Está en la página 1de 62

Trung tm pht trin CNTT-HQG TP.

H ch minh Trung tm o to cng ngh cao Bch Khoa

Li cm n
Chng em xin chn th nh cm n thy gio thc s H Mnh o trc tip hng dn chng em xy dng v ho n th nh n. Chng em xin chn th nh cm n cc thy c trong trung tm cng ngh cao Bch Khoa HTC to mi iu kin gip chng em ho n th nh n n y.

H Ni, thng 06 nm 2005 Hc vin Nguyn Quc Tun T Ho ng Anh Nguyn Th Thu

1 Gio vin hng dn : Th.S H Mnh o

Trung tm pht trin CNTT-HQG TP. H ch minh Trung tm o to cng ngh cao Bch Khoa

Li gii thiu
Phin bn IPv6 l mt phin bn mi ca Internet. N c xy dng trn c s ca giao thc IPv4 nhm tn dng cc u im v khc phc hn ch ca IPv4. Thay i ca IPv6 ch yu sau: M rng khong gia dia chi .: IPv6 c a ch ngun v ch d i 128 bt, khng gian a ch ln ca IPv6 c tht k d phng ln cho php phn b a ch v mng con t trc xng sng Internet n tng mng con trong mt t chc. Tnh bin i c l trnh nhiu sc thi c ci thin gn thm mt phm vi gii quyt ti nhng a ch nhiu sc thi. S n gin hoa khun dng u mc (Header): Header ca IPv6 c thit k gim chi ph n mc ti thiu. iu n y t c bng cch chuyn cc trng khng quan trng v cc trng la chn sang cc header m rng c t pha sau ca IPv6 header. Khun dng header mi ca IPv6 to ra s x l hiu qu hn ti cc ruoter. Tin b h tr cho nhng m rng v nhng tu chn: Thay i trong cch m nhng tu chn u mc IP c m ho k c hiu qu hn y ti t hn nhng gii hn v kh khn trn nhng tu chn mi trong tng lai. Kh nng ghi nh n lung: Mt kh nng mi c thm cho php s ghi nh n ca nhng gi thuc v ti giao thng chy c bit cho ngi gi n o nhng yu cu c bit iu khin, nh khng mc nh cht lng ca dch v hoc thi gian thc dch v. Nhng kh nng chng th v ring t: Nhng m rng chng thc s to n vn d liu c ch r cho IPv6.

2 Gio vin hng dn : Th.S H Mnh o

Trung tm pht trin CNTT-HQG TP. H ch minh Trung tm o to cng ngh cao Bch Khoa

Chng 1
Nhng hn ch ca IPv4 v c im ca IPv6
1.1 Nhng hn ch ca IPv4: - Giao thc tng mng trong b giao thc TCP/IP hin ti ang l IPv4 (Internet- working protocol verision 4). IPv4 cung cp truyn thng host-to-host gia nhng h thng trn Internet. Mc d IPv4 c thit k kh tt, s thng i thng tin tin trin t lc khi u IPv4 v o nhng nm 1970, nhng IPv4 c nhng s thiu ht khin cho n khng ng b cho s pht trin nhanh ca Internet, gm nhng th sau: + IPv4 c 2 level cu trc a ch (netid v hostid) phn nhm v o 5 lp (A, B, C, D v E). S s dng nhng a ch l khng hiu qu. V d nh khi cos mt t chc c cp cho 1 a ch lp A, 16 triu a ch t a ch c phn phi duy nht cho t chc s dng. Nu 1 t chc c cp cho 1 a ch lp C, mt khc ch c 256 a ch c phn phi cho t chc, y khng phi l mt s . Cng vy, nhiu triu a ch b l ng ph trong nhm D v E. Phng thc phn a ch n y dng ht nhng a ch ca IPv4, v mau chng s khng cn a ch n o cn cp cho bt k mt h thng mi n o mun kt ni v o Internet. Mc d sch lc subnet v supernet gim bt nhng vn v a ch, nhng subnet v suprnet l m cho ng truyn tr ln kh khn hn. + Internet phi thch nghi c vi s chuyn giao audio v video thi gian thc. Loi chuyn giao n y yu cu nhng sch lc tr ho n t nht v s t trc ca t i nguyn khng c cung cp trong thit k. + Internet phi thch nghi c vi s m ho v s chng nhn ca d liu cho mt s ng dng. Khng mt s m ho v s chng nhn n o c cung cp trong IPv4. - khc phc thiu st trn IPv6 c bit n nh l IPng (Internet working Protocol, next generation), c xng v nay l mt chun. 1.2 c im ca IPv6: - Trong IPv6 giao thc Internet c ci tin mt cch rng ln thch nghi c s pht trin khng bit trc c ca Internet. nh dng v d i ca nhng a ch IP cng c thay i vi nhng gi nh dng. Nhng giao thc lin quan, nh ICMP cng c ci tin. Nhng giao thc khc trong tng mng nh ARP, RARP, IGMP hoc b xo hoc c trong giao thc ICMPv6. Nhng giao thc tm ng nh RIP, OSPF cng c ci tin kh nng thch nghi vi nhng thay i n y. Nhng chuyn gia truyn thng d on l IPv6 v nhng giao thc lin quan vi n s nhanh chng thay th phin bn IP hin thi. Th h mi ca IP hay IPv6 c nhng u im nh sau:
3 Gio vin hng dn : Th.S H Mnh o

Trung tm pht trin CNTT-HQG TP. H ch minh Trung tm o to cng ngh cao Bch Khoa

1.2.1 Khng gian a ch ln IPv6 c a ch ngun v ch d i 128 bt. Mc d 128 bt c th to hn 3,4*10 38 t hp, khng gian a ch ca IPv6 c thit k d phng ln cho php phn b a ch v mng con t trc xng sng internet n tng mng con trong mt t chc. Cc a ch hin ang phn b s dng ch chim mt lng nh v vn cn tha rt nhiu a ch sn s ng cho s dng trong tng lai. Vi khng gian a ch ln n y, cc k thut bo tn a ch nh NAT s khng cn cn thit na. 1.2.2 a ch phn cp, h tng nh tuyn hiu qu Cc a ch to n cc ca Ipv6 c thit k to ra mt h tng nh tuyn hiu qa, phn cp v c th tng qut ho da trn s phn cp thng thy ca cc nh cung cp dch v Internet (ISP) trn thc t. Trn mng Internet da trn IPv6, cc router mng xng sng (backbone) c s mc trong bng nh tuyn nh hn rt nhiu. 1.2.3 Khun dng header n gin ho - Header ca IPv6 c thit k gim chi ph n mc ti thiu. iu n y t c bng cch chuyn cc trng khng quan trng v cc trng la chn sang cc header m rng c t pha sau ca IPv6 header. Khun dng header mi ca IPv6 to ra s x l hiu qu hn ti cc router. 1.2.4 T cu hnh a ch n gin cho vic cu hnh cc trm, IPv6 h tr c vic t cu hnh a ch stateful nh kh nng cu hnh server DHCP v t cu hnh a ch stateless (khng c server DHCP). Vi t cu hnh a ch dng stateless, cc trm trong lin kt t ng cu hnh chng vi a ch IPv6 ca lin kt (a ch cc b lin kt) v vi a ch rt ra t tin t c qung b bi router cc b. Thm tr nu khng c router, cc trm trn cng mt lin kt c th t cu hnh chng vi cc a ch cc b lin kt v giao tip vi nhau m khng phi thit lp cu hnh th cng. 1.2.5 Kh nng xc thc v bo mt an ninh Tch hp sn trong thit k IPv6 gip trin khai d d ng m bo s tng tc ln nhau gia cc nt mng. 1.2.6 H tr tt hn v cht lng dch v QoS Lu thng trn mng c phn th nh cc lung cho php s l mc u tin khc nhau ti cc router. 1.2.7 H tr tt hn tnh nng di ng
4 Gio vin hng dn : Th.S H Mnh o

Trung tm pht trin CNTT-HQG TP. H ch minh Trung tm o to cng ngh cao Bch Khoa

Kh nng di ng MobileIP tn dng c cc u im ca IPv6 so vi IPv4. 1.2.8 Kh nng m rng Thit k ca IPv6 c d phng cho s pht trin trong tng lai ng thi d d ng m rng khi c nhu cu. 1.3 Cu trc a ch IPv6 1.3.1 a ch IPv6 Mt a ch gm c 16 byte, l 128 bt d i. Kiu k hiu du 2 chm trong h m 16 ( Hexadecimal Colon Notation): l m cho nhng a ch tr nn c th c c nhiu hn, IPv6 trnh by r trong kiu k hiu du 2 chm trong h m 16. Trong kiu k hiu n y, 128 bt c chia th ng 8 phn, mi phn rng 2 byte. 2 byte trong kiu k hi h m 16 yu cu 4 ch s trong h m 16 n y. V th cho nn a ch gm c 32ch s trong h m 16 vi mi 4 ch s mt li c mt du : chm(Hnh1)

128 bt= 16 bytes= 32ch s trong h m 16 111111101111101100..111111111111

FDEC :

: 7654

3210

ADBF

2922

FFFF

Hnh 1: a ch IP phin bn 6 ( IPv6 Address) *Su rt gn: + Mc d l a ch IP ngay c khi trong nh dnh h s m 16, vn rt d i, nhiu ch s 0 trong mt a ch. Th d: 1080:0000:0000:0000:0008:0800:200C:417A Do c ch nn a ch c dng biu din d d ng hn cc loi a ch dng n y. Ta khng cn vit cc s 0 u cc nhm, nhng nhng s 0 bn trong th khng th xo.

5 Gio vin hng dn : Th.S H Mnh o

Trung tm pht trin CNTT-HQG TP. H ch minh Trung tm o to cng ngh cao Bch Khoa
Cha rt gn

1080:0000:0000:0000:0008:0800:200C:417A
rt gn

1080: 0: 0: 0: 8: 800:200C:417A

Hnh 2 : S rt gn a ch (Abbreviated Address) Hn na ta c th s dng k hiu :: ch mt chui cc s 0. Tuy nhin k hiu trn ch c s dng mt ln trong mt a ch. a ch IP c d i c nh, ta c th tnh c s cc bit 0 m k hiu biu din. Ta c th p dng u hay cui a ch. Cch vit n y c bit c li khi biu din cc a ch multicast, loopback hay cc i ch cha ch nh.

Cha rt gn

1080: 0: 0: 0: 8: 800:200C:417A
rt gn

1080::8:800:200C:417A

Hnh 3: S rt gn a ch c s 0 lin tip (Abbreviated Address with consecutive zeros) Vic khi phc li s rt gn a ch l rt n gin: thm s 0 v o cho n khi nhn c a ch nguyn bn (4 ch s trong 1 phn , 32 ch s trong mt a ch) IPv6 cho php gim ln a ch v c biu din theo k php CIDR. V d: Biu din mng con c d i tin t 80 bt:

6 Gio vin hng dn : Th.S H Mnh o

Trung tm pht trin CNTT-HQG TP. H ch minh Trung tm o to cng ngh cao Bch Khoa

1080:0:0:0:8::/80

Hnh 4 : a ch CIDR ( CIDR Address) 1.3.2 Khng gian a ch Khng gian a ch c d i ln hn IPv4( 128 bt so vi 32 bt) do cung cp khng gian a ch ln hn rt nhiu. Trong khi khng gian a ch 32 bt ca IPv4 cho php khong 4 t a ch, khng gian a ch IPv6 c th c khong 6.5*10 a ch trn mi mt vung b mt tri t. a ch IPv6 128 bt c chia th nh cc min phn cp theo trt t trn Internet. N to ra nhiu mc phn cp v linh hot trong a ch ho v nh tuyn hin khng c trong IPv4. Khng gian a ch c nhiu mc ch khc nhau. Ngi ta thit k a ch IP chia khng gian a ch th nh 2 phn, vi phn u c gi l kiu tin t. Phn gi tr tin t n y cho bt mc ch ca a ch. Nhng m s c thit k sao cho khng c m s n o ging phn u ca bt k m s n o khc. Do khng c s nhp nhng khi mt a ch c trao kiu tin t c th d d ng xc nh c. Hnh 5 cho chng ta thy dng ca a ch IPv6: 128 bt Bin Bin
23

Kiu tin t

Phn cn li ca a ch

Hnh 5 : Cu trc a ch ( Address Structure) Khng gian IPv6 c chia trn c s cc bt u trong a ch. Trng c d i thay i bao gm cc bt u tin trong a ch gi l Tin t nh dng ( Format Prefix) FP. C ch phn b a ch nh sau: Phn b Tin t nh dng
7 Gio vin hng dn : Th.S H Mnh o

T l trong khng gian

Trung tm pht trin CNTT-HQG TP. H ch minh Trung tm o to cng ngh cao Bch Khoa

D phng 0000 0000 D phng 0000 0001 D phng cho a ch NSAP 0000 001 D phng cho a ch IPX 0000 010 Cha cp pht 0000 011 Cha cp pht 0000 1 Cha cp pht 0001 a ch da trn v tr a l ( 001 Hin loi b) Cha cp pht 101 1/8 Cha cp pht 110 1/8 Cha cp pht 1110 1/16 Cha cp pht 1111 0 1/32 Cha cp pht 1111 10 1/64 Cha cp pht 1111 110 1/128 Cha cp pht 1111 1110 0 1/512 a ch lin kt cc b 1111 1110 10 1/1024 a ch site cc b 1111 1110 11 1/1024 a ch multicast 1111 1111 1/256 Hnh 6 : C ch phn b a ch 1.3.3 Cp pht a ch IPv6 1.3.3.1 a ch unicast trn c s ngi cung cp a ch trn c s ngi cung cp c s dng chung bi 1 host bnh thng nh 1 a ch unicast. nh dng a ch c din t nh sau: 128 bits 8 bits Provider Indentifler Subscriber Indentifler Subnet Indentifler Node Indentifler

a ch 1/256 1/256 1/128 1/128 1/128 1/32 1/16 1/8

010 3 bits

Registry 5 bits
8 Gio vin hng dn : Th.S H Mnh o

Trung tm pht trin CNTT-HQG TP. H ch minh Trung tm o to cng ngh cao Bch Khoa

Hnh 7: a ch trn c s ngi cung cp (Provider-based Address) Nhng trng cho a ch ngi dng trn c s cung cp nh sau : + Chng thc kiu (Type indentifier): Trng 3 bt n y nh ngha nhng a ch nh l 1 a ch trn c s ngi cung cp. + Chng thc ng k (Registry indentifier) : Trng 5 bt n y trnh b y chi nhnh ng k a ch. Hin thi th c 3 trung tm a ch c nh ngha: RIPE- NCC (m 01000): Ti Chu u. INTERNIC (m 11000): Ti Bc M. APNIC (m 10100): Ti Chu - Thi Bnh Dng + Chng thc h cung cp (Provider indentifier): Trng d i tu bin n y xc nhn nh cung cp (provider) cho truy cp Internet 16 bit d i l khuyn co i vi trng n y. + Chng thc thu bao (Subscriber indentifier): Khi mt t chc t mua Internet d i hn thng qua 1 nh cung cp, n c cp pht 1 th nhn dng ngi t mua (Subscriber indentification). 24 bt d i l khuyn co i vi trng n y. + Chng thc Subnet (Subnet indentifier): Mi subscriber c th c nhiu subnetwork khc nhau, v mi network c th c nhiu chng thc. Chng thc. Chng thc subnet nh ngha mt network c th di khu vc ca subscriber. 32 bt d i l khuyn co i vi trng n y. + Chng thc None (None indentifier): trng cui cng nh ngha nhn dng giao im kt ni ti subnet. d i 8 bt l khuyn co vi trng n y l m n thch hp vi a ch link 48 bt (Vt l) c s dng bi Ethernet. Trong tng lai a ch link n y c l s ging a ch vt l node. Chng ta c th ngh v mt i ch cung cp trung tm nh 1 ng cp chng th c mt s tin t. Nh nhng g thy hnh 8, mi tin t nh ngha mt cp bc ca h thng. Kiu tin t nh ngha kiu, tin t
9 Gio vin hng dn : Th.S H Mnh o

Trung tm pht trin CNTT-HQG TP. H ch minh Trung tm o to cng ngh cao Bch Khoa

nh nghi 1 cch duy nht v nh cung cp bc ng k, tin t nh cung cp nh ngha 1 cch duy nht v nh cung cp, tin t subnet nh ngha 1 cch duy nht v subscriber, v tin t subnet nh ngha 1 cch duy nht v subnet.
Subnet Subscriber Provider

Provider Subscriber Subnet Node Indentifier indentifier Indentifier indentifier

Hnh 8 : H thng a ch (Address Hierarchy) 1.3.3.2 a ch d tr (Reserved Address): Nhng a ch m s dng tin t d tr (0000 0000) s c tho lun mt cch ngn gn ti y. + a ch khng xc nh (Unspecified Address): y l mt a ch m phn khng phi tin t ch cha ch s 0. Ni mt cch khc phn cn li ca a ch gm to n zero. a ch n y c s dng khi host khng hiu c a ch ca chnh n v gi 1 cu hi thm tm a ch ca n. Tuy nhin trong cu hi thm phi nh ngha 1 a ch ngun. a ch khng xc nh c th c s dng cho mc ch n y. Ch l a ch khng th c s dng l m a ch ch. a ch n y c trnh b y trong hnh sau : 8 bt 00000000 Tt c to n bt 0 120 bit

Hnh 9 : a ch khng r (Unspecified Address)


10 Gio vin hng dn : Th.S H Mnh o

Trung tm pht trin CNTT-HQG TP. H ch minh Trung tm o to cng ngh cao Bch Khoa

+ a ch vng ngc (Loopback Address): y l mt a ch c s dng bi 1 host kim tr n m khng cn v o mng. Trong trng hp n y 1 thng ip c to ra tng ng dng n gi ti tng chuyn ti v i qua tng mng. Tuy nhin thay v i n mng vt l n tr li tng chuyn ti v i qua tng ng dng. a ch n y rt hu dng cho vic kim tra nhng gi phn mm chc nng trong tng n y trc khi thm ch c vic kt ni my tnh v o mng. a ch c m t trong hnh di y gm c tin t 0000 0000 v theo sau l 119 bit 0 v 1 bit 1. 8 bt 00000000 120 bit 000000000000.00000000000001

Hnh 10 : a ch vng ngc ( Loopback Address) + a ch IPv4: Nhng g chng ta thy c trong sut qu trnh chuyn i t a ch IPv4 v IPv6, host c th s dng a ch IPv4 ca n c nhng v o a ch IPv6. C 2 nh dng a ch c thit k cho mc ch n y: thch ng ( compatible) v ho (mapped) + a ch thc ng ( Compatile Address): L mt a ch ca 96 bit 0 theo sau 32 bit ca a ch IPv4. a ch n y c s dng khi 1 my tnh s dng IPv6 mun gi mt thng ip sang 1 my tnh s dng IPv6. Tuy nhin gi tin phi i qua mt min m mng vn s dng IPv4. Ngi gi s dng a ch thch ng IPv4 l m cho thun tin vic chuyn gi tin qua min s dng IPv4. Th d: a ch IPv4 l 2.13.17.14 (nh dng du chm trong h m 10) c chuyn th nh 0::020D:110E (nh dng du 2 chm trong h m 16). a ch IPv4 c thm 96 bt 0 to ra a ch IPv6 128 bt.

11 Gio vin hng dn : Th.S H Mnh o

Trung tm pht trin CNTT-HQG TP. H ch minh Trung tm o to cng ngh cao Bch Khoa

8 bt 00000000

88 bt Tt c to n bt 0 a. a ch thch ng

32 bt a ch IPv4

a ch IPv6 0::020D:110E b. Chuyn i a ch

a ch IPv4 2.13.17.14

Hnh 11: a ch tuong ng ( Compatible Address) a ch anh xa (Mapped Address): Gm 80 bt o theo sau l 16 bt 1 sau na l 32 bt ca a ch IPv4. a ch n y c s dng khi 1 my tnh vn s dng IPv4. Gi tin du lch phn ln qua mng IPv6 nhng sau ht c chuyn ti 1 host s dng IPv4. a ch IPv4 c thm 16 bt 1 v 80 bt 0 to a ch IPv6 128 bt. 8 bt 00000000 72 bt Tt c bt 0 16 bit Tt c bt 1 32 bt a ch IPv4

a.a ch anh xa a ch IPv6 0::020D:110E a ch IPv4 2.13.17.14

b. Chuyn i a ch Hnh 12: a ch anh xa (Mapped Address) Mt iu th v v a ch thch ng v a ch ho l chng c thit k bng mt cch m khi tnh ton checksum chng ta c th s dng
12 Gio vin hng dn : Th.S H Mnh o

Trung tm pht trin CNTT-HQG TP. H ch minh Trung tm o to cng ngh cao Bch Khoa

hoc a ch nhng hoc a ch y v nhng bt 0 hoc bt 1 thm v o l bi ca 16, khng c bt k mt tc ng n o ln vic tnh ton checksum. a ch n y quan trng v nu a ch ca gi tin c chuyn t IPv6 sang IPv4 bi router, vic tnh ton checksum s khng c tnh ton. 1.3.3.3 a ch cc b ( Local Address) Nhng a ch m s dng tin t d tr (1111 1110) s c tho kun mt cch ngn gn ti y. + a ch link cc b ( Link local Address): Nhng a ch n y c s dng khi 1 mng LAN mun s dng giao thc Internet nhng khng kt ni Internet v l do an ninh. Kiu a ch n y s dng tin t 1111 1110 10. i ch link cc b c s dng trong mng c lp v khng c nh hng chung n o. Khng ai ngo i mng c lp n y c th gi thng ip n nhng my tnh gia nhp 1 mng s dng nhng a ch n y. 10 bt 11111111010 Tt c bt 0 70 bt 48 bt a ch Node

Hnh 13 : a ch link cc b ( Link local Address) + a ch site cc b (Site Local Address): Nhng a ch n y c s dng nu nh 1 site c mt s mng s dng giao thc Internet nhng khng kt ni Internet v nhng l do an ninh. Kiu a ch n y s dng tin t 1111 1110 11. a ch site cc b c s dng trong mng c lp v khng c nh hng chung n o. Khng ai ngo i mng c lp n y c th gi thng ip n my tnh gia nhp mng s dng nhng a ch n y. 10 bt 11111111010 38 bt Tt c bt 0 32 bt a ch Subnet 48 bt a ch Node

Hnh 14 : a ch site cc b ( Site Local Address) 1.3.3.4 a ch Multicast


13 Gio vin hng dn : Th.S H Mnh o

Trung tm pht trin CNTT-HQG TP. H ch minh Trung tm o to cng ngh cao Bch Khoa

- a ch multicast c s dng nh ngha cho mt nhm cc host thay v ch 1. Tt c u s dng tin t 1111 1111 trong trng u tin. Trng th hai l c (flag) nh ngha 1 nhm a ch hoc c nh hoc tm thi. Mt nhm a ch c nh c nh ngha bi nh cm quyn Internet v c th truy cp bt c lc n o. Mt nhm a ch tm thi, ni mt cch khc c s dng mt cch tm thi. H thng tham d v o mt hi ngh t xa c th s dng mt nhm tm thi. Trng th 3 nh ngha phm vi hot ng ca nhm a ch. Nhiu phm vi c nh ngha.

8 bt 11111111 C

4 bt

4 bt Phm vi ID nhm

112 bt

0000 D nh trc 0001 Node cc b 0010 Link cc b 0101 Site cc b 1000 t chc cc b 1110 Chung 1111 D nh ting

Hnh 15 : a ch Multicast (multicast address) 1.3.4 nh dng gi tin trong IPv6 Gi tin trong IPv6 c thy nh trong hnh di y. Mi gi tin bao gm mt vng header nn tng bt buc theo sau bi payload. Payload gm c 2 phn: nhng vng Header m rng tu chn v d liu t tng cao hn. Vng Header nn tng chim gi 40 byte, trong khi nhng vng Header m rng v d liu t tng cao hn cha n 65535 byte thng tin.

14 Gio vin hng dn : Th.S H Mnh o

Trung tm pht trin CNTT-HQG TP. H ch minh Trung tm o to cng ngh cao Bch Khoa

40 byte u mc nn tng

C th ln n 65535 byte Payload

u mc m rng Gi d liu t tng cao (tu la chn) hn

Hnh 16 : nh dng gi tin IPv6 (IPv6 Data Packet Format) 1.3.4.1 Vng nn tng ( Base Header) Vng header nn tng trong hnh 17 cho ta thy n c 8 trng, nhng trng n y m t nh sau: VER PRI Flow lable Vng Header Gii k tip nhy hn

d i Payload Nhng a ch ngun Nhng a ch ch Nhng u mc m rng Payload + Gi d liu t tng cao hn

Hnh 17 : nh dng ca 1 n v d liu IPv6 ( Format of an IPv6 datagram) + Phin bn (VER- version): Trng 4 bt n y nh ngha s phin bn ca IP. Vi IPv6 gi tr l 6. + Quyn u tin (PRI- prority): Trng 4 bt n y nh ngha s u tin ca nhng gi tin i vi s tc nghn giao thng.
15 Gio vin hng dn : Th.S H Mnh o

Trung tm pht trin CNTT-HQG TP. H ch minh Trung tm o to cng ngh cao Bch Khoa

+ Nhn lu lng (Flow lable): Nh n lu lng l mt trng 3 byte 24 bit c thit k cung cp s iu khin c bit i vi nhng lu lng c bit ca d liu. + d i Payload (Payload Length): Trng d i Payload 2 byte n y c nh ngha d i tng cng ca n v d liu IP tr vng Header nn tng. + Vng Header k tip (Next Header): Vng Header k tip l 1 trng 8 bt nh ngha 1 u mc m theo sau vng Header nn tng trong n v d liu. Vng header k tip l 1 trong nhng vng m rng tu la chn c s dng bi IP hoc vng Header cho 1 giao thc tng cao hn nh UDP hay TCP. Mi vng Header m rng li c cha trng n y. Bng sau cho chng ta thy nhng gi tr ca vng Header k tip. M s 0 2 6 17 43 44 50 51 59 60 Vng Header k tip Tu chn nhy tng bc mt ICMP TCP UDP Routing ngun S phn ming Payload bo mt m ho S chng thc Trng ( Khng vng Header k tip) Tu chn ch

Gii hn nhy ( Hot Limit): Trng gii hn nhy 8 bt n y phc v cho mc ch tng t trng TTL trong IPv4. a ch ngun ( Source Address): Trng a ch ngun l 1 i ch Internet 16 byte (128 bit) m xc minh ngun bn gc ca n v d liu a ch ch ( Destination Address): Trng a ch ch l 1 a ch Internet 16 byte ( 128 bit) m thng xc minh ch cui cng ca n v d liu. Tuy nhin nu router ngun c s dng th trng n y s cha a ch ca router k tip. + Quyn u tin (Priority): Trng quyn u tin ca gi tin IPv6 nh ngha quyn u tin ca tng gi tin c quan h vi nhng gi tin khc trong cng 1 ngun. V d khi 1 trong 2 n v d liu lin tip phi b loi b i v cht chi, n v d liu c quyn u tin nh hn s b loi b. IPv6 chia giao thng (traffic) l m 2 loi: iu khin tc nghn (congestioncontrolled) v iu khin khng tc nghn (nocongestion- controlled). Giao thng iu khin tc nghn ( congestion- controlled traffic): Nu 1 ngun t iu chnh giao thng chm li khi c tc nghn, giao thng s gn cho giao thng iu khin tc nghn. V d nh giao thc
16 Gio vin hng dn : Th.S H Mnh o

Trung tm pht trin CNTT-HQG TP. H ch minh Trung tm o to cng ngh cao Bch Khoa

TCP s dng giao thc ca s trt (Sliding window protocol), c th d d ng p ng giao thng. Trong giao thng iu khin tc nghn n c hiu l nhng gi tin c th n chm hoc thm ch mt hoc c nhn ngo i yu cu. D liu iu khin tc nghn c cp pht quyn u tin t 0 n 7 c th hin bng sau: Quyn u tin 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 M t Khng c giao thng c th D liu nn Giao thng d liu khng c quan tm D tr Giao thng d liu tham d khi li D tr Giao thng tng giao Giao thng iu khin

C th m t quyn u tin nh sau: Khng c giao thng c th ( No specific traffic): quyn u tin 0 c cp pht cho gi tin khi tin trnh khng nh ngha 1 u tin n o. D liu nn (Background data): nhm n y (quyn u tin 1) nh ngha dl iu thng xuyn c nhn nn. S nhn tin tc l 1 v d. Giao thng d liu khng c quan tm (unattended data tranffic): Nu ngi s dng ang khng i d liu s c nhn, gi tin s c quyn u tin 2. Email thuc nhm n y. Mt ngi s dng gi email cho ngi s dng khc, nhng ngi nhn khng bit email s n sm. Thm v o email thng c lu tr trc khi c gi i. Giao thng d liu tham d khi ln ( Attended bulk data tranffi): Giao thc m chuyn phn ln d liu khi ngi s dng ang i nhn d liu (c th tr ho n) c quyn u tin 4. FTP v HTTP thuc nhm n y. Giao thng tng dao (Interactive tranffic): Giao thc dng nh TELNET cn s tng giao vi ngi s dng cp s tng giao vi ngi s dng c cp u tin cao th 2 (6) trong nhm. Giao thng iu khin (Control traffic): Giao thng diu khin c quyn u tin cao nht (7) trong loi n y. Giao thc routing nh OSPF v RIP v giao thc qun tr SNMP s dng quyn u tin n y. Giao thng iu khin khng tc nghn ( Noncongestioncontrolled tranffic): Kiu n y gn cho kiu giao thng m ch i mt s h on li nh nht. Loi b gi tin khng phi l tt. S chuyn giao li trong hu ht tnh hung l c th hti h nh c. Ni 1 cch khc ngun khng sa li n thch nghi vi s tc nghn. Audio v video thi gian thc l nhng v d in hnh cho dng giao thng n y. Quyn u tin t 8 n 15 c cp pht cho giao thng iu khin khng tc nghn. Mc d y khng c bt k mt s cp pht chun c bit
17 Gio vin hng dn : Th.S H Mnh o

Trung tm pht trin CNTT-HQG TP. H ch minh Trung tm o to cng ngh cao Bch Khoa

n o cho loi d liu n y, quyn u tin thng c cp pht d v o s lng cu d liu nhn c th b tc ng bi vic loi b gi tin. D liu cha t s rm r (nh audio v video cht lng thp) c th c a 1 quyn u tin cao hn (15). D liu cha nhiu s rm r (nh video v audio cht lng cao) c th b a 1 quyn u tin thp hn (8). Quyn u tin 8 . . . 15 M t D liu vi nhiu s rm r nht

D liu vi t s rm r nht

+ Nhn lu lng ( Flow Lable): Mt d y cc gi tin c gi t 1 ngun ring n ch ring, cn s iu khin c bit t router gi l lu lng ca nhng gi tin. S kt hp ca a ch ngun v gi tr ca nh n lu lng nh ngha 1 cch duy nht 1 lu lng ca nhng gi tin. i v router 1 lu lng l 1 d y cc gi tin chia s cng c tnh nh l vic di chuyn cng 1 ng, s dng cng mt ngun, c cng kiu an to n vv Mt router m h tr s iu khin ca nh n lu lng c 1 bng nh n lu lng. Bng n y c 1 mc v o cho mi nh n lu lng hot ng, mi mc nh ngha 1 dch v c yu cu bi nh n lu lng tng ng. Khi router nhn c 1 gi tin n tra cu bng nh n lu lng ca n tm mc v o tng ng cho gi tr nh n lu lng c nh ngha trong gi tin. Sau n cung cp cho gi tin nhng dch v cp trong mc v o. Tuy nhin ch l nh n lu lng t n khng cung cp thng tin cho nhng mc v o ca bng nh n lu lng, thng tin c cung cp bi nhng th khc nh l tu chn nhy tng bc mt hay nhng giao thc khc. Trong hnh thc n gin nht ca n, 1 nh n lu lng c th c s dng tng tc 1 tin trnh ca 1 gi tin bi 1 router. Khi router nhn c gi tin thay v xem bng tm ng v i n thut ton tm ng nh ngha a ch cu bc nhy k tip, n c th d d ng c nhn thy trong 1 bng nh n lu lng cho bc nhy k tip. Trong hnh thc rc ri hn ca n 1 nh n lu lng c th c s dng h tr qu trnh chuyn giao audio v video thi gian thc. Audio v video thi gian thc mt cch c bit trong hnh thc k thut s i hi nhng ngun nh bng thng rng, buffer ln, thi gian tin trnh d i vv Mt tin trnh c th t trc ch cho nhng ngun n y trc m bo l d liu thi gian thc s khng b tm ho n do thiu ngun. S s dng d liu thi gian thc v ch t trc ca nhng ngun i hi nhng giao thc khc nh l giao thc thi gian thc ( Real- Time Protocol- RTP) hay
18 Gio vin hng dn : Th.S H Mnh o

Trung tm pht trin CNTT-HQG TP. H ch minh Trung tm o to cng ngh cao Bch Khoa

giao thc t trc ngun (Resource Reservation Protocol- RRP) trong b sung ca IPv6. cho php nhng hiu qu s dng ca nh n lu lng 3 iu lut c a ra : Nh n lu lng c cp pht cho 1 gi tin bi 1 host gc. Nh n l mt s bt k t 1 n 2 24 -1. N s khng s dng li mt nh n lu lng cho 1 lu lng mi khi lng dang tn ti vn hot ng. Nu nh 1 host khng h tr nh n lu lng, n s t trng n y l 0. Nu nh 1 router khng h tr nh n lu lng, n n gin s pht l i . Tt c nhng gi tin thuc cng 1 lu lng c th c cng ngun, cng ch, cng s u tin v cng nhng tu chn. 1.3.4.2 So snh gia vng header ca IPv4 v IPv6 Trng d i vng header b loi i trong IPv6 v d i vng header c x l trong phin bn n y. Trng kiu dch v b loi i trong IPv6. Trng quyn u tin v nh n lu lng cng kim sot chc nng ca trng kiu dch v. Trng d i tng cng b loi i trong IPv6 v c thay th bng trng d i payload. Nhng Trng chng thc ( identification ), Trng c ( flag ), v nhng Trng offset b loi b t vng header nn tng trong IPv6. Chng c i km trong vnh header m rng tng ming. Trng TTL c gi l Gii hn nh y trong IPv6. Trng giao thc dc thay th bi Trng vng header k tip. Vng header checksum b loi i v checksum c cung cp bi giao thc ca tng cao hn n v th khng cn thit y. Nhng Trng tu chn trong IPv4 c trang b nh nhng vng header m rng trong IPv6. 1.3.5 Vng header m rng d i ca vng header c b tr 40 byte. Tuy nhin, em n nhiu chc nng hn cho n v d liu IP vng header nn tng c th cho theo sau n 6 vng header m rng. Nhiu vng header n y l nhng tu chn trong IPv4.

19 Gio vin hng dn : Th.S H Mnh o

Trung tm pht trin CNTT-HQG TP. H ch minh Trung tm o to cng ngh cao Bch Khoa

VER

PRI

Flow label Vng Header k tip Gii hn nhy

d i Payload a ch ngun a ch ch Vng Header k tip

d i vng Header

Vng Header k tip

d i vng Header

Vng Header k tip

d i vng Header

Hnh 18 : nh dng vng header m rng ( Extenion header format ) Su loi vng header c nh ngha. Chng l tu chn nhy tng bc, l trnh ngun, s phn mnh, s chng thc, Payload bo mt m ho v tu chn ch (Xem hinh 19).

20 Gio vin hng dn : Th.S H Mnh o

Trung tm pht trin CNTT-HQG TP. H ch minh Trung tm o to cng ngh cao Bch Khoa

Tu chn nhy tng bc Ngun tm ng S phn ming Nhng vng Header m rng S chng thc Bo mt Payload m ho Tu chn ch

Hnh 19 : Nhng loi vng header m rng (Extension header types) 1.3.5.1 Tu chn nhy tng bc (Hopbyhop option) Tu chn nhy tng bc c s dng khi ngun cn chuyn thng tin qua tt c cc router c thm bi n v d liu. V d, khng chng nhng router s phi b gy ra bi s qun tr, s g ri hay nhng chc nng iu khin n o .Hay,nu nh d i ca n v d liu rng hn thng thng l 65,535 byte, nhng router phi c thng tin n y. Hnh 20 cho thy nh dng ca vng header k tip trong mt chui vng header. d i vng header nh ngha s byte trong vng headerbao gm c trng vng header k tip). Phn cn li ca vng header cha nhng tu chn khc nhau. Vng header nn tng Vng header k tip d i vng header Nhng tu chn Phn cn li ca Payload Hnh 20 : nh dng vng header tu chnj nhy tng bc (Hop by hop option header format)

21 Gio vin hng dn : Th.S H Mnh o

Trung tm pht trin CNTT-HQG TP. H ch minh Trung tm o to cng ngh cao Bch Khoa

Xa hn, ch c 3 tu chn c nh ngha: Pad1, PadN v jumbo payload (Xem hnh 21). M s (8 bt) d i (8 bt) D liu ( d i c th thay i)

H nh

Kiu

2 bt 1 bt 5 bt H nh ng : s thc hin nu tu chn khng c xc nhn 00 B qua tu chn Kiu 01 Loi b n v d liu khng c h nh ng n o na 00000 Pal1 10 Loi b n v d liu v gi 1 thng ip li 00001 PadN 11 Nh m 10, nhng nu ch khng phi a ch munlticast C: (change) gi tr thay i tu chn 00010 jumbo payload 0 : khng b thay i trong vn chuyn 1 : C th b thay i trong vn chuyn Hnh 21 : nh dng ca nhng tu chn ca vng header tu chn nhy tng bc (Format of options in a hopbyhop option header) Pad1: Tu chn n y d i 1 byte v n c thit k cho nhng mc ch sp nhm. Mt s tu chn cn phi bt u 1 bit ring bit trong 32 bit (xem m t jumbo payload). Nu mt tu chn ca s yu cu n y rt chnh xc l 1 byte, Pad1 s c thm v o l m nn s khc bit. Pad1 khng cha trng d i tu chn m cn khng c cha trng d liu tu chn. N gm c duy nht trng m tu chn vi tt c cc bt c t l 0 ( h nh ng l 00, C l kiu 00000). Pad1 c th c chn v o bt k ch n o trong vng header tu chn nhy tng bc.

22 Gio vin hng dn : Th.S H Mnh o

Trung tm pht trin CNTT-HQG TP. H ch minh Trung tm o to cng ngh cao Bch Khoa

M 00000000 a. Pad1 ~

Nhng tu chn Pad1

D liu b. S dng l m m

Hnh 22 : Pad1 PadN: PadN ging Pad1 v tng. S khc nhau l PadN c s dng khi 2 hay nhiu bt c cn cho vic sp nhm. Tu chn n y gm c 1 byte m tu chn, 1 byte d i tu chn, v mt bin s nhng s 0 l m byte m. Gi tr ca m tu chn l 1 (h nh ng l 00, C l 0 v kiu l 00001). d i tu chn cha s byte m.

M 00000001 1 byte

d i Tt c bt 0 1 byte

D liu s byte c th thay i

Hnh 24: Jumbo Payload 1.3.5.2 L trnh ngun (Source Routing) Vng header m rng l trnh ngun kt hp vi tng ca nhng tu chn l trnh ngun chnh xc v l trnh ngun khng chnh xc ca IPv4. Vng header l trnh ngun cha mt s nh nht ca 7 trng. Hai trng u tin, vng header k tip v d i vng header, l ng vi vng header m rng nhy tng bc. Trng kiu nh ngha l trnh l chnh xc hoc khng chnh xc. Trng nhng a ch cn li ch ra s bc nhy cn ti ch. Trng mt n tuyt i/ tng i xc nh s chc chn ca l trnh. Nu mt n l tuyt i, l trnh phi theo chnh xc nhng g c ch ra bi ngun. Nu thay v o mt n tng i nhng router khc c th thm v o trong vng header.
23 Gio vin hng dn : Th.S H Mnh o

Trung tm pht trin CNTT-HQG TP. H ch minh Trung tm o to cng ngh cao Bch Khoa

Vng header nn tng Vng header k d i vng Kiu D tr Mt n tuyt i/ tng i a ch th nht a ch th hai

Nhng a ch

a ch cui cng Phn cn li ca Payload Hnh 25 : L trnh ngun (Source Routing) a ch ch trong l trnh ngun khng tun theo s nh ngha trc ca chng ta (a ch cui cng trong n v d liu). Thay v o n thay i t router sang router. Th d : Host mun gi ti 1 n v d liu sang host B s dng 1 l trnh ring: A n R1 n R2 n R3 n B. Ch l a ch ch nm trong nhng vng header nn tng. N khng lin tip nh bn mong i. Thay v o n thay i theo tng router. Nhng a ch trong vng header m rng cng thay i theo tng router. Ngun: A ch: R1 Cn li: 3 R2 R3 B A Ngun: A ch: R1 Cn li: 3 R2 R3 B Ngun: A ch: R1 Cn li: 3 R2 R3 B Ngun: A ch: R1 Cn li: 3 R2 R3 B B

R1

R3

R3 Hnh 26: V d l trnh ngun (Source Routing Example)


24 Gio vin hng dn : Th.S H Mnh o

Trung tm pht trin CNTT-HQG TP. H ch minh Trung tm o to cng ngh cao Bch Khoa

1.3.5.3 S phn ming ( Fragmentation) tng v s phn ming nh trong IPv4. Tuy nhin ni m s phn ming chim gi khng ging nhau. IPv4 ngun hoc router cn phn ming nu c ca n v d liu ln hn MTU ca mng vi nhm n c d liu s c a i. IPv6 ch nhng ngun nguyn thu mi c phn ming. Mt ngun phi s dng 1 k thut khm ph qu o MTU (Path MTU Discovery) tm MTU nh nht c h tr bi bt k mt mng n o trong qu o. Ngun sau phn ming s khm pht n y. Nu ngun khng se dng k thut khm ph qu o MTU n c th phn minh n v d liu th nh nhng ming c 576 byte hoc nh hn. y l c nh nht MTU yu cu cho mi mng kt ni v o Internet. Hnh di y cho ta thy nh dng ca vng header m rng s phn ming:

Vng Header nn tng Vng header k d i tip header a ch th nht Phn cn li ca Payload Hnh 27 : S phn ming (Fragmentation) 1.3.5.4 S chng thc (Authentication) Vng header m rng s chng thc c mt mc ch kp: n l m cho thng ip gi c gi tr v m bo s nguyn vn ca d liu. u tin cn ngi nhn c th chc chn l t ngi gi tht v khng phi l t 1 k mo danh. iu cui cng cn kim tra l d liu khng b thay i trong vn chuyn bi hacker. nh dng ca vng Header m rng s chng thc c trnh b y hnh 28 . Trng ch mc tham gia s bo mt nh ngha thun ton c s dng cho s chng thc. Trng chng thc cha d liu cha nhng d liu tht c sinh ra bi thut ton. vng S phn ming b p 0 M

25 Gio vin hng dn : Th.S H Mnh o

Trung tm pht trin CNTT-HQG TP. H ch minh Trung tm o to cng ngh cao Bch Khoa

Vng Header nn tng Ch mc tham s bo mt S chng thc d liu

Phn cn li ca Payload
Hnh 28 : S chng thc (Authentication) Nhiu thut ton khc nhau c th c s dng cho s chng thc. Hnh 29 phc ho nhng phng thc tnh ton trng chng thc d liu.

Kho bo mt 128 bt

n v d liu IP vi nhng trng s thay i v s chng thc c t l 0

Thut ton s chng thc

S chng thc d liu 128 bt

Kho bo mt 128 bt

Hnh 29 : S tnh ton ca s chng thc d liu (Calculation Of Authentication Data)


26 Gio vin hng dn : Th.S H Mnh o

Trung tm pht trin CNTT-HQG TP. H ch minh Trung tm o to cng ngh cao Bch Khoa

Ngi gi i qua kho bo mt 128 bt, to n b n v d liu IP v kho bo mt 128 bt ln na n thut ton. Nhng trng n y trong n v d liu vi nhng gi tr c thay i trong qu trnh vn chuyn (V d nh bc nhy) s c t l 0. n v d liu qua c thut ton s cha vng header s chng thc, vi trng s chng thc d liu c t l 0. Thut ton to ra s chng thc d liu vi nhng th c a v o trong vng header m rng trc khi ti qu trnh vn chuyn n v d liu. Nhng chc nng ngi nhn trong 1 phng php tng t. N nhn mang i kho bo mt v nhn ly n v d liu ( ln na vi nhng trng thay i c t l 0) v i qua chng n thut ton s chng thc. Nu kt qu ging s chng thc d liu, n v d liu c chng thc nu khng chng s b loi. 1.3.5.5 Payload bo mt m ho (Encrypted Secutity Payload - ESP) Payload b mt m ho l phn m rng m cung cp mt cch tn nhim v bo v chng li s nghe ln. Hnh 30 trnh b y s nh dng. Trng ch mc tham s bo mt 32 bt nh ngha kiu m ho / khng m ho c s dng.

Vng Header nn tng Ch mc tham s bo mt D liu m ho

Hnh 30 : Payload bo mt m ho Trng khc cha nhng d liu ang m ho vi bt k nhng tham s thm n o c cn bi thut ton. S m ho c th c trang b trong 2 cch : Mode vn chuyn (Transport Mode): Trong mode vn chuyn mt TCP hay n v d liu ngi s dng UDP l ci u tin c m ho v c gi v o trong 1 gi IPv6. S m ho trong mode vn chuyn c s dng a s m ho d liu t host sang host.

27 Gio vin hng dn : Th.S H Mnh o

Trung tm pht trin CNTT-HQG TP. H ch minh Trung tm o to cng ngh cao Bch Khoa

Vng header nn tng v nhng vng header khc Ch mc D liu th S m ho D kiu m ho

Hnh 31 : S m ho mode vn chuyn (Transport Mode Encryption) Mode tunnel (Tunnel Mode): Trong mode tunnel to n b d liu IP vi nhng vng Header nn tng ca n v nhng vng Header m rng c m ho v gi v o trong 1 gi IP mi s dng vng Header m rng Paylaod bo mt m ho. Ni cch khc chng ta c 2 vng Header nn tng: 1 m ho, 1 cha m ho. 1.3.5.6 Tu chn ch (Destination Option): Tu chn ch c s dng khi ngun ch cn chuyn thng tin n ch. Nhng router khng ngay lp tc trao quyn truy cp cho nhng thng tin n y. nh dng ca tu chn ch tng t nh tu chn nhy tng bc. Xa hn ch c Pad1 v PadN c nh ngha. So snh gia IPv4 v IPv6: Chng ta h y thc hin mt s s so snh gia nhng vng Header m rng ca IPv4 v IPv6: Tu chn khng hot ng (no-operetion) v kt thc tu chn ( end- of - option) trong IPv4 c thay bng Pad1 v PadN trong IPv6. Tu chn bn ghi tm ng khng c trang b trong IPv6 v n khng c s dng. Tu chn ten thi gian (timestamp) khng c trang b v n khng c s dng. Tu chn ngun tm ng (source route) c gi l vng Header m rng tu chn ngun tm ng trong IPv6. Nhng trng s phn ming (fragmentation) trong khu vc vng Header nn tng ca IPv4 c chuyn n vng Header m rng tu chn s phn ming ca IPv6. Vng Header s chng thc l mi trong IPv6. Vng Header m rng Payload bo mt m ho l mi trong IPv6.
28 Gio vin hng dn : Th.S H Mnh o

Trung tm pht trin CNTT-HQG TP. H ch minh Trung tm o to cng ngh cao Bch Khoa

Chng 2 Giao thuc ICMPv6 (Internet Control Message Protocol Version 6)


Mt giao thc khc c chnh sa trong phin bn 6 ca nhm giao thc TCP/IP cho ph hp l ICMP (ICMPv6). Phin bn mi n y mang theo chin lc v mc ch c phin bn 4. ICMPv4 c chnh sa cho ph hp vi IPv6. Thm na mt v i giao thc c lp trong phin bn 4 by gi l mt phn ca ICMPv6. Giao thc ARP v IGMP phin bn 4 c kt hp trong phin bn 6. Giao thc RARP b loi khi nhm v khng thng xuyn c s dng. Theo BCOTP thay th RARP.

IGM

ICP

ICPMv6

IPv4

IPv6 ARP RAR

Lp mng trong phin bn 4

Lp mng trong phin bn 6

Hnh 32 : So snh gia mng li phin bn 4 v 6 Trong ICMPv4 ta chia thng ip ICMP th nh 2 loi. Nhng d sao i na mi loi cng c nhiu kiu thng ip hn trc.

29 Gio vin hng dn : Th.S H Mnh o

Trung tm pht trin CNTT-HQG TP. H ch minh Trung tm o to cng ngh cao Bch Khoa

Thng ip ICMP Bo co li Truy vn

Hnh 33 : Kiu thng ip ICMPv6 Mc d khun dng chung ca mt thng ip ICMP th khc vi mi kiu thng ip, 4 byte u tin th ph bin cho tt c nh ch ra trong hnh 34. Trong chng u tin kiu ICMP xc nh loi thng ip. M trng ch r nguyn nhn ca kiu thng ip ring bit. Trng ph bin cui cng l trng tng kim tra, c tnh ton theo cng mt kiu nh c m t trong ICMPv4.

8 bt M Thng tin khc Da v o

8 bt

8 bt Tng kim tra

8 bt

Hnh 34 : Khun dng chung ca thng ip ICMP 2.1 Error Reporting (Bo co li) Nh chng ta thy mt trong nhim v chnh ca ICMP l bo co li. Nm kiu li c a ra : Destination Unrechable, Packet too Big, Time Exceeded, Parameter Problems, Redirection. ICMPv6 mt gi li, ci sau c ng gi trong mt gi d liu IP. Ci n y c chuyn n ngun ban u ca gi d liu sai.

30 Gio vin hng dn : Th.S H Mnh o

Trung tm pht trin CNTT-HQG TP. H ch minh Trung tm o to cng ngh cao Bch Khoa

Error Reporting

Destination Unrechable

Packet Big

too Time Exceeded

Parameter Problems

Redirection

Hnh 35: Bo co li thng ip Bng 1 so snh gia tin bo li ca ICMPv4 v ICMPv6. Thng ip ngun dp tt b loi tr phin bn 6 bi v quyn u tin v trng nh n lung cho php tuyn kim sot s tc nghn v loi b nhng thng ip khng quan trng. Trong phin bn n y khng cn thit phi nhn dng ngi gi. Thng ip packet too big c thm v o bi v vic ri tng mnh l trch nhim ca ngi gi trong IPv6. Nu ngi gi khng l m ng quyt nh c ca gi, tuyn ng s khng c s la chn n o ngo i vic loi b gi v gi mt bo li cho ngi gi. Type fo Message Version 4 Version 6 Destination unreachable Yes Yes Source Quench Yes No Packet too big No Yes Time Exceeded Yes Yes Paramenter Problem Yes Yes Redirection Yes Yes Bng 1 . So snh gia tin bo li ca ICMPv4 v ICMPv6 2.1.1 Destination unreachable ( Khng th vi ti c ni n) Khi nim v thng ip khng th vi ti c ni n ho n to n ging vi nhng g chng ta m t ICMPv4. Hnh 36 ch ra kh thng ip khng th vi ti ni n. N gn ging vi ci c xc nh cho phin bn 4, vi kiu nh gi bng 1.

31 Gio vin hng dn : Th.S H Mnh o

Trung tm pht trin CNTT-HQG TP. H ch minh Trung tm o to cng ngh cao Bch Khoa

Kiu 1

M : 0 to 4

Tng kim tra

Khng s dng (All 0s) Gi d liu b phn ca IP nhn c bao gm u mc IP cng vi 8 byte ca d liu gi d liu

Hnh 36 : nh dng thng ip khng th vi ti c ni n M trng kiu n y ch ra nguyn nhn cho vic loi b gi d liu v gii thch chnh xc ci g b li. Code 0 : khng c ng d n n ch. Code 1 : Giao tip b cn. Code 2 : R nh ngun chnh xc khng th l m c Code 3 : a ch n khng ti. Code 4 : Cng khng sn s ng. 2.1.2 Packet too Big ( Gi qu ln ) y l mt kiu thng ip mi c thm v o phin bn 6. Nu mt ng r nh nhn c gi d liu m rng hn kh MTU (Maximum Transmission Unit) ca mng, ci gi m gi d liu cn qua th hai iu s xy ra. u tin ng r nh loi b gi d liu v sau mt gi bo li, ICMP c gi cho ngun. Hng 37 ch ra kh ca gi. Cn phi ch rng ch c duy nht mt m (code 0) v trng MTU nh dng ngi gi ca gi c ln nht c nhn bi mng.

Kiu: 2 MTU

M : 0 to 4

Tng kim tra

Gi d liu b phn ca IP nhn c bao gm u mc IP cng vi 8 byte ca d liu gi d liu

32 Gio vin hng dn : Th.S H Mnh o

Trung tm pht trin CNTT-HQG TP. H ch minh Trung tm o to cng ngh cao Bch Khoa

Hnh 37 : Packet too big message format 2.1.3 Time Exceeded ( Vt qu thi gian) Thng ip n y gn ging vi 1 kiu thng ip tng phin bn 4. im khc bit duy nht l kiu gi tr c thay i ti 3. Hnh 38 ch ra kh ca thng ip vt qu thi gian. Kiu :3 M : 0 to 4 Tng kim tra

Khng s dng (All 0s) Gi d liu b phn ca IP nhn c bao gm u mc IP cng vi 8 byte ca d liu gi d liu Hnh 38 : nh dng thng ip vt qu thi gian Nh trong phin bn 4, m 0 c s dng khi gi d liu b loi khi ng r nh ph thuc v o trng bc nhy ngn- gii hn khng gi tr. M 1 c s dng khi nhng on ca gi d liu b loi bi cc mnh khc khng ti c trong thi gian quy nh. 2.1.4 Parameter Problem (Vn tham s) Thng ip n y ging vi loi thng ip k tha trong phin bn 4. Nhng d sao gi tr ca kiu n y cng c thay i ti 4 v c ca trng b li c tng ln th nh 4 byte. N cng c 3 m khc nhau thay v 2 m . M trng ch ra nguyn nhn loi b d liu v nguyn nhn ca li : + Code 0: Mt trong nhng trngch c li hoc s nhp nhng. Trong trng hp n y gi tr ca trng im ch ra byte c vn . V d nu gi tr bng 0, byte u tin s khng phi trng hiu qu. + Code 1: M n y nhn dng phn m rng ch khng th nhn ra + Code 2: M n y nhn dng la chn khng th xy ra.

33 Gio vin hng dn : Th.S H Mnh o

Trung tm pht trin CNTT-HQG TP. H ch minh Trung tm o to cng ngh cao Bch Khoa

Kiu : 4

M : 0 to 4

Tng kim tra

Offset Pointer

Gi d liu b phn ca IP nhn c bao gm u mc IP cng vi 8 byte ca d liu gi d liu

Hnh 39: Parameter- problem message format 2.1.5 Redirection (S gi li ln na): Mc ch ca thng ip n y ging vi nhng g chng ta m t trong phin bn 4. Nhng kh ca gi tin c thay i cho ph hp vi c ca IP trong phin bn 6. Do o, mt la chn c thm v o host (ch) bit c a ch vt l ca ng r nh ch.

34 Gio vin hng dn : Th.S H Mnh o

Trung tm pht trin CNTT-HQG TP. H ch minh Trung tm o to cng ngh cao Bch Khoa

Kiu : 137 D tr

M :0

Tng kim tra

ch (chng trnh vn chuyn) m IP hng v o Ni n ca a ch IP M .OPT d i .OPT

ch (chng trnh vn chuyn) vt l hng v o Gi d liu b phn ca IP nhn c bao gm u mc IP cng vi 8 byte ca d liu gi d liu

Hnh 40: khun dng thng bo s gi li ln na 2.2 Query (Truy vn) thm v o bo co li ICMP cng c th chun on mt v i vn v mng. Ci n y ho n th nh to n b thng ip Query. Bn nhm thng ip khc nhau c nhn dng : hi p lp li, ng ko v qung co, s n i xin v qung co v nhm th nh vin.

Query

Echo request and

Router solicitation Neighbor Group and advertisement solicitation and membership advertisement

Hnh 41 : Query message Bng 2 cho ta thy s so snh gia thng ip Query ca phin bn 4 v phin bn 6. Hai b thng ip ca Query loi khi ICMPv6: thi gian yu cu p ng, a ch yu cu p ng, thng ip du thi gian yu cu
35 Gio vin hng dn : Th.S H Mnh o

Trung tm pht trin CNTT-HQG TP. H ch minh Trung tm o to cng ngh cao Bch Khoa

v p ng b loi bi v chng l dng c ca giao thc khc nh TCP v bi v chng khng c s dng trc . Thng ip che du a ch yu cu v p ng b loi khi IPv6 bi v phn subnet ca mt a ch cho php ngi t mua c s dng ti subnet th 2 32 -1. Trc subnet b du i nh a ch nh dng IPv4 khng cn thit y. Type of message Echo Request And Reply Timestamp Request And Reply Address mask Request And Reply Router solicitation and addvertisement Neighbor Solicitation and advertisement Group Menmbership ICMPv4 Yes Yes Yes Yes ARP IGMP ICMPv6 Yes No No Yes Yes Yes

Bng 2: Comparsion of query message in ICMPv4 and ICMPv6 2.2.1 Yu cu v p ng lp li(Echo request and reply) tng v kh thng ip yu cu v p ng ging vi nhng g trong phin bn 4. im khac duy nht l gi tr ca kiu nh c ch ra hnh di y:

Kiu: 128 hoc 129 Identifier

M : 0 ti 4

Tng kim tra S ni tip

D liu chn Nhn bi thng bo yu cu : Lp li bi thng bo tr li

Hnh 42: Thng bo yu cu tr li thng ip 2.2.2 Router solicitation and addvertisement (Yu cu v qung co chng trnh vn chuyn) tng bn di thng ip Router solicitation and addvertisement cng ging nh trong phin bn 4. Kh Router solicitation and addvertisement ging nh ICMPv4. Nhng d sao mt la chn c thm v o cho php my ch thng bo a ch vt l ca n, ng
36 Gio vin hng dn : Th.S H Mnh o

Trung tm pht trin CNTT-HQG TP. H ch minh Trung tm o to cng ngh cao Bch Khoa

r nh p li d d ng hn. Kh ca Router solicitation and addvertisement khac vi ICMPv4: y mt ng r nh ch thng bo v n khng mang thng tin a ch vt l ca ng r nh cho s tin li ca my ch. La chn khc cho php ng r nh thng bo v c ca MTU. La chn th 3 cho php ng r nh nh dng thi gian c hiu lc v c a thch. Type 113 Unused (All 0s) Option Code:1 Code : 0 Option length Checksum

Host Physical Address a. Router solicitation format Type 134 Code : 0 Checksum

Unused (All Max hop M 0 0s) Router lifetime Reaxhability Lifetime Reachabili Transmission Interval Option Code: Option Length

Router physical Address Option Code:


MTU size

Option length

b. Router Advertisement Format Hnh 43 : Khun dng thng bo yu cu v qung co chng trnh chuyn vn 2.2.3 Neighbor Solicitation and advertisement ( S yu cu v qung co ln cn): - Nh c cp n mng li trong phin bn 4 cha ng 1 giao thc c lp gi l ARP. Trong phin bn 6 giao thc n y b loi v nhim
37 Gio vin hng dn : Th.S H Mnh o

Trung tm pht trin CNTT-HQG TP. H ch minh Trung tm o to cng ngh cao Bch Khoa

v ca n cng bao gm trong ICMPv6. tng cng trng khp nhng kh ca thng ip thay i. Hnh di y s ch ra kh ca Neighbor Solicitation and advertisement. Mt la chn duy nht mang thng tin ca a ch vt l ngi gi chjo s thun tin ca ngi nhn. Type: 135 Unused (All 0s) Code: 0 Checksum

Terget IP Address Option Code: Option Length

Solicitor Physical Address a. Neighbor Solicitation Type: 136 Unused (All 0s) Code: 0 Checksum

Terget IP Address Option Code: Target Physical Address b. Neighbor Advertisement Hnh 44: Neighbor Solicitation And Advertisement Message Format 2.2.4 Group Membership ( S tham gia nhm ): Trong phin bn 6 giao thc n y b loi v nhim v ca n cng c bao gm trong ICMPv6. Mc ch th ho n to n ging. C 3 loi thng ip Group Membership: bo co, bng cu hi v gii hn. Thng ip bo co v gii hn c gi
38 Gio vin hng dn : Th.S H Mnh o

Option Length

Trung tm pht trin CNTT-HQG TP. H ch minh Trung tm o to cng ngh cao Bch Khoa

t vt ch cho ng r nh. Thng ip truy vn c gi t ng r nh cho vt ch.

Host

Report

Router

Report Termination Hnh 45 : Group Membership Message Type: 130 Code: 0 Maximum response delay IP multicast Address a. Query Type: 131 Reserved IP multicast Address b. Report Type: 132 Reserved IP multicast Address b. Report Code: 0 Checksum Code: 0 Checksum Checksum Reserved

Hnh 46: Group Membership Message Format - Nh chng ta ch trong cuc tho lun v phin bn 4, 4 tnh hung khc nhau ko theo thng ip Group Membhip c ch ra hnh 47 :

39 Gio vin hng dn : Th.S H Mnh o

Trung tm pht trin CNTT-HQG TP. H ch minh Trung tm o to cng ngh cao Bch Khoa

Host 131

Report Group Address

Router

a. Joining The Group Host 131 b. Monitoring The Group Host 131 c. Membership Continuation Host 131 Termination Router Report Router Query Router

d. Leaving The Group Hnh 47: For Situation Of Group Membership Operation

40 Gio vin hng dn : Th.S H Mnh o

Trung tm pht trin CNTT-HQG TP. H ch minh Trung tm o to cng ngh cao Bch Khoa

Chng 3 :

S chuyn tip t IPv4 ti IPv6


3.1.t vn : - Giao thc IPv6 c nhiu u im vt tri so vi IPv4, p ng c nhu cu pht trin ca mng Internet hin ti v trong tng lai. Do , giao thc IPv6 s thay th IPv4. Tuy nhin, khng th chuyn i to n b cc nt mng IPv4 hin nay sang IPv6 trong mt thi gian ngn. Hn na, nhiu ng dng mng hin ticha h tr IPv6. Theo d bo ca t chc ISOC, IPv6 s thay th IPv4 v o khong 20202030. V vy, cn c mt qu trnh chuyn i gia hai giao thc trnh hin tng tng t nh s c Y2K. Cc c ch chuyn i (Transition mechanism) phi m bo kh nng tng tc gia cc trm, cc ng dng IPv4 hin c vi cc trm v ng dng IPv6. Ngo i ra, cc c ch cng cho php chuyn tip cc lung thng tin IPv6 trn h tng nh tuyn hin c. Trong giai on chuyn i, iu quan trng l phi m bo s hot ng bnh thng ca mng IPv4 hin ti. Yu cu i vi cc c ch chuyn i: + Vic th nhim IPv6 khng nh hng n cc mng IPv4 hin ang hot ng. + Kt ni v cc dch v IPv4 tip tc hoat ng bnh thng. + Hiu nng hot ng ca mng IPv4 khng b nh hng. Giao thc IPv6 ch tc ng n cc mng th nghim. + Qu trnh chuyn i din ra tng bc. Khng nht thit phi chuyn i to n b cc nt mng sang giao thc mi. - Cc c ch chuyn i c phn th nh 2 nhm vi hai chc nng khc nhau: + Kt ni cc mng v cc nt mng IPv6 qua h tng nh tuyn IPv4 hin c. Cc c ch n y bao gm: ng hm (tunnel), 6to4, 6over4. + Kt ni cc nt mng IPv4 vi cc nt mng IPv6. Cc c ch n y bao gm: SIIT, NAT- PT, ALG, DSTM, BIS, BIA, SOCK64. - Mi c ch u c u, nhc im v phm vi p dng khc nhau. Ty tng thi im trong giai on chuyn i, mc s dng ca cc c ch chuyn i s khc nhau. + Giai on u: Giao thc IPv4 chim u th. Cc mng IPv6 kt ni vi nhau trn nn h tng IPv4 hin c thng qua cc ng hm IPv6 qua IPv4. + Giai on gia: Giao thc IPv4 v IPv6 c trin khai v phm vi ngang nhau trn mng. Cc mng IPv6 kt ni vi nhau qua h tng
41 Gio vin hng dn : Th.S H Mnh o

Trung tm pht trin CNTT-HQG TP. H ch minh Trung tm o to cng ngh cao Bch Khoa

nh tuyn IPv6. Cc mng IPv4 kt ni vi cc mng IPv6 s dng cc phng php chuyn i a ch giao thc nh NAT- PT, ALG +Giai on cui: Giao thc IPv6 chim u th. Cc mng IPv4 cn li kt ni vi nhau trn h tng nh tuyn IPv6 thng qua cc ng hm IPv4 qua IPv6 khi chuyn ho n to n sang IPv6. 3.2. Cc phng thc chuyn i: 3.2.1. Chng hai giao thc (Dual Stack) - y l c ch n gin nht cho php nt mng ng thi h tr c hai giao thc IPv6 v IPv4. C c kh nng trn do mt trm Dual Stack c I t c hai giao thc, IPv4 v IPv6. Trm Dual Stack s giao tip bng giao thc IPv4 vi cc trm IPv4 v bng giao thc IPv6 vi cc trm IPv6. Application

TCP

UDP

Ipv4

Ipv6

Data link (Ethernet) Hnh 48. Chng hai giao thc - Do hot ng vi c hai giao thc, nt mng kiu n y cn t nht mt a ch IPv4 v mt a ch IPv6. a ch IPv4 c th c cu hnh trc tip hoc thng qua c ch DHCP. a ch IPv6 c cu hnh trc tip hoc thng qua kh nng t cu hnh a ch. - Nt mng h tr cc ng dng vi c hai giao thc. Chng trnh tra cu tn min c th tra cu ng thi c cc truy vn kiu A ln kiu AAAA(A6). Nu kt qu tr v l bn ghi kiu A, ng dng s s dng giao thc IPv4. Nu kt qu tr v l bn ghi AAAA(A6), ng dng s s dng giao thc IPv6. Nu c hai kt qu tr v, chng trnh s la chn tr v cho ng dng mt trong hai kiu a ch hoc c hai. - u im:
42 Gio vin hng dn : Th.S H Mnh o

Trung tm pht trin CNTT-HQG TP. H ch minh Trung tm o to cng ngh cao Bch Khoa

+ y la c ch c bn nht nt mng c th hot ng ng thi vi c hai giao th do , n c h tr trn nhiu nn tng khc nhau nh FreeBSD, Linux, Windows v Solaris. + Cho php duy tr cc kt ni bng c hai giao thc IPv4 v IPv6. Nhc im: + Kh nng m rng km v phI s dng a ch IPv4. 3.2.2. ng hm IPv6 qua IPv4 (Tunnel) - ng hm cho php kt ni cc nt mng IPv6 qua h tng nh tuyn IPv4 hin c. Cc trm v cc router IPv6 thc hin bng cch ng cc gi tin IPv6 bn rong gi tin IPv4.C 4 cch thc hin ng hm: + ng hm t router dn router. + ng hm t trm n router. + ng hm t trm n trm + ng hm t router n trm.

host

Ipv4

host

Hnh 49. ng hm Ipv6 qua Ipv4 - Cc cch thc hin ng hm khc nhau v tr ca ng hm trong tuyn ng gia hai nt mng. Trong hai cch u, gi tin c nh ng hm ti mt router trung gian sau , router n y s chuyn tip gi tin n ch. Vi hai cch sau, gi tin c nh ng hm thng ti a ch ch. - thc hin ng hm, hai im u ng hm phi l cc nt mng h tr c hai giao thc. Khi cn chuyn tip mt gi tin IPv6, im u ng hm s ng gi gi tin trong mt gi tin IPv4 bng cc thm phn m u header IPv4 ph hp. - Khi gi tin IPv4 n im cui ng hm, gi tin IPv6 s c tch ra x l ty theo kiu ng hm.

43 Gio vin hng dn : Th.S H Mnh o

Trung tm pht trin CNTT-HQG TP. H ch minh Trung tm o to cng ngh cao Bch Khoa
IPv6 header Data

Gi tin ban u:
IPv4 header IPv6 header Data

Gi tin ng hm:
IPv6 header Data

Gi tin ra klhi ng hm - C hai loi ng hm chnh l ng hm c cu hnh v ng hm t ng. 3.2.2.1. ng hm c cu hnh (Configured tunnel) - c im ca ng hm c cu hnh l a ch im cui ng hm khng c xc nh t ng m da trn nhng thng tin cu hnh trc tai im u ng hm.
3ff:b00:a:1::1 192.168.1.1 192.168.2.1 3ffe:b00:a::3

IPv6 6

IPv4

IPv4

IPv6 IPv6 Header Data header Src=3ffe:b00:a:1::1 Dst=3ffe:b00:a:3::2

IPv4 IPv6 Header header

IPv6 data

IPv6 Header

IPv6 data

Src=192.168.1.1 Dst=192.168.2.1

Hnh 50: ng hm c cu hnh.


44 Gio vin hng dn : Th.S H Mnh o

Trung tm pht trin CNTT-HQG TP. H ch minh Trung tm o to cng ngh cao Bch Khoa

3.2.2.2 ng hm t ng (Automatic tunnel) - c im ca ng hm t ng l a ch im cui ng hm c xc nh mt cch t ng. ng hm c to ra mt cch t ng v cng t ng mt i. M hnh u tin l dng a ch IPv6 c khun dng c bit: a ch IPv6 tng thch IPv4 m ha thng tin v a ch IPv4 trong a ch IPv6.
96 bit 32 bit

0:0:0:0:0:0:

IPv4 ADDR

Hnh 51: a ch IPv6 tng thch a ch IPv4 - Ti im u ng hm, nt mng ng gi s tch phn a ch IPv4 l m a ch im cui ng hm ng gi gi tin. u im: + ng hm t ng n gin, cho php hai nt mng IPv6 d d ng kt ni vi nhau qua kt ni IPv4 hin c m khng cn cc cu hnh c bit. Nhc im: + Hn ch v khng gian a ch do ph thuc v o khng gian a ch IPv4. + Nguy c b tn cng ph hoi bi cc tin tc. - Do a ch cui ng hm c xc nh ho n to n t ng v gi tin ng hm s c gi n a ch IPv4 . Nu khng c c ch kim tra c bit, gi s c mt gi tin c gii dn router ca mng (203.162.7.0) vi a ch IPv6 ch ::203.162.7.255. a ch IPv4: 203.162.7.255 l a ch broadcast ca mng do , cc gi tin ng hm s c gi ti mi trm trong mng. - Do , cc ng hm t ng thng c han ch s dng. Sau n y ngi ta xut mt s phng php ci tin nh 6over, 6to4 3.2.3 6over4 C ch cho php cc trm IPv6 c lp trn cc lin kt vt l khng c cc router IPv6 hot ng da trn cc gi tin multicast IPv4 nh mt lin kt cc b o. C ch n y cn gi l mng Ethernet o. h tr cc c ch Pht hin lng ging v t cu hnh a ch stateless, mt s cc a ch c phm vi qun tr c s dng. Cc nhm multicas gi lp mt tng lin kt Ethernet. Do , c ch phat hin lng ging (ND) gia cc trm IPv6 vi cc trm 6over4 ging nh trong tng Ethernet thng thng. Cch tip cn n y to ra lin kt IPv6 tht trn mt mng
45 Gio vin hng dn : Th.S H Mnh o

Trung tm pht trin CNTT-HQG TP. H ch minh Trung tm o to cng ngh cao Bch Khoa

LAN o. im khc bit l cc trm 6over4 v o cng mt min IPv4 multicast thay v mt mng chia s ng truyn.

IPv6

IPv6 over IPv4

IPv4

Hnh 52. 6over4 - Vic nh x a ch IPv6 sang a ch tng lin kt c thc hin ging giao thc ND. Trong trng hp n y, ty chn a ch tng lin kt ngun/ch s dng IPv4 l m tng lin kt. Do , to n b mng IPv4 c coi nh mt tng lin kt chia s ng truyn thng qua vic s dng cc a ch multicast sau y: +a ch multicast tt c cc nt mng (239.X.0.1): a ch qun tr n y c dng n mi nt mng trong min IPv4 h tr c ch n y. + a ch multicast tt c cc rouuter (239.X.0.2): a ch qun tr n y c dng n mi router trong min IPv4 h tr c ch n y. + a ch multicast solicited-node (239.X.C.D): a ch qun tr n y c dng xc nh a ch nt lng ging (C v D l hai byte thp trong a ch IPv4). - Trong t c cc a ch n y, X ch nh danh cc b lin kt (thng bng 192). - S dng tng IPv4 l m tng lin kt loi b c hn ch ca tng vt l i vi k hoch chuyn i. Cc trm c th tri trn nhiu min v thm ch cch nhiu bc so vi router IPv6. - Cc trm 6over4 nhn cu hnh (a ch lin kt cc b v tin t, a ch
46 Gio vin hng dn : Th.S H Mnh o

Trung tm pht trin CNTT-HQG TP. H ch minh Trung tm o to cng ngh cao Bch Khoa

IPv4 ca router h tr IPv6) s dng giao thc ND trn cc a ch multicast IPv4. - Sau cc gi d liu IPv6 c gi trong cc gi d liu IPv4 vi kiu giao thc 41. Chnh cc trm s thc hin ng hm. - u im: + Cc trm IPv6 khng i hi c a ch tng thch hay ng hm cu hnh. Chnh cc trm s thc hin ng hm. Kin trc c s bao gm mt router vi kt ni IPv6 v h tr 6over4, mt mng c kh nng multicast kt ni cc trm v router. Trong mi trng , cc trm 6over4 c th kt ni vi cc trm IPv6 khc. + C tnh m rng nh IPv6 trn hu ht cc phng tin truyn. - Nhc im: + Suy gim MTU ca gi tin dn n gim thng lng. + Trong qu trnh chuyn i, cc router phi qung b t nht hai tin t IPv6, mt cho lin kt LAN thc s v mt cho min 6over4. Ngo i ra, d i tin t phi l 128 phn bit hai loi tn t cng c kiu FE80::/64. 3.2.4 6to4 - 6to4 v bn cht l mt c ch ng hm t ng cho php kt ni cc mng IPv6 vi nhau thng qua h tng IPv4 ngn cch. C ch n y c c i t ti cc router bin ca mng. Cc router n y phi c a ch IPv4 to n cc c th nh tuyn c trn mng Internet. a ch IPv6 s dng trong cc mng 6to4 c cu trc c bit v c cp pht ring mt lp a ch c tin t FP=001 v gi tr trng TLA=0x0002 to th nh tin t a ch 2002::/16. Mi mng s c tin t a ch mng hnh th nh bng cc kt hp 16 bit tin t chung vi 3 bit a ch IPv4 ca router tng ng. Tin t n y c ln 48 bit v c th biu din di dng 2002:V4ADDR::/48.

47 Gio vin hng dn : Th.S H Mnh o

Trung tm pht trin CNTT-HQG TP. H ch minh Trung tm o to cng ngh cao Bch Khoa

6 to 4 router
Ipv6 network Ipv4

6 to 4 router
Ipv6 network

192.168.99.1 Network Preix: 2002: c0a8:6301::/48

192.168.30.1 Network Preix: 2002: c0a8:6301::/48

Hnh 53 : 6 to 4 Khun dng ca mt a ch 6to4 nh sau: FP TLA IPv4ADDR SLAID Interface ID

Hnh 54.. Khun dng a ch 6to4 C ch hot ng:

Ipv4 IPv6 network IPv6 network

Ipv6

Ipv4

IPv6

IPv6

Type: native IPv6 Dst:2002:c0a8:1e01::1

Type: IPv6 in IPv4 Dst:192.168.30.1

2002:c0a8:1e01::1 192.168.30.1

Hnh 55 : C ch hot ng 6 to 4
48 Gio vin hng dn : Th.S H Mnh o

Trung tm pht trin CNTT-HQG TP. H ch minh Trung tm o to cng ngh cao Bch Khoa

- Khi c mt gi tin IPv6 vi a ch ch c dng 2002::/16 c gi n mt router 6to4, router 6to4 tch a ch IPv4 (a ch Ipv4 va tch c chnh l a ch IPv4 ca 6to4 router ch), bc gi tin IPv6 trong gi tin IPv4 vi a ch ch l a ch IPv4 va tch c. Sau , cc gi tin s c chuyn tip trn h tng IPv4. Khi router 6to4 ch nhn c gi tin, gi tin IPv6 s c tch ra v chuyn n nt mng IPv6 ch. - u im: + Cc nt mng khng bt buc phi dng a ch IPv6 kiu tng thch IPv4 nh ng hm t ng. + Khng cn nhiu cu hnh c bit nh ng hm c cu hnh. + Khng b nh hng bi cc h thng tng la ca mng, ch cn routerca mng c a ch IPv4 to n cc c th nh tuyn. - Nhc im: + Ch thc hin vi mt lp a ch mng c bit. + C nguy c b tn cng theo kiu ca ng hm t ng nu phn a ch IPv4ADDR trong a ch ch ca gi tin 6to4 l a ch broadcast hay multicast. - Trin khai: + 6to4 c h tr trn nhiu h iu h nh nh Linux, Windows 2000. + Linux: radvd c th cu hnh qung b tin t a ch 6to4. + Windows 2000: chng trnh 6to4cfg dng cu hnh mng 6to4. 3.2.5. Mi gii ng hm (Tunnel Broker) - Hin nay, mng IPv6 s dng rt nhiu ng hm trn h tng IPv4. Tunnel Broker c a ra gim nh chi ph cu hnh v duy tr cc ng hm n y. - C ch n y s dng mt tp cc server chuyn dng gi l Tunnel Broker cu hinh v duy tr cc ng hm. Chng c th xem nh cc ISP IPv6 o cho cc ngi dng kt ni v o Internet IPv4. C ch n y ph hp cho cc trm (hoc site) IPv6 nh c lp mun kt ni d d ng v o mng IPv6. - Cu trc ca TUnnel broker bao gm: + Mt server tunnel broker. + Mt DNS server. + Mt s cc server ng hm.

49 Gio vin hng dn : Th.S H Mnh o

Trung tm pht trin CNTT-HQG TP. H ch minh Trung tm o to cng ngh cao Bch Khoa

IPv6 IPv4 host

IPv4 network

IPv4 network

IPv6 network

Hnh 56: Mi trng ng hm - Cch thc thc hin: + Cc khch h ng ca dch v Tunnel broker l cc nt mng IPv6 stack kp (host hoc router) kt ni v o Internet IPv4. Trc khi thit lp ng hm, cn c s trao i thng tin gia Tunnel broker vi khch h ng nh xc thc, qun l v thng tin t i khon. + Khch h ng kt ni ti tunnel broker ng k v kch hot cc ng hm. Tunnel broker c th chia s ti cc im cui ng hm trn cc server ng hm. N cng c th ng k tn v a ch IPv4 ca u ng hm pha h, tn ng k trong DNS v l mt trm hay mt router. + Tunnel broker chn mt server ng hm l m im cui ng hm thc s. N chn tin t cp pht cho khch h ng (t 0 n 128) v c nh thi gian tn ti ca ng hm. + Tunnel broker ng k a ch IPv6 cp cho cc im cui ng hm trong DNS. + Tunnel broker cu hnh ng hm pha server v thng bo cc thng tin lin quan cho khch h ng. - Sau , khch h ng c th kt ni v o mng IPv6 thng qua c ch ng hm nh bnh thng. - u im: + Qun l tp trung cc ng hm pha server, gim bt chi ph. + C th s dng cc ISP o trn IPv6. - Cc Tunnel Broker trn mng Internet:
50 Gio vin hng dn : Th.S H Mnh o

Trung tm pht trin CNTT-HQG TP. H ch minh Trung tm o to cng ngh cao Bch Khoa

+ Freenet6 www.freenet6.net + Hurriane Electric www.ipv6tb.he.net 3.2.6 Dch a ch- Dch giao thc (SIIT v NAT- PT) - Dch a ch v dch giao thc c pht trin trn c s c ch NAT trong IPv4 nhm cho php cc nt mng IPv4 v IPv6 kt ni vi nhau. C ch n y hot ng trn c s chuyn i cc khc bit gia cc gi tin IPv4 v IPv6. - Khc bit v a ch: Dch a ch IPv4- IPv6. - Khc bit v phn m u header: Dch giao thc thay i header gi tin. Thit b NAT- PT c c i t ti bin gii gia mng IPv4 vi Ipv6. C ch n y khng i hi cc cu hnh dc bit tai cc my trm v cc s chuyn i gi tin ti thit b NAT- PT ho n to n trong sut vi ngi dng. - Mi thit b NAT- PT duy tr mt tp cc a ch IPv4 dng nh x cc yu cu vi a ch IPv6. - NAT- PT c th m rng th nh NAPT- PT cho php s dng mt a ch - IPv4 cho nhiu phin l m vic khc nhau. NAT- PT cng nh NAT cng nh IPv4 khng c kh nng hot ng vi cc gi tin c cha a ch trong phn ti tin. Do , NAT- PT thng i km vi c ch Ca khu tng ng dng ALG. C ch n y cho php x x cc gi tin ng vi tng dch v nht nh nh DNS hay FTP, ... - u im: + Qun tr tp trung ti thit b NAT- PT. + C th trin khai nhiu thi b NAT- PT tng hiu nng hot ng. - Nhc im: + To ln mt im gy li lon single poin of failure ti thit b NATPT. - Cc trin khai ca NAT- PT: NAT- PT c th nghim trn cc h iu h nh mng nh: + Linux, Free BSD, Microsoft Windows 2000. + Ngo i ra, n cng l mt phn ca h iu h nh Cisco IOS IPv6 bn beta vi hai phin bn da trn IOS v11.3 v IOS v12.0. Cc trin khai n y c cho nhiu loi router khc nhau.

IPv4 Internet

IPv4

Hnh 57: NAI- PT


51 Gio vin hng dn : Th.S H Mnh o

Trung tm pht trin CNTT-HQG TP. H ch minh Trung tm o to cng ngh cao Bch Khoa

- SIIT (Stateless IP/ICMP Translation Algorithm) l mt chun ca IETF (RFC2765) m t b dch IPv6/IPv4 khng lu trng thi (Stateless). - Tng t c ch NAT- PT ngoi tr n khng cp pht ng a ch IPv4 cho cc trm IPv6. Chc nng chuyn i thc hin gia header IPv6 v IPv4. SIIT khng bao gm cc ty chn IPv4 v header m rng trong IPv6. SIIT cng thc hin chuyn i cc thng ip iu khin ICMP gia hai giao thc. - i vi qu trnh chuyn i IPv4 sang IPv6, mt a ch IPv4 tm thi c gn cho nt mng IPv6. - Cc gi tin n thit bi SIIT s c chuyn i header v a ch t IPv4 sang cc a ch IPv4-dch (IPv4- translated) v IPv4- nh x (IPv4mapped). Mt ac h IPv4-dch tng ng vi mt nuts mng IPv6 cn a ch IPv4- nh x tng ng mt nt mng IPv4. i vi chiu ngc li, cc a ch n y s c chuyn i ngc li th nh a ch IPv4. - Do qu trnh chuyn i khng lu trng thi, c th tn ti nhiu b chuyn i gia hai mng IPv4 v IPv6. Khng c s r ng buc mi phin truyn phi i qua mt thit b duy nht nh trong NAT- PT. 3.2.7. Mt s c ch khc 3.2.7.1 BIS (Bump Into the Stack ) - BIS l s kt hp ca hai c ch NAT- PT v DNS- ALG nhng c c i t ngay ti cc nt mng IPv6. Qua , cc ng dng trn cc trm IPv4 c th kt ni vi cc trm IPv6. - u im: + H tr nhanh chng v n gin cc ng dng IPv4 c th kt ni vi cc nt mng IPv6 khc. + C i t ngay trn tng trm nn khng ph thuc v o mt thit b trung gian nh NAT- PT. - Nhc im: + Khng h tr kh nng t cu hnh. + Cn c i t v cu hnh ring r trn tng nt mng: card mng, cu hnh IP, NAT. Cc thng s cu hnh n y cn c thc hin li mi khi c s thay i v topo v a ch mng. + V lu d i v vi cc mng c kch thc ln, hot ng khng hiu qu v chi ph qun tr cao. - Trin khai: +Phn mm Tlnet6 h tr BIS hn ch vi mt s card mang h 3Com, NE2000 di dng driver cho card mng do cng ty Hitachi cung cp. Chng trnh hot ng vi Win9x v NT cho php kt ni vi cc trm IPv6. +Sau7 khi c i t phn driver ca card mng, cn cu hnh cc nh x a ch IPv6- IPv4 trc khi c th thc hin kt ni thng qua chng trnh NAT MAnager. 3.2.7.2 BIA (Bump Into the API)
52 Gio vin hng dn : Th.S H Mnh o

Trung tm pht trin CNTT-HQG TP. H ch minh Trung tm o to cng ngh cao Bch Khoa

Phng php n y p dng cho cc dual- stack host (cc host h tr c IPv4 v IPv6), cho php cc host IPv6 khc vi cc ng dng IPv4 hin c. Mc ch ca phng php cng ging nh c ch Bump-in-the-stack (BIS) nhng n a ra c ch dch gia cc API IPv4 v IPv6. DO vy, qu trnh n gin khng cn dch header gi tin IP v khng ph thuc v o cc giao thc tng di v trnh iu khin ca giao din mng. Host Translatorr( BIA) (API) IP v6 network IPv6 hative host

IPv4 Applications

IPv6 hative host

Hnh 58: BIA - Phng php BIA khng s dng c trong cc host ch h tr IPv4 nh phng php BIS. N ch c s dng trn cc host IPv6/Ipv4 nhng c mt s trnh ng dng IPv4 khng th hoc kh chuyn i sang h tr IPv6. - Do BIA hot ng ti mc API socket nn ta c th s dng cc giao thc an ninh ti tng mng (IPsec). BIA hin nay ch p dng c cho cc trao i kiu Unicast, cha p dng c cho kiu Multicast. Cc tnh nng mi ca socket IPv6 khng th s dng. - Phng thc hot ng: + Phng php BIA chn thm mt b dch API v o gia module socket API v module TCP/IP trn dual-stack host v dch cc h m API socket IPv4 th nh cc h m API socket IPv6 v ngc li. p dng phng php n y, host h tr c TCP(UDP)/IPv4 v TCP(UDP)/IPv6.
53 Gio vin hng dn : Th.S H Mnh o

Trung tm pht trin CNTT-HQG TP. H ch minh Trung tm o to cng ngh cao Bch Khoa

+ Khi mt ng dng IPv4 giao tip vi mt host IPv6 khc, b dch API pht hin cc h m APG socket m ng dng s dng v gi tng ng cc h m API socket IPv6 giao tip vi host IPv6 v ngc li. + Qu trnh chuyn i IPv6 sang mt tp cc a ch IPv4 c thc hin trong module nh x tn (name resolver). - Kin trc ca dual-stack host s dng BIA. - Module BIA gm 3 phn: + Module tra cu tn (Name resolver): p ng cc yu c u tra cu tn min ca cc ng dng IPv4. Khi mt ng dng gii mt truy vn cc bn ghi kiu A ti name server, module n y s nhn truy vn n y, phn tch v to ra truy vn tng ng vi tn my cho c cc bn ghi kiu A v AAAA ri gii cho name server.

IPv4 Applications

Socket API (IPv4 , IPv6) API Translator


Name Resolver Address Mapper Function Mapper

TCP(UDP)/IPv4

TCP(UDP)/IPv6

Hnh 3- 13. Kin trc ca dual- stack host s dng BIA Nu tr li t name server ch c bn ghi kiu AAAA, module n y s yu cu module nh x a ch gn mt a ch IPv4 tng ng vi a ch IPv6 n y ri to ra mt tr li kiu A cha a ch IPv4 tr v cho ng dng + Module nh x a ch (Address mapper). Duy tr mt bng cc cp a ch IPv4 v IPv6. Cc a ch IPv4 c gn t mt tp cc a ch n y v cp nht thm mt mc trong bng. Qu trnh cp nht xy ra trong hai trng hp:
54 Gio vin hng dn : Th.S H Mnh o

Trung tm pht trin CNTT-HQG TP. H ch minh Trung tm o to cng ngh cao Bch Khoa

Khi module nh x tn ch nhn c tr li v bn ghi kiu AAAA v khng c mc n o trong bng cha a ch IPv6 tng ng. Khi module nh x h m nhn c mt li gi h m API socket t d liu thu nhn m khng c mc n o trong bng tng ng vi a ch IPv6 ngun. + Module nh x h m (Function mapper): Chuyn i cc h m API socket IPv4 th nh cc h m API socket IPv6 v ngc li. - Cc vn lin quan + Chuyn i API socket. Cc h m API socket IPv4 c chuyn i tng ng sang cc h m API socket IPv6. Qu trnh n y chuyn i c cc a ch IP nhng trong cc giao thc tng ng dng (FTP, DNS,...). S tng thch gia cc h m API socket l khng ho n to n do cc h m API socket IPv6 c nhiu tnh nng hn. Cc h m API socket c chuyn i: bind() connect() sendmsg() sendto() accept() rrecvfrom() recvmsg() getpeername() gtockname() gtocketopt() stocketopt() recv() send()

Bng 3- 1. Cc h m API socket c chuyn i Cc cu trc v h m API c bn


55 Gio vin hng dn : Th.S H Mnh o

Trung tm pht trin CNTT-HQG TP. H ch minh Trung tm o to cng ngh cao Bch Khoa

AF_ INET sockaddr_in gethostbyname() gethosbyaddr() inet_ntoa()/inet_addr() INADDR_ANY

AF- INET6 sockaddr_in6 getaddrinfo() getnameinfo() inet_pton()/inet_ntop() in6addr_any

Bng 3- 2. Cc cu trc v h m API c bn - Cc thng ip ICMPv4 c chuyn th nh ICMPv6 v ngc li ging trong phong php SIIT. + Tp cc a ch IPv4 v bng nh x a ch. trnh hin tng dng ht tp a ch IPv4 dn n khng th tip tc p ng cc yu cu trao i vi bn ngo i, BIA a ra cc c ch loi b cc mc tn ti lu nht trong bng s dng trong cc yu c u mi. + Cc a ch IPv4 ni b. trnh ng v a ch, BIA s dng cc a ch khng c cp pht (0.0.0.0 n 0.0.0.255). + Vn khng ph hp gia kt qu DNS (AAAA) vi phin bn ng dng (v4). - Nu server ng dng cha h tr IPv6 nhng chy trn mt my c h tr IPv6 v c tn di kiu bn ghi AAAA trong DNS, ng dng client c th khng kt ni c vi server do c s khng ph hp gia bn ghi kt qu DNS (AAAA) vi phin bn ng dng server (IPv4). - Mt trong cc gii php l th tt c cc a ch trong DNS v khng kt thc ngay sau ln th u tin. iu n y c th ng dng bi s m rng module tra cu tn v b dich API trong BIA. BIA thc hin lp cng vic tm kim cc a ch hot ng s dng bi cc ng dng khc bn ngo i cc a ch tr v t name server. 3.2.7.3. C ch chuyn i hai giao thc (DSTM) - C ch n y cho php kt ni cc nt mng stack kp (IPv6/IPv4) trn mt mng IPv6 vi cc nt mng IPv4 xa. DSTM khng p dng c cho cc nt mng ch h tr IPv6. - DSTM cp mt a ch IPv4 to n cc tm thi cho nt mng IPv6 v s dng ng hm IPv4-in-IPv6 truyn gi tin IPv4 trn mng IPv6. - y l c ch hai chiu, qu trnh truyn thng c th bt u t nt mng IPv6 hoc nt mng IPv4. - Cch thc hot ng:
56 Gio vin hng dn : Th.S H Mnh o

Trung tm pht trin CNTT-HQG TP. H ch minh Trung tm o to cng ngh cao Bch Khoa

+ DSTM c c i t trn tt c cc nt mng trong mng IPv6 v router bin gii gia hai min IPv6 v IPv4. N cng s dng DHCPv6. Do vy, DSTM cn mt server DHCPv6 v cc client ti mi nt mng.

DHCP

IPv6

Border router(Y) IPv4

IPv4 only node (Z) Dual stack node (X) DNS

Bng 3- 3. C ch chuyn i hai giao thc (DSTM) - Chc nng cc b phn nh sau: + DHCPv6 Server: Cp a ch IPv4 tm thi cho cc nt mng mun giao tip vi nt mng IPv4 xa. N cng duy tr s nh x gia a ch IPv4 v IPv6. h tr DSTM, DHCPv6 phi h tr mt ty chn mi cho php nt mng IPv6 nhn a ch IPv4 tm thi v thng bo cho pha client bit a ch IPv6 ca cui ng hm. + DSTM daemon: S dng DHCPv6 client trn nt mng yu cu a ch IPv4 to n cc mi khi khi to truyn thng. + Giao din ng hm ng (DTI): y l mt giao din IPv4 o trongnut stack kp cho php truyn cc gi tin IPv4 mt cch trong sut trn mng IPv6. Cc gi tin chuyn n giao din n y c bc trong gi tin IPv6 v c gii thng qua giao din IPv6 n router bin mng.
57 Gio vin hng dn : Th.S H Mnh o

Trung tm pht trin CNTT-HQG TP. H ch minh Trung tm o to cng ngh cao Bch Khoa

+ Router bin mng: y l mt router stack kp kt ni min IPv4 vi IPv6. y l ni kt thc ng hm 4 trong 6. Router cng lu cc nh x gia a ch IPv6 vi a ch IPv4 tm thi. - u im: + Trong sut i vi mng, ch cn duy tr nh tuyn IPv6 trn mng, gim chi ph qun tr mng. + Trong sut i vi ng dng, cho php cc ng dng ch cho IPv4 hot ng bnh thng trn nt mng IPv4/IPv6. + Khc phuc s thiu ht a ch IPv4 bng cch s dng DHCPv6. - Nhc im: + i hi nhiu c ch c bit. + S dng cc a ch IPv4 to n cc. - Trin khai: +Hin mi ch c trn h iu h nh Free BSD.

58 Gio vin hng dn : Th.S H Mnh o

Trung tm pht trin CNTT-HQG TP. H ch minh Trung tm o to cng ngh cao Bch Khoa

Chng 4:
Th nghim v c i t IPv6 trn windows 98 v windows 2000
4.1 C i t trn windows 98: - Bn thn windows 98 khng h tr IPv6. kt ni c vi nt mng IPv6, mt trong cc c ch chuyn i cn c c i t, th d dng Trumpe winsock. + Trumpe winsock : Chng trnh thay th th vin Winsock trong windows cho php windows 98 kt ni IPv6. Phin bn t 4.1 h tr IPv6 cho cc h iu h nh win9x v Win NT4.1. y l mt phn mm shareware do h nh Trumper sn xut. C ch hot ng ca phn mm da trn vic thay i th vin winsock trong windows h tr IPv6. Cc h m tng thch winsock 1.1 khng tng thch winsock 2. Chng trnh c sn cc tin ch nh ping, traceroute kim tra kt ni, dig tra cu tn min DNS. Cu hnh a ch IPv6 c th c thit lp trong chng trnh hoc t cu hnh . 4.2 C i t trn windows 2000: - Windows 2000 Service Pack 1 tr ln h tr IPv6 di dng phin bn th nghim c c i t ring. - B chng trnh bn th nghim cho IPv6 trn windows c cung cp trn mng vi tn file: tpipv6- 001205.exe. - Yu cu mc nh h thng: Windows 2000 SP1. - C i t: + Chy file setup.exe + C i t thm giao thc mng IPv6 : Microsoft IPv6 Protocol -Ngo i ra b c i t cng cha cc cng c khc nh: + ipv6.exe: Hin th thng tin v giao thc IPv6. Ta c th xem trng thi cc giao din, cc cache lng ging, cache kt gn, cache ch v bng nh tuyn. + Trancert6.exe: Tng t trancert.exe trong IPv4 . + Ping6.exe: Tng t ping.exe trong IPv4. + ttcp.exe: Dng gi cc gi tin TCP/UDP gia hai nt mng. H tr c hai giao thc. + 6to4cfg.exe: S dng cu hnh kt ni kiu 6to4. + ipsec6.exe: Cu hnh cc chnh sch an ninh IPsec. - Cc ng dng: + HTTP client: Th vin lin kt ng mi wininet.dll cho php web browser IE c th kt ni n c cc web server IPv4 ln IPv6. +FTP client: Ftp.exe kt ni n cc FTP server ca c hai giao thc. + Telnet client: H tr c IPv4 ln IPv6.
59 Gio vin hng dn : Th.S H Mnh o

Trung tm pht trin CNTT-HQG TP. H ch minh Trung tm o to cng ngh cao Bch Khoa

+ Telnet server: H tr c IPv4 ln IPv6. - i vi cc h thng win 2000 SP2 c th c i t theo cc bc sau: + Sau khi gii nn chng trnh tpip6-001205.exe v p mt th mc, ta chy chng trnh setup.exe vi tham s setup-x gii nn cc file v o mt th mc. + Sa file Hotfix.inf. + NTServicePackVersion=256 + NTServicePackVersion=512 + Chy chng trnh Hotfix.exe + Sau thc hin cc bc cn li nh bnh thng.

60 Gio vin hng dn : Th.S H Mnh o

Trung tm pht trin CNTT-HQG TP. H ch minh Trung tm o to cng ngh cao Bch Khoa

Chng 5 Kt lun v hng pht trin tip theo Kt lun


- y l mt vn nng bng ca to n th gii ni chung v ca Vit Nam ni ring. Khi chuyn sang s dng IPv6, ta c th d d ng trong vic truy cp v o cc a ch trong mng Internet rng ln. Hn na cc thit b kt ni trong mng c th kt ni vi nhau v thay i thng tin vi nhau. Tuy nhin kiu mng li n y hot ng, mi thit b trong mng cn phi c mt a ch IP (l thng s ch v tr ca cc thit b trn mng). 5.2 hng pht trin tip theo: - Hin nay tai Chu mt phn k hoch E Japan initiative c mc ch chnh l a ng nh cng ngh thng tin Nht Bn vn ln h ng u. Chnh ph Nht Bn t i tr cho Hi ng xc tin IPv6 (IPv6 Promotion Council) thit lp th nghim giao thc mi trong mng ca mn s nh cung cp. Information Service International Dentsu (ISID)- cng ty tch hp h thng ti Tokyo- xy dng mng IPv6 trong cng ty n y, kt ni vi hn 5.000 h thng. i din nhm nghin cu ISID cho bit : d trin khai IPv6 nhng qu trnh chuyn i trong cng ty din ra cn chm. H thng mng c hai ngn phn mm d nh cho IPv4 v IPv6 tin h nh ho nhp tng bc. IPv6 vn cn cn pht trin tip vn bo mt kt ni chy ho n to n trn IPv6 s mt i mt s tnh nng bo mt ca IPv4. H tr IPv6 tng la (firewall ) chng hn s l mt i hi tin quyt khc cng ngh mi n y c chp nhn rng r i hn trong tng lai. - Tuy nhin Cico nh sn xut b nh tuyn chnh thng tr th gii mi ch cung cp kh nng IPv6 cho cc b nh tuyn qua cc phn mm, v d nh ch s gii thiu phn cng h tr IPv6 trong nm nay. Ring h iu h nh Windows XP hin c sn c tnh nng IPv4 v IPv6 , ch yu dng xy dng sn s ng IPv6. H iu h nh my ch hin ti ca Windows 2000 Server cng c sn mt b cng c pht trin phn mm d nh cho cc ng dng v thit b IPv6. - V o cui nm 2002 Microsoft cng gii thiu tnh nng IPv6 tng b nng cp d nh cho Windows XP v th h h iu h nh my ch k tip windows. Net Server. H ng Sun Microsytems h tr IPv6 trong phin bn Solari 8 pht h nh trn th trng ngay t nm 2000. Nu mt my ch Solaris 8 c cm v o mng IPv6, n c th t ng trao i ccs gi tin IPv6. - Ring trong h iu h nh Linux, giao thc IPv6 cha c tch hp sn nhng n c cung cp km theo trong phin bn Red Hat khng chnh thc cung cp h tr cho th nh phn IPv6. Mt s ng dng c bn, nh truyn tp tin, email, DNS, ang c iu chnh c th l m vic vi
61 Gio vin hng dn : Th.S H Mnh o

Trung tm pht trin CNTT-HQG TP. H ch minh Trung tm o to cng ngh cao Bch Khoa

giao thc mi, tip sau d s l nhng ng dng phc tp nh c s d liu v chng trnh CAD. - gia dng chc chn sl mt trong nhng thit b u tin c la chn kt ni v o mngIP v6, khi m vic cung cp a ch IPv6 tr ln d d ng v n l v hn m li rt an to n bi tnh bo mt cao m IPv4 khng c. Thm ch ngay by gi, cc nh sn xut gia dng ang trin khai k thut kt ni cc sn phm ca mnh vi mng to n cu. - Rt c th n mt ng y n o tt c cc thit b s dng dch v khng dy (LAN), cc server gia nh, automobile telematics v cc vt dng khc u s c kt ni vi nhau.

IPv6 bao gi c s dng ti Vit Nam?


- Trn thc t ti Vit Nam, cc doanh nghip cung cp dch v Internet cha nhn thy s c n thit phi s dng n IPv6 v khng bc xc trc nguy c cn kit tn min. Cho n thi im n y, Vit Na cha c hot ng thc y ng dng IP6 v cha c phn b vng a ch IPv6 t Quc t. Hin ti ch c VNPT v NetNam tham gia t i trin khai th nghim mng IPv6 Vit Nam v kt ni mng IPv6 Quc t. VNPT cng l n v u tin yu cu a ch IPv6 v cng l doang nghip duy nht tiu chun cp pht a ch IPv6. Theo cc chuyn gia th vn t ra i vi Vit Nam hin nay l phi xc nh b i ton liu c sc pht trin cc loi dch v v ng dng mi i theo nn tng ng dng IPv6 hay khng? - Hin trung tm Internet Vit Nam (VNNIC) cng thc hin mt s hot ng nghin cu v cng ngh v chnh sch IPv6 ca khu vc v Quc t. - VNNIC ang xem xt phng n trin khai thit lp mng th nghim IPv6 cng cng c th da trn c s h tng c sn. theo ngh ca VNNIC, cn phi c chnh sch khuyn khch pht trin cng ngh phn cng, phn mm v ng dng IPv6. Ngo i ra, VNNIC cn ngh cn u t cho nghin cu pht trin cc ng dng IPv6. Bn cnh , Chnh ph cn phi c chin lc lu d i pht trin IPv6 bt kp s pht trin ca cng ngh. Theo mt quan chc ca B bu chnh Vin thng trong chin lc BCVT n nm 2010 cng cp n vic pht trin a ch tn min IPv6. V vy ngay t by gi B cng s phi xem xt c ch chng, chnh sch i vi vn d pht trin IPv6 Vit Nam.

62 Gio vin hng dn : Th.S H Mnh o