variation here. If eavroly is the more appropriate in the second place,

definite past.

On the variants here and in vy.lv\ v 2 see the note on various readings.

132

196

EPISTLE TO THE EPHESIANS.


l

[V

V.
a

yiVcr&
i)/zas

ovv

jJUfjiriTal

TOV 6eov,
,

ois

TeKva

fccu

TrepiTraTeire ev
teal
6 Y c

ay CLTTT^
TOO

/cafttk

Kal 6 %pi(rTOS riyd-

irr]crev
(p

TrapedcoKev eavTov
i

vmp

V/ULMV

p o c-

AN
i.

K Al

AN

ueco

eic

OCMHN

EY^AIAC.
7rpo<r-

we
i

Again and again St Paul s epistles such expressions as /up^ral rj^cSi/ (i Thess.
V.
p,i/ir?ra(]

find in

6),

/u/iTjrai /zov (i
TjfjLas

[uij.elo~6ai

(2

Here he boldly follow God s example copy God Comp. Ign. Eph. I /up^rai 6Wes c^eoO,
,

Cor. iv 16, xi i). Thess. iii 7* 9)* bids his readers

ceedingly common. St Paul uses again only in speaking of the offering of the Gentiles , Rom. xv. 16: Ova-La he employs again four times only (once of heathen sacrifices). It is therefore probable that here he bor rows the words, half-consciously at least, from the Psalm.
<popd

Trail.

evpav

vp,as cos
l

eyvow p-t^Tas

els

oo~iJ.r)v

6vco8t as]

Oa/i^ is found

oi/ras 6eov.

in the literal sense in

John

xii 3.

Tewa ayaTrr/ra] as His beloved chil dren The epithet leads the way to
.

the further precept KOL irepiirarelTe ev


2.
7rapeda>Kev\

are in
TTT)<T(V

v.

25

rrjv

closest parallels KOI 6 xptarbs yyaKK\r)criav KOI eavrbv Trape ScoKa0a>s

The

occurs only in St Paul and in every case in connexion with uco5ia, which again is confined to his The passages are 2 Cor. ii epistles. 14 16 TTJV oo-fj,r)v TTJS yi/cocrecos avTov
it

Otherwise

(pavepovvri bi Xpicrrov evcoSta


(Tto^ofievois
/cat

7)/zc3i>

ev TTOVTI TOTTCO* ort

eo~fj,ev

rw

6e(&

ev rots

Kfv

irrrep avTrjS)

and

Gal.

ii

20 TOV vlov
Kal Trapa-

ev
CK.

rois

aTroXXv/Mei/ots
K.T.X.,

TOV 6eov TOV ayairrjcravTos dovros cavTov VTrep e /xoO.


also
VTrep

fie

ois

p.ev

007x77
1

6avd.Tov

and

But we may

Phil. iv.

TreTrXrJpoo/Aai df^d/jievos Trapa

compare Gal.
T>V

a/napricof qfjunv,

4 TOV 86vros eavTov and in the

E7ra(ppo8/Tov ra Trap vpatv, 6o-prjv eva)ftias,

Gvaiav

Se^rr;!/,

evdpearov
is

rco

^ea>,

Pastoral Epistles o Sous eavrbv dvriXvTpov VTrep TTCIVTUV (i Tim. ii 6), 6s fdo>Kev eavTov v-rrep THJLUV (Tit. ii 14). In Rom. viii 32 the action is ascribed to the Father, vnep T^COI/ irdvTtov irape8(0Kv avTov, and in Rom. iv 25 we

where the wording

closely parallel

to that of the present passage.

The

have the verb in the passive, 6s


d66r)

TrapeIll

Sta

TO

7rapa7rrtk)/u.ara

rnjiatv.

the last two passages, as in the fre quent occurrences of the word in the Gospels, there is probably a reference to Isa. liii 9, 12. It is to be noted that in none of these passages is any allusion to the idea of sacrifice added, as there is in the present case. v/xcoj/] For the variant f)n&v see the note on various readings.
irpo<T(popav

Apostle is still employing Old Testa ment language: oo-p-r) 5co& as, or els oo-prjv evoodi as, occurs about forty times in the Pentateuch and four times in The fact that he uses the Ezekiel. metaphor with equal freedom of the preaching of the Gospel and of the gifts of the Philippians to himself should warn us against pressing it too strongly to a doctrinal use in the

gen,

Jerome, doubtless reproducing Oricomments as follows: Qui pro aliorum salute usque ad sanguinem contra peccatum dimicat, ita ut et

teal

Qvcriav]

These Words
ov<

are found in combination in Ps. xxxix


(xl) 7 0vo~iav Kal TT poo~(popav

T^eA?)-

animam suam tradat pro eis, iste ambulat in caritate, imitans Christum qui DOS in tantum dilexit ut crucem
pro salute omnium sustineret. quomodo enim ille se tradidit pro nobis, sic et iste pro quibus potest libenter

tras

<popa

(quoted in Heb. x 5, 8). npo<ris very rare in the LXX (apart


Ecclus.),

from

whereas

6vo-ia

is

ex

4]
z

EPISTLE TO THE EPHESIANS.

197

Trdcra fj Tlopveia Se KCLL dKa6apa~ia ev v/uuv, Kadcos Trpejrei dyiois,


rj

4 Kat

aicr^po-

T>?9

evTpa7re\ia, a

OVK.

dvfJKev,

d\\a
a
syin

occumbens imitabitur eum qui oblationem et hostiam in odorem suauitatis se patri tradidit, et fiet

Neither

is it
:

nonym

for anaQapa-ia irao-a

for

etiam
:

ipse oblatio et hostia deo in odorem So too Chrysostom Opas suauitatis


.

TO virep
8ias

e\Qpa>v

7ra6elv

on

OO~/ZT)
;

evcoK.O.V
p-tp-T]-

e ort,

6v<rla

fvirpotrdeKTos

cnroOdvrjs, rore earj 6v(ria-

TOVTO

Col. iii 5 (quoted below on v. 5) it stands even more clearly apart at the close of the list, being introduced by /cat TTJV, as here by the disjunctive rj. in 4. alo-xporrjs] occurs here only the Greek bible but in Col. iii 8 we
;

vacrQai eo-ri rov Qeov.

have wvl de aTtoOe&Qe


TravrOj opyjjv,
$v/xoi>,

KOL

vpels

TO.

The gross sins of lust and rapacity must not even be mentioned for are you not numbered with saints? Nothing foul, nothing even foolish must pass your lips: let the
3
14.

Kaxiai/,
e<

/SXatr^)?;-

piav,
VfJltoV.

aicrxpoXayiav

rov

oro/^aros

OVTO>S

papoXoyia] Comp. Plut. Mor. 504 B ov "\lseyeTai TO iriveiv, el


irivfiv

grace of wit be superseded by the You truer grace of thanksgiving. know for certain that these black sins exclude from the kingdom. Let no
false subtilty impose upon you: it is these things which bring down God s wrath on the heathen world. With that world you can have no fellowship now : you are light, and not darkness as you were. As children of light you must walk, and find the fruit of light in all that is good and true. Darkness has no fruit with its fruit
:

ro>

TO (ncoTrav-

aXX

[JLfdrjV 7TOICI TTJV

olvUHTlV.

The disjunctive particle sepa rj] rates evTpaTreXia from ala-xpoTTjs and poopoXoyia, which are in themselves
Moreover obviously reprehensible. the isolation of eiVpcm-eAm prepares the way for the play upon words in its contrast with ev^apia-rio.
eurpaTreXta]
versatility

nearly

al

works you must have no partner ship: nay, you must let in the light and expose them those secrets of unspeakable shame. Exposure by the
less

ways of speech and so facetiousness and witty repartee. Aristotle regards it as the virtuous mean between scurrility and boorishness: Eth. Nic.
ii

7 13 irepl Se TO TJOV TO

fj,ev
T)

pev

[j.eo-os

evTpcnreXos Kai

ev TraiSta, 8ia6c(ris

light is manifestation

darkness
light.

manifest
sing:

is

turned to

made So we

5e VTrepftoXr) /Sco/zoXo^/a ) KCU o e^coi/ avTTjv /3co/LioXo^os, 6 8 eXXeiTrwv aypolKos TIS Kai r\ eis aypotKia.

eurpanreXi a,

Sleeper awake, rise from the dead: the Christ shall dawn upon thee .
3. rj TrXeovegla] Comp. IV 19 els epyaa-iav a.Ka6apa-ias Trda-rjs ev ir\eove^ia. It is clear that rr\eoveia has in

In certain circumstances, however, Kai


01 j3co/MoXo^ot

Tai

CBS

x apt VTS

evTpdrre\oi Trpocrayopevov(ibid, iv 14 4); this

the Apostle s mind some connexion with the class of sins which he twice sums up under the term oKadapa-la iraa-a yet it is not included, as some have supposed, in this class: other wise we should have expected the order tropveLa de Kai irXeovet-ia KOI
:

does not mean that evTpairc\ia be thing, but that the bad thing (j3co/iioXo^t a) puts itself forward under the good name. Comp. Rhet.

comes a bad

ii

yap evrpaire\ia ireirateVmV: this is not given as a definition of the word the point
T)

12

ad Jin.

devpevT] vftpts

is

that as youth affects

v/3pis,

so evTpa-

which is a kind of insolence within bounds is also a characteristic


TreXi a,
,

198
i/

EPISTLE TO THE EPHESIANS.


ev^apLCTTia.

^TOVTO yap

icrre yivcoarKovTes

OTL

of youth.
raillery

Although this quick-witted might easily be associated

with impropriety of conversation and this danger is doubtless in the Apostle s mind yet the word itself appears to remain free from taint.
This may be seen, for example, by its frequent association with x^P LS an(^ its derivatives : comp. Josephus Antiq. xii 4 3 j)(r$eis de eVi rrj xdpin KOI evrpaTreXta rov vavi(TKov I Plutarch

with certain learned persons among the Greeks, to use the word ^aptrta [the editions give ev^apioT/a] as dis
tinguished from eucharistia, i.a to
distinguish between gratiosum esse and agere gratias, I suppose that the

Apostle, a Hebrew of the Hebrews, used the current word and intended to hint at his own meaning in the
signification of the other word : this the rather, because with

and
the

Mor.

52 D (of Alcibiades) /iera evrpa-

dvrJKev]

fv Kvpim,

Comp. Col. iii l8 avrjuev and see Lightfoot s note, in


<as

Hebrews gratiosus and gratias agens are expressed, as they tell us, by one and the same word. Hence in Pro
verbs (xi
dvdpl
1 6):

yvvrj

fvxdpioros eye/pfi

which he

illustrates the

use of the

imperfect in this word and in Trpoo-rjiecv and K.adri<v (Acts xxii 22) by our own past tense ought ( = owed ). eu^apiorta] St Jerome s exposition deserves to be given in full, as it throws light not only on the interpre tation of the passage but also on the history of biblical commentary. Up to this point, he says, the Apostle seems to have introduced nothing foreign to his purpose or alien to the context. But in regard to what follows, some one may raise the ques tion, What has "giving of thanks" to do immediately after the prohibition of fornication and uncleanness and lasciviousness and shamefulness and
foolish speaking

mulier grata suscitat uiro gloriam, where it stands for We should appear to be gratiosa.
S6az/,

doing violence to the Scripture in thus daring to interpret mulier gratias agens as mulier gratiosa, were it not that the other editions agree with us: for Aquila and Theodotion and Symmachus have so ren dered it, viz. yvvrj xapiros, mulier gratiosa, and not eu^aprros, which
refers to the
"giving

of

thanks".

Thus

far St Jerome.

But whence

this subtle feeling for Greek, this apt quotation from the Greek bible, this

appeal to various translators instead of to the Hebrew verity ? We have the answer in an extract from Origen s

and

jesting

If he

was at
virtue,

liberty to

name some one


have

he
or

might

mentioned
though

Commentary, happily preserved in Cramer s Catena: OVK dvfjKe 8e rot? dyiois ovde avrrj [sc. evrpaTreXiaj, aXXa
fj.d\\ov
77

"justice",

"truth",or

"love" :

fv TTCKTI Trpbs 6fov


rjv

v^aprr/a*
ev^apiWovff
p.<apo\6yov

these also would have been somewhat inconsequent at this point. Perhaps then by "giving of thanks (gratiarum actioY is meant in this place not that

riyovv fvxapia-ria Ka6* KOI ^ap/eiTa? nvds


pert

<f>ap.ev

ovv Kal cvrpdrreXov ov Set eiWu, Kal cirel 5e KOI ^apt eira. v\dpi,<rTOV
l

by which we give thanks to God, but that on account of which we are called
grateful or ingratiating (grati sine gratiosi] and witty (salsi) among men. For a Christian must not be a foolish-

dcrvvrfBls e crrt TO elirelv

aXXa /naXXow

5^apiei5^apiria (sic legendum : ed. ori a), ra^a dvri TOVTOV ^xpwaro rrj eV

aXXov
r TOV

Kifj.vrj

Xe

ei

KOL Kal

f urcv

aXXa

speaker and a jester but his speech must be seasoned with salt, that it may have grace with them that hear And since it is not usual, except it.
:

TO)

ovofjLan

rs

0os eu^apioTta? Ka

E^patcoi/ fv^aptoTov TOVS OTTO ^pjjo-^at dvrl Trjs evxaptrias (ed. eu^athen ptcrrias) Kal vxapirov, K.r.X.

He

EPISTLE TO THE EPHESIANS.


?ras Tropvos
fj

199
ei
L

dicddapTos

fj

7T\eovKTrjs , o ecrTiv

OVK

KXrjpovofUiiai/ ev Ttj /ScxriXeia

TOV XP

proceeds to cite the LXX and other versions of Prov. xi 16. St Jerome s comment is thus fully accounted for, and we are able to see how closely he followed Origen, his indebtedness to

vii 2, xii 17 f. In i Thess. iv 6 it is used in connexion with the sin of

impurity, TO
veKTclv
ev

vrrfpfBaivetv KOI TrAeo-

whom he

expresses in his preface. Since this note was written my friend Mr J. A. F. Gregg has examined the Paris MS of the Catena, and found that in both places it gives the word This word indeed appears fv^aptTia. to have no substantial existence and to be a mere conjecture on the part of Origen. We cannot suppose that St Paul

meant anything but thanksgiving by But he was led to his fvxapHrria. choice of the word by the double meaning which certainly belongs to
the adjective ev^apio-ros (comp., for Jexample, Xenoph. Cyrop. ii 2 i See the note on XapurroTaroi Xdyoi). IV 29 iva x^P lv r * aKovowiv. tore yivaxTKOvres] This appears 5. to be a Hebraism for ye know of a The reduplication with the surety infinitive absolute VT and the (18*119
o>

TOV d8e\(pbv of impurity involve an offence against the rights of others ( thou shalt not covet thy neighbour s wife ). Accordingly TrXeovfia occurs in close proximity to sins of impurity in several passages. The context in such cases gives a colour to the word ; but it does not appear that TrXeovfgia can be independently used in the sense of fleshly concu piscence. The chief passages, besides those which have been cited above, are I Cor. V 9 ff. eypa-^a vfjuv ev TTJ
TO>

Trpay/xari

avTov.

Certain

forms

7rifTTo\fj

p.T)

o-vvavafj-iyvvo-daL

nopvois,
Koo~fiov

ov

jravTfos
rj

rots

iropvots

TOV

TOVTOV
fj

TOIS TrXeoveKTais KCU


<B<eiXere

ap7raiv

idd)\o\a.Tpais, eVei
Kocrfjiov
/AT)

apa CK

TOV
Vfuv

vvv 8e eypa^a o~vvavapiywo~8ai edv TCS dde\(pbs


rj

et-\Belv.

ovona^ofjifvos

Tropi/o?

rj

7i\eovKTrjs

rj

etScoXoXarpT/s rf \oidopos rj peOvo-os fj TOIOVTCO fjLrjde crvvca-Qieiv: ap7ra|,


ra>

vi 9

f.

rj

OVK
ov

ot Sare

on

adiKoi
fj.r)

6eov
TrXa-

like)
it

occurs 14 times in the Old Testament. The LXX generally render

/Sao-tXeiai/

KKrjpovo/jLTjo-ovcriv ;

vatrOe

by yvovTfs yvaxTfa&e,
the

etc.
is

Some
simply

OVT

fJLOlXOt

oure nopvoi ovTe eiScoXoXarpat OVTf fJLoXdKol OVT dpCTfVOK\C7TTai OVT

times

reduplication

KOirat OVT
(ie6vo~oi,

TrXeOVCKTai, OV

neglected. In i Sam. xx 3, however, we find yiv(&o~K(&v otftfV) and in Jer.

\eiav

ov Xot Sopot, ov; apirayes (3acriIn the 6eov K^povo^crovo iv.

22 the actual phrase la-re yivaxTKovres on occurs in several MSS


xlix
(xlii)

sub

asterisco, being a Hexaplaric reading which in the margin of Codex Marchalianus is assigned to Symma-

chus.

former passage 7r\covKTats comes in somewhat suddenly when Tropvois alone has been the starting-point of the discussion ; but the addition KCU apiragiv shews that the ground of the discussion is being extended. The
latter passage recurs largely to the

and

See the notes on ?. 3 irXfoveKTrjs] iv 19; and compare CoL iii 5

TTopvfiav, dica.dapo iav, irados^ eiriOvpiav KdKijv, Kai Tf)V 7r\fov^iav rjTis fo-rlv

language of the former. For a further investigation of TrXeo^/a, and for its connexion with etStoXoXarpm, see
Lightfoot s notes on Col. TOV xpio-roC KOI 6eov}
is
iii

In the New Testament the verb ir\eov<r iv is confined to two of St Paul s epistles: it regularly means to defraud , 2 Cor. ii. 11 (tva
eiScoXoXarpto.
p.r)

5.

The

article

Tr\covfKTr)6a>nfv

VTTO

TOV

sometimes prefixed to the first only of a series of nearly related terms: compare ii 20 eVl 6ep.e\i(o r&v
r<a

200

EPISTLE TO THE EPHESIANS.


/uirjSeis
*]

[V
/cej/o??

6i

(TTOv Kai 6eov.


Sid

v/uias

OLTTCLTCLTW

TavTa yap ep^eTai

<yp

ovv yivecrv avTwv 7TOT6 CTKOTOS, VVV 9 6V T6Kl/a <pa)TOS KVplCO* 9 6 yap TOV (pwTOS ev Trdcrrj dyaOco7repi7raTlT crvvrj Kai SiKaio(rvvr] Kai d\rj6eia *$OKifjid^ovTs TI icTTiv

opyri TOV 6eov ^A

eiri

\6yois, TOVS viovs

Kai fjirf crvvKoivwveiTe Tols epyOK 6vdp6(TTov TCL Kvplcp TO?5 aKapTTOlS TOV CTKOTOVS, jUid\\.OV Kai
K.a Trpo^iyrcoi , irapprja iav Kai Trpcxraywyiyv, iii
1

12 r)v 8 ri TO

clearly out of place: i Cor. xiv 24 cav de irdvTs 7rpo(pr)Teva)o-iv, fl<rf\6rj de


TIS

TrXaroy Kai
6.

/JLTJICOS

Kai v\lros Kai fidBos.

amcrros
"rj

tSieorTys ,

eXey^erat vno
7rai/ra>z>,

The only parallel is a close one; CoL ii 8 dta... Kerfs Kevos when used of speech d-rraTrjs.
Kevols \6yois]
is

dvaKpiveTai

VTTO

Ta

a
Taij

Trjs

where

Kapdias avTov (pavfpd yivcthe verb eXey^eiv seems to

practically equivalent to -^evdrjs comp. Didacht 2 OVK carat 6 \oyos


:

suggest the explanatory sentence ra So in our KpvTTTa...<pavpa yiVereu.


present passage e Xey^ere is immedi ately followed by TO. yap Kpv(pfj yivoufva, and subsequently we have ra de ndvTa e\yxop.cva VTTO TOV (pcoTos Accordingly it is best to (pavepovTat. interpret the word in the sense of to

crov

tyevdryS)
:

ov KCVOS^ dXXa

^ie/iecrrcoii

fievos TTpdget

also Arist. Eth. Nic.

d\r)diva>Tfpoi

Kfvwrepoi (Xoyoi) as opposed to Galen de diff. puls. iii 6 (Kiihn viii 672) OVTMS ovv Kai TOVS
7
i
:

Xoyovs fvioTe tyevdeis 6voudov(ri Kfvovs. 7. O-VVUCTOXOI] This compound and in v. ii may be con o-vvKoiv<aviTc trasted with the three compounds
(TVVKkrjpovofJia^ crvvcraua, (rvt /iero^a,

a meaning which it likewise expose has in John iii 20 pio-ei TO Kai


;
<pa>s

by

wliich the Apostle emphasised their entry into the new fellowship (iii 6).
g.

OVK epxeTai jrpos TO iva /z?) t Xey^^ TO. epya avTov (contrast Iva (pavepa>6fj in the next verse). This signification
<jf)coy,

is illustrated

by

"Wetstein

from Arte\\rj6evat

dyadaxrvvrj]

Comp. Rom.

XV. 14,

lllidorUS

ii

36

tfXios OTTO dva-ecos ft-avai


T<>V

It repre Gal. v 22, 2 Thess. in. sents the kindlier, as diKaioo-vvrj repre sents the sterner element in the ideal

and

also

from the lexico

graphers.

character: comp. Rom. v 7. 10. doKiudovTcs K.T.X.] Comp. Rom. xii 2 els TO 8oKi/j,d^iv vuas TL TO 0\T)fj.a TOV 6eovj TO ayaBov Kai vdpfo~Tov Kai
re Xetoi/:
fvdpe<TTov

and

Col.

iii

ICTTIV ev Kvpia).

20 TOTO yap For the use of


p. 42.

evdpeo-Tos
11.

and its adverb in inscriptions

see Deissmann

Neue Bibelst.

cXeyxfTe] The ordinary mean in the New Testament ing of e Xe is to reprove , in the sense of to
yx""

With this interpretation we give The unity to the whole passage. contrast throughout is between light and darkness. First we have, as the result of the light, that testing which issues in the approval of the good (doKiudgfiv} ; secondly, as the result of the meeting of the light with the darkness, that testing which issues in the exposure of the evil (f Xey^eiv).

And

then, since eXeyxfo Oai

and

(pave-

rebuke

sage in St Paul s writings (apart from the Pastoral Epistles) reproof in words is

But in the only other pas which the word occurs in

povo-6ai are appropriate respectively to the evil and the good (as in John
iii

20, quoted above), the transforma tion of the one into the other is

12-14]

EPISTLE TO THE EPHESIANS.


VTT*
Kpv<pn

201
<TTIV

yap

avTcov
VTTO

I3

ra

Se TTCLVTCL e

TOV
14

k
<f>ave-

povTai, 7rav

yap TO

ecrTiv.

&o

Kal dvdcTTa e /c TCOV


l
67Tl<f)aVO

ei

(TOl

marked by the change


(pa>s

of the verbs

realised in those to
ffre

whom

he wrote:
(v. 8).

eXfy^ojAfva. ..(pavpovTai...TO eariv. pevov


12.

(pavepov-

yap

irore CTKQTOS, vvv 8e

<pa>s

alcr^pov ecTTiv Kal Xeyeiv]


TO.

The

St6 Xeyct] Comp. iv. 8. Severian (Cramer s Catena ad loc.\ after


14.

order of the sentence deserves atten


yap Kpvcpfj yivopeva stands closely connected with cXeyxere, and forms a special interpretation of TO. fpya TOV <TKOTOVS: whereas alo-xpw
tion
:

saying that the passage is not to be found in the canonical writings, adds
:

r\v

rore
ev

Kal

Kada>s

Aeyet

TTJ

irpos

K.opiv6iovs

fcrnv Kal \4yeiv

means simply that


OVV OTL
^aA/icoi

they are unspeakably shameful . ra de iravra.] This might be 13. taken to mean but all these things ,

vl TJTOI

TOVT03V Tto

irpoo~v\w

KITO TOVTO O

JLir,6vfV(TeV.

The

at

namely TO. Kpvcpfj yivopcva VTT avT&v. It seems however more in St Paul s

tempts to assign the quotation to an apocryphal writing are probably mere


guesses.
eTTKpavo-et]
"^saixTfi

manner to interpret ra iravra as things and to regard the article


,

all

as

linking together the individual ele ments (iravra} and presenting them as

For the variants emand em ^ava fis see the note

a whole.

The statement accordingly is


its

universal in

reference.
to

All things

be tested by the light cease to be obscure and become


manifest.
(pavepovpevov]

when they come

Omne enim quod

on various readings. 1 5 Be very careful, then, of 33. your conduct. By a true wisdom you may ransom the time from its evil Cast away folly under bondage. stand the Lord s will. Let drunken ness, and the moral ruin that it brings,
:

manifestatur lumen est\ Vulg. To render with the Authorised Version for whatsoever doth make manifest is light is to do violence to the Greek (for there is no example in the New Testament of the middle voice of (pavepovv), and to offer a truism which adds nothing to the meaning of the passage. In St Paul s mind to be come manifest means to cease to be darkness, and to be a partaker of the for everything very nature of light that becomes manifest is light Thus the Apostle has described a process by which darkness itself is transformed into light. The process had been
J

be exchanged for that true fulness which is the Spirit s work, and which
finds glad expression in the spiritual songs of a perpetual thanksgiving ; in

life

common

of enthusiastic gratitude to the Father, and yet a life of

solemn order, where each knows and keeps his place under the restraining awe of Christ. The wife, for example, has her husband for her head, as the Church has Christ, the Saviour of His Body she must accordingly obey her protector. So too the husband s pat
:

tern of love

is Christ s love for the Church, for which He gave up Him self and wherefore ? To hallow His
:

2O2
I5

EPISTLE TO THE EPHESIANS.

[V

15,

16

BAe7rT

ovv
o)s

ctKpi/Sws
*6

TTWS

TrepnraTeiTe,

aaro(f>OL

dXM

o"o<poi,

TOV
xiv 3 f. Egayopdfciv is only used by St Paul, and in the two other places in which it occurs it has the meaning of buying out or away from GaL
:

Bride by a sacramental cleansing, to present her to Himself in the glory of a perfect beauty, with no spot of
disfigurement, no wrinkle of age. But Christ s Bride is also Christ s Body and the husband must love his wife as being his own body. Who hates
:

does not feed with Christ and for we are the limbs of Is it not written of marriage, that the two shall be one flesh ? Great is the hidden meaning of those words. I declare them to be true of Christ and the Church your
his

own

flesh?

Who
is it

13 Xpio-Tos ijfj.as f^Tjyopaa-ev e /e TTJS Karapas, iv. 5 iva TOVS VTTO vopov eayoThis meaning of ransoming, pda-Tj.

iii

and tend it ? the Church His Body.


:

So

redeeming is found in other writers. There seems to be no authority for


interpreting the word, like a-wayopd4 civ and mnxMturftu, as to buy up iii 42 2 is cited as (coemere). Polyb.

an example, e^yopao-e
re juoi/ouXa
TrXota

Trap avTav TO. irdvTa (Hannibal

part is to realise their truth in your as the fear of respective spheres Christ is met by Christ s love, so let the wife fear, and the husband love .
:

15. BAeWe] St Paul frequently uses P\eTTiv in the sense of to take heed (i) with the accusative, as in
:

Col. IV. 17 /SXeVe TIJV dianoviav (look to, consider), Phil, iii 2 TOVS Kvvas K.T.\.

all the boats of the natives in order to cross the Rhone) but the sense of buying up is given by the addition of TroWa, and the verb itself both there and in Plut. Grass. 2 need mean no more than to buy In Mart. Polyc. 2 we have the middle voice as here, but in the sense of buying off (comp. the use of e^covet-

bought

o~0ai
TTJV

and eWpi ao-^ai),

did

fjnas

topas
ii

(beware of); (2) with iva or w, fre quently; (3) with 7nSs, here and in I Cor. iii 10 CKOO-TOS 8e /3Xe7re Treoy Here only we have the eVoiKo8o/zeZ.
r<o

aiwviov KoXa(riv

^ayopa^6/j.voi.
is

close verbal parallel


Kaipov vpels

Dan.

8
I

olda OTI

fayopdfT,

know of a certainty that ye would gain


the time (Aram. PJ3J j-IJ^K but this meaning is not applicable to our passage. The Apostle appears to be urging his readers to claim the present for the best uses. It has got, the so to speak, into wrong hands they must pur days are evil days chase it out of them for themselves. Accordingly the most literal transla tion would seem to be the best, re but not in the deeming the time sense of making up for lost time, as in the words Redeem thy misspent time that s past
*"!),
-,

addition of

heed

take careful the variant TTW? aKpiftas see the note on various readings. The repetition of this TreptTrareZre] word takes us back to v. 8 cos re/era The particle ovv irepiiraTciTe. is resumptive. The metaphor of dark ness and light is dropped, and the
a<pt/3o>s,

On

^^

<pa>Tos

contrast
<ro<po(.

is

now between

acro<pot

and

1 6.

egayopatfpevoi]

Comp.

Col. iv
ea>,

5 ev crofpiq Trepwraretre Trpbs

TOVS

TOV Kaipov
is

ayopa6pvoi. Ayopdfciv used of persons by St Paul only in the phrase ^yopao-tfj/re rt/A^y, I Cor. vi 20, vii 23, in each case the metaphor being of purchase into servitude. So we have in 2 Pet. ii I TOV ayopdxravra avTovs deoTroTTjv. It is used of the redeemed in the Apocalypse, v 9,

TOV Kaipov]

distinction is often

to be clearly marked between XP OVOS as time* generally, and Kaipos the fitting period or moment for a par
ticular action

But /ccupos is by no means limited to this latter sense.


.

17,

8]

EPISTLE TO THE EPHESIANS.


eicriv.
I?

203
JJLYI

OTI al q/uepcu 7TOvr]pai

S*a

TOVTO

yivearSe
l8

axbpoves) d\\d crvvieTe TL TO 6e\rjjULa TOV Kvpiov MH MeGycKecee ofN^eVw earTiv cwrama, d\\d

/ccu

7T\rj-

we have 6 vvv Katpo?, 26, viii 18 (ra iraQrj^ara TOV vvv KatpoC), xi 5 and o Kaipos alone, for the time that now is, or that still
Thus
in St Paul
iii

Rom.

assimilation to the text of our passage, but that Origen confirms it (Tisch.

Not. Cod. Sin. p. 107). As the words ev oivois occur in the preceding verse,

is left,

Rom. xiii 1 1 etSore? TOV Kaipov, OTI (Spa rjdr] vp.as e vnvov eyepBfjvai, I Cor. vii 29 o Kaipbs (TvveoToXpevos
<$

the change in
atrom a]
a,
p.fj
,

is

probably due to a
Tit.
i

desire for uniformity.

Comp.

6 Texva

e^coz/

See also Gal. vi 10 Kaipbv f xopfv, which Lightfoot takes to mean as we have opportunity ; but he allows that there is no objection to rendering it "while we have time"/ and compares Ignat. Smyrn. 9 as en Kaipov e^o/if y, and [2 Clem.] 8, 9.
forty.
*

ev KaTrjyopiq. do~a>Tias rf dvI Pet. IV 4 A17) o~vvTpc\bvr(j)v


is

vp&v

els TTJV avTrjv TTJS do~(OTias dvd%vo~iv.

The adverb
dieo Kopirio ev

used

in

Luke xv
avTov

13
^coj/

TTJV

ovo~iav

TTOi/r/pat]

Compare
TT)

vi 13 dvTiarrjvai

Tfl

rffJiepa

irovrjpa,

and

Gal.

K TOV altoVOS TOV

V0~Ta)TOS 7TOVr)po.

Though the days are evil , they are capable in some degree at least of transformation the time may be rescued. So Origen interprets the
:

whole passage:
pov
ovv
avovpevot,
/3iof
e is TI
av6pu>iTivov

olovfl eavTols TOV KOI-

e^ovra
Trovrjpas

o5s

Trpos

TOV
OTC

v. 30 o KaTaCpayav o~ov peTa iropvwv). irXrjpovcrde ev irvevfjiaTi] The sequence of thought appears to be this: Be not drunk with wine, but find your fulness through a higher instrumen If the tality, or in a higher sphere. preposition marks the instrumentality, then Trvevpa signifies the Holy Spirit if it marks the sphere, irvevpa might still mean the Holy Spirit, but it

aVcorcoy (comp.
fiiov

TOV

ypepas.

deov TOV Kaipbv Ka.Tava\io-KOireirpafjievov TT

would be more natural to explain it of spirit generally (as opposed to


flesh) or of

TWV

v-

.egayopa6iJivoi de TOV Kaipbv ovra ev ypepais rrovrjpals, oiovfl fAfTaTToiovfjiev Tas Trovrjpas i)/iepaff els
dyaflds,
/c.r.X.

the human spirit. In the three other places in which we find ev irvevpaTi in this epistle there is a like ambiguity ii 22 o-woiKodopelo-de els
:

KaToiKTjTijpiov TOV Seov ev 7rvevfj.aTi 9

iii

Severian s
is

comment
similar : o

(also in

Cramer s Catena)

dtreKaXixpdrj Tols dyiois aTrooroXois avTOV Kal Trpofp^Tais ev irvev/j-aTi, vi 1 8

et-ayopa6/jievos TOV d\\6rpiov 8ov\ov e|ayopa^erat Kal KTOTOI UVTOV. eVet ovv

ev iravrl Kaipw ev irvevit appears on the whole best to interpret the phrase as referring to the Holy Spirit and the
:

In every case

6 Kaipbs b irapaiv 8ov\evei Tols irovrjpo is, avTov, coore /eara^p^o-afayopd<rao~d


(rdai auro) Trpbs evo-eftfiav. o-vvicTe 17. /c.r.X.] Comp.
V.

interpretation

IO

doKi/jid^ovres

o~vvievTs

For the variant see the note on various


AC.T.X.

confirmed when we observe the freedom with which the Apostle uses the preposition in in
is

readings.
1

8.

firj

Hf6vo-K.a6e o ivwi]

So Prov.
.

(LXX only), according to the reading of A. B has ev oivois, X o Lvois

xxiii 31

stances which are free from ambi as I Cor. xii 3 ev TrvevpaTi deov ; XaXcoi/, 13 ev evlTTvev/JiaTi J3airTio-0r)p.cv, Rom. XV l6 7rpoo~(popa. .Tjyiao-fJ.evT) ev

guity

might hesitate to accept the reading of A, regarding it as an

We

TrvevfjiaTi dyio)

compare

also

Rom. xiv

where there is a contrast some what resembling that of our text, ov


17,

204

EPISTLE TO THE EPHESIANS.


*9

[V

1922
s

\a\ovvTes eavTots povcrde ev 7rvevfjLaTi 9 VJULVOIS Kai wSais TrvevjuiaTiKaisy aSovTes


Trj

KO.I

KapSia

VJULCOV

TW

\jsa\\OVTeS Kvpiw, ^ev^apKTTOvvTe^ TrdvTOTe

vTrep TTCLVTWV ev ovofJLaTL TOV Kvpiov r^/ma/v Irjcrov XpicrTOv \ A ~ A^ X A ^k /O TO) t/eo) Kai TraTpi, vTroTacrcrofULevoi aAA^Aois ev (popco
"

2I<

33

XpKTTOV.
yap eo~nv
Kai
Kai
TTCXTIS,
rj

A2

ryvvaLKes^

TO?S

iciois

dv^pacriv

0)5

j3ao~i\eia

TOV deov
Kai

/3po><ris

aXXa

BiKaioo-vvr}

elprjvrj

X aP a * v TTvevfian a-yiw. If then we adopt the interpretation,


,

Accordingly the defining epithet TTVCVreserved for this last word in both places. On the variants in this verse see the note on various
fiarLKals is

Let your fulness be that which comes through the Holy Spirit how are we to render the words in English 1 The familiar rendering Be filled with the Spirit suggests at first sight that the injunction means Become full of the Such an injunction Holy Spirit however has no parallel had this been the Apostle s meaning he would almost certainly have used the geni tive (comp. e.g. Acts ii 13 y\ei>Kovs and he would fjLejjL(TTcofjLvoi elviv) probably have cast his precept into the form of an exhortation to pray that such fulness might be granted. Nevertheless this rendering, though not strictly accurate, suffices to bring out the general sense of the passage, inasmuch as it is difficult to distin guish between the fulness which comes through the Spirit, and the fulness which consists in being full of the Spirit : the Holy Spirit being at once the Inspirer and the Inspiration. We may therefore retain it in view of the harshness of such substitutes c as Be filled in the Spirit or by the
.
:
:

readings.
2O.

Col.

iii

So in evxapHTTovvTfs K.r.X.] 17 Kai Trav o TI eav irotiJTe ev


ev
epyo),

Xoyw
Kvpiov

r)

-navra

Iv

ovopaTi
T<5

fycrov,

ev^aprroi)i/res

6ea>

Trarpl di
1

avTov.

Compare

Thess.

6 TravTOTf xaipcTe,
o~0e>

aSiaXeiTTTcay irpoo-ev-

Xf

ev Travrl ev^apio-retre.

At yvvaiKts K.r.X.] As a matter of construction this clause depends on


22.

the preceding participle submitting yourselves one to another in the fear of Christ wives, unto your own hus At yvvauces bands, as unto the Lord accordingly stands for the vocative,
:
:

as in Col.

iii

l8, at yvva?Kes, VTTOTCKTI

(recrOe rdls ai/Spacm/, cos avrjKfv ev Kvpito

compare the vocatives

ol

avdpes,

TO.

TeKva, etc. lower down in the present When this passage, vi i, 4 f., 9. section was read independently of the

preceding verses, it became necessary introduce a verb; and this is probably the cause of the insertion of VTroTcuTcrearQe or v7roTacro~o~6(i>o av in most of the texts see the note on
to
:

various readings.
Idiots]

Spirit
19.
1

The

parallel in

Col.

iii

18

\a\ovvres

K.r.X.]

Comp.

Col.

iii

6 dibdcTKOvTes Kai vovderovvres tavrovs


ij,
vfJLisois,

shews that this word may be inserted or omitted with indifference where
the context makes the meaning clear. So we find Idicus with x^po-iv in i Cor. iv 12; but not according to the
iv ii.

(odals TrvevfJ-aTiKals ev
r<3

a&ovTfs cv rats Kapftiais

vp.a>v

passage

See Lightfoot s notes on that while the leading idea of ^aX/ios is a musical accompaniment,
:

best text, in Eph. iv 28, i Thess. It was often added by scribes,

and that of
is

vp.vos praise to

the

general

word

for

God, cpdj a song


.

in accordance with the later prefer ence for fulness of expression.

23-26]

EPISTLE TO THE EPHESIANS.


dvrip
K<pa\t]
<TTIV

205

KecfiaXrj

Ttjs

<yvvaiKO<s

Ttjs eKK\rjcrias, O.VTOS crwrrjp


t]

ak Kal 6 TOV

TOS.

**d\Xa ok

eKK\rj(ria vTroTdcrveTai TCO

OVTCOS Kal al yvvcuKes

dyajrccTe
*6

Ts

dv^pcuriv iv TTCCVTI. yvvalKas, KaOcbs Kal 6

TOIS

<5

OJ

TrapeScoKev iva avTrjis dyida ri KaOapicras TO) \ovTpw TOV


The definite article (o) is
:

eKKXriviav Kal eavTov

23.

dwjp]

19
fir)

oi avdpes,

dyanare ras yvvaiKas Kal


Cleanse and

absent in the best text a husband is head of his wife , or, more idiom
atically in English,

iriKpatvfffQe irpos auras.

26.

dyidcr?) Kadapio-as]

the
.

the head of the wife with yvvaiKos defines its relation to

husband is The article

sanctify is the order of thought, as in I Cor. vi II a XXa aTn-Xouaao-tfe,

So
y

in

Cor. xi 3 KefpaXrj Be

6 dvyp,
,

woman s head

is

he husband er

it

defines the relation

cleanse from the old, riyicKrdrjTe and consecrate to the new. But in time the two are coincident. It was no doubt the desire to keep KaQaplvas
:

aXXa

of avrfp to the preceding ywaiKos. avTos CTCOTTJP] On the variant nal avros ecrnv o-wnfp see the note on various readings. The true text in dicates the special reason why the Apostle here speaks of Christ as the Head. He will not however enlarge on the subject, but returns, with aXXa, to the matter in hand. oXXa cos-] In order to retain 24. for aXXd its full adversative force many commentators interpret the preceding words, avros o-cor^p TOV o-co/xaros, as intended to enhance the headship of Christ, as being vastly superior to that of the husband so that the connexion would be, *but
:

closely with rc5 Xourpw K.T.\. that led to the rendering of the Authorised To Version, sanctify and cleanse
.

render KaQapiaas having cleansed would be to introduce a distinction in point of time we must therefore
:

say cleansing (or by cleansing ). For the ritual sense of Kadapifa, see Deissmann (Neue Bibelst. pp.

43

),

who
/ca[t

cites

CIA in

74 KaQapt-

ecrra)
petoz/]

(Sic) de drro

cr(K)6p8a)v Ka[t

X ot ~

yvKUKOf], Xovcraptvovs 5e

notwithstanding this difference

etc.

rep Xovrpw] Three allied words must be distinguished: (i) \ovrpov the water for washing or the washing itself; (2) Xovrpaw, the place of wash*n g 5 (3) Xovr^p, the vessel for wash
,

the exposition saves us from the neces sity of putting this strain upon the
in

The interpretation adopted

the laver Each of these may ing in English be designated as the bath We may take as illustrations of (i)
, .
.

Apostle s language. As in several other places, aXXa is used to fix the attention on the special point of

and
rpov

(2)

Plutarch, vita

Alexandri 23
Xoup.

/caraXvo-as- Se /cat rpfTro^evos Trpos


rj

immediate interest
24,

comp.

Cor. xii
:

2 Cor. iii 14, viii 7, Gal. iv 23, 29 if this is not strictly the resumptive use of aXXd, it is akin to it The use of rr\rjv at the end of this section
(v.

33) is closely parallel


25.

734 B, where after speaking of 7) Trepl ra Xourpa TToXwrdfieia he relates that AXc ai 8pos [lev 6 (QatrtXevy ev rco Xourpcow TTvpeTTcov cKadfvdev. In the LXX (i) and (3) are found: Xoimjp is used for a laver 16 times: \ovrp6v
>
>

a Xei/M/Lia,

and Sympos.

Ot avdpes

K.T.X.]

So

in Col.

iii

represents nyi[n in Cant, iv

2,

vi

206
ev
(of

EPISTLE TO THE EPHESIANS.


87 i

[V2 7

TrapacrTcrr] ai/TOS eavTto


when the word of God comes to a prophet, Luke iii 2 eyevfTO prjfjia 6eov
eirl

sheep coming up
),

from the wash


KOL TToXll/
T<3

ing

and occurs
,

in Sir. xxxi (xxxiv)

3O

(BaiTTl6lJLVOS OTTO VfKpOV


TI
n<j)c\r)o~V

Xovrpa)

ladvTjv: comp. prjfjia 6eov ill this It is also used more epistle, vi 17.

In Ps.
10 ^Vrn
"Vp

lix (Ix) 10, cvii (cviii)


7

my washpot

is

rendered

specially (4) of the Christian teaching, as in i Pet. i 25 (from Isa. xl 8) TO 8e


prjpa Kvpiov pc vci els TOV
fie
aia>va

\ovrpov pov (the LXX The Latin versions maintain the distinction by the use of labrum for laver (in the

by Aquila
has

\ej3ijs

TOVTO
ets

\efirjs TTJS fKirLbos pov).

fOTiv TO

piy/za

TO fvayyeXia-Qev

Pentateuch olla, etc. elsewhere), and oflauacrum for washing in Canticles. In Ps. lix (Ix) 10 Jerome s version has olla lauacri: in Sirach Cyprian and
:

and Heb. vi 5 xaXov yevo-apwovs 6eov p^/u-a. The most remarkable passage is Rom. x 8 ff., where, after quoting Deut. xxx 14 cyyvs a-ov TO
vp,as,
prjfj.a

foTiv, fv TO)
O~TIV

Trj

Kapftiq vov,

vrfyart o~ov KO\ ev the Apostle continues


prjfia
TTJS

the Vulgate have lauatio, but Au gustine thrice gives lauacrum. For patristic references confirming the meaning of washing for Aovrpoi/, see Clem. Alex. Paed. iii 9 46, Dion. Alex. ep. xiii ad fin., Epiph. expos, and contrast fid. 21, Bind, in 583
;

TOVT

TO
OTI

iriarcats

KT)pvo-a-o/j.ev.

eav

p^/ua tv

T<B

crro/iaTi

6p,o\oy^o-r]s TO o-ov OTI KYPIO2


/c.T.X.

IH2OY2,

Kal Trio-Tcvo-ys

Here

TO pfj^a stands on the one hand for the Christian teaching (comp. v. 17
for

Hippol. [?] ed. Bonwetsch-Achelis i pt 2, p. 262 /zero rr)v rfjs Ko\vfjifii]6pas


dvayfvvr)o~iv.

and on the other the Christian confession which leads to salvation. With this must
dia pijfj,aTo$ Xpio-ToG),

be compared

The only other passage in the New Testament where \ovrp6v occurs is
Tit.
iii

i Cor. xii. 3, where the same confession appears as a kind of formula, and is sharply contrasted

fim0w

rjfjias

8ta

XovrpoO
TTVCV-

with a counter-formula

ANA0EMA
Phil,
ii

7ra\ivyeveo-ias

Kal dvaKaivwaeoas

IH2OY2.
7rao~a

Compare,

too,

11

HCLTOS dyiov.
it

Both there and here the


:

yXa>o-0-a

^op.o\oyrjarrjTat, OTL

KY-

Authorised Version correctly renders the washing the bath would not be incorrect, though somewhat am 7 the laver is incorrect, biguous: and has probably been suggested by the Latin lauacro\ which has been misunderstood. ev pT]p.aTt] In the New Testament prjua represents the various uses of
the

it is clear that the phrase ev pijpaTi indicates some solemn utterance by the accom paniment of which the washing of

PI02 IH20Y2 XP12T02. In the present passage

water is made to be no ordinary bath, but the sacrament of baptism.

Hebrew

7
"O"

!.

(i)

A spoken word

Comp. Aug. tract. So in Joan. 3 Detrahe uerbum, et quid est aqua nisi
aqua? accedit uerbum ad elementum, et fit sacramentum ; etiam ipsuin tainChrysostom asks and answers the question
thUS:
p.aTi

of any kind, as in Matt xii 36 prjfia matter, as in Luke i 37 (2) dpyov. OVK d8vvaTijo~fi irapa TOV $eo{) TTO.V prjfJ-a, nothing shall be too hard for God* (where irapa TOV reproduces a Hebrew

quam uisibile uerbum What then was this pj^a?


.

idiom, the passage being based on Gen. xviii 14 dBvvanja-fi irapa TOV Qfov [the true reading, supported by the old Latin, not irapa TW fata]

pqpOTl, TraTpos Kal vlov


*El>

<pT)0-l

TTOIO)/

CV

01/0-

Kal ayiov

TTVfV-

prjfjia;\

and Luke
(3)

ii

15 TO pfj^a TOVTO

TO ytyovos.

In a solemn sense, as

paTos: that is to say, the triple formula of baptism. In the earliest time, however, baptism appears to have been administered in the name 7 of Jesus Christ (Acts ii 38, x 48,

28]

EPISTLE TO THE EPHESIANS.


KK\rjariav,
JJLYI

207
rj

Trjv

e^ovcrav (nriXov

fj

pvTiSa
**

TI

T(V
6<pei-

TOIOVTCOV,
comp.

d\\

iva y dyia. Kal

a/uLM/uLOs.

OVTOJS

the Lord Jesus viii 12) or (Acts viii 1 6, xix 5); and on the use of the single formula St Paul s argu ment in i Cor. i 1 3 seems to be based
IlaOXos
GVO/J.O.
1

presents no difficulty

is ; the meaning with a word which is appropriate to this washing , the pf/pa being sufficiently defined by the context.

(jirj

<TTavp<>6r)

vrrep

VJLKBI/,
;).

17

ets

TO

IlauXov

e/SaTrrio-tfjjre

The

special pfjpa above referred to points the same way. The confession on KYPI02 IH20Y2 was the shortest and simplest statement of Christian faith

There appears to be no ground for supposing that the Apostle here makes any allusion to a ceremonial bath taken by the bride before marriage. There is no evidence for such a rite in the Old Testament, the passages
sometimes cited being quite irrelevant (Ruth iii 3, Ezek. xxiii 40). In the legend of Joseph and Asenath there is no such ceremony, though it is true that after her long fast Asenath washes her face and hands before she puts on her bridal costume. Nor does it appear as a Christian cere mony, though it probably would have been retained if St Paul had been
regarded as alluding to it here. St Paul s thought is of the hallowing of the Church, and thus he is at once led to speak of the sacrament of
baptism.
27.
napao-Trivr}]

(comp. Acts xvi 31


TOV Kvpiov

ff.

iria-revarov

cirl

Irjcrovv KOI o-afljcrT] o*v KOI

oucos O-OV...KCU cj3a7rTicr0T) avrbs /cat ol OVTOV diravTfs Trapaxpfjpa). That some confession was required before bap tism is seen from the early glosses upon the baptism of the eunuch, Acts viii 37, and that this soon took the form of question and answer (eVepo)rrjfjia) is suggested by i Pet iii 21, where the context contains phrases which correspond with the second

the baptismal creed of the second century. Indeed the origin of the creed is probably to be traced, not in the first instance to the triple formula, but to the statement of the main facts about the Lord Jesus as
division of

Comp. 2 Cor.
TG>

XI 2

^pp.o(rdfJLT]v

yap

vp,as evl dvSpl irapQevov

a prelude to baptism in His name "When under the influence of Matt,


.

xx viii 19 the triple formula soon came to be universally employed, the


structure
boration.
It is probable, then, that the pfj^a here referred to is the solemn mention of the name of the Lord Jesus Christ in connexion with the rite of baptism, either as the confession made by the candidate or as the formula employed by the ministrant. We may therefore render the passage: that He might

of

the

baptismal

creed
ela

would receive a corresponding

dyv^v irapa(TTr)o-ai ^piorw. Here Christ Himself (avrds, not avnjv, see the note on various readings) presents the Church all-glorious to Himself. "Evdogov is the predicate: the word occurs again in i Cor. iv 10 vpfls evdogot, Tjfifls 8e art/not, and twice in St Luke s Gospel, vii 25 (of glorious
apparel), xiii 17 (of glorious works).
*

o-TTtXoi/

jj

pvTida]

spot of disfigure
.

ment or wrinkle of age Neither word is found in the LXX. Comp.


2 Pet.
ii

13 orriXoi KOI pupal


ols
77

Plut.

Mor. 789 D

y\a)fj.fvrj rroXia Kal


:

pVTis ffjureipias fj-dprvs eirKpaiverai Diosc. i 39 (de oleo amygdalino) alpe i


6e
/cat

sanctify it, cleansing it by the washing

o-TT/Xovs

<

TrpotreoTrow Kal

<prf-

of water with the word\ For the use of the preposition we may compare vi 2 eV eVayyeXm.

\eis (freckles) KOI pwiSas. dyia Kal a/ueo/nos] Comp.


r/pas

eti/at

dyiovs

Kal

dfJLwp.ovs

KOTCVCMTIOV

The absence of the

definite article

avrov ev

dyaTrrj,

and see the note there.

208
\OVCTLV Kai ol

EPISTLE TO THE EPHESIANS.


oVSjOes
Z9
d<ya7ra,

[V 2^-3cos

Ta eavTcov

crco/maTa*

dyajrav Tas eavTcov 6 dyaTrwv TY\V eavTOv

ov$eis

yap
3

TTOTC

Trjv

eavTOv crdpKa
6

d\\a
TY\V
31

KTpe<pi

Kai 6d\7rei ai/T^V, KO

k
avTOV.

KK\rj(riav,

OTi

jjieXr]

ecryuei/

TOV

ANTi

nATepA KA) npdc THN rYN<JUKA AyToy, KAI ecoNTAi 3S TO /ULVCTTrjOLOV TOVTO Ueya CApKA Ml AN.
I

TOYTOY KATAAei yei ANGpconoc TON THN MHTepA KA npocKoAAH6HCTAi


oi

Ay

eic

<TTlVj

28.

ourtos]

This

is

as the antecedent to
o-cojaara,

not to be taken ra eavrcov


o>y

31.

dvrl TOVTOV]

Comp.

avff

coi/,

which means
.

as being their
*
:

own bodies
drift of

It refers to the general


,
.

what has gone before thus same manner This is the in Matt, v 16 ovreos meaning of
in this
OVTQ>S
<^)c5s

2 Thess. ii 10, and four times in St Luke s wri tings. 1 1 has been suggested that avrL here means instead of, the contrast being with the idea of a

man s
verses

hating his
is

own
of

flesh (v.
<rdp

and the mention

29) ; in both

Aa/MA/mro) TO

vfjL&v,

K.r.A.

that

is

pleaded in favour of this

to say, as the lamp shineth (v. 15); not in such a way... that they may

In the few passages interpretation. in which St Paul uses dvri, however,


it

see
29.

etc.

does not suggest opposition^ but


:

a-apKa]

The change from

crto/Aa

coTTespondence

KUKOV

awl

KaKov,

gives a fresh emphasis to the thought, and at the same time pre pares the way for the quotation in
to orap
v.

31.
eVcrpe
is

Thess. v 15 ; K.OW avrl This of 7rept/3oAai ou, I Cor. xi 15. course is in no way decisive of his use of the word in the present passage
xii 17,
i
:

Rom.

words

Each of these once used by the Apostle


Kai 0d\7Ti]
:

elsewhere, but in reference to the nurture of children below, vi 4 ocavra eV TraiSem Kai vovBfa-lq rpe<f)T * av rpocpbs Thess. ii 7 I Kvpiov
:
>s

the whole more natural to suppose that dwl TOVTOV is intended as equivalent to

but

it

seems on

TOVTOV
in the

by which
:

p"y

is
ii

represented
24.

LXX of Gen.

Comp.

6d\Try
30.

TO.

eavrfjs TCKVO.

fi\rj]

The

relation

of the

Jerome ad loc. quod ibi habetur

apostolus pro eo eveKfv TOUTOU, id est


.

parts to the whole is here empha sised, as is the relation of the parts of the whole to one another in iv 25 With the
latter
ev

propter hoc, posuit dwl rourov, quod latine aliis uerbis dici non potest The only other variant from the LXX in our text is the omission of UVTOV
after irarepa

compare Rom.
(Tfj.fv
:

xii 5 ol TroAAoi
I

and

p.rjTpa: see,

how

a-wfjLO.

ev Xptcrrw, TO de Kaff els

ever, the note

on various readings.

d\\ij\cov p.f\r)
vi
1

with the former


fj,e\rj

Cor.

vp-wv eorii/, xii 27 vp.f1s Se care


5

TO

crco/xara

XptcrroO
XpicrroD

trco/za

ical

ue\r)

<

pepovs.
oVrecoi/

For the addition


Kai fK
TU>V

oc T^ s o~apKos avrov avrov SCO the note

on various readings.

TO p,VOTr)plOV K.T.A.] The 111631132. ing of pvo-njpiov is discussed in a separate note. In St Paul s use of the word we must distinguish (i) its employment to designate the eternal secret of God s purpose for mankind, hidden from the past but revealed in

V33]

EPISTLE TO THE EPHESIANS.


KCLI

209
33

eKK\r](riav.

ol

x.aff

eva

e/cacrros TY\V
<yiwj}

ok eavTov, n Se

eavTov yvvaiKa OVTCOS n/a (o^Tca TOV

Christ; comp. iu this epistle,


9, vi 19;

9,

iii

4,

CoL

26

f.,

ii

2, iv
:

3;

xvi 25; i Cor. ii i, 7 (2) general use of the word in the plural, 1 Cor. iv i, xiii (3) the use 2, xiv 2 of the singular for some particular secret of the Divine economy or of the future; as in Rom. xi 25 TO TOVTO (of the partial blind jj.v<rnjpiov ness of Israel, which has been figured by the olive-tree), i Cor. xv 51 Idov fjLVO-rriptov vp.lv Xeyta (of the last
:

Rom. a more

Paul is here speaking of marriage as a sacrament in the later sense.


y<a

de Xc yo)]

The

insertion of the
this

pronoun emphasises

teaching as

specially belonging to the Apostle. It was his function in a peculiar sense

to declare the mystical relation of Christ to the Church.


11

trump). The remarkable phrase in 2 Thess. ii 7 TO pva-r^piov rrjs dvofUaff, connected as it is with a thrice repeated use of d7roKa\v(p0fjvai, ap pears to form part of an intentional parallel between the man of sin and our Lord. The remaining examples are in the Pastoral Epistles, i Tim.
iii

els] with reference to comp. Acts 25 AaveiS yap Aeyei els avTov. 33. irXrjv Kal vpeis] that is, Do you at least grasp this, the practical lesson of love on the one part and of rever ence on the other.
:

iva

<po@fjT<u]

This carries us back


Xpto-Tov.

to

v.

21

ev

<o/3<0

There

appears to be a double reference to


this in
is
i

Pet.

iii

6,

which clearly
:

not independent of our epistle

9 TO

p-vo-rripiov rfjs Trio-Teas, iii

l6

O/io/co? yvvaiKes inroTaara Ofj.fvai, TOIS Idiots dv8pd(riv...TT)v ev (o/3o> dyvrjv


dva(TTpo<f)r)v

6fJi.o\oyovp.ev(DS

peya carlv TO

rfjs evcre-

v^atv

and then as

if

to

guard against a

false conception of

The use of the word in our text is not quite parallel to any of the above The union of husband and wife uses. as one flesh is a /j.v(mjpiov, or con tains a pvaTijpiov (according as we
interpret TO fiwrrrfptov TOTO as refer ring to the actual statement of Gen. ii 24, or to the spiritual meaning of

fear, p.^

<o/3ou/iej/ai

fufafjUav TTTOTJO-IV

(where the actual phrase comes from


Prov.
iii

25 KCU

oi5

For the

ellipse before Iva the

near

est parallel seems to be i Cor. vii 29 ot e^ovrcs yvvcuKas cos TO AotTroi/ iva
<ai

that statement: the word fiva-r^ptov hovers between the symbol and the

For a change from cxovTfs (Sa-iv. another construction to one with /a,
IJ.T)

see above
$...,

v.

27
e

exowav. .aXA
.

Iva

thing symbolised in Apoc. i 20, xvii 5, 7). This [Mvo-Tr/piov is of far-reaching importance (/ue ya): but all that the Apostle will now add is that he is speaking (or that he speaks it) con cerning Christ and the Church. The Latin rendering sacramentum hoc magnum est well represents the

and a nearer
5

xiv

de Xo)

parallel in irdvras vp.as

Cor.

\aXelv

VI. i 9. These principles of rever ence and love extend through the whole sphere of family life. Children must obey: it is righteous: and the
old precept still carries Fathers must promise. obedience, and must not
cipline
its special

sacramentum combines the ideas of the symbol and its mean


Greek;
for
ing.

insist

on
dis

make

It is hardly necessary to point


it

more

difficult

out that

does not imply that St

loving patience.

by a lack of Again, slaves must

EPHES. 2

210

EPISTLE TO THE EPHESIANS.

[VI

i_4

VI.
Kvpiw,

*Ta

T/ci/a,

v7raKovT6 TO?? yovevcrw v/uwv ev


ecrTiv
<\,

coy

<\

TOVTO ydp THN M H T e p


i

SIKCUOV
GCTTtv

TMA
6VTO\rj
TTpwTrj

rjTis

ev

eTrayyeXia,

fNA ef coi
THC.
4 Ka^

reNHTAi KAI CCH


ol

NIOC en

THC

TraTepes,

obey: with a trembling fear and a whole-hearted devotion, looking to their masters as to Christ Himself. They are Christ s slaves, doing God s will in their daily tasks ; not rendering a superficial service to please an earthly lord; but with their soul in their work, serving the Lord in heaven, not men on earth for the Lord
:

He did not in His reply go to the Decalogue either for the first or for the second, like unto it (Mark xii
28
fc).

It is possible to understand TrpaTrj here, as in the Gospel, in the sense


first in rank ; or, again, as the to be enforced on a child: but neither interpretation gives a satis e irayfactory meaning to the clause yeX/a, unless these words be separated

of the
first

accepts and rewards all good work, whether of the slave or of the free. And the masters must catch the same spirit the threatening tone
:

<V

their slaves have the

must be heard no more: they and same heavenly


Lord, before
I.

from TrpoiTT} and connected closely with what follows with a promise that it shall be well with thee This etc. however is exceedingly harsh, and it
,

whom

these earthly dis


.

tinctions disappear

breaks up the original construction of the quoted passage, where iva

Ta

TfKva]

Comp.
Tols

Col.

iii

2O ra
Kara

depends on
3.

Ti/Lta K.T.A.

TKva}
Traira,

virciKovfTe

yovfvo~iv

TOVTO yap fvapecrrov


rTts fcrr\v K.T.X.]
l

ecrriv fv

2.

which

is

the

first

commandment with

promise*.

The obvious interpretation of these


words appears to be the best It has been objected (i) that a kind of promise is attached to the second

commandment

of the Decalogue, and (2) that no other commandment has a promise attached to it after the
replied (i) that the appeal to the character of God in the
fifth.

The quotation K.r.A.] does not correspond to the Hebrew text either of Ex. xx 12, that thy days may be long upon the land which the Lord thy God giveth thee , or of Deut v 16, that thy days may be long, and that it may go well with thee, upon the land which the Lord St Paul quotes thy God giveth thee with freedom from one of the LXX texts, which have themselves under
tva

ev

gone some change, due


assimilation
yevrjTcu
:

It

may be

second
that

commandment

is

not properly
all,

in

in part to Ex. xx 12 Iva fv o-oi (these four words are omitted and obelised in the Syro-

speaking a promise at

and

(2)

many commandments, not of the Decalogue, have promises attached to them, so that the Apostle may be thought of as regarding these as the subsequent commandments which his expression implies. EtroXiy is not of necessity to be confined to one of the Ten Words When our Lord was asked Ilot a vro\r) Trpayrrf TTCLVTW ;
.
C<TT\V

hexaplar) KOI Iva paKpo^ovios yevrj eiil o 6e6s TTJS yfjs TTJS dyaBfjs qs Kvpios Deut. V 1 6 Iva ev o-ov 5/SoxrtV trot
:

(rot

yevTjTat
;

KOI
;

va paKpoxpovios

(A

cay

-01 T^re

B ab

Sup. ras.) eVl

rfjs yfjs
<rot.

ys Kvpios 6 6f6s o~ov didaxriv

The omission of the rl TTJS yrjs] words which follow in the LXX gives a different turn to this phrase: so

VI 5-9]
TO.
N

EPISTLE TO THE EPHESIANS.


V/ULtoV,

211

TKVa
Y 9
C
I

d\\d
5
Y-

6KTp6<pT6

aVTOL 6V TTAlAeiA Kai

KY

O* $OV\Ol, V7TaKOVT
6
fmrj

T0?9

crdpKa Kvpiois /ueTa

<po/3ov

Kai Tpojmov ev d7r\OTn


K.CLT
6(f>6a\/uLoSov\iav

Kapcias
ft)?

V/ULWV o)9

TO) ^pLCTTW^

dv6p(*)7rdp6<TKOl

GtAA

0)9

$OV\Ol
8

XjOtCTToi/

7TOLOVVT6S

TO

6e\rj/uia

TOV deov, IK
oJ/c

ip-v%fj$

jueT* evvoias

TO) /ctyNo) ica

dvdpwTTOis,
9

oov\evovT6s, oJs eJoVe9 ort /ca(TTO9, eai/

Troiiicrr]

dyaQov, TOVTO

KOjULicreTai
ol

Trapd Kvpiov, 6LT6

SovXos eiTC e\ev6epos.


on that it may be rendered earth instead of in the land
.

Kai
the

Kvpioi, TO.

avTa

15 (of the reception of Titus), Phil, ii 12; and, for the corresponding verbs,

4.

oi

Trarepey]
p.rj

Comp.

Col.

iii

21

Mark V 33
in the LXX.

(poftrjQflo-a

Kai rpe/iovo-a.

ot Trare pey,

pedifT

ra TfKva

The combination occurs several times


on
16

LVCL LLT] CtO VUtd^GTiVt

See Trapopyi^ere] 7rapopyio-^,w, iv 26.


TratSeta]

the
2

note
iii

In
ias

Chron. xxix 17 ev

renders

U^

"1^*3.

Comp.

Tim.

cJcpeXt/ios 7rpo9 StSao~KaXtai/, Trpo?


/ioi/,

6(pBa\fj.o8ov\ia see Lightfoot s notes on Col. iii 22.

For

this

word and

TTJV

Trpoff firavopQaxriv, Trpos The word is ev diKaioo-vvT].

6.

not

[liii]

used elsewhere by St Paul, though he used the verb TratSeuco, to discipline

Comp. Ps. Hi dvGpaTrdpeo-Koi] o 6fos difCTKopirio-ev OO-TO. dv6pcoPs. Sol. iv 8 f. dvOpayrrtoV dv~
SoXou.
4.

,
.

or in a severer sense to chastise Although the substantive may signify simply education or training, yet nurture (A.V.) is too weak a word
for
it

Ta
10,

fjiovov /Aera
i

See also GaL


Col.
iii

Thess.

ii

^vx^s]
e<

Comp.
dv6pa>iroLs.

23 6
<as

eav

TroiT/re,

^vx^js epydfco-de,

r<u

in this place.
it
7rao~a

It is better to
.

Kupio) Kai OVK

The

parallel

render
xii II

discipline
fj.V

Comp. Heb.
npos
p.ev

Traideia

TO

irapov ov SOKCI ^apas eivai


vovQfo-ta]
iii

aXXa

XVTTT;?.

Comp.
is

10.

It

Cor. x n, Tit. less wide in meaning


i

than

admonition.

and suggests a warning With this injunction compare Didache 4 OVK dpels TTJV OTTO TTJS X^pd (TOV OTTO TOV ViOV (TOV
TratSf ta,
Tj

suggests that the phrase should here also be taken with what follows, and not, as in A.V., with what precedes. Moreover the preceding sentence is more forcible if doing the will of God stands by itself as the interpretation of as servants of Christ
.

7.

pfT evvoias]
:

EK^U^S is opposed

to listlessness

Bvyarpos
flS
5.

o~ov,

aXXa

OTTO veorrjTos didd-

TOV

(f)6(BoV TOV dfOV. Oi 5oi)Xot] Comp. Col.

iii

22

pcT evvoias suggests the ready good-will, which does not wait to be compelled. 8. et Sorey K.r.X.] Comp. Col. iii 24
eldoTfs
TTfV

Ot

SoiJXoi,

VTTdKOVeTf
Kvptot?,
cos

KOTO,
/nr)

TTUVTa TOIS ev
d<f)da\-

OTI

OTTO

Kvpiov
TTJS

aTToXjJ/u^eo ^e
T<

Kara
ev

aapKa

dvra7r68oo~tv
o>

K\r)povo/j.ias

/^toSovXtais,

aV^peoTrapeovcoi,
(poftov/Jicvoi

clXX*

Kupi

drr\oTr]TL

KapSia?,

TOV
ii

Xptcrroi SouXevcre* 6 O T)O lKT)O V) KOt


ol Kvpioi]

yap dbiKcav
OVK
iv.

O~TIV

KVpLOV.
(pdfiov KOI rpojxov]

Comp.

Cor.

9.

Comp. CoL

oi

3 (of St Paul s preaching), 2 Cor.

vii

Kuptot,

TO

diuov

KOI TT)V lo-o-rrjTa TOIS

142

212

EPISTLE TO THE EPHESIANS.

[VI

10,

11

TTpos avTOvs, dvievTes Tt}v a7rei\riv, eiSores OTL teal teal vfjiwv 6 Kvpios ecTTiv ev ovpavols, teal
IO

OVK etTTiv Trap avTco. Toiy \OLTTOV ev$vvajuiovo 6e ev Kvpito teal ev TCO
,

ia"%vos

avTOv.

XI

e z/B v<racr6e Trjv


/cat

7ravo7r\iav TOV 6eov

7rape xeo-$e, eldores ort

vpels

xvpiov fv oupai/oi.
TO.

avrd]
.

i.e.

deal in like
is it

manner
in

arid blood, but spirit ; and they wage their conflict in the heavenly sphere. You must be armed therefore with

with them

The phrase

not to be

pressed too literally:

signifies

act by them, as they are general, bound to act by you .

oWVres] There is no parallel to use of the verb in the Greek bible but in classical Greek it is used either with the genitive or with the
this
:

Truth and righteous you know, are His girdle and breastplate and in these His repre sentative must be clad. In the confi dence of victory you must be shod
armour.
ness, as
;

God s

with the readiness of the messenger of peace. With faith for your shield, the flaming arrows of Satan will not
discomfit you. Salvation is God s hel met, and He smites with the sword of His lips. Your lips must breathe

accusative in the sense of giving desisting from .

up

With this passage Wetstein com pares Seneca Thyest. 607 Vos, quibus rector maris atque terrae lus dedit magnum necis atque uitae, Ponite in flates tumidosque uoltus. Quicquid a uobis minor extimescit, Maior hoc uobis dominus minatur. Omne sub
regno grauiore regnum est Kai avT(ov KOI vfjLcov] See the note on various readings. 7rpocr(oiro\T]fj.^/ia] Comp. Acts x 34. See also Lightfoot s note on Col. iii 25. With the whole passage compare
.

perpetual prayer. Prayer, too, is your watch, and it will test your endur ance. Pray for the whole body of the saints and pray for me, that my
:

mouth may be opened to give my own message boldly, prisoner though


I

be
10.

Toi) XoiTToCj
XotTToV,

to

TO

This is equivalent with which St Paul

Diddchc 4
rj

VK fTTird^fis
rols eVt

5ouXa>

(TOV

frequently introduces his concluding see Lightfoot s note on injunctions Phil, iii i. For the variant TO \our6v in this passage see the note on various
:

TraiSitrKT),

TOV
a~ov

avrbv

0eov

readings.
in the

\iriov<riv )

fv TTiKpia

iLrjrroTc

ov

fir)

(f)ojBr]6r)O OVTa.i

TOV

eV

dfi(j)OTpois
TrpotrcoTro*

Btov ov yap ep^erat Kara


i,

verb is confined Testament ,to the Pauline epistles and one passage in the Acts,
ev8vvap,ovo-0f] This

New

our TO irvev^a TJTOLvp-fls Se ot SovXoi V7rorayijo~o~d


e(p
VfJLMV)
<po(3(p.

aXX*

vvT)

KVplOlS KOL

COS

TVTTCO

6fOV,

SavXos de /zaXXov fve^vva/jiOVTO (ix 22) appears in the LXX rarely, and never without a variant. EvSwapovv (from
:

it

fvdvvapos)

is

scarcely distinguishable

10 20. cerns you

My

final injunction

con

all. You need power, and you must find it in the Lord. You need God s armour, if you are to stand against the devil. We have to wrestle with no human foe, but with the powers which have the mastery of this dark world they are not flesh
:

from dwafwvv (Col. in, Heb. xi 34), which is found as a variant in this
place.
11. iravoTr\iav] Armour , as con trasted with the several pieces of the

armour

So it is rightly ren (oVXa). dered in Luke xi 22 T^V iravoir\iav


alpft
f({>

fTTfirolQfi.

Comp.

VI

12]

EPISTLE TO THE EPHESIANS.

213

TO

fivvacrOai i)/xas crTfjvcu

TT^OS

Tas /x0oS/as TOV


aijuia

<rdpKa,

d\\d
TOV CTKOTOVS TOVTOV, Trpos
flesh
.

TOI)S Kocr/uLOKpaTOpa^
7ravorr\iav

TO, Trvev-

armour of gold , \pvcri]v 2 Mace, xi 8 ; fncyvaxrav TrpoTreTrro)Kora Ni/eai/opa o~vv TTJ TravoirXiq they knew that Nicanor lay dead in his har ness ibid. xv. 28. It corresponds to the Latin armatura( = omnia arma).
,

and blood In the Book of Enoch (xx 4) the offspring of the angels who sinned with the daughters
of man is described as flesh andblood
in contrast with
*

living spirits

The rendering whole armour (comp.


complete harness 2 Mace. iii. 25) is redundant, and in the present pas sage it distracts attention from the Put on important epithet TOV 0eoC. God s armour is the Apostle s injunc
tion.

Comp. i 21, iii 10. Kocr/zo/cparopas ] The word Koayio/cpdrwp has two significations, (i) Ruler
dpxas
K.r.X.]

of the whole world

Hymns

as in the Orphic in Sol. n, in Pan. u, and


:

in a scholion

on Aristoph. Nub.
yeyovas.

397,

2etroy^(i)(rts o /SacriAevs

clear

His meaning is presently made by his quotations from the de scription of the Divine warrior in Old Testament prophecy. For further
vv. 13
12.
f.

KofTfjioKparatp

raw AlyvTrricov In the Rab

binical writings the word is trans literated and used in the same sense :

as in Schir R. y

three kings, cosmo-

illustrations of iravcm\la see the notes

on

cratores, ruling from one end of the world to the other : Nebuchadnezzar,

fjicdodias]
TraXij]

See the note on

iv 14.

This word is not used by prose writers in the general sense of struggle or conflict. It always re tains, except in a few poetical phrases, its proper meaning of wrestling
.

Evilmerodach, Belshazzar ; and of the angel of death in Vajikra R., where

however Israel
:

is

excepted from his

Theodore ad

loc.

says
is

esse uidetur ut

inconsequens qui de armis om


:

nibus sumendis et bello disputauit conluctationem memoretur: sed nihil differre existimat, eo quod neque uera ratione de conluctatione aut de militia
illi

otherwise universal rule. (2) Ruler of this world thus standing in con trast to Traj/ro/cpoTfop, ruler of the whole universe. It corresponds to TOV Koo-pov (TOVTOV), John ap%<v xii 31, xiv 30, xvi n, and to the

Jewish

title

cordingly

we
it

applying
1

of Satan D^iyn Ac find the Valentinians to the devil, Iren. (Mass.)


1B>.

erat ratio

etc.

o"
4>

* a * KooytoAcparopa

KaAo{5<rt.

af/za KOI a-dpKo]

Comp. Heb.

ii

14

In 2 Mace.

God is spoken of as
9 &nd

o TOV

ra TratSta KfKoivwvrjKfv atfiaroy KOL o-apKOS. The more usual order, o-apg KOI alpa, is found in Matt, xvi 17, i Cor.

KO(TfJLov /SacriXevs, vii

o Kvpios TOV

xv

50, Gal.

i. 1

6.

The expression occurs


<rapKos

in Ecclus. xiv 18 ovrats yevfa


at/xaros ,
rat,
)

KOI

Koo-fjiov, xiii 14 ; and corresponding titles occur in the late Jewish literatura But no such expressions are used in the New Testament, where the world

fjifv

reAevra, erepa 8e yevvd-

is

commonly regarded

and
yfj

xvii 31

(where
:

it is

paralleled

serting its independence of God.

as falsely as All

by

KOI o-TroSos).

J. Lightfoot,

on

Matt, xvi 17, says The Jewish writers use this form of speech infinite times,

and by

He oppose men to God cites especially the phrase a king of


it
.

the kingdoms of the world and the glory of them are in the power of Satan (Matt, iv 8, Luke iv 6) only in the apocalyptic vision do we find that
:

T)

/ScuriXeta

TOV KOO-/MOV TOV KV-

214

EPISTLE TO THE EPHESIANS.


I3

[VI
Sict

13,

14

TO?S eirovpaviois. jiiaTiKa TTJS Trovripias ev

TOVTO

dva\d/3eT

TYIV 7ravoir\iav

ev Trj rj/mepa Trj


*4
a"TrjT

TOV 6eov, iva SvvrjdfJTe GLVTITrovrjpa Kal airavTa KaTepyacraOVV neplZ(OCAMNOI THN 6 C Y N
<J>

TOV XplOTOV dVTOV ( ApOC. God, on the other hand, is addressed as Kvpte TOV ovpavov Kal TTJS xi 25, Luke x 21). ytjs (Matt The second of the two meanings is
T)p.UV KOI

vens

implying a variant

vTrovpaviots.

xi 15).

The same rendering is found in the Armenian version, so that it goes back to the Old Syriac, as is further shewn by its occurrence in Ephraim s
commentary.

alone appropriate here. It is not of world- wide rule, but of the rule of this world, that the Apostle speaks; and this is made clear by the addition of TOV Q-KOTOVS TOVTOV. The expression as a whole is not easy to render into find mundianother language. tenens in Tert. adv. Marc, v 18, adv. Valent. 22, de fug a 12; and mundi-

Theodore knew of
it.

this

interpretation (prob. from the Peshito),

but condemned
13.

apaXa/3erf] Comp. Judith xiv 3 awjXa/3oT6s OVTOL TO.S iravorrXias


aura>z>:

We

ray TravoirXias ava\af36vTfs ev Beats e^povv els TO fpyov, XX 5 3 K\fVl TO O~TpaTVfJia 7TCLV TO.S

Joseph. A.nt. iv

5 2

iravon\ias avdXaftbv fjKfiv


vLav.

els TTJV

potens in de anima 23, and in Hilary in ps. cxviii. But the ordinary Latin rendering is aduersus (huius) mundi
rectores

TTOvrjpa]
rrovrjpai
ijfj.epa

Comp.
:
"

V.

on

ai yp-e
I

eiVii/

also

Ps. xl (xli)

ev

tenebrarum harum.
l

The

novrjpq (

V 5 ^^?)

pvo~eTai avTov

rulers

the paraphrases world This fairly represents the Apostle s mean ing it is with the powers which rule this world, their realm of darkness, that we have to contend. In English the world-rulers of this darkness is hardly intelligible. The familiar ren dering (though suggested by a faulty
Peshito
boldly
this
:

Kvpios*

of

dark

This verb is very St Paul, and always in the sense of producing or It occurs 18 times accomplishing in the Epistles to the Romans and the Corinthians ; but in the later epistles only in Phil, ii 12 TTJV eavT&v murypita* Here therefore it is Ka.Tfpya.e<r6e.
KdTepyao-dpevoi]

frequently

used by
.

which added TOV al&vos) suffi the rulers ciently gives the sense of the darkness of this world .
text,
:

most naturally interpreted as having


accomplished all that your duty reThere is no reason to desert quires the ordinary usage of the New Testa ment for the rarer sense of over coming which occasionally occurs in the classical writers. The Latin ren dering in omnibus perfecti (om. in amiat.), if not a corruption of omni bus perfectis\ must be regarded as a loose paraphrase Jerome in his commentary has uniuersa operati
.

TrvevnaTiKo] the spiritual hosts or forces . The phrase TO. irvevpaTiKa TTJS TTOvrjpias differs from TO. irvevp.aTa TO. novTjpd in laying more stress upon
TO.

the nature of the


hosts
is

foe.

The rendering

elements 7, preferable to because it suggests personal adver saries: forces in the biblical sense,
,

would be equally

suitable,

but to

modern ears it has the same imper sonal meaning as elements ev rocs enovpaviois] Comp. i 20, ii 6, in 10. The Peshito has and with the
.

14.

Trepifao-dfjLevoi

K.r.X.]

pare

the description which follows I Thess. V 8 eVSvcra/iei/oi $a>paxa


Kal dydnrjs Kal irepiKeCpaXaiav

With com

Trio-Teens

evil spirits

which are beneath the hea

c\7ri8a

o~a>TT)pias.

Both passages are

VI isI?]
V eN
AA H

EPISTLE TO THE EPHESIANS.


e
I<5

215
9 co p
<\

A,

Kat

NAYCAMNOI TON
c

<\

THC

NHC,

K.a.1

vTroSticrdimevoi T o y
i

dA

<\

ev ITOL-

l6 ev TTOLCTIV dvaTHC e p H N H c, fjiacria TOY eyArreAior u* Svvrjo ea Oe \a/36vTes TOV Ovpeov Trjs 7rt<rTft)s ev l TOV Trovrjpov Ta TreTrvpco/meva Ta
?
<r/3e<rar

based on
K<pa\atav

Isa. lix

17 evedvo-a
Trept-

is,

oo~uvr}v cos 0copaKa, Kai 7repie #ero


<ra>TT)piov

eVt rr/s

KC<f>a\fjs.

in any case, in addition to all Trdo-t TOVTOIS comp. Luke xvi 26 KOI /xera^u rjpwv K.r.A., where there is the
:
ei>

In our present passage the Apostle has also drawn upon Isa. xi 4 7rardei
yfjv rep Aoyco

same variant eVt. 0vpe6v] Comp. Polyb.


8
j)

vi

23 eort

rou oro/na-ros UVTOV, KOI ev


xci\ea>v

7TVVp.aTi

dia.

di/eXet dcrejSri
TT)^

Kat

eoTat SiKaioorvvT)

e ^cotr/iei/os

6<r(f)vv

Pw/zatK^ Trai/OTrAta Trpwroi/ pcv Qvpeos, ov TO p,ev TrAdros ecrrl r^s *vpTTJS fTTKpaveias Trevff Ty/MiTroStwi , TO de
fJLTJKOS

avrov, Koi dXrjOeiq fiXrjpevos ras TrAeupas.

TToSwi/

TTrdp<i)V

ftf /Ifl^COI/,

Tt

On these passages is also founded


:

in

the description of the Divine warrior Wisd. v 18 Ajy^erai Trai/oTrAico/ TOI/

^Aov
els

avroi), Kat OTrAoTrotTJcret r^i/ KTIO-IV


f \6patV
)

ap-vvav

fvSvo-crai

0a>paKa

Kat

irepidrjo fTat,
\T)fj.\lfTai

KOpvda

avvTTOKpirov
15.
eVoifiaa-ta]

The scutum con sisted, as he tells us, of two layers of wood glued together and covered first with linen and then with hide: it was bound with iron above and below, and had an iron boss affixed to it The oWi s, or clypeus, was a round shield, smaller and lighter.
Kat
TraAawrriatos.
"Wetstein gives of the use of flaming missiles: they were often employed to destroy siege-works, as well as to
7rerrvpa>iJ.cva

The word

is

in the

LXX

for a stand or base:

used but

tr/SeVai]

many examples

found in the following pas sages, Ps. ix 38 (x 17) TTJV Toi}j.a<Tiav rrjs KapSias avTtoi/ Trpoo-etr^ei/ TO ovs
it is also

wound or discomfit individual


Thuc.
ii

soldiers.

prepare (or establish) their heart, Thou wilt cause Thine ear to hear ), Ixiv 10 (Ixv 9)
(Heb.
1

a-ov

Thou

wilt

75 7rpoKaAv/u/j,ara fi\ f ^eppets KOI St<p$epas, wore rovs pyao[j.cvovs Kai ra vAa /iJj re irvp(popois oto-rots
/3aAAeo-#ai ev do~(pa\eia re

T^rot/xacras rrjv
77

rpo<pj)i>

avTtoi/,

on

OVTO>S

(comp. Wisd. xiii 12 fts eroipacriav rpo<pf)s\ Na. ii 4 ev The Apostle rjp.epa erotp-acrias avrov. means to express the readiness which belongs to the bearer of good tidings. He has in his mind Isa. lii 7 rrapfi/u eTTi T&V opetoVj cop Trades fvayerotftao-ta croi;
o>s

Liv. eti/at. xxi 8 Phalarica erat Saguntinis mis sile telum hastili abiegno et caetero

praeterquam ad extremum unde ferrum exstabat: id, sicut in pilo, quadratum stuppa circumligabant linebantque pice... id maxime,
tereti

a>pa

etiamsi haesisset in scuto nee penetrasset in corpus,

yf\iofj.evov

aKorfv

elpijvrjs,

he quotes in to the Hebrew, cos copaiot


1 5

Rom. x

which in a form nearer


ot Trades
ra>v

vayye\i^o^eva>v
1

dyaQa.

pauorem faciebat, quod cum medium accensum mitteretur conceptumque motu ipso multo maiorem ignem ferret, arma
omitti

6.

ev rrao-iv]

For the variant eVt

cogebat

nudumque militem

iraa-iv

see the note on various readings. ETT! Trao-t occurs in the description of

ictus praebebat . The exact expression occurs in Apollodor.

ad insequentes
Bibl
ii

the
eir

Roman armour by
e TTCHTI

Polybius

(vi 23),

de Hercule:

TTJV

vSpav...

TOVTOIS

/SoAcov /3eAeo~i TreTrvpeo/neVots yvdyKacrev

(rrefpdvcp K.r.A.

The meaning

For the absence from some

216

EPISTLE TO THE EPHESIANS.


TTepiKe4>AA<\i<\N

[VI

1820

THN

TO? cooTHpioy Se^acrOe, Kai THN *8 AN TOY TTN6YMATOC, O (TTIV p H M 6 O Y, Si Kai Se/Vews, Trpoa-ev^oimevoL ev TravTi Trpocrev^rj^
<\

ev TTvevjJiaTi, Kai
19

ek ai/ro dypvTrvovvTes
Trept

ev

7rda"n

Kai Seqcrei
Kai VTrep
ejULov,

TTCCVTCOV

TWV dyiwv,
<TTO-

iva

JJLOL

$o6rj

\6yos

ev

dvoi^ei TOV

/zaTOS //of, ev Trapprjcria yvcopicrai TO /avcrT^piov TOV eva<y<yeXiov *v7rep ov Trpecrfievca ev dXva-ei, iva ev avTco
cos

Se? jme \a\ij(rai.


watch

texts of the article before see the note on various readings.

Comp. Mark
/cat

xiii

33

/SAe

dypvirvfiTe, 35 ypTjyopelTf ovVj xiv

38

v 8 and

17. 7TpiKc(f)a\aiavK.T.\. ] SeeiThess. Isa. lix 17, quoted above. To

yprjyopelre

XXI 36
pevoi:
iv 2
TJI

Luke 7rpoo-ev^eo-^e : dypvnvf iTe ev Travrl Kaipqt deoparallel passage Col.


Trpoa-evxfj rrpocrKapTepetTe, yprj-

o-anjpiov is found in Luke ii 30, iii 6, and in St Paul s speech in Acts xxviii

and the

28

in each case it

indirectly

comes directly or from the LXX,

yopovvres ev avTrj ev eu^aptortct.

degao-Qe] is here equivalent to Xa/3ere: comp. Luke ii 28, xvi 6 f., xxii 17
(de^dfJiCVOS TTOTTJplOv).
ri]v

The verb is com Trpoo-KapTepijo-ei] mon, but no independent reference for the noun is given.
19.

KOI
Trept

vnep

e/ioC]

The change

pdxaipav TOV

Trvevfjuiros]

The

phrase is accounted for by Isa. xi 4 (quoted above), though the actual words do not there occur. For pfjua see the note pr)na 6fov\ on v 26. Comp. Isa. xi 4
r<3

to VTrep helps to mark the introduction of the special request:

from

but there

is

no

real

meaning, as

may be
3>

difference of seen from the

Aoyo>

parallel, Col. iv 7rpo(revxopevoi ap.a Kai Trepl 7}p,c3i/, Iva K.T.\.

TOV aTonaTos avTovj and Heb. iv 12 o5i/ yap 6 \6yos TOV 6fov Kai evepyrjs
vrrep
Tratrav

\oyos
6

K.r.A.

Comp.

Col.

iv 3

iva

jjui%aipav

6ebs dvoir] Tjfilv Ovpav TOV \6yov, and Ps. 1 (Ii) 17 ra x 61^ 7? P ov av igets, Kai TO 0-rofj.a nov dvayycXei TT]V
aivo~iv (Tov.
fjLvo-njpiov]
o~ai

1 8.

irpoo-evx^s ]
iv.

For the connexion

of this with the prj^a Qeov


I

compare

Tim.

ayidfTai yap dta \6yov

Comp. Col. iv 3 f. AaA^TO pvarTrfpiov TOV ^ptorov, 81 o Kai


Iva (pavepwo-Q) avTo coy del p.e

6eov Ka\ firev^fcos.

deo~ep.ai }

This word is joined with for the sake of fulness of expression: see Phil. iv. 6, i Tim. ii i,

V5ev irvfvu.aTi\ in the Spirit


l

seethe
els

note on v

18.

For pvo-T^piov see i 9, and the references there given. For the absence from some texts of TOV evayye\iov see the note on various readings. 20. Comp. 2 Cor. V 2O Trpeo-Peva)] VTrep XptGrrov ovv iTpeo~ftevop.(v.
AaA^crat.
fv dXva-ei] Comp. Acts xxviii 20 elveKev yap TTJS eXjrio os TOV lo-pai^A TTJV a\vo~iv TavTrjv TrepiKeipai, 2 Tim. i. 16
rrjv aAvo-tV p,ov

fls avro] Comp. Rom. xiii 6 avTo TOVTO Trpoo-Kaprepovvres.

Aypvirvetv Rini yprjdypvTrvovvres ] yopelv are both used in the LXX to render "Jj?^, to keep awake , to

OVK

e7raio-xvv0r).

21

24.

Tychicus

will

tell

you

VI 2124]
31

EPISTLE TO THE EPHESIANS.


Se eiSrjre KOL
i)//els

217

I i/a

ra

/car que, ri Trpdorcrw,

6 dyaTrrjTOS yvct)pi(rei vfjuv TV^LKOS


TTICTTOS
^ / OiOC OiOCKOI/OS

Kat
d$e\(f>os

OV
<yva)Te

TOVTO
23

va

ra
/ecu

7rapaKa\e<rr]

Eiprivrj
OLTTO

TO?S

aSeA^oIs
K.CU

dyaTrr]
IrjCTOV

/zeTa
*4

6OV
^ueTce

TTCLTpOS

KVpLOV

XplCTTOV.

*H

^dpis

TrdvTcov TCOV dyaTTtovTcov TOV Kvpiov ev d(p6apcrla.


TL
1

rjfjiwv

how

I fare. I am sending him to bring you information and encourage ment I greet all the brethren with one greeting peace be theirs, and Grace be love joined with faith. with all who love our Lord in the
:

Trpdoxro)]

7ww I fare

as in

the common phrase ev 7rpdrri/. But there is no parallel to this usage in the New Testament; for in Actsxv 29 ev TrpdeT appears to be used in the
sense Of Ka\aJs
23.
Trotr/o-ere.

immortal
are one*.
21.

life in

which

He and

they

8e K.T.\.] Almost the same in Col. iv 7 f. ra tar e/ne irdvra yi/copiVei vfuv TV\IKOS 6 dyairrjTos
"Iva

words occur

The term ddeXwas taken over by Christianity from Judaism. See Acts ii 29, 37, iii 17, vii 2, etc., where it is addressed
Tols d8e\(pols]
(pos

dde\(f)OS KCU TTICTTOS SlCLKOVOS, KOI

O"L>v8oV-

\os ev Kvpia, ov 7rep,\^a TTpos vp.as els avro roCro, iva yvwre TO. Trepl rjfjuuv KOL On the TrapaKoXeo-r) ras Kapdias vfieov-

phrases

common

to both passages it is

by a Jew to Jews. Similarly before his baptism Saul is addressed by Ananias Here the as dde\(p6s, Acts ix 17. general term takes the place of the special names which occur in most of the epistles addressed to particular
Churches.
dyaTTTj /iera TriWecoff]

sufficient to refer to Lightfoot s notes. Kat vpcls] This may be taken in

Love accom

two senses:

ye also i.e. as well as others to whom the Apostle is sending a letter at the same time and by the same messenger for although this meaning would not be at once obvious to the recipients of this letter, the words might naturally be used by the Apostle if he were addressing a like statement to the Colossians (2) ye on your part with an implied reference to the knowledge which the Apostle had gained of their
(i)
,
:

panied by faith. Faith and love the Apostle looked for and found among
those to

whom he
Col.
i

writes

see

1 5,

and comp.
they
24.

may

prays that together abide with them.


4.

He

xP ty]
which

The
St

with

Paul

familiar ao-Trao-^os, closes every

Condition
tion,

(i

TTLO-TIV K.T.X.).

The

aKoixras rrjv vpas latter interpreta


<a&

iii 17 ), takes here a more general form and is couched in the third person. This is in harmony with the circular na ture of this epistle. ev d(p6apcria] a signifies A$$ap<rt

epistle (see 2 Thess.

indestructibility, incorruptibility,

and

however, is somewhat forced, and the former is rendered the more probable by the close similarity be tween the parallel passages in the

and dimmortality. are used of the Deity ; e.g. <p0apo-ia by Epicurus ap. Diog. Laert. x 123,
so
*A.<f>6apTos

two

epistles.

Kal pciKapiov vo/jufav (as y

KOIVTJ

TOV

218
fov
vorjaris

EPISTLE TO THE EPHESIANS.


I

[VI 24

fv ofjiOKop-aTt eiKovos (pQapTov dvSpwirov,


/x;re rfjs p,aicapi6trav avT<5 irpoarairTf

d(f)dapo-ias
TTJTOS

d\\oTpiov

Tim.

17

d<p0dpT(o

aopaTa) p,6vto

^e<:

dvoiKeiov

de

TO

(pvXaTTfiv avToC 8vvdp,fvov rrjv


paicapioTrjTa. irfpl

and of the dead after resurrection, I Cor. XV 52 fyfpdf}o~ovrai afpOaproi.


It
is

p.fTd

d<p6ap<rias
:

dogafc

and Plutarch, Aristides

avTov 6, TO

also
(i 4),

used as
Cor.

an epithet of
K\rjpovop.ia
;

o-Tecpavos
(i
iii

ix 25),

Qfiov rpicrl doKfl 8ia(pepfiv, d(pdapo~iq KOI dwdp.fi KOI dpcrf}. They are like

Pet.
4).

and o-n-opd (ib. 23 comp. The substantive occurs in


0$opa,
T)

wise used by the Stoics of the

Koa-p-os

Chrysippus ap. Plut. Moral. 425 D, OV% TjKlO-Td TOVTOV (SC. the p.fO~OS TOTTOff in which the Kooyzos- is situated) trvv(ipyf&Sai npbs
d(f)0apo-iav
:

I V Cor. XV 42 cnrfipfTai fyfipfTdi fv d(p6apo-iq, 50 ovdf

TTJV d(p6apo~iav K\r}povop,fl,

(pdopa 53 ^ e * y**P

TTJV diafj.ovr)v KOI olovel

TO (pflapTov TOVTO vo vo~ao~&ai d(p0apo-iav, KCU TO BVTJTOV TOVTO eVSucraa-^ai


dQavao-iav.
ii

their atoms.

and by the Epicureans of [Comp. the title of Philo s


d<j)0apo

It occurs again in

Rom.

7 Tols

p.fv Kaff inro[jLovr)V

fpyov dyadov
r)Tov(ri.v,

treatise, Ilepi

ias KO(TfJLov.~\

doav
<or)V

KOI Tip.r)V KOI dfpdapcriav


alcoviov,

In the Greek Old Testament aoccurs twice Wisd. xii i TO <p0apTos


:

2 Tim.

IO KaTapyrjo-avros
df
farjv

p,fv

TOV QdvciTOV,

(pa>Ticrai>TOS

yap

acpdaprdv o~ov 7rvfvp,d fcrnv 7ra.(riV) xviii 4 TO acpOaprov v6p,ov

fv

icai d<p6apo~iav

did TOV fvayyf\iov.

(In

<pa>s*

in two notable pass ages connects the granted to men with the d(p8ap<ria of God s own nature: ii 23 f. OTI 6 Qeos eKTio-cv
d<p6ap<ria

The same writer

has been interpolated after having come dcpQopiav, o-e/iyoTT/To, in probably as a marginal gloss on
Tit. ii 7 it

TOV avOparrov
TTJS

eV

dfpdapviq, KOL
(v.
I.

fl<ova

In all these passages there can be no doubt as to the meaning of dcpOapaia.


If
0)77

Idias

Idiorrjros

didioTTjros)

aiatvios

is

the life-principle

fTToirjo-ev

avrov

(pdovto

de

diaj36\ov

which

vi

Odvaros flcrf}\6fv els TOV Kooyioi/, K.T.X., 1 8 f. e Trjprja-is avTrjs dydjrrj


vop,<av

(sc.

TTJS

(ro<pias\

npocroxr)

8e

vopav
eyyvs

iaHTis d(p6apa-iaSjd(f)6ap(Tia de
iroi.fl

6fov.

The only other ex

amples are found in 4 Mace, (of men who pass to an immortal life), ix 22
d>o-7rep

ev irvpl /ieTao-^/naTi^o/iei/os els

d(p6ap(ria.v, xvii 12 qSKoBcTti yap Tore dpfTr) di vTrofJLOvijs doKipd^ovo~a TO vlicos

fv d(p6ap(riq fv

0077

TroXv^povia).

Sym-

machus used the word


<rias

in the title of

PS. 1XXIV (1XXV), fTTlVlKlOS TTfpl d(f)0ap-

^a\p,6s (LXX

p.f)

dta<pdeipr]s).

So far then the meaning ofatpdapTos (dQQapo-ia) is clear, and there is no tendency to confuse it with a$0opos
(dcpQopia).

already at work, d(pdapo-ia is the condition of immortality which will crown it in the future. The use of the word in the epistles of Ignatius deserves a special con sideration, if only because we find in Rom. 7 the expression dydirr) tydapTos. In Eph. 1 5 f. Ignatius is speaking of false teaching and false living as de structive of the temples of God, with an allusion to i Cor. iii 17 ei TIS TOV He de vaov TOV 6fov <p6fipfi, K.T.\. clares that of oiKocpdopoi, those who violate God s house, forfeit the king dom of God. If this be so for the bodily temple, still more does it hold of those who violate ((pfaipfiv) the
is

once in
TO)

The latter adjective occurs the LXX Esther ii 2 ^r^^Vw


:

God by evil teaching They and their hearers are defiled and shall go into the unquenchable fire. He
faith of
.

ao-iA

K0pd<ria

a(j)6opa

8ei

(comp
the

v.

3 Kopdcria

irap6fvi<a

KaXa KaXa
TO>

proceeds
TT)S
TTJ

Kf<paXrjs

Aid TOVTO pvpov f\aj3fv eirl avTov 6 Kvpios, Iva. irverj

TO) flftfl).

KK\Tjo-iq d(p6apo-iav.

He

is

playing

Testament we find a(p6apTos used of God, Rom. i 23


T^V dogav TOV d(p0aprov 6eov

In

New

upon the two senses of (pQfipeiv, physical destruction and moral cor
ruption: but that the sense of in-

VI

2 4]

EPISTLE TO THE EPHESIANS.


predomi
passage of Justin (Ap.
dbvd^dopoi. Since, however,
ibid.
1 i

219
15,

corruptibility or immortality

comp.
cpBopd

nates when the word dcpOapo-ia is introduced is shewn by the contrasted dvcradia TTJS di8acrKa\ias of the devil, who would carry us away from the life which is the goal set before us
(EK TOV irpoKeipcvov tfiv}.

8).
<$>6eipeiv

and

express the physical and moral ideas which are negatived in d<p0apo-ia and
respectively, it was quite possible that dcpdapcria should come to be regarded as denoting not only
d(pdopia

The phrase
iii

has a noteworthy parallel in Ireu.


11

8 iravra-jfoQev irveovras Tr)v d<p6apcriav KOI dvafairvpovvras TOVS dvdpatirovs (of the four Gospels) comp. i 4 i and i 6 i ; the metaphor being perhaps derived
:

from the XpHTTov


e /e farjs els

ev(o8ia

and the
ii

007*9

the indissolubility of eternal life, but also the purity which Christian thought necessarily connected with eternal life. And this may explain the uncertainty which attends Origen s use of the

fayv of 2 Cor. In Magn. 6 we have


d(pdapo~ias,

15

f.

word

in

some

passages.
21,

Thus
r}

in his

els TVTTOV KOI

treatise

on Prayer,
rj

we read

ra

but the context does not throw fresh light on the meaning of the word. Philad. 9 TO

dida^v

die(p6apfiva epya

\6yovs

vorjpaTa,

Taireiva Tvyxdvovra KCU eVi X^Trra, TTJS


d<pdapo~ias

aXXorpia TOV Kvpiov.


c.

He
60,

de evayye\iov aTraprioyMZ ecrTiv d<p6apIn Trail, a-las recalls 2 Tim. i 10.

seems again to play on two possible


senses of dcpOapo-ia in
to
:

Gels,
is

iii

av 6 KapTTos OVTWV a<pdapTos stands in contrast with Kapirbv davarrjcpopov.


?)v

where our present passage


eirel

de KOI
TO>V

rj

x^P ts

referred Tov @ OV

e>trrt

In

Rom.

<p&opas

have ov^ followed by 7rop,a


7

rjdop.a.1
6e\a>

rpofpfj

TO alp.a

ev dfyOapcriq dyair^v/nera irdvroiv TOJV TOV dto~do-K.a\ov TWVTTJS ddavao-ias


l

In avTov, o ecmv dyairrf a(pdapros. this passage we have a combination


of the ideas which appear separately
in Troll. 8 ev dydnrj^ o ecmv at/u,a Irjcrov Xpto-roO, and Eph. 20 eva apTov AcXoin-es,

paBrjiJidTcov,

OCTTLS
}

TravTos

fj-va-ovs
rcoi/

(the

dyvos ov povov diro words of Celsus),


elvai

aXXa
K.T.X.

*cal

eXarroi/coj/

vop,io-

In his Commentary (on this

ecmv
fj.f)

(pdp/jLdKov ddavao-ias, avriSoros

TOV

aTToBaveiv oXXa
dta
iravros.
i

rjv

ev

irjo-ov

Xpio-ro)

[Comp.

Clem.

Alex. Paed.

47 o apTos...els d<p0apBoth the ddavacria and criav the d(p&aporia of Ignatius are lifted out of the merely physical region by the new meaning given to life by the Gospel: but the words retain their proper signification in the higher
Tp<po>v.~\

Origen combats an extreme view which interpreted dcptiapo-ia as He does implying strict virginity. not reply, as he might have replied,
verse)

that in Scripture dfp6apa-ia is always used of immortality ; but he suggests that <pdopd is predicable of any sin, so that d(p0apaia might be implying absolute freedom from sin of any kind: wore TOVS dyarrc^vTas TOV Kvpiov
rjfj.a)v

still mean freedom from death and from dissolution. is not confused with d(p6opia or dduxpdopia, so as to denote freedom from moral corruptness. I cannot point to any passage in the writers of the second century in which atpdapTos and d(pdapo~ia are used of moral in corruptness, though the words are common enough in the usual sense of immortality (see Athenag. de Res. passim). On the other hand a(pdopoi occurs in a well-known

sphere, and

irjcrovv
jrdcrrjs

Xpioroi>

ev

d<p@apo~ia

elvat

A<p6ap<ria

TOVS
later

dfiaprmy direxo/jtevovs.
in
life.

The
of

Greek commentators
this

also in

terpret d<pdapo-ia incorruptness of

place

The Latin

commentators,

who had in incorrup-

tione to interpret, sometimes preferred to explain it of soundness of doctrine,

but with equally

from the

little justification earlier literature.

How then are the words to be understood? It has been proposed to connect them with 77 xP> so that

220
the Apostle s
final

EPISTLE TO THE EPHESIANS.


prayer should be
*v

[VI 24
It is

an invocation of x*P ls

a^dapcria,

i.e.

to this interpretation. better to keep the words eV


fatal

a<f>6ap<rla

of grace together with that blessed immortality which is the crowning But this cannot be gift of grace. regarded as a natural expansion, of his accustomed formula, even if the disposition of the sentence be not

closely with
rjp&v
Ii/o-oGi/

rS>v

dycnrtovTa>v

rov xvpiov

Xpio-rov, to
,

render them

in incorruptibility and to explain them as meaning in that endless and unbroken life in which love has triumphed over death and dissolution
.

ON XAPII AND XAPITOYN.

221

On

the

meanings of

%a/3t?

and

I.

earliest

The word ^apts- has a remarkable variety of meaning even Greek literature. It is used
objectively, of that
:

in the Meanings
ianfterl"-

(1)

(2)

which causes a favorable regard, attractiveness especially (a) grace of form, gracefulness and (6) grace of speech, gracioumess a person, subjectively, of the favorable regard felt towards
;
:

ture:

acceptance or favour:
(3)

of a definite expression of such favorable regard,


dovvai)
l

a favour (xdpiv
;

(4)

of the reciprocal feeling produced by a favour

the sense of
*

(5)

favour bestowed, gratitude (x^P tv dnooovvai, c&cveu, e\ 6tl/ ) adverbially, as in the phrases x"P lv TWOS, for the sake of a Tt ^pdrreiv, to do some rrpbs x *P tv person, or a thing
<

riv>l

thing to please another


of the

Greek writers of all periods delight to play upon the various meanings Play on meanings. word ; as in such sayings as \apis x^P lv (pfpfi77

The Greek
incline

translators of the

ively as a rendering of the

Hebrew
.

Old Testament used x^P iS almost exclus- The Greek * to O. T. jn a word connected with pn
?

towards
in the
t^eti/

and so to favour

Thus
besides
X<*pw

(five

Pentateuch we find the phrase evpelv x^P LV ( 20 times, Pentafor the same Hebrew, once) and the phrase dovvai teuch. times); each being regularly followed by a term expressive
xap>,

of relation to the favouring person, evavriov TWOS, ev<&iri6v TWOS or napa nvi. In Ruth and the books of Samuel we have fvpelv x^P tv * v o cptfaA/zoiy Ruth and TWOS (12 times), where the same Hebrew phrase of relation is more Samuel.
1 literally translated
.

to this point we have no other use of the word at all. In Kings Kings and and Chronicles however, besides evpelv LV evavTiov (once), we twice find Chroniused as an adverb. X<*pw

Up

x<*P

cles>

In Esther, besides evpfiv lv ( s ^ x times once for Ipr^ and once for Esther. this and |n together), we have x^P ls use(i ^or ^? T i Q v ^ 3? rtva doav xdpw firoirjaapfv K.r.X., What honour and dignity hath been done to Mordecai for this ? (A.V.). In a Greek addition xv 14 ( = y 2) we read TO
:
x<*P
"
<I

.^

rj

This rendering

is

found once in the Pentateuch, Gen. xxxiii

8.

222
Favor
able esti

EPISTLE TO THE EPHESIANS.


The
distinctive

meaning then of

x"p

as representing

JPJ

in the historical

mation by a
superior.

Psalms

extended meaning.
Proverbs
:

books of the Old Testament is the favour which an inferior finds in the eyes of his superior. It is to be noted that Sovvat tv i 8 nere correlative to lv It does n t mean to favour but to cause to be favoured tvpdv by another. It thus differs altogether from the true Greek phrase Sovvu to grant a favour ^apii/, In the Psalms the word occurs twice only xliv (xlv) 2 fgfx.v6r} [77] fv xeiXeorii/ a-ov, Ixxxiii (Ixxxiv) ii x^P lv * a * 8oav In each case it renders |H which has acquired a certain extension of meaning.
x<*P
-

x<*P

X<*pis

da>cr.

Thrice
accepta
bility

In Proverbs we find it 21 times, the plural being occasionally used. it renders fitf}, which is commonly represented by ei)6Wa. The

God

man.

general meaning is favour or acceptance in a wide sense, as the condition with of a happy and successful life. Such ts * s as a ru l e the accompaniment and of wealth and high station but God gives it as a reward of humility, iii 34
x<*P

raireivols Se

1
8i8<o<riv

xaptv

Ecclesiastes.

In the Prophets almost unused.

In Ecclesiastes x^P LS ^ s used twice for fHj and again the sense is wide. It is remarkable that in Isaiah, Jeremiah and (with few exceptions) the Prophets generally x^P LS * B n t found at all. The exceptions are three passages in Zechariah (always for \r\) iv 7, vi 14 and xii 10 (e ^^ew...
t

TTVeVfJLO.

^apt-Toy KOI OlKrtp/LAOt))

Dan.

d(OK...Tl[J.TJV KOI

X *P IV (^^)
<

* vav~

riov...(Theodot....ets eXeoi/ KOI oiKTcippov evtamov...}


x<*P

and Ezek.

xii 24,

the

Wisdom
literature
:

lv adverbial phrase irpos In the Wisdom books we find, as we might expect, a more extended use of the word: and the sense which corresponds with }H appears side

joined

with

mercy

by side with various Greek usages. It is specially noteworthy that twice ls Kc f^fos [eV] rots CK\KTOIS avrov (Wisd. we have the combination
"

x<*P

iii9,iv

15).

Enoch
with
light

With
Toly

eo-rcu

and
.

this last expression we may compare Enoch v 7, 8 KOI rols So^o-erat rois K\fKTois (pcos /cat ^aptff KCU elp^vrj^.Tore

/cXe/c-

(pas

peace

The N. T.
writers inherited

It appears from the foregoing investigation that the writers inherited a wealth of meanings for the word x^P ls

New

Testament

both

Greek and He
braistic

uses
esp.

the purely Greek significations, which were familiar to all who used (a) the Greek language, but which to some extent fell into the background, in consequence of the appropriation of the word to a specially Christian use ; the significations which the word had acquired through its use by (&)
the Greek translators of the Old Testament to represent |H. Of the latter significations the most important was that which we find in the latest books, namely, the favour of God, or rather the blessed condi
tion of

the

conse

quent on Divine favour


.

human
and

life

the word came, as


eAeor, (pas
1

which resulted from the Divine favour a sense in which we have seen, to range with such spiritual blessings as

flpyvrj.

This phrase needs to be considered in the light of what has been said of LV ^vavriov rivfc (see Gataker Sovvcu Cinnus, ed. Lond. 1651, p. pof.); but
x<*<P

allowance must be made for the more independent use of xa/xs without a term of relation in the later Old Testament
literature.

ON XAPII AND XAPITOYN.


;

223

Turning now to the New Testament, we observe that the word is not Distributhe found in the Gospels of St Matthew and St Mark but that it occurs in * on other book, with the exception of the First and Third Epistles of every We may consider first those writers whose phraseology is in St John 1 general most remote from that of St Paul In St John s Gospel x*P ls * s found only in the Prologue i 14 TrXrjprjs St John s
. :

d\r)dfias...l6 fK TOV irXypta paras avVov ijpels Trdvres eXa/So/iev KOI Gospel: xapiTOS...I7 T; \apis Kal rj aXijOeta dui ITJO-OV Xptorov eye i/eTo.

vm

These verses are closely connected and offer a single emphatic presenta a blessing brought to man by Jesus Christ. Grace and tion of ls truth together stand in contrast to the law as given through Moses. Out fulness of grace and truth pertains to the Word made flesh of that fulness we all have received we have received grace for grace
x<*P

that the gift in us may correspond with the source of the gift in Him. The only other occurrences of the word in the Johannine writings do Other not help us to interpret the words of the Prologue. In 2 John 3 we have Johannine books merely the greeting ^apis, eAeos, elp^vrj (comp. the Pastoral Epistles). In
*

7 UTTO o the Apocalypse we have the salutation x^P ts Ka * the closing benediction, rj x^P ls T0 ^ wpiov Irjcrov Xpiorov pera in each case Pauline phrases with a peculiar modification.
"P
?*"?

3>v,

K.T.X.,
T>V

and

dyioiv,

The Epistle of St James contains the word only (iv 6) and a quotation from Prov. iii 34 (see above). In Jude 4 we read rrjv TOV 0eov ^aptra pfTariflcvres els form of the accusative is not found elsewhere in the

in

an allusion to St James.
This St Jude.

aVeXyetai/.

Testament, except in Acts xxiv 27. Xdpis does not occur in the opening salutation of the epistle (f\cos vp.lv KOI elp^vrj Kal dyaTrr) irkrjOvvBfLr]}. It is observable that the whole of the phrase above quoted, with the exception of the word In 2 Peter, acreXye ta, is absent from the parallel passage, 2 Pet. ii i fit
V"
*""

New

2 St Peter.

/ 7 1 however, we have the salutation x^P ls 1 ? TrXi^w&ti;, and in iii 1 8 the injunction av^avert de ev X^P tTl *a * yvafXTfi TOV Kvpiov We now come to the Lucan books, in the latter of which at any rate St Luke we shall be prepared to find tokens of the direct influence of St Paul. In Gospel : Luke i 30 the angelic salutation Xcupe, Kf^apirco^ w; is followed by evpes opening a purely Hebraistic expression. In ii 40 we read yap xaptv Trapa rw
"P
"?

rjp.a>v.

0e<,

of the Child Jesus, x^P iS @ v *i v avro and in ii 52 I^o-ous Trpoe/coTrrei/ uge Kal avdpconois (comp. I Sam. ii 26 rfi cro(piq /cat T^XtKi a Kal ^aptn Trapa TO Trai&dpiov 2ap,ovj)X eTropevero pfya\vv6p.vov Kal dyaOov, Kal ficra Kupiou
:
^ea>

Kal p.Ta dvdptoTwv).


is

The phraseology

of the

first

two chapters of St Luke

largely derived from the historical books of the Old Testament : Gospel and these uses of xdpis are characteristically Old Testament uses. In iv 22,

c6av[uiov

7rl

rois

\6yots

TTJS

^aptTos,

/C.T.X.,

we have another obvious

Later on,
usages.

Hebraism.
1

But the remaining examples of the word give us purely Greek


is

No

account

here taken of ex-

amples of x&P LV used adverbially with a genitive. In 3 John 4 pe^oT^pav rotiriav OVK ^x w X a pd- v it seems imi

possible to accept the reading x&P LV which is found in B, a few cursives,

the Vulgate and the Bohairic. For a confusion between the same words see Tobit vii 17 rai/rrys [^apdf ^], Ecclus. xxx ^ x X aP y
<

*-

>

22 4
Greek usages
:

EPISTLE TO THE EPHESIANS.


iroia v^lv

X apis coriV;
;

(vi 32, 33, 34):

"

X apiv

r<5

OTI frroirjo~V TO.

8tarax$ei>ra

(xvii 9)-

The Acts
uses.

Hebraistic Testament use of

In the Acts we find in the earlier chapters clear instances of the Old is: ** 47 *X OVTS IV npos 5\ov TOV \aov, vii 10
x<*P

X<*P

da)KV avTto X^P IV * a * o~o(piav cvavriov vii 46 fvpev rov 6fov. ls T Perhaps we should add to these iv 33
4>apaa>,

xP

TTOVTOS
re para,

avTOvs,
ie.r.A.
;

and
but

vi 8

2T(pavos 8e

nXrjpTjs

it is

possible that

we

^aptrof /cat fiuva/iecoy have here a distinctively Christian

Greek
uses.

The new
Christian

meaning

Of purely Greek usages we have ^apira jeara&o-dat in xxiv 27, and X^P IV <ora6ea-6ai. in XXV 9; also airov/z,ewt X^P lv avrov in xxv 3 (comp. the use of xapi in xxv u, 16). But there is another class of passages in the Acts in which ^apts- * s found in a new and Christian sense. The first of these is xi 23, where we read of St Barnabas at Antioch, Idmv TTJV tv T v T v & f v xP 7 The emphatic form of the expression helps to mark the introduction of the new phrase and it may be observed that, wherever throughout the book the word occurs in this sense, it is (with the single exception of xviii 27) followed by a defining genitive. The passages are the following
use of the word.
Kar>

e<r&u

x<*P

*l

xiii

43
3

Trpocrpevciv
ra>

TTJ

^aptrt TOV $eoC,


TG>

XIV

Kvpifp rep p.apTVpovvTi

Xo-ycp TTJS

\apvros avTov,
J

26

o6ev

fjo-av irapa^edofjifvoi Trj

^apirt TOV ^eov,


l^trov TTtOTeuo/xei/ (ra&fjvai
<a$

XV

1 1

5ta TTJS ^aptros TOV Kvptov

ov

TpOTTOV KaKflvOl,

40
xviii

Trapadodels

Trj

^a pirt TOV

Kvpiov,

27

XX 24
32
in con

(TwefiaXeTO TTO\V Tols TTfTTio-TCVKocriv dta TTJS ^apiros, dta/zaprvpao-$ai TO evayyeXiov TTJS ^apiros TOV 6fov,
Trapart^e/Aat vfj.as

rw

Kvpta) Kal

T<

Aoyco

Trjs

^aptros avTov.

nexion with the


reception of the Gentiles.

It is noteworthy that this use of x^P ls belongs to the narratives which deal with the extension of the Gospel to the Gentiles see especially xv 1 1. The surprising mercy of God, by which those who had been wholly outside
:

the privileged circle were


to have called for a

now the recipients of the Divine favour, seems new and impressive name which might be the watch

word
St Paul

of the larger dispensation.

developes the term

it is not probable that the introduction of xapt? into the Christian vocabulary was due to St Paul, yet there can be little doubt that the new and special use of it which we have just noted was closely

Although

connected with his missionary efforts, and that he did more than any one develope the meaning of x^P ls as a theological term. To him, for the freeexample, we owe the emphasis on the freeness of the Divine favour ness which is marked by the contrast of debt , and ls w * tn and uni with cpyov in the sense of meritorious work ; and the emphasis on versality the universality of the Divine favour, which included Gentiles as well as of the * Gospel. Jews, in contrast to the law which was the discipline of Israel His Moreover he seems in some sense to have appropriated the word, as appropria he had a peculiar claim and title to its use. The first of his epistles tion of the though opens and closes with an invocation of x^P ts upon his readers and every word in connexion subsequent epistle follows the precedent thus set. In 2 Thess. iii 17 f. he with his declares that this may be regarded as his sign-manual, authenticating as it
to express to
x<*P

*><X7/*,

ON XAPII AND XAPITOYN.


were his
epistle
OVTO>S
:

225

do-Trao-pbs rfj
f)

ypacpor

ev irdoy special o-rjp.e iov ep,fj x etP* HatJXot;, o mi x^P ts To^ K vpiov Tjfj.ioi ITJO-OU XptoTov fifra iravratv
e<rriv

The following series of passages will serve to shew how closely he connected the word with his own special mission to the Gentiles.
(a)
I

In regard to himself as proclaimer of the


iii

universal Gospel
p,oi t
<os

() in

re-

Cor.
Cor.

IO Kara

TTJV

x^P lv TO ^ @ e
de 6eov
elp.1

v T*) V o odelo dv
o
Kat

o~o(pbs

TCKTCOV 6ep.e\iov edrjKO.


1

XV IO ^apin

ei/zt,

ij

%dpts avrov

ff

els
cya>

ep.e

ov

avratv irdvrav ocoTTtWa, OUK eyevrjQr), aXXa irepio-o-orepov aXXa TI ls T v & f v [^] f^oi. 2 Cor. 1 12 OVK cv (T0(piq a-apKiKrj aXX eV ^apirt ^eoO dveffrpdcprjufv
Kevr)
O"^"

5e

x<*P

eV

TG) Kooyza, irepuro-OTepus de irpbs vpas.

2 Cor. iv 15 Ta yap Travra


TT\i6v<av

5t

v/naf,

ii/a

77

^apiff TrXeovacrao-a

Sta TOI/

vxapi(rriav rrepKrcrfvcrT} els rrfV 86av TOV 6eov. GaL i 15 f. 6 mpoptVas /^ie...Kai KaXeo-a? dia TTJS ^apiros evayyeXifccofiai OVTOV fv rois fdvecriv.
TTJV

avrou...ii/a

Gal.

ii

f.

tSoires

on

TreTr/o-reu/icu

TO evayyeXiov r^r
el

aVcpo/3voTtas.../cat

Gal.

ii

21 OVK

d6eTa>

TTJV

X^P IV rov Geov

yap 8ia

vop,ov

Tois Wveo-iv.

Rom.
vp.lv:

xii 3
is,

Xeyo>

that

with
it

all

to you to whom again in v. 6.

OVTI tv yap dia TTJS ^apiroy TT)S 8o0eio~r]S p.oi travrl the force of my special commission and authority, gives me a right to speak. The phrase is taken up
ra>

Rom. XV
Phil,
i

15

&>s

7ravap.ip.vr)o-K(0v

vpas, 8th Trjv X^P IV T *l v

8o0el<rdv

/not

OTTO rov 6eov els TO elvai p.e \eiTovpybv

Xpiorov

7 ev Te Toif 8eo~p.ols p.ov fvayyeXiov CTVVKOIVUVOVS p-ov TTJS ^aptros itdvras vp,as ovras.

l^o-oG els TO. edvr). Kal ev TTJ dnoKoy ia Kal /3e/3aio)o-et rov

It

Was

for

the wider Gospel that St Paul was bound. See also Eph. iii i 13, and the exposition,
(b)

In regard
i

to the

Gentile recipients of the universal Gospel.

& ) in re-

The persecution which the Thessalonians suffer is a Gentile proof that the kingdom of God for which they suffer, is truly for them, converts. in them, no less than They as believers are equated with the saints in Israel (Isa. xlix 3), the Name is to be glorified the Name of the Lord Jesus in you, and ye in Him Kara r^v
2 Thess.
12.
,
:

KVpioV *Ir)(TOV XptOTOV. 2 Thess. ii l6 o dyaTT^o-as

77/10?

Kal 8ovs irapaK\r)(Tiv alaviav Kal

dyadrjv ev ^aptri, TrapaKaXcorat vp,av Tas Kap8ias. By grace tion of Israel is widened to the consoling of the Gentiles.
is
:

the consola

The thought
it

For us too
1

it

you

realise it!) to

is through grace, which has extended you as well.

(and

may

You have been

rr} ^aptri roO $eov rr; 8o6eiaTj tp.lv cv Xprra> irja-oC. called into fellowship, v. 9. 2 Cor. vi I 7rapaKa\ovp,ev p.rj els Kevbv TTJV X^P iV T v $fov 8eao"6ai vuas. 2 Cor. viii I yi>a>ptb/xef 8e v/j.lv, d8e\<poit TTJV 8e8oX**P iV ro ^ @eov
i

Cor.

7rt

TT>V

fievrjv ev

rats eKK\ij(riais TT]S MaKedovias.

The contribution

to the Jewish

EPHES. 2

226

EPISTLE TO THE EPHESIANS.


Christians was a signal witness to the fellowship into which the Gentiles had been brought by grace. It was a proof that grace was being con
tinually given to those who made this return of grace. St Paul plays on the senses of the word with great delight in this connexion v. 4 TT\V
:

V. 6 eVireXeo-fl els tyy KOivaviav rrjs dia<ovias TTJS fls TOVS ayiovs TavTT) TTJ x aP tTl Trepttrcreu^re vpas Kal Tt]V X aP lv Tavrrl v V* 7 tva Ka * V. 9 yivafTKCTC yap rr)v x aP lv T v xvpiov v. 19 ev l^troO [Xptoroi;]
X<*P

IV KC

"

6>J/

yp.a>v

ravrrj

rfj

diaKOVOvpevy v(p
fls

rjfjL&v:

ix.

Surarei 8e 6 6eos irao-av


vfj,as

irfpi<r<TV<rai

vpas:

v.

14

7ri7ro6ovvro)v

Sia TTJV

UTrep/SaA-

\ovtrav

x^P lv T v @
i

v e$

vfjuv.

The play on words was a tmly Greek


e>(rrtj/

one: conap. Soph.


Gal.

Aj&x

(jLfTa.Tideo de

522 x^P ls X^-P IV y**P O.TTO TOV KakecravTos

v/j,as

^ TIKTOVO^ aet. fv ^apirt Xptcrroi)

els

erepov evayyeXiov. Gal. V 4 Ka.TT)pyij6r}T


e^eTreVare.

You have

diro XpioroO otrives ev vopcp St/caiovcr^e, TTJS ^aptro? separated yourselves from that which was your

one ground of hope. Col. i 6 a0* r/s jy/iepa? i^/toucrare KOI fireyvo&Te rrjv x^P lv T v ^ e0 ^ * v This is again in connexion with the declaration of the uni aXrjQeia. versal scope and fruitfulness of the Gospel See also Eph. ii 5 9, and the exposition.
passages makes it impossible to doubt that St Paul s of ^apis is dominated by the thought of the admission of the Gentiles Grace was given to * *^ e P 1 68 which had been peculiar to Israel. Gentiles dominates the Gentiles through his ministry grace was given to him for his ministry his use of to them. The flexibility of the word enables him to use it in this twofold the word, manner. The Divine favour had included the Gentiles in the circle of privilege: the Divine favour had commissioned him to be its herald for the proclamation of that inclusion. This being so, we recognise the fitness with which St Luke, the cornThis is in harmony panion of St Paul and the historian of his mission, uses the new name with P eculiar reference to the proclamation and the reception of the

The

ad-

A review of these

mission

llse

Ster^art

oftheActs. universal Gospel

among the Gentiles. unnecessary to follow the history of the word into the Pastoral Later history of Epistles, where it is somewhat more widely used (comp. 2 Tim. ii i, Tit. iii 7), the word, though its specially Pauline usage may be illustrated by Tit. ii ii; or into the Epistle to the Hebrews, wtiere the reference is quite general; or into i Peter, which adopts so much of the phraseology of St Paul s As the first great controversy of Christianity passed out of epistles.

*s

Grace wrsus
1
*

which had been framed with peculiar reference to it became widened and generalised and the word grace in particular lost its early association, while it remained in the new Christian vocabulary an(j wag destined, more especially in its Latin equivalent gratia, to be the watchword of a very different and scarcely less tremendous struggle.
sight, terminology
;

incidental use 2. Closely connected with St Paul s use of x"P ts is ms Variously Its meaning both explained. On one occasion only of the word ^aptrovv (Eph. i 6). there and in Luke i 28, the only other occurrence of the word in the New

Testament, has been variously explained.

ON XAPIZ AND XAPITOYN.


The verb x aP lT0 ^ v properly signifies to endue with x^P tff meaning accordingly varies with the meaning of x^P ls Thus from
:
an<

22/
^ its Its
x"P

mean-

ls

* 3 gracefulness of form (compare Horn. Od. ii 12 0fo-7r<rlr)v of pL ^ aP lv KOTCXCVCV A0Tjvr)\ we have the meaning to endue @ reek apa ye x 5 with beauty Niceph. Progymn. ii 2 (ed. Walz. I 429) Mvppai/ cpvais p.cv usages: nopfpr/v. comp. Ecclus. ix 8, in the form in which it is to endue xapiTo>crv els quoted by Clem. Alex. Paed. iii II 83 aTroorpe^oi/ Se rov o(p8a\fj.bv oVo with

i*

in the sense of
5* ro)

ywatKos

KfxapiTfouevrjs (LXX. evuopcpov).

Again, from the sense of

gra:

ciousness of
Ecclus. xviii

manner we have the meaning to endue with graciousness 17, Lo, is not a word better than a gift? And both are

with a gracious

man

(?rapa
.

dvdpl

:
icexapira>/xej>6>)

a fool will

upbraid

ungraciously (a^apio-rcoj) The above are Greek usages. find favour in the eyes of men,
5

Hebraistic use, of being caused to Hebraistic seen in Ps.-Aristeas Ep. ad Philocr. (ed. Hody, Oxf. 1705, p. xxv; Swete s Introd. to p. 558 L 4ff.): in answer to the question, How one may despise enemies HOXIJKOOS irpos
is
use<

LXX

irdvras av6pa>Trov$ evvoiav KOI Karfpycurdpevos (ptAia?, \6yov ovflevos av e^oiy TO Se Ace^apiroJo-^ai Trpbs irdvras dvOpcoirovs, Kal Ka\bv 6\3poi/ ftKrjfpevai Trapa 6fov TOVT ea-Ti /cpartoTov 1
.

28 the salutation Xaipe, Kc^apirco/zei ^, 6 Kvpios gives rise to the unuttered inquiry TroraTros eirj 6 czo-7rao-/i6? ovros
i
:

In Luke

/zera
;

o-ov St

Luke

and the

angel proceeds Mi) (po/3oi5, Mapta/z, evpes yap xapw Trapa rw (comp. Gen. vi 8). Thus /ce^apiTw/ie is explained in an Old Testament sense as an O. T. @ e $ and the meaning of x aP lT0 ^ v accordingly is * T) fvpovcra x^-P lv pfl r to endue with grace in the sense of the Divine favour 2 This was favoured doubtless the meaning intended to be conveyed by the Latin rendering
^ea>

>jra

-,

<p

gratid plena, though


.

it has proved as a matter of history to be somewhat 3 ambiguous Similarly the Peshito has ^^ct=u\ i\A=n. Unfortunately the Old Syriac (sin and cu) fails us at this point. Aphrahat (Wright 180, 2)

and Ephraim Comm. in Diatess. (Moes. 49) both omit the word and read Peace to thee, blessed among women 4
.

in question,

A few further examples of xapiToiV


i,

may here
have
CTUTTJP

be noted : In Test, xii Patriarch. Joseph


tv
curdevetg.
/ie

we

The Latin Version (practically the same in both its forms) has: dedit eis in omni opere gratiam
.

y[Mjv

Kal 6
is

{f^icrros

Epiphanius (Haer. Ixix 11)


Mowcr^s
avv^o ei

^TreffK^aro

Iv
fj,.

<J)v\ai<rj

ri^.i]v

Kal 6

xaplTa}(r
is

This

of course
^x<z/>/-

/ce^aptr&;/JL^VOS ypdra, ov raura, aXXd Kal T&


dvibrepov, K.T.\.
2

6eov

<-Tt

an

allusion to Matt, xxv 36,

and

rwo-e

from Eph.

probably borrowed directly i 6; the word being used simply in the sense of bestowed grace upon me : it is paralleled in the con-

text

by

rjydTnjffe,

e<pt\a&,

dvifoaye,
irape-

^Xev^pwo-e,
/cdXetre,

^/3oTj07?cre,

5i6p\//e,

IXucre,

<rvvr)y6pr)<re,

eppuffaro,

fywe, as well as by eVecr/ce^aro. Hermas Sim. ix -24 3 6 oSv tctptos


Id&v
TT]v

(XTrXoT^ro

airrutv

Kal iravav
tv
rots

vi]Tri6Tr)Ta,

eTr\-r)6wv
tv

avrovs

x6?roi5

r&v

x^tpcDj/ avruH/, Kal


irda-ri

exapiru}avrCov.

In the Apocalypse of the Virgin (James Apocr. Anecd. i, 1151!.) the Blessed Virgin is constantly spoken of and even addressed as TJ icexapiTwutvij. 3 Ambiguity almost necessarily arose when gratia came to have as its predominant meaning a spiritual power of help towards right living. 4 Not unconnected with this may be the confused reading of the Latin of Codex Bezae habe benedicta dms tecum benedicta tu inter mulieres.
:
|

ffev

avrovs

irpd&t

228
St Paul
is

EPISTLE TO THE EPHESIANS.


In interpreting St Paul s meaning in Eph.
ro>

6, els Ziraivov do^Tjs TTJS

OVTOV fa (xapiToxrev r}pas ev TjyarrTjpevu, it is important to bear sising his And we must compare ls own word in mind that he is emphasising his own word certain other places in which a substantive is followed by its cognate verb
x<*P

empha

Eph.

what

evpyiav...t}v fvTjpyTjKev (where he is thus led to a some unusual use of cvcpyeiv see the detached note on that word) ii 4
i

19 KOTO.

TTjv

dta TTJV TTO\\T}V


fKXij^Tjre:

dycnrTjV
i

avTOv

fjv

T^yaTrr/a-ev

r}pas

iv

TTJS

KXqo-ecos

fa

endued
us with
grace
.

Versions.
Peshito.

4 Sta TTJS Trapa/cXrJcrecos fa irapaKaXovpeda avToL The sense appears to be, His grace whereby He hath endued us with grace . This is a more emphatic way of saying, His grace which He hath bestowed on us it does not differ materially from the subsequent phrase of v. 8, His grace which He hath made to abound toward us The Peshito version seems to recognise this meaning of the passage in its rendering ^^JE-^^ QOJ, which He poured on us The Latin
2 Cor.
:

Latin.

^^

version, however, renders:

The gratiae suae in qua gratificauit nos verb gratifico appears to have been coined for this occasion. The com ment of Pelagius on the verse gives the meaning which was probably present to the translator s mind: In qua gratia gratos fecit nos sibi
.

A various
reading.

The interpretation was perhaps the natural issue of the corruption of fa into ev 77, which is found in D 2 G 3 and later authorities and is probably a scribe s grammatical emendation. The relative fa is to
in Christo
.

be explained by attraction to the case of its antecedent, as in 2 Cor. i 4, quoted above. It is simplest to suppose that it stands for jj there appears to be no warrant for a cognate accusative, T)V exapiTtoa-ev.
:

Chryso-

stom

s in

terpreta tion

Chrysostom s interpretation of fx ap LTa>(TV W" s * s marked by a deter mination to compass every meaning of the word. In the first instance he notes quite briefly (Field p. 1 10 p) OVKOVV el els TOVTO
:

firaivov do^TjS TTJS ^apiroff avTov^ /mi


avrjj.

ti/a

8eirj TT)V

plays on the various senses of


xdpis

as simply Here it would seem as though he took ex meaning endued us with grace ; in that grace, he urges, we ought But presently it occurs to him (in B) to contrast to abide. with e^apuraro. Thus he says OVK eiiTfV fjs ^apto aro aXX*
>

rornrccrrti

and

He

ou povov apapTTjpaTcov dirr^XXa^v dXXa /cat , gives as an illustration the restoration of an

aged and

its deri

vatives,

diseased beggar to youth, strength and beauty (the old Greek idea of OVTQJS f^rja K.ria fV TJp&v TTJV ij/vx^^ Kal KaXyv Kal irodfivrjv Kal errcXapis)

pacTTOv iroLT)a V...ovT(i3S Tjpas eirixdptTas ciroiTja f Kal cuma irofleivovs. He then quotes The king shall desire thy beauty (Ps. xlv 12). He is then led off by the phrase KexapiTfopcva pjpaTa to speak of the graciousness of speech which marks the Christian: ou^i x a p LV e*ewo T irai&iov Kal noXX^v exn Tr v * v elvai (papcv, oTrcp av pcTa TTJS TOV vapaTos i
<apas

TOIS
a>v

TOIOVTOL
d7TOTao~o~ofji6a
rai

clo-iv

oi

7rt<rroi...rt

^apte crrepoj/

r<ui/

pTjpd-

but misses rrjs St Paul s in

all

meaning.

op,o\oyias eitcivTjs rfjs irpo TOV Xourpov, TTJS pcra TO \ovTpov; this he is wilfully going back from St Paul s use of ^apir,

But
and

introducing the sense of charm of form or of speech which belonged to vv in non-biblical writers.

THE BELOVED.

229

The Beloved
1.

as a Messianic

title.

In the LXX 6 ^ya^pfvos occurs several times as a name of the chosen


:

i.

Use in
Gr<

people, as personified in a single representative. In the Blessing of Moses Deut. xxxii 1 5 airfKait is used three times to translate Jeshurun (f-1"lB^)
KTicrev 6 T^yanrjfj.evos, xxxiii 5 KOI ccrrai cv cSWfp 6 6fos TOV jyaTTTjfjievov. It again
fj.T]
</>o/3ou,
ro>

16
J*
,

^k
_

^
/X^POS.

^yaTr^/xevo) ap^cci/,

26 OVK

<rriv

represents

Jeshurun

in Isa. xliv 2
:

TTOLS fjiov

ictKw/S,

Koi o yyaiTrjfjievos
(in

icrpaTyX ov
it

lo-paT/X is

an addition of the LXX

the

Targum

here e^eXe^ap^y also occurs in this place,

but as a substitute for Jeshurun}. It is also used to render T"P


article) Deut. xxxiii 12
7T7roi6(0s
TO>

in the address to

Benjamin (without the

yyairT)p.fvos VTTO Kvpiov


I

(Hin*

T !!)
1

Karaa-K?7i>eoo-ei

and

in Isa.
p,ov.

ao-co

drj

r<u

rlyairrjuevo) 007x0 TOV dyaTrrjTOv [p-ou]

("H^)

dpTreXam

d/iTreXcoy cycvyBr]

rw

^-yaTT^/MeVa) K.r.X.
iii 37 laiD/3 rc5 TratSl avroO in Dan. iii (35) &a A/3paa/i

We may
/cat

note also
T<

its

occurrence in Bar.
[VTT ]

la-pa^X

tfyairT)p.v<p

avrou
2

and

TOJ/

rjya.7rr)[j.vov

vrro

(rov

(comp.

Chron. XX 7

o-irepfian

AjSpaa/t

TO>

TjyaTTTjfieva
2.

trou).

(1)

In the LXX we find two distinct meanings of 6 Like 6 jyairrjuevos, it is sometimes used for

TT

aycnrrjTos.

2.

Of

beloved.

Thus

We
and

find it in Ps. xliv (xlv) tit. o)5^ v-rrep TOV dyaTrrjTov: in Ps. lix (Ix) 5 Ps. cvii (cviii) 6 OTTCOS av pvo~8a)o~iv ol dycnrijToi a~ov.
15

In Isa. v i, as we have already seen, where o rtya-rr^vos represents TT, o dyaTTrjTos is used for Tl !, in order to make a distinction 1 (2) But we also find d dycnrrjTos used, according to a Greek idiom, for
.

Only

an only son. In the story of the sacrifice of Isaac it occurs three times where the Hebrew has TIT only Gen. xxii 2 TOV viov TOV dyairrj:
<rov

TOV:

comp.

7???.

12,

16.

Of Jephthah s daughter we read

in

Judg. xi 34

n Tfl? *V$
(to
yet/T/y (e^

P^l: for tnis tne ^- text nas K Q i

a^

novoyfvrjs aiJr

which many cursives add nepi^vKTos avrw): B has al if? aurr; haec unica ei Auglocut ). In Amos viii 10 and Jer. vi 26 dycnrT]Tov is used as the equivalent of a mourning for an only child
1

2
:

It

also

represents
(xxxi
T

Tj5
uios

in

Jer.

solitarium

quam unigenitum

sonat:

si

xxxviii

20
.

20)
-

and in
-

070^77x65 in Zech. xiii 6 as


A ayairyTU) [A. TOV
,

ev
]

,,"

ry

OIKOJ

ry

enim esse * dilectus siue amabilis, ut LXX transtulerunt, IDID poneretur. Even Greeks at a late period seem to
.

have found a
ssa
e

Jerome, writing on

Jer.

vi

26,

shews that he failed to recognise the idiom at this place: ubi nos diximus
pro unigenito inHebraicoscribiturIAID,quodmagis
luct urn unlgeniti foe tibi,

*W* ^^ F ^ ^ Ml
the
2

-,.>,. A, dlffi culty in the

use of

LXX.
et

Gregory of

8 ne ) ha8 as a Cltatlon of
rbv v
">

Aa^ * OL
r6j/

>

SP S 5^ Ge n xxu
v

m
,

r6l/ /*o"7^

v rov d ^ a Hort points

23 comp. Zech.
xii

EPISTLE TO THE EPHESIANS.


IO
Ko^ovrai
fir

avrov

Koirerov

as

cif

a-ycwr^ro)

AQ?.
3.

Use in

N.T. dyairr)T6s

In the New Testament we find 6 3. which has given occasion for this investigation.
C

Eph.

6,

the passage

in

dyarrrjTos is used,

both directly and indirectly, of our Lord in the

the

Gos

Gospels.
(1)

pels.

At the Baptism: Mark ill 2u

et 6 vlos /zou 6 dyctTrqroy, ev o~ol evdoKrjo-a. Matt. HI 17 OVTOS fCTTlV 6 VlOS fJLOV 6 dyaTTTJTOS, V CO vdoKT]O~a, Luke iii 22 as in St Mark, but with a notable Western

variant 2
(2)

At the Transfiguration Mark IX 7 OVTOS co-rtv


:

Matt. xvii

Luke
(3)

i 17 O vlos juov o dyaTrrjTos OVTOS fo~Tiv. Indirectly, in the Parable of the Wicked Husbandmen. Mark xii 6 ert Zva flx ev vlbv dycurrjTov.
->

IX 35 Comp. 2 Pet.

6 vlos pov 6 dya-rrqrosOVTOS O~TIV 6 vlos pov 6 dyainjTos, fv OVTOS eo-riv 6 vlos fiov 6 eK\\fyiJ.Vos z

o>

evdoKrjcra.

Luke XX 13 irep^w TOV vlov pov TOV dyair^Tov. St Matthew has no parallel to this clause.
Its

mean

If the third of these examples stood alone,

it

would be natural to

ing.

interpret it in accordance with the Greek idiom referred to above: and a close parallel might be found in Tobit iii 10 (X text), pia o~oi vwnpx^v
Ovydrrjp dyaTnjTij.

But

it

is

difficult to

that of o vlos

fj.ov

6 dyairrjTos,

which

is

separate its interpretation from twice applied directly to our Lord.

Not an
epithet,

Of this three renderings are possible: Thou art My only Son (1) Thou art My beloved Son (2) Thou art My Son, the beloved (3) The first of these renderings is vigorously championed by Daniel Heinsius, Exercitt. ad N. T. p. 94 (ed. Cantabr. 1640) on Mark i n. The second is familiar to us in our English Bible, and in St Mark at least it suggests
, * , *
.

ont (Two Dissert, p. 49 n.) that from comment we can see that he found the word povoyevri in his text.
his

one eye already;


(dyairijTOV
1
"PIT

for

then he

is

de

prived of his only organ of

vision

The usage belongs to classical Greek from the time of Homer: see Od. ii 365, iv 727, 817, and comp. II. vi 400 f. From prose writers we may
cite

We may
is

y&p

dfirjprjTai).

note that in Prov. iv 3

represented
is

by
. .

dya-n-wfJievos.

This word
[Mfvov
t>ir

used of Christ in Just.

Demosth. Midias

NiK^par6s
Trijrbs

p. 567 ov j^rjv oCrws o TOV NIK/OU & dya-

Dial. 93 cfyyeXoi tKeivov .TOV dyaird)avTov TOV KvpLov ical 6eov: but there it stands for the more usual

TTCUS,

and Xenoph. Cyrop.

iv

61

26a\f/a...&pTi yeveidffKovTa. rbv apurTov

Aristotle shews interesting extension of the usage, when in referring to the lex talionis
Traida TOV bya-miTov.

an

he points out (Rhet. i 7) that the penalty of an eye for an eye be comes unfair when a man has lost

from Ps. ii 7. This is the reading of KBLJ syr8 arm sah boh a. It is undoubtedly to be preferred to that of ACD syi*"?6811 b c vg, which have 6 dyairi]T6s with St Mark.
<re

(Da be...)

* 11

THE BELOVED.
itself as

231

the most obvious translation. Yet there is some reason for sup posing that the third interpretation was that which presented itself to the minds both of St Matthew and of St Luke. St Matthew assimilates the utterances at the Baptism and the Trans- but a dis 6 dyairrjTos, ev J figuration, writing in each case Ovros CO-TIV o vlos pov It is possible that the right punctuation of this sentence is cvdoKTjo-a. that which is suggested in the margin of the text of Westcott and Hort

<j>

at Matt,

iii
1

Matt,

xii
i.

Isa. xlii

For in 6 vlos pov } o dyairrjTos ev cvdoKrjo-a. remarkable change introduced in a quotation from The Hebrew and the LXX of this passage are as follows:
I/: OVTOS we find a
<mv
o>

;n

laKco/3 o irais /*ou,

airiXT^o/iai avrov*
/AOU, TrpocreSf^aTO

itrpa^X o

K\e KTOS

avrov n

But St Matthew

has:
T)pCTtO~O.
v8oKi]<rtv rj

l8ou O 7TCUS /10V 0V


6 dycnrTjTos pov ov

^vx^

pov.

There
Elect
1
.

is

no

justification for rendering

It would

*Tn? otherwise than as seem therefore that St Matthew, in substituting

My My

Beloved, has been influenced by the twice repeated phrase of his Gospel o dyaTTTjTos ev $ ev8oKrj(ra: and it follows that he regarded o dyainjTos as
title and not as an epithet of o vlos pov. St Luke, by his substitution of 6 eVXeAry/zeVos for o dyairrjros (ix 35), and to appears likewise to indicate that the latter was regarded as a title by itself, St Luke for which the former was practically an equivalent. It is worthy of note that the Old Syriac version, in every instance and in the (except one) in which its testimony is preserved to us, renders o vlos pov Old Syriac

a distinct

by ^=xx=axo ^Tc= My Son and My Beloved the conjunction 2 being inserted to make it clear that the titles are distinct It is further to be urged on behalf of this interpretation that the words The two 2u cl 6 vlos P.OV of the Voice at the Baptism according to St Mark directly allusions
-

version

dyaTTTjros

in
1

Mark

This passage, Isa.

xlii

i,

is

ex-

mentators.

Thus in Harnack

s note
iii

plicitly referred to the

Messiah in the Targum, which renders it thus: KH

on ry

-qyaTnjfj^vif

we read:
ludaeos ex

SnnKn n^mpN NIW HnV nonD no Behold My servant Messiah 1 will uphold him: Mine elect, in whom
MyWordisweU-pleased
.

^m

Nomen
les. 42,

in Ep. Barn, erat Messiae


i

apud
with

repetitum

references to Liicke, Einl. in die Apok. edlt - n P- 2gl n and ^angen, Da


*>

Judenthum in Palast.
P-

z.

Z.

Christi

Curiously enough the Latin translation of this which is given in the Polyglots of Le Jay and Walton has dilectusmeus as the rendering of nTQ. The mistake is perhaps due to a remembrance of the Vulgate in Matt.
xii
1

162,427. Ba rf
.

*
:

Hilgenfeld in his edition carri s on the tradition.


f.
-

.*

f
(J
one

So in Matt U1 22 8m cu v a
:

(*

V>

cu Luke Matt xvu 5


)>

sm
.<

vacat
)>

Luke

lx 35 (cu: sin

8.

However

it

may have

origin-

**=^ to -* ^Xe\e7/*^os). Mark n we have no evidence.


i

For

The
(sin

ated, it is time that it was corrected : for it has misled a series of com-

exception
"Tra
:

is

Mark

ix

-=a*=u>^

cu vacat).

232

EPISTLE TO THE EPHESIANS.


reproduce the language of Ps.
ii 7,

The Lord hath

said unto me,

Thou art

My Son
who

that the Beloved and the Elect were interchangeable titles in the religious phraseology of the time, we have in the Voice a combination of Ps. ii 7 with Isa. xlii i, and the Son
.

If therefore

we may suppose

is set as King upon the holy hill of Sion is identified with the Servant of Jehovah ; so that in the Divine intimation of the Messiahship the ideas of triumph and suffering are from the outset linked together.

4.

Early
1

writers*"

TjyaTrr)-

lUvos ab-

In the early Christian literature outside the New Testament we and also 6 TJyairr)jyairr)iicvos used absolutely of Christ a combination which recalls Isa. xliv 2. The former occurs vos thrice in the Epistle of Barnabas iii 6 6 \aos ov ijToipao-fv ev rcS qycnrT)4. fre(l uently find
;

w>

solutely

avrov, iv 3 o dea-Tronjs tnafttrfUjKOf TOVS Kaipovs KOI Ta%vvT] 6 TJyairrjfjLfvos CIVTOV KOI eirl TTJV KXr^povofjiiav TJT), IV 8
^e*>o>

TO.?

ijfMepas, iva

crvverpij3r]

avTav

77

8ia6ijKT])

Iva

77

TOV

ijyairrjfjLevov

lrjo~ov

VKa.Tao~(ppayio~()fj

els

TTJV

ttapbiav

Tjp.au>.

See also Ignat. Smyrn.


irjcrov

inscr. eKK\r)o-iq 6eov


I

fievov

XpicrroC:
TTJS

Ada
K.r.X.
1
:

TtiGclaG

rravra

TO.

narpos KCU TOV TJycnrr)\6yia TOV Kvpiov...Ka\ TTJS


eyXvKaivev avTovs, KOI
fi
TO.

Kai

dvao~Tao~ea>s

TOV

ijyaTj"rjfjLvov

TOV xpto~Tov

Clem. Paedag.
(frcovT)

6 25 avriKa yovv Paimop,evcp


ijyaTnjfievov
"Yios

TW
similarly

Kvpta)

air*

ovpav&v err^^o ev

fj.dpTvs

p.ov

(ru

aya.7rr)ToS)

eyco crrjp.fpov yeyevvrjKa

ere.

used throughout the apocryphal Ascension of Isaiah, as were a recognised appellation of the Messiah and although it is there due to a Christian hand, it not improbably represents a traditional Jewish usage. CombinaWe find the combination o rlyairq^vos TTOLS in Clem. Rom. lix 2, 3 and tions with ^ya7rT TOS ^ai^ i n Ep. ad Diogn. 8, and, as a liturgical formula, in Mart. Polyc. 14, Acta Theclae 24. In Herm. Sim. ix 12 5 we have TOV vlov avTov TOV jjyaTnyfievov vir* avTov comp. Sim. V 2 6 TOV vlov avTov TOV
ayairrjTos is
it

60,70x77x65.

though

aycnrrjTov.

The Apostolic

Conms.

number of references to qyatrr^^vos and dyaTnjTos in the Apostolic Constitutions are brought together by Harnack in his note on Ep. Barn. ..j ^ Specially to be observed are v 19 (Lag. p. 152, L 14) Tore o^ovrai TOV dyaTrrjTov TOV 0eov ov ^eKevrr}o~av, which shews that the dycarrjTos of Zech. xii 10 was interpreted of Christ: and v 20 (Lag. p. 153, L 24), where
}

title of Ps. xliv (xlv) virep TOV dyaTrrjTov is similarly explained (comp. Jerome Commentarioli in Pss., Anecd. Mareds. iii pt. i, and Corderius Catena in Pss. ad foe.).

the

<pdrj

Summary.

The case then for regarding the Beloved as a Messianic among the Jews in New Testament times may be stated thus.
i.

title in

use

The Beloved

(o rjyaTrrjpevos

LXX)

is

used in the Old Testament

as a title of Israel

easy to suppose that, just as the titles the Servant and the Elect were transferred from Israel to the Messiah as Israel s representative, so also the title the Beloved would become a title
It
is

of the Messiah.
1

In Iren.

10

(Mass.)

we read

KO!

contain

reference

to

Eph.

10

TJJV ZvffapKOV eis

rovs ovpavobs dvd\i}\f/w

aVa/ce0aXcuaxra0-0ai ra TroWa, it is pro-

TOV

-fiyairrjfj^vov

Kvplov rtV-w

but

XpurroO iTycrou TOV as the next words

bable that 6 fjyatrwtvos was directly

suggested by Eph.

6.

THE BELOVED.
2. When the first and the third of our Gospels were written, the Beloved and Hhe Elect were practically interchangeable terms. For in St Matthew we find 6 dyairrjTos pov in a citation of Isa. xlii i, where the and the LXX renders literally o cxXeKros pov. And, Hebrew has
""TriS

233

conversely, St Luke substitutes o spoken at the Transfiguration.


3.

K\e\eypevos for 6 dyaTrrjros in the words

substitutions in a different way favours the view that twice repeated phrase o vlos pov o dyairqros a separate title is given by 6 dyarrijTos, and not a mere epithet of vios. The Old Syriac Version emphasises the distinctness of the title by 4.
in St

Each of these

Mark s

its

r<5

rendering My Son and My Beloved In Eph. i 9 St Paul uses 5. ^yamjfjLevy as the equivalent of ev xpio-TO), in a context in which he is designedly making use of terms
. /
r<5

which had a special significance in Jewish phraseology. 6. In early Christian literature o ^ya-mj^vos is undoubtedly used as a title of our Lord and it is difficult to suppose that its only source is this one passage in St Paul
;

If the Messianic portions of the Ascension of Isaiah cannot be 7. regarded as pre-Christian, yet the persistent use in them of o ayairrjTos as the designation of Messiah suggests that the writer must have thought it consistent with verisimilitude in a work which affected to be a Jewish

prophecy of Christ.

234

EPISTLE TO THE EPHESIANS.

On

the

meaning of pvcmjpiov in

the

New

Testament.

The history of the word fjiva-Tijpiov is curious and instructive. StartingHistory of the word, with a technical signification in pagan religion, the word passes through
a neutral phase in which the original metaphor has ceased to be felt, and end is adopted as a technical term of the Christian religion. The fact that it ends as it began in signifying a religious rite readily suggests that it was borrowed by Christianity directly from paganism. With certain That the Christian Sacraments of Baptism limitations this may be true. and the Eucharist were called p-va-T^pia is probably due, in part at least, to the fact that the word was in common use for rites to which these Sacraments seemed to present some parallels. But, if so, it is certain that the borrowing process was considerably facilitated by the use of /-tvo-TT/ptov which is found in the New Testament; and that use, as we shall see, has no direct connexion with the original technical sense of the word.
in the
i.

Itsderi-

I.

We

find in the classical


all

vation
c

and

a^ssica

w
is

^(rrrjs, pvamjpiov j1Q j g i n jti ated ,

Greek writers a group of words of which are technical terms: to initiate


is initiated
.

/W<o,

one

that into which he

Of the

derivation of

fjLveoj

nothing certain can be said.


/zveo.

It has often

to be found in

But

pva-as

means with the eyes shut

been stated that the root and though ;

is sometimes used by transference also of shutting the mouth, always necessary that the word mouth should be expressly added in order to give this meaning. We cannot be certain therefore though in itself it is not improbable that the first meaning of the word is one of secrecy. We must be content to say that in usage pvaTrjpiov signifies a religious rite which it is profanity to reveal. In later Greek the word was used metaphorically of that which may Later use. not be revealed, a secret of any kind 1 Thus we have a line of Menander tell not thy secret to (incert. 168), nvcrrrjpiov KaTeirrrjs a friend it is
.
<rov

the word

r<

<tAo>:

2. The word is not used by the LXX in translating any Hebrew word of i. Usage of the Greek the canonical books of the Old Testament But in the Greek of Dan. ii,

Daniel

where the original is Aramaic, it is used eight times 2 borrowed from Persian and found in Syriac as
in reference to

to render
i
\.

tf

^\^

It

is

H, a word here used

Nebuchadnezzar s dream and

its

interpretation by Daniel:

1 In Plato Theaet. 156 A the word has not lost its original meaning at all, as

is

shewn by
2

aftfajros

in the context.

which has fallen out of (9), a passage the LXX by homoeoteleuton, but is preserved in Theodotion s version.

We may

add to these Dan. iv 6

THE MEANING OF MYZTHPION.


mystery was revealed to Daniel by the God who alone reveals mysteries . The word secret seems fully to represent the meaning. In the remaining books of the Greek Old Testament we have the O. T. 1 following examples of the use of the word
the
:

235

Tobit xii 7 nvaTqpiov


dvaKoXvirrfiv

/SatriXecos

KaXbv
in
v.

Kpv\f/ai,

TO.

8e epya rov 6fov

cv86as (repeated

u).

Judith

ii 2 edero per OVTWV TO fj.v(mjpiov rfjs /SovXijs avrov (when Nebuchadnezzar summons his servants and chief men). 2 Mace, xiii 21 irpoo-ijyyi\cv 8c TO, pv<mjpia (of Rhodocus, who dis

closed the secrets

to the enemy).
eyvwcrav fjLvanjpia 8fov, ovde p.ia6ov rfarKrav

Wisd.

ii

22

KOL OVK

those who put the righteous to torture and death: their malice blinded them ). Wisd. vi 22 rt 6V eo~Tiv o~o(pia KOI trots tyevero aVayyeXoj,
OO-IOTTJTOS (of
/cat

OVK.

a7roKpu>/fa>

vplv pvorypia.
(of

Wisd. xiv 15

nvo-TTjpia

KOI

re\Tdt

heathen mysteries: comp.


rj

fivcrras 6ido~ov in xii 5)-

Wisd. xiv 23 77 yap TCKvo(f)6vovs T\eras heathen mysteries).


Ecclus.
iii
1

Kpv(j)ia p.vo-rrjpia

(again of

irpafo-iv aTTOKoXvTTTet

ra /ivor)pta avrou
7T\r)yfjs

ca
[i^
:

not in

Ecclus. xxii 22

p.vo~rrjpiov

diroKaXvfoas KOI

8o\tas (of the

things which break friendship). Ecclus. xxvii 16 o dTroKdhvirrav pvaTTjpia dirtaXea-ev TrioTiv (and
similarly with the

same verb

in vv. 17, 21).

In the other Greek translators of the Old Testament we have occa- Other
sional

examples of the use of the word. Job xv 8 Hast thou heard the secret of God?
R. V.

Greek

So A.V.: Heb.
;

Ps.

Hast thou heard the secret counsel of God ? marg. Or, Dost thou hearken in the council ? LXX o"uvrayp.a Kvpiou durjieoas Symm. Theod. pvo~Tijpiov. xxiv (xxv) 14 LXX Kpareu co/za Rvpios (pofiovpfvuv avrov.
77 ;
TO>V

Theod. Quint. /xuoTT/ptoi/. Prov. xi 13 a talebearer revealeth secrets


d.7roKa\vrrTi ftovXas fv crvvfdpia. Prov. xx 19 (not in LXX): the same
Isa.

LXX avyp

diyXtao-a-os

Symm.
words.

p.vcmjpiov.

Theod. nvcmjpiov.

xxiv 16 bis (not in LXX): TO leanness my leanness


!

fMvorijpiov p.ov f^oL bis.

A.V.

My

We see from these examples (i) that the word


word
to use in speaking of any secret, paign or of a secret between a man
:

was the natural The word p.v<rr^piov whether of the secret plan of a cam- 18 use(* of and his friend. It is but sparingly any
8<

used of a Divine secret it may be that the earlier translators of the Old Testament purposely avoided the word on account of its heathen associatious. We see moreover (2) that its natural counterpart is found in words
1

Of cognate words we may note = secretly, 3 Mace, iii 10: of Wisdom, in Wisd. viii 4 s,
:

/ii5<rns

yap eanv

TT}S

TOV 6eov

^Trto-r^/iTjs,

privy to the mysteries of the knowledge of God .


is

she

236
like dnoKaXvTTTeiv

EPISTLE TO THE EPHESIANS.


and
airoKaXv\lris,

words which are equally applicable to

all

senses of pvcrrypiov.
3.

Later

Apocry
pha.

Enoch.

important link between the usage of the Greek Old Testament New Testament is found in the later Jewish Apo cryphal literature. Thus, we may note the following examples from the
3.

An

and the usage of the

Book of Enoch
viii

3 (apud Syncell.} of Azazel and his companions -n-avres OVTOL rjp^avro dva.Ka\v7TTiv TO. nvorijpta Tais yvvai^lv avrtov. IX 6 (Gizeh fragm.) eS^Xcocrei TO. p.vo"rr)pia TOV alcoves TO. ev ra)
:

ovpavA
4.

so in x

7,

xvi 3 ter, of the

same matters 1

The

Gospels and the

In the New Testament, apart from the Pauline Epistles, the word is only found in one passage of the Synoptic Gospels (with its parallels) and
4.

Apoca
lypse.

four times in the Apocalypse. Mark IV 1 1 vjjuv TO /j,v<rrrjptov oVSorai

rfjs /Sao-tAei as rov 6eov (Matt. Luke vfMV dedoTai yvavai ra p,vo~Typia TTJS fiacriXeias TOV 6eov [Matt. ovpavwvty. The secret of the kingdom was revealed to the disciples, while the
T<3i>

multitudes heard only the parables which contained but at the same time concealed it.
eirra darcpcov ovs fides... ApOC. i 2O ro nvcrrripiov In this place the word p.voT^piov follows immediately after the words a /ie XXei yivetrQcu /xera ravra. These words and p.vamr)pLov itself are printed in small uncials in the text of Westcott and Hort, with a reference to Dan. ii 29. Whether a direct allusion to the Book of Daniel was intended by the writer may be doubted. The sense of pva-rripiov in Dan. ii appears to be quite general; whereas here we seem to have an instance of the use of the word in a somewhat special sense, as either the meaning underlying an external symbol, or even the symbol itself. See below on
TOOI>

Apoc. xvii 5, 7. ApOC. X 7 KOI

evT)yye\iarV TO^C T\c<r6r] 76 MyCT^plON TOY Geoy, 6&YTOY AOYAOYC TO^C npO(j)^TAC. With this we must compare Amos iii 7 (LXX) eav aTroKaXv^Tj iraidelav npbs rovy dov\ovs avrov TOVS -n-po^ras (HID n?i D^ *3). Here we find that fjLvtmjpiov, which apparently had been avoided by the LXX, has now become the natural word for the Divine secret

ApOC. xvii

5?

7 Ka*

>7r

/^cTeoTroi/

avr^s

ovo[j.a yeypapfjievov,

nvanjpiov,

BABYAflN-.-ey^ ep^ trot TO nvar^ptov rijs yvvaiKoy KOI TOV drjpiov. name Babylon is itself a p.vorqpiovj that is, a symbol containing a
meaning.
Pauline

The
secret

In the second place the


i

p.vo~rr)pLov is

rather the meaning of the

symbol, as in
5.

20.

Epistles.

The earliest example we used in describing the opera The mys tions of the Antichrist in 2 Thess. ii The Man of Iniquity is to be 7. tery of revealed (aTroKaXv^^, v. 3). At present however there is TO iniquity TO dTTOKa\v(p6fjvcu avTov Iv TO) avTov Kaipor TO yap pvo~Tripiov rj 1 The Greek fragments of the Book Aethiopic text, see Anrich Mysterien-

We now
is

come

to the Pauline Epistles.

meet with

an isolated one.

The word

is

of

Enoch

volume of Dr Swete

are reprinted in the last s manual edition

wesen, p. 144, notes


of

it occurs several : times in connexion with the Tablets

of the Septuagint (ed. 2, 1899). For references to the word mystery in the

Heaven

THE MEANING OF MY2THPION.


TTJS

dvopias

povov 6

/care^coi/

apri

ca>s

peo-ov yevrjTat.

KOI rare

rai 6 ai/o/*os, K.r.X.

Here there can be little doubt that the word nvo-njpiov has been a secret to be Te ~ suggested as being the natural counterpart to the drroKa^v^is already V spoken of. The Man of Iniquity is the embodiment of the principle of The restraint which at present hinders him iniquity in a personality. from being revealed is spoken of first as a principle of restraint (TO as a personal embodiment of that principle (o Kare^v). fcare^oj/), and then While the restraint is effectual, the dvopia cannot be revealed as o avoBut already it is at work, and it will be revealed later on till it HQS.
:

TO p.vo-TJpiov rrjs dvo^ilas. There is perhaps a secret an intentional parallel with the secret of the Gospel, which waited to be 1 revealed in its proper time In i Cor. ii i St Paul is reminding the Corinthians of the extreme The mysrv of simplicity of his first preaching to them /cayco e X&oi/ npbs vpas, a6VX(poi, *?
is

revealed

it is

Kad* vTTfpo-^rjv \6yov rj ao(plas ov yap <pivd TI fidfvai tv Vfiiv el

K.arayyf\\a>v
p.r/

irjcrovv

Xpt<rroi>

z vfuv TO p.vo-Tr}piov TOV Kal TOVTOV ecrTav-

superiority of wisdom had he come to them ; not as a publisher of the Divine secret: nay rather as knowing nothing save Jesus Christ, and Him as crucified (the message of the Cross being, as
pa>Hfi>ov.

Not with any

he had already said in i 18, folly to the Greeks). But, although for the moment he seems to disparage wisdom and mysteries he presently adds (ii 6) oxxpmi/ Se XaXoC/Aci/ ev rots reXetots ( the full-grown as opposed to vrjiriois of iii i): and he continues in v. 7: aXXa \a\ovpcv 6eov tls ev TTJV aTTOKfKpvfJinevrjv, r)v Trpoapurtv 6 deos npo TWV
,
:

<ro(piav

ala>va>v

/ii;<rT77pi &>,

This use of the word is the characteristically Pauline use. 86gav It denotes the secret Purpose of God in His dealings with man. This is par excellence the Mystery.
jfj.ti>v.

In

Cor. iv

V7rr)pras XpitrroO

the Apostle describes himself and his fellow-workers as The plural /cat oiKovopovs fjLvo-rrjpiwv 6eov, entrusted for the sake of /AU rT7?/)ia
<

others with a knowledge of the Divine secrets The word is twice again KOL flda ra /iuorr/pta used in the plural in I Cor. xiii 2 K.O.V 7rpo<pr)Tfiav
. :
%a>

connexion with prophecy is note where it is connected with speaking in a tongue which no one understands, in contrast with such prophecy as is intelligible to the Church.
irdvra KOI iraa-av rrjv
:

yva>o-iv,

where

its

worthy and

in

Cor. xiv 2 Trvcvp.aTi 5e XaXe I /xvanfpca,

There

is

to TO

fjivffT-rjpiov

a merely verbal parallel Tijs dvo/jdas in the de-

Syriac Peshito

and the Bohairic.

It

has also some Latin support.

scription which Josephus (J3. J. i 24 i) gives of Antipater. In contrast with others who uttered their thoughts
freely,

and were accused by him

for

their unguarded utterances, the taciturnity and secrecy of Antipater are

emphasised
av
rifJLapTtv

TOV

AvTiiraTpov

fiiov

O$K

TIS eliruv /ca/c/aj ftvffTrjpiov.

His

life

was a villainous
:

secret.

the other hand fj.apTtipt.ov is the reading of c fcs BD G LP, most cursives, the Latin 2 3 Vulgate, the Sahidic, Armenian and Aethiopic; and it has the support of Chrysostom and some other patristic writers. It may have come in from a recollection of TO napTijpiov TOV x/woroO in i 6. The substitution destroys the completeness of the contrast between
v. i

On

2 It is

to be noted that here there is

a variation of reading fivcrr/piov is read by K*AC, some cursives, the

and v. 7, and gives altogether a weaker sense.

238
Amystery
-

EPISTLE TO THE EPHESIANS.


One more example is found in the same epistle (i Cor. xv 51), of the This may change at the Second Coming: Idov fjLvo-njpiov vp.lv be compared with the use of the word in the latter part of the Book of Enoch. In Rom. xi 25 the problem of the unbelief of Israel, which accords
\cya>.

This mystery

^th
to

ancient prophecy and in


is

some strange way

is

bound up with mercy


ov yap

the Gentiles,
Ac.r.X.

spoken of as a Divine secret:

dyvoelvj d8e\(poi, TO p-vaT^piov rovro,...ort Trojpoocm OTTO pepovs reo

yeyoveVy

The mystery

In Rom. xvi 25, 26


of

we have again
ypa<f>a)v

the characteristically Pauline use


xpovois
fear*

par

the

word

Kara
e vvv,

drroKaXv^iv /zva-r^piou
did re
els

alcavtois
eiriTayrjv

o-eo~iyr)p.evov t

(paveptodevros

7rpo(prjTiKu>v

6eov

els

vTraKorjv

7rio~Teo)s

Trdvra

TO.

e@vr)

yva>pio~6evros.

TOV altoviov This is tho

now at last revealed in the Christian Church. This last passage shews that the use of the word which we find in the Epistle to ColosEpistles to the Colossians and the Ephesians is no new one. The Mystery par excellence has a special reference to the Gentiles. In fact it is nothing less than the inclusion of the Gentiles as well as the Jews in a common
secret of secrets, the eternal secret

human hope
Tols

in Christ.
reoi/

So in

Col.

26,

27
TO>V

we read:
yeveaiv,

TO

pv<rn)piov

TO

aTTOKfKpv^evov drrb

alav&v Kal

OTTO

vvv be

dyiois avrov, ois ijOe\r]O ev 6 0ebs yvwpio ai TI TO TT\OVTOS TTJS TOV HVO-TTJplOV TOVTOV V Tols 0VO IV, O O~TIV XplOTOff CV VfltJ/, TJ eXuls TT)S Christ in you Gentiles that is the great surprise. None could 86gr)s.

have foreseen or imagined


it

it.

It

was God s

secret.

He

has disclosed
els cirlyvuHTiv

to us.

In Col.
TOV

ii

2 the

same thought

is

carried on iu the words,

p,vo-Tr)piov

TOV Bcovj Xpiorou, tv

ej>

doriv iravres ol Grja-aupol TTJS o~o(f)ias

Koi yvcoo-ftos

Here the mystery of God is Christ as the a7roKpv<poi. treasury of the hidden wisdom which it is granted them to know. In Col. iv 3 the Apostle bids them pray that he may have opportunity XaX^o-ai ro fivorrjpiov TOV ^ptOToO, 6V o KCU 6eSe/iat, iva (pavep(oo~<o avTO tos
del
fji

XaX^o-at.

Epistle to

EpheSians.

the Epistle to the Ephesians the word occurs five times in this same sense. We need but cite the passages here. j Q^ IO y va) pi(j-as -fully T0 HVO-TT/PIOV TOV 6f\^fj.aTos CIVTOV, KCITO. TTJV cvdoKiav avTov rjv TrpofBfTo v avTto els olKovopiav TOV ir\r)p(i)fj.aTos /catpcoi/, dvaKe(paIn
TO>V

\ai(do~ao~6ai
iii

ra iravra ev
o

ra>

^pto~rc5.
eyva>pio~6r)

6 Kara
Trpos

diroK.aXv<\nv

fioi

TO

fj.vo"Tr}piov}

KaQas Trpoeypa^a
/u,ov

ev

oXtyo),

dvvacrOe

dvayivwo-ftovrfs

vorjcrai

TTJV

o-vvecriv

cv

TW

fj,vo~rrjpi(f

TOV xpiorov, o fTepats yevfais OVK eyvapicrfir] rots viols T&V dvtipwirw coy vvv aTreKaXiXpOrj rots dyiois aVooToXois aiJrou KOI jrpo(prJTais ev

7rvVfj.aTi, elvai

ra

edvrj o~vvK\Tjpov6fJ.a Kal

(rvv<ra>\i.a

Kal oruffiero^a TTJS eirayyf-

\ias ev XptoTrco
iii
TQ>V

l^o-oO did TOV evayye\iov.


ij

9 Kal
19

(fxoTio-ai TIS
ro>

oiKovopia TOV
Trai^-a
KTi<ravri.

fj.vo-Tr)piov

TOV dnoKeKpvpfJievov OTTO

ala>voiv

ev

6e&

ra)

ra

VI
(T/3cVb)

ev Trapprjo-iq yvapio-at

TO pvo-rijpiov TOV evayye\iov vnep ov rrpe-

ev iiXvcrei.

The Mystery, then, on which St Paul

delights to dwell is the unification

THE MEANING OF MYZTHPION.

239

of humanity in the Christ, the new human hope, a hope for all men of all conditions, a hope not for men only but even for the universe, The word nvo-rrjpiov occurs once more in the Epistle to the Ephesians, This and in a sense somewhat different from any which we have hitherto mystery TO p-vo-T^piov TOVTO p.eya e ortv, e yto considered. In Eph. v 32 we read St Paul has cited the primaeval de els Xpurrbv /cat fls TTJV cKK\r)o~iav. ordinance of Marriage, which closes with the enigmatic words /cat eo-ovrai This saying is true, he seems to say, of earthly 01 dvo cis o-dpKct /u ai/.
:

Aeyo>

marriage; but it has a yet higher signification. The ancient ordinance is not merely a divinely constituted law of human life ; it has a secret meaning. It is a p.vo-nipiov, and the nvo-rqpiov is a mighty one. I declare I say no more of it now: it in reference to Christ and to the Church. but I bid you see to it that in common life each one of you is true to its first and plainest meaning, for the sake of the deeper meaning that lies hid in Christ. The sense in which the word here occurs may be illustrated from later A symbol, writers. Justin Martyr, for example, uses it somewhat in the same way or its when he speaks for instance (Trypho 44) of certain commands of the meanm SMosaic law as being given els p.v<mjpiov TOV XptoroC or, again, when he
, :

says of the Paschal lamb (Trypho 40) TO ^vo-T^piov ovv TOV irpofiarov... TVTTOS rjv TOV XpicTTov. The Paschal rite contained a secret, not to be revealed till Christ came. Thus TO fivo-TJpiov is practically a symbol or

a type, with be fulfilled.

stress laid

upon the secrecy of

its

meaning

until it

comes to

still to consider two passages in the Pastoral In The mysEpistles. f tiie te 9 we read that a deacon is to hold TO pvo-Trjpiov TTJS Trio-Teats fv fv Kadapa o-vveidrja-ei. It is not required of him, as of the bishop, that he should be didaKTtKos. Hence no secret lore can be meant he is not the depositary of a secret tradition, as the words might have seemed to imply had they been spoken of the bishop. The phrase in its context can only refer to such elementary and fundamental knowledge as any servant of the **

We

have
iii

Tim.

Church must necessarily have. In the same chapter (v. 16) we read: KCU 6fjLo\oyovp.eva>s pcya. eo-Tiv TO Themys* er y f TTJS fvo-efteias p.vcrTT]piov: and the words are followed by what appears to odliness be a quotation from a Christian hymn. The epithet great which is here S It applied to the mystery of godliness is the same as in Eph. v 32.
,

refers to the importance, not to the obscurity, of the mystery (see the note on that passage). But the use of this epithet is the only point of contact
in the expression with the phraseology of St Paul : for the word evo-efieia belongs to the peculiar vocabulary of these as compared with the other

Pauline epistles. In both these instances the word pvo-rripiov appears to have a more A more general meaning than it has elsewhere in St Paul s writings. The sum of general the Christian faith seems to be referred to under this term. It is perhaps meamnga natural expansion of what we have seen to be the characteristically Pauline use of the word, when the special thought of the inclusion of the Gentile world in the Purpose of God has ceased to be a novel and en But whether such an expansion can be thought of as grossing truth.
\

240

EPISTLE TO THE EPHESIANS.


directly due to the Apostle himself is a part of the difficult problem of the literary history of these epistles. We have found, then, no connexion between the New Testament use o f th e wor d mystery and its popular religious signification as a sacred Not rite, which the initiated are pledged to preserve inviolably secret. until the word has passed into common parlance as a secret of any kind does it find a place in biblical phraseology. The New Testament writers
<

Conclusion.

word in ordinary use in this colourless sense, and they start it upon a new career by appropriating it to the great truths of the Christian religion, which could not have become known to men except by Divine disclosure or revelation. A mystery in this sense is not a thing which must be kept secret On the contrary, it is a secret which God wills to make known and has charged His Apostles to declare to those who have
find the

ears to hear

it.

ENEPfEIN AND ITS COGNATES.

241

On

evepiyeiv

and

its cognates.

The meaning of Ivepyelv and the cognate words in St Paul s epistles has Limitabeen so variously understood that it is desirable to attempt a somewhat t more complete investigation of them than has hitherto been made. That the sense which they bear in the New Testament is in some respects peculiar is in part due to a fact which it may be well to note at the outset namely, that, wherever its ultimate source is directly expressed,
:

the evepyeia

always attributed either to Divine or to Satanic agency. In the two passages is that of a Divine eWpyem. in which the evil spirit is spoken of as exerting eWpyeia, there is evidence in the context of an intentional parallel with, or parody of, the methods of Divine action see above in the note on Eph. ii 2, and Lightfoot s notes on 2 Thess. ii 3 (Notes on Epp. pp. in ff.). This limitation lends a certain impressiveness to this whole series of words. Even where evepis

The prevailing thought

yelv is

used of human action (Phil, ii 13) we are reminded that God Himself is o evepyav TO eve py civ. And it is further in harmony with this conception that wherever in St Paul s writings evepycta is attri buted to things, as opposed to persons, the form of the verb used is not evepyelv but fvepyel(r6ai.
all these words lies the adjective eWpyor, which compare cvapxos, in office used in documents preserved in inscriptions and papyri. It is found in Herod, viii 26, of certain deserters who came into the Persian camp /3/ou re Seo/iei/o* *ai wepyol The word has various shades of meaning, as active j3ov\6fj.evoi elvai. effective (of troops), under cultivation (of land), busy productive (of capital) and in most cases the opposite condition is described by dpyos. The later form is evepyijs (Aristotle has eVepyf o-raros). In Polybius both forms occur, and they are frequently interchanged in the manuscripts. The LXX has evepyos once, Ezek. xlvi i, of the six working days but
i.

At the
at

base of
:

i.

The

signifies

work

adjectives

&L %
classical
writers.

never

cvfpyrjs.
.

1 only form
>cat

Vpyrjs

In the New Testament, on the contrary, evepyjs is the We have it in I Cor. xvi 9, 6vpa yap /zot avetoyev /neyaXr; that is, an effective opportunity of preaching for the nieta:

Biblical writers,

This form of the word lent

itself

Jerome, when he quotes the passage


in

In readily to confusion with vapyf]s. the two passages of St Paul in which


it

commenting on

Isa.

Ixvi 18, 19,

occurs the Latin rendering is evidens manifesto) which implies tvapGreek MSS. In Heb. iv 2 yjjs in
(or
is

has evidens, though elsewhere he has For further examples of the efficax. confusion see the apparatus to my
edition

of the Philocalia of Origen,

actually found in
2

B; and

pp. 140, 141, 144.

EPHES.

j6

242

EPISTLE TO THE EPHESIANS.


phor of the open door compare 2 Cor.
77

ii

12, Col. iv 3.

In Philem.

6,

6V coy

Koivatvia TTJS
,

7ri<rrea>9

result

effective

and

evepyrjs yei^rai, it means productive of due in Heb. iv 12, yap o \6yos TOV 0cov /cat evepyrjs
(rov
>v

Kai ropwTfpos virep Kavav pdxcupav SiWo/nov, it again seems to mean effec tive ; but perhaps the word was chosen with a special reference to
u>v

for evfpyos and evepyelv are life 1 alive and active .


i.

used of activity as the characteristic sign of

The

substan
tive

2. The substantive eWpyeia is employed by Aristotle in a technical sense in his famous contrast between potentially (8wdpci) and actually

(Ivfpyfla).

We

have

it

too in the Nicomachean Ethics in the definition of


<aT

Aristotle.

TO dvOpvirivov dyaflov, which is declared to be ^rvx^s evcpyeta apeTT/i/ reXe/o) (i 6 15, p. 1098, i6 a); and in this connexion a contrast is iv
/3ia>

Galen.

eVp-yeta and egis. interesting to compare with this the definition of the term in physiology as given by Galen, de natural, facultt. i 2, 4, 5. He distin guishes carefully tpyov result , eWpyeia action productive of epyov, and

drawn between
It
is

Greek O.T.

force productive of eWp-yeia In the Greek Old Testament the word occurs only in Wisdom and in 2 and 3 Maccabees. It is used twice of the operations of nature, Wisd. vii 17, xiii 4; once in the phrase ovx orrXwi/ cWpycla, not by force
dvvapis,
.

of arms

(xviii 22)

and again
12, 28, of

O~OTTTpOV aKT]\io (dTOV TTJS TOV

0OV VpyeiaS

in the notable description of Wisdom as the It is USed in 2 MilCC. 1ft (vii 26).

St Paul.

i Thess.
9, ii.

ii

a miraculous interposition of Divine power. quoted suggest that already the way was being prepared for that limitation of the word to a superhuman activity which we noted at the outset as characterising its use in the New Testament. St Paul, who alone uses the word, has it five times expressly of the exercise of Divine power (Eph. i 19, iii 7; Phil, iii 21; Col. i 29, ii 12). In Eph. iv 1 6 it is used in the phrase KUT evepyeiav, without an express reference indeed to God, but of the building of the Body of the Christ; so that this can hardly be regarded as an exception. On the other hand it occurs twice of an evil activity. In the descrip tion of the incarnation of iniquity, which is to parody the work of Christ and to claim Divine honours, we have the expression, ov earlv T) -rrapovo-ia /car cvepyeiav TOV Sarava. Already the Apostle has said, TO yap pvo-rqpiov and lower down he adds, of those who are to 77877 fiffpyelrai TT/S dvopias be deceived by the signs and wonders of this false Christ (o-ypeiois Kal
29, 3

Mace, iv 21, v

The instances

last

Tfpao~itf

i/feuSouff),

Tre p-Trei

avTols 6 6eos

evcpyftav
,

7r\dvrjs

is

TO Trio~Tvo~ai
believe the

avTovs
1

TO)

ifsevdei.

This

working of error

which makes
1 1

men

In Xenophon Memorab. i 4 4 we have fcDa t/juppova re Kal tvepyd, in


contrast with the e?5wXa a<ppovd. re Kal Com o.Klvt]To. of sculptors or painters.

Wisd. xv
6 rt

we read
T&V TrXdcravra

"hyvbTiffev

epyoveav

pare also Athan. de incarn. 30


8^]

el

yap

veKp6s Tis yev6fji,vo5 ovdev SvvaTai K.T.\. $ TrtDs, etirep o


[sc. b
X/H<rr6s],

The passage which


of course, Gen. ii 7 avrov irvorjv irp6ff(i)Trov
6 avQpwrros els

underlies this
tveQva-rjfff v e/s
^"w^y,

is,

TO

venpov yap
K.r.X.

Kal

TOVTO, aiJros
TTJS

ro^s evepyovvras Kal


Tratfei,

tvepyelas

In

ENEPfEIN AND
false

ITS COGNATES.
is the truth ), is itself a the lying spirit sent forth from

243

pretender (who

is

the

lie

as Christ

judgment of God.

We may
i

compare

God

to deceive Ahab,

Kings xxii

2123.
-eo>,

The verb 3. means primarily

3. tvepydv, after the general analogy of denominatives in to be at work , to work (intrans.), and is accordingly ve

The

the opposite of dpyclv. So Aristotle freely employs the word in connexion intr with his special sense of eVpyeia. Polybius, whose use of the word is for tive. the most part somewhat peculiar, has this first and most natural meaning in a passage in which he prophesies the filling up of inland seas iv 40 4,
:

fjLvova~rjs
<rea>s

fyx 6*Kara TO (rwexes. compare also Philo, de leg. may evepyovvrw dlleg. iii 28 (Mangey, p. 104) orav irapovcra [sc. ij xapa\ dpacrrrjpicos evcpyfj. But indeed the usage is too common to need illustration.
yc
df)

rfjs UVTTJS

raeo>?

irepl

TOVS TOTTOVS, KOI

T>V

atnW

rrjs

We

further stage of meaning is used when the verb is followed by an Transiaccusative which defines the result of the activity. Then from the into work we get a transitive use. There appears to be no example of this in Aristotle: but instances are cited from Diodorus Siculus and Plutarch, and it is common in later Greek. In Philo, de uit. contempL (M. p. 478), the meaning is scarcely different from that of

transitive use of

TrpaTTfiV. a

yap

vr/(povTe$ ev OTadiois

Klvoi...vvKTO>p

Vpyovo-iv:

and

this is often the case in other writers.

ev ovcoro) p.fdvovTfS... So far as I

am

aware, the accusative always expresses that which is worked , and never c That is to say, eWpye> does not seem ever that which is made to work in the sense of to bring into activity . to mean to render evcpyov Thus, though Polybius uses again and again such expressions as evepyr} Polybius. Vpy(TTpav diTcXpaivovo-i TTJV vav7Toiov/xVoi TTJV c<podov (xi 23 2), and jj.axiav (xvi 14 5), he does not use evepyelv as equivalent to* evepybv In the one place where this might seem at first sight to be 7roito-0cu.
.

his meaning (xxvii I 12 tvtpytiv lirlra^av rois apxovo-i TTJV crv/i/tc^uzv) this interpretation cannot be accepted in view of the strong meaning energetic , vigorous ) which tvepyos (-ijs) invariably has in ( assiduous ,
this writer.

We

must therefore render the words,

to effect the alliance

We come now to the Greek Old Testament. In the intransitive sense Greek ^Vpyflv is found in Num. viii 24 in B, as the substitute for a somewhat troublesome phrase of the original, which AF attempt to represent by (quoted XeiTovpydv \ftTovpyiav cv cpyois. It occurs again in Wisd. xv

iravra o-ftevvvvri vdaTi TrXeioi/ evypyei TO irvp. already) and xvi 17 ev The transitive sense is found in Isa. xli 4, TLS fvrjpyrja-e KCU ciroirjo-c ravra ; in PrOV. xxi 6 o eVepyeoj/ 0T](ravpicrp.aTa yXccxrarj -v^euSet, and XXXI 12 evepyel
r<5

yap

TO) dv8p\

dyadd.
Gospels. Intransitive *

Testament evepyelv comes, apart from St Paul s epistles, Only in Mark vi 14 (Matt, xiv 2) 6\a roOro cvepyovo-iv al dwdpcis fv avro), where the connexion of the word with miraculous powers is to be noted. In St Paul we find the intransitive use in three passages. The first
is Gal.
ii

In the

New

St Paul,
Iptr
lve *

8, 6 -yap evepyrjo-as Ilerpa) els dirofrroXfjv Trjs TrepiTo^r/s

cvijpyr](rfv

TCL cdvr], He that wrought for Peter , etc. The connexion of eVepyeti/ with miraculous interpositions, which we have already observed, and which will be further illustrated below, may justify us in interpreting

Kal ep-oi els

244

EPISTLE TO THE EPHESIANS.


this passage, in which St Paul is defending his apostolic position, in the light of 2 Cor. xii II f., ovdev yap vo~TpT)o-a virepXiav dnoo-To\a>v, el /cat ovdev et/u- ra p.ev o-rjuela TOV aVoo-roXov /caretp-yacrtfj/ ev vplv ev 770077
r<5i/

VTTOpovfj,

/cat o-rjfjieiois [re] /cat repaaiv dvvdpeo-iv. Compare also [Mark] xvi 2O TOV Kvpiov o-vvepyovvros /cat TOV \6yov (SejBaiovvTos did T&V ena<o\ov6ovvro)v o-Tjpelwv, Acts xiv 3, xv 12, Heb. ii 4. In case we must

any

avoid the mistake of the Authorised Version, which renders He that We cannot wrought effectually in Peter... the same was mighty in me attribute to St Paul the construction evepyelv TIVI in the sense of evep
.

yelv ev

TIVI,

though

it

may have come

in at a later period through


.

1 In Eph. ii 2 confusion, with evepydeo-0at, which is a compound verb we have the intransitive use again in TOV rrvevpaTos TOV vvv cvepyovvros ev Tols viols TTJS dirciQias. In Phil, ii 13 we have TO 6e\eiv /cat ro eVep-

yelv,

where the word

is
is

already noted, and


evepy&v.

exceptionally used of human activity, as we have introduced as a kind of echo of the preceding 6

Transi
tive.

The

evepy>v...To

transitive sense occurs in the passage just cited, Phil, ii 13 o 6e\eiv /c.r.X. ; also in Gal. iii 5 o evepyvv dvvd/j.eis ev vplv, and

in a specially instructive passage, i Cor. xii 6 n, diaipea-eis eWp-yq/zaroov elo-iv, Kal 6 avTos 6eos, 6 evepymv ra irdvra ev 7rdo~iv...a\\a> 8e evepyijpaTa
$vvdfj,eo>v...7rdvTa

Se ravra evepyel TO ev

/cat

ro auro nvevpa.
i

the reference

is

to miraculous powers.

In Eph.
rov
:

Here again we have /cara TrpoavTov,

Beviv rov ra irdvra evepyovvTOs /cara

TTJV /SovX^i/

6e\rjfj.aTos

where
:

we must render who worketh all supposing that it can mean who
thought of
irdvra
r<5

moving the universe


TTJS
i

prj/jLaTi

all things in operation the expressed in Heb. i 3 by (pepav TO. dwdpeats avTov, must not be introduced here. Simi
,

things setteth

for

we

are not justified in

larly in

Eph.

19,

/cara

TTJV

evepyeiav TOV Kpdrovs

TTJS

Icrxvos

avTov

TJV

to If the original is more emphatic the working... which He hath wrought than such a rendering may seem to imply, this is due chiefly to St Paul s general attribution of evepyelv and evepyeia to Divine operation.
evqpyrjKev ev
ra>

^pto-rai eye [pas

avTov

K.r.X.,
.

we must render according

4.

We now come to the

point of chief difficulty, the use and meaning


c.

of evepyelo~6ai.
Passive,
to be
^

From
,

the meaning of evepyelv

accus.,

to work,

effect,

do

we

wrought y lus.

readily get a passive use, evepyelo-6ai, to be wrought, effected, done . in i 13 5 he says that, Tlmg p iyki U8 uses jt of a war being waged C0n t em p 0raneousiy with certain wars between the Romans and the
:

Carthaginians,
TToXe/xos
:

Trapa

rots

""EXXgo-iv

o
3.

KXeopeviKos

Ka\ov/j.evos

evrjpyelTo
T>V

Again, in ix 12 3 he uses ev /catpo) evepyovp.eva>v as a variant upon his previous phrase rcSi/ /zera SoXov KOI o-vv /catpw 7rparro/ii/a)i/ and in ix 13 9 he lays stress on a
5
;

comp. Joseph. Antt. xv

In Athenag. Supplic. 10 we have

is

an apparent, but perhaps only apparent, instance of such a construction: KKO.ITOI Kal avTo rb evepyovv rois
tpuvoucri irpcxjyrjTiKws

adequately explained as dativus A more doubtful looking commodi.

instance is Clement. Horn, vii did TOVTO d/j-aprdvovo i v6o~ovs

Kal

potay elval

<pa/j.ev

dyiov Trvevfia diropThe dative TOV 0eov

ENEPTEIN AND
general s choice of those 6V
decision shall be executed
,

ITS COGNATES.
^e$
coV evfpyijdrjo-eTai

245
TO Kpidtv,
.

tov

KO.\

his

This is the be carried out sense which the form bears in the only passage of the Greek Old Testament in which it occurs, I Esdr. ii 2O eWpyelrai TO, Kara TOV vaov.
his plan shall

Although Aristotle does not use cvepyelv in a transitive sense, yet find a few instances of the passive evepyelo-Qai in his works.
:
:

we

Aristotle.

b a Uepl <PVTV ii 7