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# 160

Chapter 3 Differentiation

## 3.6 IMPLICIT DIFFERENTIATION 1. y x*%

dy dx

9 4

x&%
\$"

2. y xc\$&
dy dx

dy dx

c 3 xc)& 5
%" #\$ %\$

5. y 7x b 6 7(x b 6)"#

dy dx

dy dx

7 #

(x b 6)c"#

6. y c2x c 1 c2(x c 1)"# 7. y (2x b 5)c"# 8. y (" c 6x)#\$ 9. y x ax# b 1b 10. y x ax# b 1b
"# dy dx dy dx

2 3

## (1 c 6x)c"\$ (c6) c4(1 c 6x)c"\$

#

c"#

11. s ( t# t#(

ds dt

2 c&( 7 t dy dt dz dt

dr d)

3 c 4 )c(%

## 13. y sin (2t b 5)c#\$ 14. z cos (" c 6t)#\$

cos (2t b 5)c#\$ c 2 (2t b 5)c&\$ 2 c 4 (2t b 5)c&\$ cos (2t b 5)c#\$ 3 3

"#

c"\$

f w (x)

" #

c" 4 1 c x x

c" 4 x 1 c x

## 16. g(x) 2 2xc"# b 1

gw (x) c 2 2xc"# b 1 3
" 3

c%\$

(c1)xc\$#

2 3

## 2xc"# b 1c%\$ xc\$#

17. h()) \$ 1 b cos (2)) (1 b cos 2))"\$ hw ()) 18. k()) (sin () b 5))&% kw ()) 19. x# y b xy# 6: Step 1: Step 2: Step 3: Step 4: x # x#
dy dx dy dx dy dx 5 4

5 4

b y 2x b x 2y
dy dx

dy dx

b y# 1 0

dy dx

b 2xy
#

c2xy c y#

#

c2xycy x b2xy

dy dx

b 2y b 2y

dy dx

1b

dy dx

## 20. x\$ b y\$ 18xy 3x# b 3y#

dy dx

18y b 18x

dy dx

a3y# c 18xb

dy dx

18y c 3x#

dy dx

6y c x y c 6x

yw x c " ax# b 1b #

c\$#

a#xb b ax# b 1b

c"#

" ax# b 1b

c\$#

acx# b x# b "b

yw x " ax# b 1b #

c"#

a#xb b ax# b 1b

\$#

3. y \$ 2x (2x)"\$

" 3

(2x)c#\$ 2

2 3x

4. y % 5x (5x)"%
7 2 x b 6

dy dx

" 4

(5x)c\$% 5

5 4x

xc1

"#

" ax# b 1b

c"#

ax# b x# b "b

2x b 1 x b 1 " ax b 1 b

## Section 3.6 Implicit Differentiation

Step 2: Step 3: Step 4: 2x
dy dx dy dx dy dx

161

b 2y

dy dx

dy dx

1 c 2y

(2x b 2y c 1) " c 2y
1 c 2y 2x b 2y c 1 dy dx

## 23. x# (x c y)# x# c y# : Step 1: Step 2: Step 3: Step 4: x# 2(x c y) 1 c c2x# (x c y)

dy dx dy dx dy dx dy dx dy dx

b (x c y)# (2x) 2x c 2y

dy dx

b 2y

# # # #

#

dy dx

#

dy < dx x

dy dx

dy dx

ybx

" #

dr d)

dr d)

" # r

"

"

dy dx

## " " sin y b 2y cos y c 2 2

dy dx

2 sin y b 2y cos y c #

## " 32. y# cos " 2x b 2y y# csin y (c1) y

" y

dy dx

" b cos y 2y

dy dx

2b2

dy dx

c" # )

dr d)

2 r 2 )

"

"

"

"

"

cos y b sin y b x

y sin y c cos y b xy

dy dx

dy dx

## " 31. y sin " 1 c xy y cos y (c1) y

c1 x sec (xy)

y x

ccos (xy) x

y x

ccos (xy) c y x dy dx

(cos y c x)
dy dx

dy dx

yc1 cx
dy dx

dy dx

yc1 cos y c x

" y

" b sin y cy

dy dx

cy
cy

r )

dy dx

0 x sec# (xy)

dy dx

dy dx

" sec y

cos# y

cy x
dy dx

c1 c y sec# (xy)

dy dx

26. x#

xcy xby

## x\$ b x# y x c y 3x# b 2xy b x# yw 1 c yw ax# b 1b yw 1 c 3x# c 2xy yw

25. y#

xc" xb1

2y

dy dx

(x b 1) c (x c 1) (x b 1)

2 (x b 1)

dy dx

" y(x b 1)

[6x(3xy b 7) c 6] c6y(3xy b 7)

x c 2x b 3x y c xy x ycx by

dy dx

b 3y 6
dy dx

dy dx

2(3xy b 7)(3x)

y(3xy c x(3xy bb 7) 1 7) c

3xy b 7y 1 c 3x y c 7x

2x c1 c x(x c y) c (x c y) d c2x (x c y) b 2y

x c1 c x(x c y) c (x c y) d y c x (x c y)

x a1 c x b xy c x b 2xy c y b x ycx by

dy dx

c6

dy dx

c6y(3xy b 7)

22. x\$ c xy b y\$ 1 3x# c y c x

b 3y#

dy dx

0 a3y# c xb

dy dx

y c 3x#

dy dx

y c 3x 3y c x

1 c 3x c 2xy x b1

162

Chapter 3 Differentiation
3 #

" #

)#\$ b 4 )\$% 3

dr d)

dr d)

dr d)

dr d)

[cos (r))] r b )

dr d)

r c),

cos (r)) 0
#

## 36. cos r b cot ) r) (csin r)

dr d)

c csc# ) r b )

dr d)

dy dx

dr d)

[csin r c )] r b csc# )
d y dx
# #
#

dr d)

b c rsincsc )) rb

## 37. x# b y# 1 2x b 2yyw 0 2yyw c2x

# w #

yw c x ; now to find y
\$ # # \$ #

d dx

ayw b
\$

d dx

c x y

\$ # #

## c(y b 1)c# (y b 1)c"

differentiate the equation yw yc"# b 1 1 again to find yww : yw c " yc\$# yw b yc"# b 1 yww 0 #
#"c #\$

2y

ay

# #

c2x c 2y c y

x y

c2x c y

2x y

1)

1)

# "

since yw k (0

## c " we obtain yww k (0 #

(c2) c (1)(0) 4 dy dx

" c4

b 2x 4y\$

dy dx

c 2 2y

dy dx

c 4y\$

dy dx

c2 c 2x

&

c2xy c 2x y

d y dx (2 2)

c32 c 32 32

c2
cy (xb2y)

yww

\$ %

# #

## 2y(x b 2y) c 2y (x b 2y)

2y b 2xy (x b 2y)

2y(x b y) (x b 2y)

(x b 2y)

(x

2y)

## c(x b 2y)y b y(1 b 2y ) (x b 2y)

b "

b c

b c

c(x b 2y) (x

y y 2y) b y 1 b 2 (x 2y)

cy (xb2y)

#"c

yc"# b 1 yww

" #

cyw d# yc\$#

d y dx

yww

ay

b 1b

#\$c

9 y

" b 1b

#"c

#

b #"c "

# "

d y dx

ww

y c (xb 1) y

" yb1

## (y b 1)c" ; then yww c(y b 1)c# yw

d y dx

yww

c" (y b 1)

dy dx

yw

" y

b1

y y b 1

" # 1 b y

39. y# x# b 2x 2yyw 2x b 2 yw

2x b 2 2y

xb1 y

; then yww

y c (x b 1)y y

\$# \$"

\$%

\$"

d y dx

" 3

xc#\$ yc"\$ b

3y

" x

\$#

\$"

\$#c

"

\$"

\$#

\$#c

"

\$"

## y by x y " "\$ c%\$ x 3x 3 y x

c 3 y

3 x

y c (x b 1) x y 1

\$#c

"

\$"

\$#c

"

\$"

\$"

c 3 y

9by

3 x

; we can

\$"c

\$"c

2 3

xc"\$ b 2 yc"\$ 3

dy dx

dy dx

yww

y(c1)bxy y

cybx c x y

since yw c x y

d y dx

yww

cy cx y

cy ca"cy b y

c" y "\$

dy dx

x cy

c y x

d y dx

yww

## Section 3.6 Implicit Differentiation

\$

163

dy dx

a2y c 4y\$ b c2 c 2x
#

dy dx

dy dx

dy dx

2(x c y) 1 c
# # # #

## c2y ax# b y# b b (x c y)d c2x ax# b y# b b (x c y) 1

dy dx

dy dx (1 1)
c

47. x# b xy c y# 1 2x b y b xyw c 2yyw 0 (x c 2y)yw c2x c y yw (a) the slope of the tangent line m yw k (2 3)

2x b y 2y c x

;
7 4

7 4

29 7

7 4

(x c 2) y

c c

3 4

4)

c x y

(3

4)

3 4

## the tangent line is y b 4

3 4

(x c 3)

xc

25 4

(b) the normal line is y b 4 c 4 (x c 3) y c 4 x 3 3 49. x# y# 9 2xy# b 2x# yyw 0 x# yyw cxy# yw c y ; x (a) the slope of the tangent line m yw k ( 1 3) c y ( 1 3) 3 the tangent line is y c 3 3(x b 1) x y 3x b 6 " (b) the normal line is y c 3 c " (x b 1) y c 3 x b 3
c c

8 3 " yc#

50. y# c 2x c 4y c " ! 2yyw c 2 c 4yw 0 2(y c 2)yw 2 yw (b) the normal line is y c 1 1(x b 2) y x b 3
c

2 1)

## c1 the tangent line is y c 1 c1(x b 2) y cx c 1

51. 6x# b 3xy b 2y# b 17y c 6 0 12x b 3y b 3xyw b 4yyw b 17yw 0 yw (3x b 4y b 17) c12x c 3y c12x yw 3x b 4yc 3y ; b 17 y xb
c c

## (a) the slope of the tangent line m yw k (

6 7 6 7

1 0)

c"2x c 3y 3x b 4y b 17 ( 1 0)

6 7

## (b) the normal line is y c 0 c 7 (x b 1) y c 7 x c 6 6

7 6 3y c 2x 4y c 3x

## 52. x# c 3xy b 2y# 5 2x c 3xyw c 3y b 4yyw 0 yw 4y c 3x 3y c 2x yw

(b) the normal line is x 3 53. 2xy b 1 sin y 21 2xyw b 2y b 1(cos y)yw 0 yw (2x b 1 cos y) c2y yw
1 1

## (a) the slope of the tangent line m yw k yc

1 #

c2y 2x b 1 cos y 1

c 1 (x c 1) y c 1 x b 1 # #
1 #

2 1

(x c 1) y

2 1

xc

2 1

32

3y c 2x 4y c 3x

32

c2y 2x b 1 cos y

## c 1 the tangent line is #

1 #

c2x ax b y b b (x c y) 2y ax b y b b (x c y)

c c

xb" #y c y

dy dx ( 2 1)

c1 and

dy dx ( 2 1)

1
dy dx dy dx (1 0)

c1

xc

" #

6 7

(x b 1)

164

Chapter 3 Differentiation
csin 2y c 2y sin 2x yw
sin 2y b 2y sin 2x cos 2x c 2x cos 2y
4 2

54. x sin 2y y cos 2x x(cos 2y)2yw b sin 2y c2y sin 2x b yw cos 2x yw (2x cos 2y c cos 2x) ;
4 2

yc

1 #

2 x c 1 y 2x 4
1 #

## (b) the normal line is y c

c " x c 1 y c " x b # # 4

51 8

55. y 2 sin (1x c y) yw 2 [cos (1x c y)] a1 c yw b yw [1 b 2 cos (1x c y)] 21 cos (1x c y) yw
21 cos (1x c y) 1 b # cos (1x c y)

;
21 cos (1x c y) 1 b 2 cos (1x c y) (1 0) " #1

## y c 0 21(x c 1) y 21x c 21 (b) the normal line is y c 0 c #" (x c 1) y c 2x b 1 1

56. x# cos# y c sin y 0 x# (2 cos y)(csin y)yw b 2x cos# y c yw cos y 0 yw cc2x# cos y sin y c cos yd
#

## (b) the normal line is x 0

57. Solving x# b xy b y# 7 and y 0 x# 7 x 7 c7 ! and 7 ! are the points where the curve crosses the x-axis. Now x# b xy b y# 7 2x b y b xyw b 2yyw 0 (x b 2y)yw c2x c y yw c 2x b y m c 2x b y the slope at c7 ! is m c c277 c2 and the slope at 7 ! is x b 2y x b 2y c m c 277 c2. Since the slope is c2 in each case, the corresponding tangents must be parallel. 58. x# b xy b y# 7 2x b y b x (a) Solving
dy dx dy dx

b 2y

dy dx

0 (x b 2y)

dy dx

## 0 c2x c y 0 y c2x and substitution into the original equation gives

x# b x(c2x) b (c2x)# 7 3x# 7 x 7 and y 2 7 when the tangents are parallel to the 3 3 x-axis. (b) Solving x 2 7 and y 7 when the tangents are parallel to the y-axis. 3 3 59. y% y# c x# 4y\$ yw 2yyw c 2x 2 a2y\$ c yb yw c2x yw
3 3 4 2

y c 1 c " (x c 1) y c " x b # #

61. y% c 4y# x% c 9x# 4y\$ yw c 8yyw 4x\$ c 18x yw a4y\$ c 8yb 4x\$ c 18x yw

y b 3x 2y(2 c x) (1 1)

4 #

## 2 the tangent line is y c 1 2(x c 1) y 2x c 1; the normal line is

3 # 4x c 18x 4y c 8y

3 1 4 2

# "

is

x yc2y

c2 8

2 3 4c2

# "

c 683

is

x y c 2y

c3 4

"

3 3 4 #

" #c3

y b 3x 2y(2 c x)

x y c 2y

3 " 4 #

2x c 9x 2y c 4y

dx dy

c2x cos# y yw

;
)

c2x c y

1
#

11

11

dy dx

c2x c y x b 2y

and

dx dy

x b 2y c2x c y

3x 4

## Section 3.6 Implicit Differentiation

# #

165

x a2x c 9b y a2y c 4b

m; (c3 2): m

(c3)(18 c 9) 2(8 c 4)

c 27 ; (c\$ c#): m 8

27 8

; (3 #): m

27 8

; (3 c#): m c 27 8
#

x\$ ax\$ c 54b 0 x 0 or x \$ 54 3 \$ 2 there is a horizontal tangent at x 3 \$ 2 . To find the corresponding y-value, we will use part (c).
#

(c)

dx dy

x\$ c 63 x\$# 0 x\$# x\$# c 63 0 x\$# 0 or x\$# 63 x 0 or x \$ 108 3 \$ 4 . Since the equation x\$ b y\$ c 9xy 0 is symmetric in x and y, the graph is symmetric about the line y x. " That is, if (a b) is a point on the folium, then so is (b a). Moreover, if yw k (a b) m, then yw k (b a) m . Thus, if the folium has a horizontal tangent at (a b), it has a vertical tangent at (b a) so one might expect that with a horizontal tangent at x \$ 54 and a vertical tangent at x 3 \$ 4, the points of tangency are \$ 54 3 \$ 4 and 3 \$ 4 \$ 54, respectively. One can check that these points do satisfy the equation x\$ b y\$ c 9xy 0. 63. x# c 2tx b 2t# 4 2x 2y\$ c 3t# 4 6y#
# # dy dt dx dt

#

dy dt dx dt

dy dx t 2

## 2(2 c 2) (2) (2 c 2(2))

0
" ; y(t c 1) t y b (t c 1) dy # tc"# dt
dy dt dx dt

" #

5 c t
dy dt

c"#

c " tc"# c #
" c #y t #tt c 2t

" 4 t 5 c t dy dx

cy

## #" c #yt& c t ; "ct

t 4 x 5 c 4 3; t 4 y(3) 4 2

therefore,

dy dx t 4

dx dt

dy dt

## t b 1 b y " (t b 1)c"# b 2y b 2t " yc"#

# # dy t y dt
y y 4y t 2t

dy dt
1

0
t y

dy dt

t b 1 b

y 2 t b 1

t b 2y b y

t b 1 b
dy dx

1 t

dy/dt dx/dt

y (t

1)

19

2t 1 3x

; t 0 x b 2x\$# 0 x 1 b 2x"# 0 x 0; t 0
b b b

#" b

y0 b 1 b 2(0)y 4 y 4; therefore

dy dx t 0

cy 2tb1

c 2y

dy dt

t b 1 b

b c

c 2y

## cyy c 4yt b 1 2y (t b 1) b 2tt b 1

; thus

c6

#"

65. x b 2x\$# t# b t

b 3x"#

dx dt

" # t

cy

at c 1 b

; thus

y t 2 t

14 3

2t b 1 1 b 3x"#

dx dt

2t b 1

dx dt

; thus

c "c c # #c"

c c #

"

#" b b b b b b c c

y c 3x 3y c x

0 y# c 3x 0 y 3x ; y 3x x\$ b 3x c 9x3x 0

c 2x c 2t

dx dt dy dt

b 4t 0 (2x c 2t)
6t 6y

dx dt

2x c 4t
yt xx 2t t

c 6t 0

t y

dy dx

dy/dt dx/dt

(b) yw 0

3y c x y c 3x

0 3y c x# 0 y

(a) yw k (4 2)

5 4

and yw k (2 4)

4 5

;
x 3

x\$ b x c 9x x 0 x' c 54x\$ 0 3 3

dx dt

2xc4t 2xc2t

xc2t x ct

t(xct) y (xc2t)

;t2

4t 5 c t c"

2tb1 1b3x

; yt b 1 b 2ty 4
dy dt

## 62. x\$ b y\$ c 9xy 0 3x# b 3y# yw c 9xyw c 9y 0 yw a3y# c 9xb 9y c 3x# yw

9y c 3x 3y c 9x

3y c x y c 3x

166

Chapter 3 Differentiation
dx dt

66. x sin t b 2x t

sin t b x cos t b 2

sin

## 67. (a) if f(x) (b) (c) (d)

3 #\$ c 3, then f w (x) xc"\$ and f ww (x) c " xc%\$ so the # x 3 9 if f(x) 10 x&\$ c 7, then f w (x) 3 x#\$ and f ww (x) xc"\$ is true # f ww (x) xc"\$ f www (x) c " xc%\$ is true 3 3 if f w (x) # x#\$ b 6, then f ww (x) xc"\$ is true

the tangents to the curves are perpendicular at (1 1) and (1 c1) (i.e., the curves are orthogonal at these two points of intersection). 69. x# b 2xy c 3y# 0 2x b 2xyw b 2y c 6yyw 0 yw (2x c 6y) c2x c 2y yw tangent line m yw k (1 1)

xby 3y c x (1 1)

## 1 the equation of the normal line at (1 1) is y c 1 c1(x c 1)

y cx b 2. To find where the normal line intersects the curve we substitute into its equation: x# b 2x(2 c x) c 3(2 c x)# 0 x# b 4x c 2x# c 3 a4 c 4x b x# b 0 c4x# b 16x c 12 0 x# c 4x b 3 0 (x c 3)(x c 1) 0 x 3 and y cx b 2 c1. Therefore, the normal to the curve at (1 1) intersects the curve at the point (3 c1). Note that it also intersects the curve at (1 1). 70. xy b 2x c y 0 x
dy dx

byb2c

dy dx

dy dx

y(c3 c 2y) b 2(c3 c 2y) c y 0 y# b 4y b 3 0 y c3 or y c1. If y c3, then x 3 and y b 3 c2(x c 3) y c2x b 3. If y c1, then x c1 and y b 1 c2(x b 1) y c2x c 3.
"

parallel, the normal lines must also have slope of c2. Since a normal is perpendicular to a tangent, the slope of " the tangent is " . Therefore, y b 2 # 2y b 4 1 c x x c3 c 2y. Substituting in the original equation, # 1cx

yb2 1cx

## ; the slope of the line 2x b y 0 is c2. In order to be

y" c2y" (x" c a) or a x" b " . Since x" 0 on the curve, we must have that a " . By symmetry, the # # two points on the parabola are x" x" and x" cx" . For the normal to be perpendicular,
" Therefore, " # and a 4 3 4
# " " " " " "

x x ca acx

c1

x (a c x )

" #

c x" x"

" 4

## 72. Ex. 6b.) Ex. 7a.)

y x"# has no derivative at x 0 because the slope of the graph becomes vertical at x 0. y a1 c x# b has a derivative only on (c" ") because the function is defined only on [c" "] and the slope of the tangent becomes vertical at both x c1 and x 1.
\$

"%

\$

dx dy

b x# b y 2x

dx dy

dx dy

dx dy

dx dy

appears to equal

dy dx

"

# # \$

dy dx

b y\$ b x#

dy dx

b 2xy 0

dy dx

## a3xy# b x# b cy\$ c 2xy

dy dx

"

71. y# x

dy dx

" #y

. If a normal is drawn from (a 0) to (x" y" ) on the curve its slope satisfies

(1 1)

1)

## also, y# x\$ 2yyw 3x# yw

3x 2y

yw k (1 1)

3x 2y

3 #

and yw k (1

3x 2y

(1

1)

3 c # . Therefore

xby 3y c x

y c0 x ca

c2y"

cy c 2xy 3xy b x

(1 1)

## 68. 2x# b 3y# 5 4x b 6yyw 0 yw c 2x yw k (1 1) c 2x 3y 3y

b1 #c

1 #

; therefore

dy dx t

sin 1 b 1 cos 1 c 2
cos

c41 c 8 2b1

c4

## t sin t c 2t y sin t b t cos t c 2

dx dt dy dt ;

1 (sin t b 2) thus
dy dx

dx dt

1 c x cos t

dx dt

## 1 c x cos t sin tb2

; t 1 x sin 1 b 2x 1

## claim f ww (x) xc"\$ is false

c 2 and yw k (1 3

1)

c 2x 3y

(1

1)

2 3

## Section 3.6 Implicit Differentiation

symmetric across the line y x, so their slopes are reciprocals of one another at the corresponding points (a b) and (b a).
#

167

#

dy dx

(2 sin y)(cos y)
dx dy

dy dx

dy dx

#

dy dx

## c3x 2y c 2 sin y cos y dx dy

3x 2 sin y cos y c 2y

## ; also, x\$ b y# sin# y 3x#

dy dx

b 2y 2 sin y cos y

dx dy

2 sin y cos y c 2y 3x

; thus

"

. The two different treatments view the graphs as functions symmetric across the line

y x so their slopes are reciprocals of one another at the corresponding points (a b) and (b a). 75. x% b 4y# 1: (a)
\$ %

(b) y " a1 c x b 4
\$

#" % \$ % \$ # "

dy dx

c4x 8y

c4x 8 1 c x

x a1 c x b

## 76. (x c 2)# b y# 4: (a) y 4 c (x c 2)#

dy " dx # (x c 2) c4 c (x c 2) d

a4 c (x c 2)# b
dy dx

c"#

(c2(x c 2))

; differentiating implicitly, 0
#" #

2(x c 2) b 2y
c(x c 2) y

dy dx

77-84. Example CAS commands: Maple: q1 := x^3-x*y+y^3 = 7; pt := [x=2,y=1]; p1 := implicitplot( q1, x=-3..3, y=-3..3 ): p1;

#" #

c(x c 2) c4 c (x c 2) d

c2(x c 2) 2y (x c 2) c4 c (x c #) d

#" %

y 1 cx 4 dy dx
#

" 1 # % c"#

x%
x a1 c x b

ac4x\$ b

; 0

dy dx

(b)

#" #

168

Chapter 3 Differentiation

eval( q1, pt ); q2 := implicitdiff( q1, y, x ); m := eval( q2, pt ); tan_line := y = 1 + m*(x-2); p2 := implicitplot( tan_line, x=-5..5, y=-5..5, color=green ): p3 := pointplot( eval([x,y],pt), color=blue ): display( [p1,p2,p3], ="Section 3.6 #77(c)" ); Mathematica: (functions and x0 may vary): Note use of double equal sign (logic statement) in definition of eqn and tanline. <<Graphics`ImplicitPlot` Clear[x, y] {x0, y0}={1, 1/4}; eqn=x + Tan[y/x]==2; ImplicitPlot[eqn,{ x, x0 c 3, x0 b 3},{y, y0 c 3, y0 b 3}] eqn/.{x x0, y y0} eqn/.{ y y[x]} D[%, x] Solve[%, y'[x]] slope=y'[x]/.First[%] m=slope/.{x x0, y[x] y0} tanline=y==y0 b m (x c x0) ImplicitPlot[{eqn, tanline}, {x, x0 c 3, x0 b 3},{y, y0 c 3, y0 + 3}] 3.7 RELATED RATES 1. A 1r# 2. S 41r#
dA dt dS dt

21r 81r
dV dt dV dt

dr dt dr dt dh dt # dh 1r dt

3. (a) V 1r# h (c) V 1r# h 4. (a) V " 1r# h 3 (c) 5. (a) (c) (d)
dV dt dV dt dV dt dR dt

1 r#

## (b) V 1r# h b 21rh

dr dt

dV dt

21rh

dr dt

dV dt " # dh 2 3 1r dt b 3 1rh

" # dh 3 1r dt dr dt

## (b) V " 1r# h 3

dV dt

2 3 1rh

dr dt

" 1 volt/sec (b) dI c 3 amp/sec dt R dI b I dR dR " dV c R dI dR " dV c V dI dt dt dt I dt dt dt I dt I dt " " " <1 c 12 c 3 # (3) 3 ohms/sec, R is increasing # # # dP dt

6. (a) P RI#

I#
dP dt

dR dt

b 2RI
dR dt

dI dt
\$ # #

(b) P RI# 0

I#

b 2RI

dI dt

dR dt

c 2RI I
dx dt

dI dt

2 P dI I I dt

c 2P I

dI dt

(c) s x# b y# s# x# b y# 2s

ds dt

2x

dx dt

8. (a) s x# b y# b z# s# x# b y# b z# 2s

ds dt

2x

dx dt

(b) s x# b y# ax# b y# b

"#

ds dt

x x b y

7. (a) s x# b y# ax# b y# b

"#

ds dt

x x b y

dx dt

y x b y 2y dy dt

dy dt dx dt dz dt

2s 0 2x b 2y
dy dt

b 2y

dy dt

dx dt

cy x

dy dt

b 2z

## Section 3.7 Related Rates

# # # # # # # # #

169

ds dt

x x b y b z

dx dt

y x b y b z

## (c) From part (a) with 9. (a) A (c) A

" # " #

ds dt

0
" # " #

ab sin ) ab sin )
dr dt

dA dt dA dt

ab cos ) ab cos )

d) dt d) dt

## (b) A b " b sin ) #

da dt

b " a sin ) #
dA dt

" #

10. Given A 1r# , 1 cm# /min. 11. Given (a) (b) (c)

21r

## (5)(2) b(12)(c2) 25 b 144 dV dt

c 14 cm/sec, decreasing 13 yz
dx dt

(b) S 2xy b 2xz b 2yz dS (2y b 2z) dx b (2x b 2z) dt dt dS (10)(1) b (12)(c2) b (14)(1) 0 m# /sec dt
(4 3 2)

13. Given:

dx dt

dy dt

## (a) Since x# b y# 169

" #

(b) The area of the triangle formed by the ladder and walls is A is changing at (c) cos )
x 13

## 14. s# y# b x# 2s c614 knots

15. Let s represent the distance between the girl and the kite and x represents the horizontal distance between the girl and kite s# (300)# b x#
ds dt

" 16. When the diameter is 3.8 in., the radius is 1.9 in. and dr 3000 in/min. Also V 61r# dt " dV 121(1.9) 3000 0.00761. The volume is changing at about 0.0239 in\$ /min. dt

(b)

(a)

cm/sec

17. V

" " 4h # 1 3 3r 4h # h 1627h 3 1r h, h 8 (2r) 4 r 3 V 3 1 3 dh 90 9 dt h=4 1614 (10) 2561 0.1119 m/sec 11.19 cm/sec 4 4 90 15 r 4h dr 3 dh 3 2561 321 0.1492 m/sec 14.92 3 dt dt

dj dt (4 3 2)

cx y

dx dt

" #

xy

dA dt

" x #

dy dt

by

dx dt .

d) dt

csin )
ds dt

" 13

dx dt

d) dt

" c 13 sin )

dx dt

## " c 5 (5) c1 rad/sec " 169

2x

dx dt

b 2y

dy dt

ds dt

" s

dx dt

by

dy dt

ds dt

[5(c442) b 12(c481)]

x dx s dt

400(25) 500

20 ft/sec.
dV dt

121r

dV dt

161h 9

dh dt

(c) j x# b y# b z# ax# b y# b z# b

"#

dj dt

x x b y b z

b xz

dy dt

b xy

dz dt

dV dt (4 3 2)

## (3)(2)(1) b (4)(2)(c2) b (4)(3)(1) 2 m\$ /sec

dy dt

b (2x b 2y)
dx dt

dz dt

y x b y b z

dy dt

z x b y b z

dw dt 2 cm/sec, j 12 cm and w 5 cm. A jw j dw b w dj dA 12(2) b 5(c2) 14 cm# /sec, increasing dt dt dt P 2j b 2w dP 2 dj b 2 dw 2(c2) b 2(2) 0 cm/sec, constant dt dt dt w# b j# aw# b j# b"# dD " aw# b j# bc"# 2w dw b 2j dj dD D dt # dt dt dt dA dt

dj dt

c2 cm/sec,

## (b) From part (a) with

dx dt

z dz x b y b z dt y dy ds z dz dt x b y b z dt b x b y b z dt 0 2x dx b 2y dy b 2z dz dx b y dy dt dt dt dt x dt

dy dt

z dz x dt dA dt

0
" #

ab sin )
db dt

ab cos )

d) dt

b " b sin ) #

da dt

dr dt

, then

dA dt r=50

## " 21(50) 100

w dw b j d dt dt w b j

dz dt

The area

dr dt

170

Chapter 3 Differentiation
# # # \$

18. (a) V

" 3

1r# h and r

15h #

" 3

1 15h h #

751h 4

dV dt

2251h 4

dh dt

dh dt h=5

4(c50) 2251(5)

c8 2251

c0.0113 m/min c1.13 cm/min c8 (b) r 15h dr 15 dh dr h=5 15 2251 # dt # dt dt # 19. (a) V
1 3

c4 151

## c0.0849 m/sec c8.49 cm/sec

dy dt

y# (3R c y)
dy dt "#

dV dt

1 3

c2y(3R c y) b y# (c1)d
# c" 241

dy dt

c" dV dt

at R 13 and

c5 2881 4 3

#

m/min
c"#

dr dt

a26y c y# b

(26 c 2y)

dy dt

dr dt

13 c y 26y c y

dy dt

dr dt y=8

13 c 8 268 c 64

c" #4 1

m/min
dV dt

kS 4k1r# , then

dV dt

41r#

dr dt

4k1r# 41r#

dr dt

dr dt

k, a constant.

## Therefore, the radius is increasing at a constant rate. 21. If V 81r

4 dV dV dr \$ \$ # dr 3 1r , r 5, and dt 1001 ft /min, then dt 41r dt dt dr # dt 81(5)(1) 401 ft /min, the rate at which the surface area

## 1 ft/min. Then S 41r# is increasing.

dS dt

22. Let s represent the length of the rope and x the horizontal distance of the boat from the dock. s ds (a) We have s# x# b 36 dx x ds s dt dt dt . Therefore, the boat is approaching the dock at
s c 36
#

23. Let s represent the distance between the bicycle and balloon, h the height of the balloon and x the horizontal distance between the balloon and the bicycle. The relationship between the variables is s# h# b x# " ds " h dh b x dx ds 85 [68(1) b 51(17)] 11 ft/sec. dt s dt dt dt 24. (a) Let h be the height of the coffee in the pot. Since the radius of the pot is 3, the volume of the coffee is 10 V 91h dV 91 dh the rate the coffee is rising is dh 9" dV 91 in/min. dt dt dt 1 dt (b) Let h be the height of the coffee in the pot. From the figure, the radius of the filter r
# \$

1h 1#

dy dt

## 26. (a) (b)

dc dt dc dt dp dt

#

dx dt c#

dx dt #

## 3.5 c (c1.5625) 5.0625

27. Let P(x y) represent a point on the curve y x# and ) the angle of inclination of a line containing P and the
# #

#"

y x

tan )

#"

#"c

# "

x y bx

3 9 b3

" 10

, we have
(cx) x

sec# )

y x

tan )

25. y QDc"

d) dt

6 8 10 10

(c2) c

3 20

Dc"

dQ dt

c QDc#

dD dt

" 41

(0) c

(b) cos )

6 r

c sin )

dx dt s=10

10 10 c 36

d) dt

c r6

dr dt

d) dt

6 dr r sin ) dt

## . Thus, r 10, x 8, and sin )

8 10

h #

" 3

1r# h

dh dt

4 1h

dV dt

4 #5 1

(c10) c 58 in/min. 1

233 (41)

(c2)

466 1681

dx dt

dr dt c#

9(0.1) 0.9,
dr dt

dp dt

dx dt

70

70(0.05) 3.5,

dx dt

d) dt

cos# )

dx dt

. Since

dx dt

10 m/sec

d) dt

(cx)

(c1)x c (cx) x

(1) dx dt

## Section 3.7 Related Rates

#

171

d) dt

d) dt

2
4

4 16 4 (c8) 5

c2

30. When s represents the length of the shadow and x the distance of the man from the streetlight, then s
dI dt ds dt

(a) If I represents the distance of the tip of the shadow from the streetlight, then I s b x b dx dt 8 8 (which is velocity not speed) dI 3 dx b dx 5 dx 5 kc5k 8 ft/sec, the speed the tip of the dt 5 dt dt dt (b) shadow is moving along the ground. ds 3 dx 3 dt 5 dt 5 (c5) c3 ft/sec, so the length of the shadow is decreasing at a rate of 3 ft/sec.

31. Let s 16t# represent the distance the ball has fallen, h the distance between the ball and the ground, and I the distance between the shadow and the point directly beneath the ball. Accordingly, s b h 50 and since the triangle LOQ and triangle PRQ are similar we have 30
dI dt

c 1500 8t
\$

dI dt t= 1 2

c1500 ft/sec.
s 13#

32. Let s distance of car from foot of perpendicular in the textbook diagram tan ) right of the perpendicular k)k 1 , cos# ) " , and 4 # 33. The volume of the ice is V
4 3
#

d) dt

cos ) ds 132 dt

ds dt

c264 and ) 0

d) dt

ds dt

dr dt

1r\$ c 4 14\$ 3
5 721

dV dt

41r#

10 3

dr dt r=6

c5 721

in./min when
dS dt

dV dt

81r

dr dt

## c10 in\$ /min, the c dS 481 725 dt 1

r=6

34. Let s represent the horizontal distance between the car and plane while r is the line-of-sight distance between dr ds 5 the car and plane 9 b s# r# ds r dt dt dt r=5 16 (c160) c200 mph
r c9
#

speed of plane b speed of car 200 mph the speed of the car is 80 mph.
# #

# #

d) dt

0.27
1 )

31 #000

31 16

3 5

10

c" c 10

" 4 40 5

## " c 10 rad/sec c 18 /sec c6/sec 1 dx dt

37. Let x represent distance of the player from second base and s the distance to third base. Then (a) s x b 8100 2s
# # ds dt

c16 ft/sec

2x

dx dt

ds dt

x dx s dt

## . When the player is 30 ft from first base, x 60

" 36. Let A represent the side opposite ) and B represent the side adjacent ). tan ) A sec# ) d) B dA c B dt dt 20 2 d) " 10 4 t at A 10 m and B 20 m we have cos ) and dt < #0 (c2) c 400 (1) 5

dx dt

sec cx 80 ) d) dt

d dt

A dB B dt

80 x

sec# )

d) dt

c 80 x

dx dt

dx dt

# "

## 30h 50 c h 1500 16t c

#

h 50 c 16t# and I

" #

a x# b y # b

c"#

2x

dx dt

b 2y

dy dt (5 12)

c5 m/sec
3 5

d) dt 132

c c

c cx x

2 c4

## 2 " c # cos ) c 5 cos# )

4 5

. Then

ds dt (5 12)

x.

sec# )

d) dt

" ds 13# dt

cx sec ) d) 80 dt

172

Chapter 3 Differentiation
s 3013 and
ds dt

60 3013
"

(c16)
ds dt
#

c32 13

c8.875 ft/sec
" #

x!

38. Let a represent the distance between point O and ship A, b the distance between point O and ship B, and D the distance between the ships. By the Law of Cosines, D# a# b b# c 2ab cos 120 dD #" <2a da b 2b db b a db b b da . When a 5, da 14, b 3, and db 21, then dD 413 dt D dt dt dt dt dt dt dt 2D where D 7. The ships are moving
dD dt

3.8 LINEARIZATION AND DIFFERENTIALS 1. f(x) x\$ c 2x b 3 f w (x) 3x# c 2 L(x) f w (2)(x c 2) b f(2) 10(x c 2) b 7 L(x) 10x c 13 at x 2 2. f(x) x# b 9 ax# b 9b
"#

c 4 (x b 4) b 5 L(x) c 4 x b 5 5 3. f(x) x b
" x

9 5

at x c4

## f w (x) 1 c xc# L(x) f(1) b f w (1)(x c 1) # b !(x c 1) #

" \$x

5. f(x) x# b 2x f w (x) 2x b 2 L(x) f w (0)(x c 0) b f(0) 2(x c 0) b 0 L(x) 2x at x 0 6. f(x) xc" f w (x) cxc# L(x) f w (1)(x c 1) b f(1) (c1)(x c 1) b 1 L(x) cx b 2 at x 1 7. f(x) 2x# b 4x c 3 f w (x) 4x b 4 L(x) f w (c1)(x b 1) b f(c1) 0(x b 1) b (c5) L(x) c5 at x c1 8. f(x) 1 b x f w (x) 1 L(x) f w (8)(x c 8) b f(8) 1(x c 8) b 9 L(x) x b 1 at x 8 9. f(x) \$ x x"\$ f w (x) " xc#\$ L(x) f w (8)(x c 8) b f(8) 3 10. f(x)
x xb1 " 1#

L(x)

" 4

xb

" 4

at x 1

f w (x)

(1)(x b 1) c (")(x) (x b 1)

\$#

" (x b 1)

c90 dx b 8100 dt

lim

d) x ! dt

" 6

c"#

(2x)

x x b 9

## L(x) f w (c4)(x b 4) b f(c4)

" 1#

(x b 8) c 2 L(x)

(x c 8) b 2 L(x)
" 4

(x c 1) b

x!

lim x

90 b 8100 (c15)

d) dt

c90 s cos )

ds dt

c90 x dx cs90 dx s x s dt dt

"

"

"

(c)

d) dt

c90 sx

ds dt . 90 s sin )

d) dt

" 1#

xc

4 3

" 1#

" #

"

d) dt

90 3013 (60)

c 32 13

c8 65

"

90 s

csin )"

d) dt

c 90 s

d) dt

90 s sin )

ds dt

90 sx

ds dt d) dt

ds dt

90 s

cos )#

d) dt

c90 s cos )

ds dt

xb

4 3

at x 8

## Section 3.8 Linearization and Differentials

11. f(x) sin x f w (x) cos x (a) L(x) f w (0)(x c 0) b f(0) 1(x c 0) b 0 L(x) x at x 0 (b) L(x) f w (1)(x c 1) b f(1) (c1)(x c 1) b 0 L(x) 1 c x at x 1

173

12. f(x) cos x f w (x) csin x (a) L(x) f w (0)(x c 0) b f(0) 0(x c 0) b 1 L(x) 1 at x 0 (b) L(x) f w c 1 x b 1 b f c 1 # # # at x c 1 # c(c1) x b 1 b 0 L(x) x b #
1 2

13. f(x) sec x f w (x) sec x tan x (a) L(x) f w (0)(x c 0) b f(0) 0(x c 0) b 1 L(x) 1 at x 0 (b) L(x) f w c 1 x b 1 b f c 1 3 3 3 c23 x b 1 b 2 L(x) 2 c 23 x b 1 3 3 at x c 1 3

14. f(x) tan x f w (x) sec# x (a) L(x) f w (0)(x c 0) b f(0) 1(x c 0) b 0 x L(x) x at x 0 (b) L(x) f w 1 x c 1 b f 1 2 x c 1 b 1 4 4 4 4 L(x) 1 b 2 x c 1 at x 1 4 4

15. f w axb ka" b xbkc" . We have fa!b " and f w a!b k. Laxb fa!b b f w a!bax c !b " b kax c !b " b kx 16. (a) faxb a" c xb' <" b acxb " b 'acxb " c 'x (b) faxb
# " cx '

#<" b acxb
c"#

c"

#<" b ac"bacxb # b #x
"x # #

\$x "\$ %

%"\$ " b

" \$x \$ %

%"\$ " b x %

## " b c " x " c x # # "# #" b x #" #

#" b

x %

174

Chapter 3 Differentiation
" 2\$ #bx " " b c # b x 2\$ # " " b \$ c # b x " c # 'b\$x

## (f) faxb " c

17. (a) (1.0002)&! (1 b 0.0002)&! 1 b 50(0.0002) 1 b .01 1.01 (b) \$ 1.009 (1 b 0.009)"\$ 1 b " (0.009) 1 b 0.003 1.003
3

18. f(x) x b 1 b sin x (x b 1)"# b sin x f w (x) " (x b 1)c"# b cos x Lf (x) f w (0)(x c 0) b f(0) # 3 (x c 0) b 1 Lf (x) 3 x b 1, the linearization of f(x); g(x) x b 1 (x b 1)"# gw (x) h(x) sin x h (x) cos x Lh (x) h (0)(x c 0) b h(0) (1)(x c 0) b 0 Lh (x) x, the linearization of h(x). Lf (x) Lg (x) b Lh (x) implies that the linearization of a sum is equal to the sum of the linearizations.
3 19. y x\$ c 3x x\$ c 3x"# dy 3x# c # xc"# dx dy 3x# c 3 2 x

## " (x b 1)c"# Lg (x) gw (0)(x c 0) b g(0) #

w w

" #

(x c 0) b 1 Lg (x)

" #

dx

## "# "# c"# 20. y x1 c x# x a1 c x# b dy (1) a1 c x# b b (x) " a1 c x# b (c2x) dx #

# #

a1 c x# b 21. y 22. y
2x 1 bx

c"#

ca1 c x# b c x# d dx
#

a1 c 2x b 1 c x

dx
#

23. 2y\$# b xy c x 0 3y"# dy b y dx b x dy c dx 0 3y"# b x dy (1 c y) dx dy 24. xy# c 4x\$# c y 0 y# dx b 2xy dy c 6x"# dx c dy 0 (2xy c 1) dy 6x"# c y# dx dy
#

6 x c y 2xy c 1

dx
5 cos 5x 2 x

25. y sin 5x sin 5x"# dy cos 5x"# 5 xc"# dx dy # 26. y cos ax# b dy ccsin ax# bd (2x) dx c2x sin ax# b dx 27. y 4 tan x dy 4 sec# x ax# b dx dy 4x# sec# x dx 3 3 3
\$ \$ \$

28. y sec ax# c 1b dy csec ax# c 1b tan ax# c 1bd (2x) dx 2x csec ax# c 1b tan ax# c 1bd dx 29. y 3 csc 1 c 2x 3 csc 1 c 2x"# dy 3 ccsc 1 c 2x"# cot 1 c 2x"# cxc"# dx 3 dy csc 1 c 2x cot 1 c 2x dx
x " " 30. y 2 cot x 2 cot xc"# dy c2 csc# xc"# c # xc\$# dx dy " x " csc# x dx

31. f(x) x# b 2x, x! 1, dx 0.1 f w (x) 2x b 2 (a) ?f f(x! b dx) c f(x! ) f(1.1) c f(1) 3.41 c 3 0.41 (b) df f w (x! ) dx [2(1) b 2](0.1) 0.4

dy

" 3 x 1 b x

dx
1 cy 3 y bx

# #"

# #"

9 a1 b x

#"c

#"

#"

2x 3 a1 b x

dy

#"c

#"

#"

#"c

2 x 3 1 b x

3 1 b x

# #

## c dy (2) a1 b1xbb x b(2x)(2x) dx a

# #

2 c 2x a1 b x b

dx
3 x

c 2x

dx

b3c3 3x 9 a1 b x b

dx

dx

dx

## Section 3.8 Linearization and Differentials

(c) k?f c df k k0.41 c 0.4k 0.01 32. f(x) 2x# b 4x c 3, x! c1, dx 0.1 f w (x) 4x b 4 (a) ?f f(x! b dx) c f(x! ) f(c.9) c f(c1) .02 (b) df f w (x! ) dx [4(c1) b 4](.1) 0 (c) k?f c df k k.02 c 0k .02 33. f(x) x\$ c x, x! 1, dx 0.1 f w (x) 3x# c 1 (a) ?f f(x! b dx) c f(x! ) f(1.1) c f(1) .231 (b) df f w (x! ) dx [3(1)# c 1](.1) .2 (c) k?f c df k k.231 c .2k .031 34. f(x) x% , x! 1, dx 0.1 f w (x) 4x\$ (a) ?f f(x! b dx) c f(x! ) f(1.1) c f(1) .4641 (b) df f w (x! ) dx 4(1)\$ (.1) .4 (c) k?f c df k k.4641 c .4k .0641 35. f(x) xc" , x! 0.5, dx 0.1 f w (x) cxc# (a) ?f f(x! b dx) c f(x! ) f(.6) c f(.5) c " 3 " (b) df f w (x! ) dx (c4) 10 c 2 5 (c) k?f c df k c " b 2 3 5
" 15

175

36. f(x) x\$ c 2x b 3, x! 2, dx 0.1 f w (x) 3x# c 2 (a) ?f f(x! b dx) c f(x! ) f(2.1) c f(2) 1.061 (b) df f w (x! ) dx (10)(0.10) 1 (c) k?f c df k k1.061 c 1k .061 37. V
4 3 # 1r\$ dV 41r! dr # 38. V x\$ dV 3x! dx

## 39. S 6x# dS 12x! dx 40. S 1rr# b h# 1r ar# b h# b

# #

"#

, h constant
#

dS dr

1 ar# b h# b

"#

b 1r r ar# b h# b

c"#

dS dr

r b h

41. V 1r# h, height constant dV 21r! h dr 43. Given r 2 m, dr .02 m (a) A 1r# dA 21r dr 21(2)(.02) .081 m# (b) .081 (100%) 2% 41 44. C 21r and dC 2 in. dC 21 dr dr " 21(5) 1 10 in.#
" 1

## 45. The volume of a cylinder is V 1r# h. When h is held fixed, we have

r ' in., and dr !& in., the volume of the material in the shell is approximately dV #1rh dr #1a'ba\$!ba!&b ")!1 &'&& in\$ .

! # ! #

1 ar b h b b 1 r r b h

dS

1 a2r b h b

2 1

dV dr

## #1rh, and so dV #1rh dr. For h \$! in.,

176

Chapter 3 Differentiation

46. Let ) angle of elevation and h height of building. Then h \$!tan ), so dh \$!sec# ) d). We want ldhl  !!%h, " which gives: l\$!sec# ) d)l  !!%l\$!tan )l cos ) ld)l  !!%sin ) ld)l  !!%sin ) cos ) ld)l  !!%sin &1 cos &1 "# "# cos ) !!" radian. The angle should be measured with an error of less than !!" radian (or approximatley !&( degrees), which is a percentage error of approximately !('%.
\$ #

of h is

" 3

%. and h 10 V
# # #

48. (a) Let Di represent the inside diameter. Then V 1r# h 1 Di h # 51Di dDi
#

1Di 40

dDi Di

## 200. The inside diameter must be measured to within 0.5%.

(b) Let De represent the exterior diameter, h the height and S the area of the painted surface. S 1De h dS 1hdDe dS dDee . Thus for small changes in exterior diameter, the approximate percentage change in the exterior diameter S D is equal to the approximate percentage change in the area painted, and to estimate the amount of paint required to within 5%, the tanks's exterior diameter must be measured to within 5%.
#

49. V 1r# h, h is constant dV 21rh dr; recall that ?V dV. We want k?Vk
#

" 1000

V kdVk

1r h 1000

k21rh drk

1r h 1000

kdrk

r #000

## 50. Volume (x b ?x)\$ x\$ b 3x# (?x) b 3x(?x)# b (?x)\$

gravity on the moon has about 38 times the effect that a change of the same magnitude has on Earth. 52. (a) T 21 L g
"#

## dT 21L c " gc\$# dg c1L gc\$# dg #

(b) If g increases, then dg 0 dT  0. The period T decreases and the clock ticks more frequently. Both the pendulum speed and clock speed increase. (c) 0.001 c1100 980c\$# dg dg c0.977 cm/sec# the new g 979 cm/sec# 53. The error in measurement dx (1%)(10) 0.1 cm; V x\$ dV 3x# dx 3(10)# (0.1) 30 cm\$ the 30 percentage error in the volume calculation is 1000 (100%) 3%

51. W a b

b g

## a b bgc" dW cbgc# dg c bgdg

dWmoon dWearth

b dg (5.2) b dg c (32)

k31h# dhk

kdhk

" 300

## h " % h. Therefore the greatest tolerated error in the measurement 3

1 Di h 4

47. V 1h\$ dV 31h# dh; recall that ?V dV. Then k?Vk (1%)(V)

kdVk

5 1 Di # 1D 40i

# # # #

177

#

2s 100

s 50

kdAk

s 50

k2s dsk

s 50

kdsk

s (2s)(50)

s 100

% \$

6 6 10 10

4 3

1 D #

1D 6

dV

1 #

D# dD

1 #

(100)# (1)

10 1 #

. Then

dV V

(100%)

# #

## 57. A 5% error in measuring t dt (5%)t

(10%)s a 10% error in the calculation of s. 58. From Example 8 we have 59. lim
1 b x 1b x
#

dV V

dr r

## . An increase of 12.5% in r will give a 50% increase in V. 60. lim

tan x x " lim sin x cos x (1)(1) 1 x

61. E(x) f(x) c g(x) E(x) f(x) c m(x c a) c c. Then E(a) 0 f(a) c m(a c a) c c 0 c f(a). Next 0 xlima f(x) c m(x c a) c c 0 xlima f(x) c f(a) c m 0 (since c f(a)) xca xca w w w f (a) c m 0 m f (a). Therefore, g(x) m(x c a) b c f (a)(x c a) b f(a) is the linear approximation, as claimed. we calculate m: xlima
E(x) xca

62. (a) i. Qaab faab implies that b! faab. ii. Since Qw axb b" b #b# ax c ab, Qw aab f w aab implies that b" f w aab.
f aa b # . f aa b # .
ww

In summary, b! faab, b" f w aab, and b" (b) faxb a" c xbc" f w axb c"a" c xbc# ac"b a" c xbc#

f ww axb c#a" c xbc\$ ac"b #a" c xbc\$ Since fa!b ", f w a!b ", and f ww a!b #, the coefficients are b! ", b" ", b# approximation is Qaxb " b x b x . (c)
#

As one zooms in, the two graphs quickly become indistinguishable. They appear to be identical.

(d) gaxb xc" gw axb c"xc# gww axb #xc\$ Since ga"b ", gw a"b c", and gww a"b # , the coefficients are b! ", b" c", b#

ww

iii. Since Qww axb #b# , Qww aab f ww aab implies that b"

x0

1 b 0 1b 0

1D 200

kdVk

1D 200

1D dD #

1D #00

kdDk

D 100

t 20

32t 20

16t 10

x0

x0

# #

# #

56. V

4 3

1 r\$

4 3

1 D #

1'

1' #

1% 1'

1D 6

dV

1D #

## 3 dD; recall that ?V dV. Then k?Vk (3%)V 100 1D 6

" 10 s

178

Chapter 3 Differentiation
approximation is Qaxb " c ax c "b b ax c "b# . As one zooms in, the two graphs quickly become indistinguishable. They appear to be identical.

(e) haxb a" b xb"# hw axb " a" b xbc"# # hww axb c " a" b xbc\$# %
#

## approximation is Qaxb " b

x #

x 8

. As one zooms in, the two graphs quickly become indistinguishable. They appear to be identical.

(f) The linearization of any differentiable function uaxb at x a is Laxb uaab b uw aabax c ab b! b b" ax c ab, where b! and b" are the coefficients of the constant and linear terms of the quadratic approximation. Thus, the linearization for faxb at x ! is " b x; the linearization for gaxb at x " is " c ax c "b or # c x; and the linearization for haxb at x ! is " b x . # 63. (a) x 1

x 0; m 1, e0 1

## x c1; m 0.3, ec1 0.4

% "

Since ha!b ", hw a!b " , and hww a!b c " , the coefficients are b! ", b" " , b# # % #

c 2

## Section 3.8 Linearization and Differentials

64. If f has a horizontal tangent at x a, then f w (a) 0 and the linearization of f at x a is L(x) f(a) b f w (a)(x c a) f(a) b 0 (x c a) f(a). The linearization is a constant.
# ! # # # # !

179

m " c
\$

m m

v 0.69c.

66. (a) The successive square roots of 2 appear to converge to the number 1. For tenth roots the convergence is more rapid. (b) Successive square roots of 0.5 also converge to 1. In fact, successive square roots of any positive number converge to 1. A graph indicates what is going on:

Starting on the line y x, the succesSive square roots are found by moving to the graph of y x and then across to the line y x again. From any positive starting value x, the iterates converge to 1. 67-70. Example CAS commands: Maple: with(plots): a:= 1: f:=x -> x 3 b x 2 c 2*x; plot(f(x), x=c1..2); diff(f(x),x); fp := unapply (ww ,x); L:=x -> f(a) b fp(a)*(x c a); plot({f(x), L(x)}, x=c1..2); err:=x -> abs(f(x) c L(x)); plot(err(x), x=c1..2, title = #absolute error function#); err(c1); Mathematica: (function, x1, x2, and a may vary): Clear[f, x] {x1, x2} = {c1, 2}; a = 1; f[x_]:=x3 b x2 c 2x Plot[f[x], {x, x1, x2}] lin[x_]=f[a] b f'[a](x c a) Plot[{f[x], lin[x]}, {x, x1, x2}] err[x_]=Abs[f[x] c lin[x]]

#"!" #!!"

! #!!" # #"!" ! #

! #

dv
\$!!" \$"!"

c m m3 " c
!

m "!!

## 0.69c. Body at rest v! ! and v v! b dv

# ! #

! #

\$ ! #

# ! #

# ! #

lvl c" c

m m

dv c " " c #

# #

"c v

m m

c"#

m dm, dm !!"m! dv

#m

cm

v c

v c

m m

v c

m "!! . m

"!" "!! m! ,

# ! #

# ! #

## 65. Find lvl when m "!"m! . m

m" c

m! " c

"c

m m

v# c# " c

m m

180

Chapter 3 Differentiation

Plot[err[x], {x, x1,x 2}] err//N After reviewing the error function, plot the error function and epsilon for differing values of epsilon (eps) and delta (del) eps = 0.5; del = 0.4 Plot[{err[x], eps},{x, a c del, a b del}] CHAPTER 3 PRACTICE EXERCISES 1. y x& c 0.125x# b 0.25x 2. y 3 c 0.7x\$ b 0.3x( 3. y x\$ c 3 ax# b 1# b 4. y x( b 7x c
" 1 b1 dy dx dy dx dy dx dy dx

## 5x% c 0.25x b 0.25

c2.1x# b 2.1x' 3x# c 3(2x b 0) 3x# c 6x 3x(x c 2) 7x' b 7 (x b 1)# (2x b 2) b ax# b 2xb (2(x b 1)) 2(x b 1) c(x b 1)# b x(x b 2)d

## 5. y (x b 1)# ax# b 2xb 2(x b 1) a2x b 4x b 1b 6. y (2x c 5)(4 c x)c" 3(4 c x)

c# #

dy dx

dy dx

(2x c 5)(c1)(4 c x)c# (c1) b (4 c x)c" (2) (4 c x)c# c(2x c 5) b 2(4 c x)d

7. y a)# b sec ) b 1b
#

dy d)

## 3 a)# b sec ) b 1b (2) b sec ) tan ))

# #

8. y c1 c
t 1 b t

csc ) #

) 4

dy d)

2 c1 c

"

csc ) #

) 4

) csc )#cot ) c # c1 c

csc ) #

) 4

(csc ) cot ) c ))

" sin x
#

dy dx

## (4 tan x) asec# xb c (2 sec x)(sec x tan x) 2 sec# x tan x

dy dx

2 sin x

csc# x c 2 csc x
ds dt

(2 csc x)(ccsc x cot x) c 2(c csc x cot x) (2 csc x cot x)(1 c csc x)

ds dt

6 t

## 15. s (sec t b tan t)&

ds dt

5(sec t b tan t)% asec t tan t b sec# tb 5(sec t)(sec t b tan t)&
ds dt

&

## 5 csc% a1 c t b 3t# b accsc a1 c t b 3t# b cot a1 c t b 3t# bb (c1 b 6t)

c5(6t c 1) csc a1 c t b 3t# b cot a1 c t b 3t# b 17. r 2) sin ) (2) sin ))"#
dr d)

" #

## (2) sin ))c"# (#) cos ) b 2 sin ))

3 cot# 2 ccsc# 2 c2 t t t
#

ds dt

t c 1

10. s

" t c 1

"

t c 1 (0) c 1

c" 2 t t c 1

cot# 2 csc# 2 t t

ds dt

1 b t

9. s

"

1 b t

c t

1 b t c t 2t 1 b t

" #t 1 b t

## Chapter 3 Practice Exercises

18. r 2)cos ) 2) (cos ))"#
2 cos ) c ) sin ) cos ) dr d)

181

c) sin ) cos )

b 2cos )

" # dr d)

dr d)

## cos 2) 2) 2)b"b1 # ) b " 2 x

cos ) b ) b 1 1 b
2 x

" 2 ) b 1

cos ) b ) b 1
2 x

22. y 2x sin x

dy dx

## 24. y x csc (x b 1)\$ x"# csc (x b 1)\$

dy dx

x"# accsc (x b 1)\$ cot (x b 1)\$ b a3(x b 1)# b b csc (x b 1)\$ " xc"# # b 1)\$ c1 c 6x(x b 1)# cot (x b 1)\$ d
dy dx
\$

" csc(x # x

csc (x b 1) 2 x

" #

## 25. y 5 cot x# 26. y x# cot 5x

5 accsc# x# b (2x) c10x csc# ax# b x# accsc# 5xb (5) b (cot 5x)(2x) c5x# csc# 5x b 2x cot 5x
dy dx dy dx

dy dx

## 27. y x# sin# a2x# b 28. y xc# sin# ax\$ b

4t 29. s t b 1 c#

x# a2 sin a2x# bb acos a2x# bb (4x) b sin# a2x# b (2x) 8x\$ sin a2x# b cos a2x# b b 2x sin# a2x# b xc# a2 sin ax\$ bb acos ax\$ bb a3x# b b sin# ax\$ b ac2xc\$ b 6 sin ax\$ b cos ax\$ b c 2xc\$ sin# ax\$ b
c\$ 4t (t b 1)(4) c (4t)(1) c2 t b 1 (t b 1)
#

## 34. y 4xx b x 4x x b x"#

c"# x b x 2x 1 b " # x

"#

dy dx

4x " x b x"# #

c"#

## 1 b " xc"# b x b x"# "# (4) #

6x b 5x x b x

c"# 2x b x b 4x b 4x b 4 x b x x b x

"

# #

dy dx

" #

## " 1 b " c"# c x c x

" #x 1 b

2 x b 1

2 x b 1

32. y 2x b 1

2 x

dy dx

2 2 x b 1 :

2 x

"

"

"

2 x b 1

c 2 x

4 x

31. y x b 1

dy dx

2 xb1

(x b 1)

"

(x b 1)

c x (1)

(x b 1) c 2x (x b 1)

1cx (x b 1)

30. s

c" 15(15t c 1)

ds dt

## " c 15 (c3)(15t c 1)c% (15)

3 (15t c 1)

ds dt

4t c2 t b 1

c\$

4 (t b 1)

b c (t 8t 1)

4 2 x b 1

#\$

dy c"# sec (2x)# tan (2x)# (2(2x) 2) b sec (2x)# c " xc\$# dx x # 8x"# sec (2x)# tan (2x)# c " xc\$# sec (2x)# " x"# sec (2x)# c16 tan (2x)# c xc# d or #x" # #

x# csc

2 x

dy dx

" #

x# ccsc

cot

b x csc
sin x x

2 x

## seca#xb2 <16x# tana2xb# c "

182

Chapter 3 Differentiation
#
#

#

dr d)

# \$

dy dx

3 #

## (2x b 1)"# (2) 32x b 1

dy dx " 20 20 (3x c 4)c"*#! (3) c&# 3 (3x c 4)

## 41. xy b 2x b 3y 1 axyw b yb b 2 b 3yw 0 xyw b 3yw c2 c y yw (x b 3) c2 c y yw c y b 2 xb3 42. x# b xy b y# c 5x 2 2x b x 5 c 2x c y

dy dx dy dx

b y b 2y

dy dx

c&! x

dy dx

b 2y

dy dx

5 c 2x c y

5 c 2x c y x b 2y

## 43. x\$ b 4xy c 3y%\$ 2x 3x# b 4x

dy dx

dy dx

b 4y c 4y"\$
\$" #

dy dx

2 4x

dy dx

c 4y"\$

dy dx

2 c 3x# c 4y

4x c 4y"\$ 2 c 3x# c 4y

dy dx

2 c 3x c 4y 4x c 4y dy dx

45. (xy)"# 1

" #

(xy)c"# x
dy dx

dy dx

b y 0 x"# yc"#
dy dx

dy dx

cxc"# y"#
dy dx

dy dx

cxc" y

dy dx

cy x

46. x# y# 1 x# 2y 47. y#
x x b1

b y# (2x) 0 2x# y
dy dx dy dx

c2xy#

cy x

#

dp dq

b 4 p b q

dp dq

c 6q 0 3p#

dp dq

b 4q

dp dq

6q c 4p

dp dq

## 50. q a5p# b 2pb

dp dq

1 c 3 a5p# b 2pb #
#&

10p

dp dq

b2

dp dq

c 2 a5p# b 2pb 3

#

48. y# 1 b x 1cx

"#

y%

"bx 1cx

4y\$

## (1 c x)(1) c (1 b x)c") (" c x)

2y

dy dx

(x b 1)(1) c (x)(1) (x b 1)

" #y(x b 1)

dy dx

" 2y (1 c x)

dp dq

a3p# b 4qb 6q c 4p

dp dq

(10p b 2)

&"

dy dx

0 12y"&

c4xc"&

dy dx

\$%

c"\$

dy dx

c%\$

#&

c\$#

dy dx

!#*"

dr d)

dy dx

(x b 2y)

## Chapter 3 Practice Exercises

dr 51. r cos 2s b sin# s 1 r(csin 2s)(2) b (cos 2s) ds b 2 sin s cos s 0 dr ds

183

dr ds

dr ds

## 52. 2rs c r c s b s# c3 2 r b s 53. (a) x\$ b y\$ 1 3x# b 3y#

% # #

dr ds

c 1 b 2s 0
# #

dr ds

(2s c 1) 1 c 2s c 2r
y (c2x) c acx b 2y
%

dr ds

" c 2s c 2r 2s c 1

yx

54. (a) x# c y# 1 2x c 2y
# #

dy dx
dy dx

0 c2y
#

55. (a) Let h(x) 6f(x) c g(x) hw (x) 6f w (x) c gw (x) hw (1) 6f w (1) c gw (1) 6 " c ac%b ( #

(b) Let h(x) f(x)g# (x) hw (x) f(x) a#g(x)b gw (x) b g# (x)f w (x) hw (0) #f(0)g(0)gw (0) b g# (0)f w (0) #(1)(1) " b (1)# (c\$) c# #
(& b 1) c 3 ac%b (& b 1)
# # "

## & "# " %

(e) Let h(x) g(f(x)) hw (x) gw (f(x))f w (x) hw (0) gw (f(0))f w (0) gw (1)f w (0) ac%b (c\$) "# (f) Let h(x) (x b f(x))\$# hw (x) 3 (x b f(x))"# a1 b f w (x)b hw (1) 3 (1 b f(1))"# a1 b f w (1)b # # 3 (1 b 3)"# 1 b " * # # # (g) Let h(x) f(x b g(x)) hw (x) f w (x b g(x)) a1 b gw (x)b hw (0) f w (g(0)) a1 b gw (0)b f w (1) 1 b " " \$ \$ # # # %
" # x

(d) Let h(x) f(g(x)) hw (x) f w (g(x))gw (x) hw (0) f w (g(0))gw (0) f w (1) " " " # # #

56. (a) Let h(x) x f(x) hw (x) x f w (x) b f(x) (b) Let h(x) (f(x))"# hw (x)
" #

" #

## (f(x))c"# af w (x)b hw (0)

" # x

(f(0))c"# f w (0)
" # 1 w

## (c) Let h(x) f x hw (x) f w x

hw (1) f w 1

" 5

(d) Let h(x) f(1 c 5 tan x) hw (x) f w (1 c 5 tan x) ac5 sec# xb h (0) f w (1 c 5 tan 0) ac5 sec# 0b f w (1)(c5) " (c5) c1 5 (f) Let
# w # w

## (e) Let h(x)

(2 b cos x)f (x) c f(x)(csin x) c hw (0) (2 b 1)f (0)1) f(0)(0) 3(c2) (2 b cos x) (2 b 9 h(x) 10 sin 1#x f # (x) hw (x) 10 sin 1#x a2f(x)f w (x)b b f # (x) 10 cos 1#x 1 # hw (1) 10 sin 1 a2f(1)f w (1)b b f # (1) 10 cos 1 1 20(c3) " b ! c12 5 # # # f(x) 2 b cos x

hw (x)

57. x t# b 1
dy dt

dx dt

2t; y 3 sin 2x
dy dt t=0

dy dx

dy dx

dx dt

6 cos a2t# b 2t
"\$ "\$

2 # 3 au "\$

## 58. t au# b 2ub

dt du

" 3

au# b 2ub
ds dt

c#\$

b 2ub

c#\$

(u b 1); s t# b 5t b 2ub
c#\$

2 au# b 2ub

b 5; thus

ds du

dt du

2 au# b 2ub

2 5 3 au#

(u b 1)

f(x) g(x) b 1

hw (x)

## (g(x) b 1)f (x) c f(x)g (x) (g(x) b 1)

hw (1)

(b)

x y

dy dx

d y dx

y(1) c x y

% \$

% #

y x

y c x x y

d y dx

# "

c2xy c x
#

c2xy c 1 y x dy dx

c2x
c" y

dy dx

x y

y cx y

(since y# c x# c1)

## (g(1) b ")f (1) c f(1)g (1) (g(1) b 1)

2 x

2 x

(b) y# 1 c

2y

dy dx

dy dx

" yx

dy dx

ayx# b

&

d y dx

c2xy c

2x y

c2xy b a2yx b c
# #

x y

c2xy c 2x y

dy dx

dy dx

cx y

d y dx

dy dx

c"

d y dx

c ayx# b

# #

c#

y(2x) b x#

dy dx

" " " 5 b (c3) # # 1 " " c"# (c2) c 3 # (9) " 10

c 13 10

" #

2 c3

ds dt

2t b 5

184

Chapter 3 Differentiation
ds du u=2

2 a2# b 2(2)b
dr ds

"\$

b 5 2 a2# b 2(2)b 3

c#\$

## " (2 b 1) 2 2 8"\$ b 5 8c#\$ 2(2 2 b 5) 4

9 #

59. r 8 sin s b 1 6
1

8 cos s b 1 ; w sin r c 2 6
1

dw dr

" cos r c 2 #r

28 sin s b 6
dw ds s=0

; thus,
1

dw ds

dw dr

dr ds

# 8 sin s b 6 24
#

63. f(t)

c f(t b h) c f(t) 2t c (2t b 2h b 1) " " (t h) 1 t 1 (2tb 12h b 1)(2t b 1)h 2t b 1 and f(t b h) #(t b h) b 1 h h b f(t b h) c f(t) c2h c2 c w lim (2t b 2h b 2 #t b 1) (2t b 2h b 1)(2t b 1)h (2t b 2h b 1)(2t b 1) f (t) hlim! h 1)( h! c# (2t b 1)
b# " b b # "
#

64. g(x) 2x# b 1 and g(x b h) 2(x b h)# b 1 2x# b 4xh b 2h# b 1 4x 65. (a)
# # # #

## follows that f is differentiable at x 0.

(c)

x!

follows that f is continuous at x 0. lim f w (x) lim (2x) 0 and lim f w (x) lim (c2x) 0 lim f w (x) 0. Since this limit exists, it
x! x! x! x!

(b)

x!

\$#

b3 8
"

2 3

" 6

4xh b 2h h

4x b 2h gw (x)

## g(x b h) c g(x) h g(x b h) c g(x) lim lim h h! h!

lim f(x) lim x# 0 and lim f(x) lim cx# 0 lim f(x) 0. Since lim f(x) 0 f(0) it
x! x! x! x! x!

\$%

ax

# \$#

"

d y dx

d y dx (8 8)

\$"c

\$#

\$"c

\$#

\$"c

\$#

\$"c

\$#

c 2 y 3

dy dx c cy

2 x 3

<c 2 8 3

(c1) b 8 8

2 8 3

\$#

\$#

\$#

\$#

" 3

d y dx (0 1)

" c#

dy dx

c2 sin (0) 3 b1

0;

d y dx

#

dy dx

a3y b 1b

dy dx

cy x

dy dx (8 8)

c1;

dy dx

cy x

(4x b 2h)

## 61. y\$ b y 2 cos x 3y#

and

" 6 (c1)

" 6 dy dx

dy dx

dy dx

c2 sin x

dy dx

a3y# b 1b c2 sin x

c2 sin x 3y b1

dy dx (0 1)

c#\$ c#\$ dr " 2 # (2)) 3 ) a)# b 7b ; now t d) 3 a) b 7b dr 2 dr dr " c#\$ 6 dt t=0 d) t=0 d) t=0 d) =1 3 (1 b 7) dt

0 and )# t b ) 1 ) 1 so that

60. )# t b ) 1 )# b t 2)

d ) dt

## cos 8 sin 6 c 28 cos 6 28 sin 6

d) dt

(cos 0)(8)

3
"\$

d) dt

(2)t b 1) c)#

cos 8 sin s b 6 c 2
1

cos 8 sin s b 6 c 2

<8 cos s b 1 6

d) dt

c) 2)tb1

; r a)# b 7b

d) dt t=0, =1

c1 1

c1

## Chapter 3 Practice Exercises

66. (a)

185

follows that f is continuous at x 0. (c) lim f w (x) lim 1 1 and lim f w (x) lim sec# x 1 lim f w (x) 1. Since this limit exists it follows that f is differentiable at x 0. 67. (a)
b b c c
x! x! x! x! x!

## not exist f is not differentiable at x 1.

c c

f(0) 0 lim f(x) it follows that f is continuous at x 0 for all values of m. differentiable at x 0 provided that lim f w (x) lim f w (x) m 2.
x #

69. y
" #

" #x c 4

3 #

" #

dy dx

# #

## 6x# c 6x c 12; the tangent is parallel to the x-axis when

dy dx

6x c 6x c 12 0 x c x c 2 0 (x c 2)(x b 1) 0 x 2 or x c1 (# !) and (c" #7) are points on the curve where the tangent is parallel to the x-axis. 72. y x\$
dy dx

3x#

dy dx ( 2 8)
c c

## y 12x b 16; x-intercept: 0 12x b 16 x c 4 c 4 ! ; y-intercept: y 12(0) b 16 16 (0 16) 3 3

70. y x c

" 2x

dy dx

1b

2 (2x)

1b

" " #x ; the slope of the tangent is 3 3 1 b #x " " # # are points on the curve where the slope is 3.

c 2(2x c 4)

" # x c#

b (2x c 4)c"

dy dx

c2 c2(2x c 4)c# 1

" #

" (2x c 4) 5 #

x!

x!

3 #

## 5 9 and 3 c " are points on the # 4 # 4

" #x

(b)

x!

lim f w (x) lim (sin 2x)w lim 2 cos 2x 2 and lim f w (x) lim (mx)w lim m m f is
x! x! x! x! x!

x!

68. (a)

x!

lim f(x) lim sin 2x 0 and lim f(x) lim mx 0 lim f(x) 0, independent of m; since
x! x! x! x!

follows that f is continuous at x 1. (c) lim f w (x) lim 1 1 and lim f w (x) lim c1 c1
b b c c
x" x" x" x"

(b)

x"

lim f(x) lim x 1 and lim f(x) lim (2 c x) 1 lim f(x) 1. Since lim f(x) 1 f(1), it
x" x" x" x" x"

(b)

x!

lim f(x) lim x 0 and lim f(x) lim tan x 0 lim f(x) 0. Since lim f(x) 0 f(0), it
x! x! x! x! x!

x"

## lim f w (x) lim f w (x), so lim f w (x) does

x" x1

x#

" 4

186

Chapter 3 Differentiation
dy dx

6x# c 6x c 12
# "

x 24

when

dy dx

## c c " 24; 6x# c 6x c 12 24

4

x# c x c 2 4 x# c x c 6 0 (x c 3)(x b 2) 0 x c2 or x 3 (c# 16) and (\$ 11) are x points where the tangent is perpendicular to y 1 c 24 . (b) The tangent is parallel to the line y 2 c 12x when dy c12 6x# c 6x c 12 c12 x# c x 0 dx x(x c 1) 0 x 0 or x 1 (! 20) and (" () are points where the tangent is parallel to y 2 c 12x.
# # #

# dy dx

" #

cos x
1 #

" 2

xc

1 4

and x

for c 1  x  #

## where the normal is parallel to y c x . #

y c 1 (1) x c 1 y x c #

## the tangent at 1 1 is the line y c 1 c x c 1 # # y cx b 1 b 1; the normal at 1 1 is # #

1 #

b1

77. y x# b C thus,
" #

" # #
dy dx

dy dx

2x and y x
" 4

dy dx

bC C 3x#

78. y x\$

dy dx x=a

## 3a# the tangent line at aa a\$ b is y c a\$ 3a# (x c a). The tangent line

dy dx x= 2a

intersects y x\$ when x\$ c a\$ 3a# (x c a) (x c a) ax# b xa b a# b 3a# (x c a) (x c a) ax# b xa c 2a# b 0 (x c a)# (x b 2a) 0 x a or x c2a. Now 3(c2a)# 12a# 4 a3a# b, so the slope at x c2a is 4 times as large as the slope at aa a\$ b where x a. 79. The line through (! \$) and (5 c2) has slope m (x b 1)# c, x c1. Moreover, y
#

c xb1

intersects y cx b 3
#

c x b1

cx b 3, x c1

c (x b 1)(cx b 3), x c1. Thus c c (x b 1) (x b 1)(cx b 3) (x b 1)[x b 1 c (cx b 3)] !, x c1 (x b 1)(2x c 2) 0 x 1 (since x c1) c 4.

y cx b 3; y

c xb1

dy dx

cc (x b 1)

3 c (c2) 0c5

dy dx

76. y 1 b cos x

dy dx

csin x

dy dx

c1

Since m" c

" m

1 #

dy dx

## sec# x; now the slope

" cos x

2. Thus, sec# x 2

2
1 4

1c

74. y

1 sin x x

dy dx

m"

dy dx x=

c1 1

c1 and m#

dy dx x=

1 1

1.

" #

" #

c1

cc (x b 1)

## Chapter 3 Practice Exercises

80. Let b a# c b# be a point on the circle x# b y# a# . Then x# b y# a# 2x b 2y
# # # #

187

dy dx

dy dx

cx y

dy dx x=b

cb a c b

# # #

a c b b

normal line is
#

9 4 dy dx

dy dx

x c 2y

dy dx (1 2)

#

5 #

dy dx

dy dx

c3x 2y

dy dx (1 1) 2 3

c3 #

## and the normal line is y 1 b 2 (x c 1) 3

dy dx

xb " . 3
dy dx c1 # dy dx

83. xy b 2x c 5y 2 x

b y b 2 c 5

dy dx

dy dx

(x c 5) cy c 2

the tangent line is y 2 b 2(x c 3) 2x c 4 and the normal line is y 2 b 84. (y c x)# 2x b 4 2(y c x) dy c 1 2 (y c x) dx the tangent line is y 2 b 3 (x c 6) 4 85. x b xy 6 1 b
" #xy 3 4 dy dx

(x c 3) c " x b 7 . # #
1bycx ycx

1 b (y c x)

dy dx (6 2)

xc

5 #

dy dx

dy dx

b y 0 x

b y c2xy

dy dx

c2xy c y x

dy dx (4 1) 4 5

## the tangent line is y 1 c 5 (x c 4) = c 5 x b 6 and the normal line is y " b 4 (x c 4) 4 4 5

#"

xc

" y 4 c " (x c 1) c 4 x b 4

17 4

## and the normal line is y 4 b 4(x c 1) 4x.

dy dx

87. x\$ y\$ b y# x b y x\$ 3y#
dy dx

b y\$ a3x# b b 2y
# \$

dy dx
\$ #

1b

dy dx

3x\$ y#

a3x\$ y# b 2y c 1b 1 c 3x# y\$

dy dx

Therefore, the curve has slope c " at (" ") but the slope is undefined at (" c1). # 88. y sin (x c sin x)
dy dx

## [cos (x c sin x)](1 c cos x); y 0 sin (x c sin x) 0 x c sin x k1,

dy dx

k c2, c1, 0, 1, 2 (for our interval) cos (x c sin x) cos (k1) 1. Therefore,

1 c cos x 0 and x k1. For c#1 x 21, these equations hold when k c2, 0, and 2 (since cos (c1) cos 1 c1). Thus the curve has horizontal tangents at the x-axis for the x-values c21, 0, and 21 (which are even integer multiples of 1) the curve has an infinite number of horizontal tangents. 89. x tan t, y
" # \$

## 2 cos 90. x " b

1 3

" 4

c t2
\$

" t

,y"c

3 t

dy dx

dy/dt dx/dt

t3

c3t 2

dy dx t 2

c 3 (2) c3; t 2 x 1 b #

" #

# "

tan

sec

1 3

3 #

and y

" #

1 3

1 y

3 #

" xb 4 ;

d y dx

dy /dt dx/dt

# "

sec t

dy dx

dy/dt dx/dt

# "

" #

" #

## sec t tan t sec t

tan t sec t

sin t

dy dx t

sin

1 3

cos t sec t

2 cos\$ t

1 c 3x y 3x y b 2y c 1

dy dx (1 1)

#"

3 2

x"# b 3y"#

dy dx

dy dx

cx 2y

dy dx (1 4)

## c " the tangent line is 4

dy dx

b 2y

dy dx

dy dx

" c 3x# y\$

c 2 , but 4

dy dx (1 1) is

undefined.

0 and y 0 when

3 #

;t

1 3 d y dx t

cy c 2 x c5

dy dx (3 2)

y c a# c b#

a c b b

(x c b) y a# c b#

a c b b

x a# c b# y

a c b b

(x c 1)

3 4

c5 4

11 5

5 4

and

188

Chapter 3 Differentiation
#

91. B graph of f, A graph of f w . Curve B cannot be the derivative of A because A has only negative slopes while some of B's values are positive. 92. A graph of f, B graph of f w . Curve A cannot be the derivative of B because B has only negative slopes while A has positive values for x 0. 93. 94.

sin x
#

x ! 2x c x

lim sin x x
x!

" (#x c 1)

" (1) c1 c1

x!

3x c tan 7x #x

lim 3x c 2x
x!
2r tan 2r

sin 7x 2x cos 7x

3 #

x!

sin 7x 7x

" 2 7

" #

sin r

r ! tan 2r

lim sin r r
r!

cos 2r

sin 2r r ! 2r

100.

)!

lim

sin (sin )) )

lim

)!

)!

)!

## . Let x sin ). Then x 0 as ) 0

lim

x!

sin x x

1
4 b tan b tan " b tan5
)# )#

(1)(1)(1) 1
)

105.

x!

lim

tan x x

lim

)!

tan ) )

x!

sin x x

x!

)!

)!

)!

104.

lim

lim

lim

1ccos ) )

2 sin )

sin

sin

## " (1)(1) " # #

x!

# # #

103.

x sin x sin x lim 2(1xc cos x) x ! 2 c 2 cos x x! x x lim sin x sin x sin x x x!

lim

lim

x sin x x x ! 2 2 sin

)#

102.

)!

lim

)!

7 5 c cot c cot8

)#

#

lim

"

) 2
1

) 2

cot

c 2

101.

lim

## 4 tan ) b tan ) b 1 tan ) b &

#

lim

(4 b 0 b 0) (1 b 0)

(0 c 2) (5 c 0 c 0)

2 c5

lim sin

x x

sin x x

c t2
\$

"

"

3 #

y1c

c " y c3x b #

"3 4

d y dx

dy /dt dx/dt

c 3

3 \$ 4 t

d y dx t 2

3 4

(2)\$ 6

3 #

7 c 1 1 2 c 2

" #

x!

106.
x!

189

tan (tan x)

x ! sin (sin x)

x!

## sin x sin (sin x)

" cos x

1 lim

sin x

#105); let ) sin x ) 0 as x 0 continuous at the origin, define f(0) 1. 107. (a) S 21r# b 21rh and h constant (b) S 21r# b 21rh and r constant (c) S 21r# b 21rh (d) S constant
dS dt dS dt dS dt dS dt

lim ) ) ! sin )

x ! sin (sin x)

## (using the result of

1. Therefore, to make f

41r dr b 21h dt
dr dt

dr dt

(41r b 21h)

dr dt

41r

dr dt

21r dh dt b #1 r dh b h dt
dr dt

(41r b 21h)
dh dt

0 0 (41r b 21h)
dS dt

b 21r
dr dt

(2r b

dr dt b 21r h) dr cr dt

dh dt dh dt

dr dt

cr dh 2rbh dt

## 109. A 1r# 110. V s\$

"

dA dt dV dt

21 r

dr dt ds dt

; so r 10 and
ds dt

dr dt

2 c 1 m/sec dV dt

" " " R" 75 ohms and R# 50 ohms R 75 b 50 R 30 ohms. Therefore, from the derivative 9(625) c" dR c" " " 5625 " " dR (c900) 5000c5000 50(5625) 50 (30) dt (75) (c1) c (50) (0.5) 5625 c 5000 dt 5625

dR dt

## 113. Given 2x &

dD dt

dx dt dx dt

10 m/sec and b 2y
dy dt

dy dt

## 5 m/sec, let D be the distance from the origin D# x# b y# 2D x

dD dt dx dt

dD dt

(5)(10) b (12)(5)

(because the distance D is increasing). 114. Let D be the distance from the origin. We are given that x# b x
\$# # dD dt

x# b x\$ 2D

and substitution in the derivative equation gives (2)(6)(11) (3)(2 b 9) 115. (a) From the diagram we have (b) V
" 3 10 h

## 116. From the sketch in the text, s r)

ds dt

d) dt

(1.2)

d) dt

. Therefore,

ds d) dr dt r dt b ) dt . ds dt 6 ft/sec and r

1 r# h

" 3

1 2 h h 5

X 20 ohms

dZ dt

(10)(3)b(20)(c2) 10 b 20

c" 5

c0.45 ohm/sec.
dD dt

by
110 5

dy dt

## . When (x y) (\$ c%), D \$# b ac%b# & and

22. Therefore, the particle is moving away from the origin at 22 m/sec

11 units/sec. Then D# x# b y#
dx dt

dD dt

2x

dx dt

b 3x#

dx dt

x(2 b 3x)

; x 3 D 3# b 3\$ 6
dx dt

4 r 41 h 75

r
dV dt

2 5

h.
41 h 25 dh dt

, so

dV dt

c5 and h 6

## Also r 1.2 is constant 1.2 ft

d) dt

3 ohms/sec and

dX dt

c2 ohms/sec; Z R# b X#

dZ dt

R dR b X dX dt dt R b X

dx dt

4 units/sec.

dh dt dr dt

# #

"

" #

"

111.

dR dt

c1 ohm/sec,

dR dt

## 0.5 ohm/sec; and

" R

" R

" R

c" dR R dt

c" dR dt R

" dR dt R

. Also, equation,

3s#

" 3s

dV dt

; so s 20 and

(c) In general,

dS dt

1r# b h# b

1r r b h

(b) r constant

dr dt

dS dt

dr dt

1rh r b h

dA dt

## 1200 cm\$ /min

(a) h constant

dh dt

dS dt

1r r b h b 1rh dh r b h dt
dr dt

108. S 1rr# b h#

1r

r dr b h dh dt dt r b h

b 1r# b h#

;
dr dt

1r# b h#

1r# b h# b

1r r b h

dr dt

" 3(20)

(1200) 1 cm/min

190

Chapter 3 Differentiation
d) dt

117. (a) From the sketch in the text, when it reaches point A. (b)

dx dt #

dx dt

sec# )

d) dt ;

at
3 5

point A, x 0 ) 0
1 rev 21 rad a r

km/sec

60 sec min b BC

18 1 a r

revs/min
b b c r
#

## that r is constant. Differentiation gives,

#

b cr db dt

b 2r and
da dt

c0.3r
(2r)

the distance OA is increasing when OB 2r, and B is moving toward O at the rate of 0.3r m/sec. 119. (a) If f(x) tan x and x c 1 , then f w (x) sec# x, 4 f c 1 c1 and f w c 1 2. The linearization of 4 4 f(x) is L(x) 2 x b 1 b (c1) 2x b 4
1 c2 #

(b) If f(x) sec x and x c 1 , then f w (x) sec x tan x, 4 f c 1 2 and f w c 1 c2. The linearization
4 4

## of f(x) is L(x) c2 x b 1 b 2 4 c2x b

2(% c 1) . 4

121. f(x) x b 1 b sin x c 0.5 (x b 1)"# b sin x c 0.5 f w (x) " (x b 1)c"# b cos x #

L(x) f w (0)(x c 0) b f(0) 1.5(x c 0) b 0.5 L(x) 1.5x b 0.5, the linearization of f(x).
2 1 cx
#

122. f(x)

b 1 b x c 3.1 2(1 c x)c" b (1 b x)"# c 3.1 f w (x) c2(1 c x)c# (c1) b " (1 b x)c"# #
" 2 1 b x

2 (1 c x)

c"#

! #

r b h
#

dS

## 123. S 1 rr# b h# , r constant dS 1 r " ar# b h# b #

120. f(x)

" 1 b tan x

f w (x)

csec x (1 b tan x)

3r

3r (c0.3r) b 4r
#

(0.3r) 3r

## a3r b (c0.3r) b a4r b (0.3r) 3 3 r

(2r) c r
#

# c# c

(2r) r

c r (c0.3r) c (2r) :

# c#

da dt

" r

b c r db c (b) dt
# #

b b r

db dt

. Then,

2r( 0.3r)

. We are given

0.3r 3 3

r 103

m/sec. Since

da dt

is positive,

#h dh

1rh r b h

## dh. Height changes from h! to h! b dh

#

191

124. (a) S 6r# dS 12r dr. We want kdSk (2%) S k12r drk edge r must have an error less than 1%.

12r 100

kdrk

r 100

## . The measurement of the

(b) When V r\$ , then dV 3r# dr. The accuracy of the volume is dV (100%) 3rr dr (100%) V
r 3 (dr)(100%) 3 100 (100%) 3% r r
\$ # \$ #

35 h

# # d d)

(sin 2))
d d)

d d)

d d)

(cos 2))

## acos# ) c sin# )b c2 sin 2) (2 cos ))(csin )) c (2 sin ))(cos ))

sin 2) cos ) sin ) b sin ) cos ) sin 2) 2 sin ) cos ) 2. The derivative of sin (x b a) sin x cos a b cos x sin a with respect to x is cos (x b a) cos x cos a c sin x sin a, which is also an identity. This principle does not apply to the equation x# c 2x c 8 0, since x# c 2x c 8 0 is not an identity: it holds for 2 values of x (c2 and 4), but not for all x. 3. (a) f(x) cos x f w (x) csin x f ww (x) ccos x, and g(x) a b bx b cx# gw (x) b b 2cx gww (x) 2c; also, f(0) g(0) cos (0) a a 1; f w (0) gw (0) csin (0) b b 0; f ww (0) gww (0) ccos (0) 2c c c " . Therefore, g(x) 1 c " x# . # # (b) f(x) sin (x b a) f w (x) cos (x b a), and g(x) b sin x b c cos x gw (x) b cos x c c sin x; also, f(0) g(0) sin (a) b sin (0) b c cos (0) c sin a; f w (0) gw (0) cos (a) b cos (0) c c sin (0) b cos a. Therefore, g(x) sin x cos a b cos x sin a. (c) When f(x) cos x, f www (x) sin x and f % (x) cos x; when g(x) 1 c " x# , gwww (x) 0 and g% (x) 0. # Thus f www (0) 0 gwww (0) so the third derivatives agree at x 0. However, the fourth derivatives do not agree since f % (0) 1 but g% (0) 0. In case (b), when f(x) sin (x b a) and g(x) sin x cos a b cos x sin a, notice that f(x) g(x) for all x, not just x 0. Since this is an identity, we have f n (x) gn (x) for any x and any positive integer n.

4. (a) y sin x yw cos x yww csin x yww b y csin x b sin x 0; y cos x yw csin x yww ccos x yww b y ccos x b cos x 0; y a cos x b b sin x yw ca sin x b b cos x yww ca cos x c b sin x yww b y (ca cos x c b sin x) b (a cos x b b sin x) 0 (b) y sin (2x) yw 2 cos (2x) yww c4 sin (2x) yww b 4y c4 sin (2x) b 4 sin (2x) 0. Similarly, y cos (2x) and y a cos (2x) b b sin (2x) satisfy the differential equation yw w b 4y 0. In general, y cos (mx), y sin (mx) and y a cos (mx) b b sin (mx) satisfy the differential equation yww b m# y 0.

dh c120ac# da c

15 6 120 a

b a h 14 ft. The same triangles imply that 20h a 6 h 120ac" b 6 " 2 da c 120 1"# c "#! "# 45 .0444 ft 0.53 inches. a "&

(c) dV

dV

dC. Recall that C 10 cm and dC 0.4 cm. (a) dr 0.4 0.2 cm dr (100%) 0.2 21 (100%) (.04)(100%) 4% 21 1 r 1 10 20 8 8 1 dS (100%) 1 100 (100%) 8% (b) dS 1 (0.4) 1 cm S
C 21 10 21

(0.4)

20 1

125. C 21r r

C 21

, S 41 r #

C 1

, and V

4 3

1 r\$

C 61

## . It also follows that dr

" #1

dC, dS

2C 1

dC and

192

Chapter 3 Differentiation

5. If the circle (x c h)# b (y c k)# a# and y x# b 1 are tangent at (" #), then the slope of this tangent is m 2xk (1 2) 2 and the tangent line is y 2x. The line containing (h k) and (" #) is perpendicular to y 2x
w
# w

## x c h b (y c k)yw 0 1 b ayw b# b (y c k)yw w 0 yww

ww
#

y 2 from the tangent line and that y 2 from the parabola. Since the second derivatives are equal at (" #) we obtain 2
1 b (2) kc#

## lies on the circle we have that a

6. The total revenue is the number of people times the price of the fare: r(x) xp x 3 c

" dr x # x dr 0 x 60. The marginal revenue is dx 3 c 40 b 2x 3 c 40 c 40 dx 3 c 2x 40 x x dr 3 3 c 40 1 c 40 . Then dx 0 x 40 (since x 120 does not belong to the domain). When 40 people

are on the bus the marginal revenue is zero and the fare is p(40) 3 c 7. (a) y uv (b) If
du dt dy dt

## 9% per year. c0.02u and

dv dt

year. 8. When x# b y# 225, then yw c x . The tangent y line to the balloon at (12 c9) is y b 9 y
4 3 4 3

23 ft below the center of the balloon. The intersection of y c23 and y 4 x c 25 is at the far 3 right edge of the gondola c23 x
3 # 4 3

## 9. Answers will vary. Here is one possibility.

(b) Left: c10, Right: 10 1 (c) Solving 10 cos t b 1 c10 cos t b 1 c1 t 34 when the particle is farthest to the left. 4 4 1 Solving 10 cos t b 1 10 cos t b 1 1 t c 1 , but t 0 t 21 b c1 74 when the particle 4 4 4 4 1 1 1 1 is farthest to the right. Thus, v 34 0, v 74 0, a 34 10, and a 74 c10. (d) Solving 10 cos t b 1 0 t 4
1 4

v 1 c10, v 1 10 and a 1 !. 4 4 4

kc2 hc1

1 b ay b kcy

9 #

## # . Then h 5 c 2k c4 the circle is (x b 4)# b y c 9 a# . Since (" #) # 5 5 2

.
x # , where 40 x < x c 40 3 c 40

x # 40 x=40

\$4.00.

du dt

v b u dv (0.04u)v b u(0.05v) 0.09uv 0.09y the rate of growth of the total production is dt 0.03v, then
dy dt

(x c 12)

x c 25

ds dt

## c10 sin t b 1 a(t) 4

dv dt

d s dt

c10 cos t b 1 4

11. (a) s(t) 64t c 16t# v(t)
ds dt

193

## 64 c 32t 32(2 c t). The maximum height is reached when v(t) 0

t 2 sec. The velocity when it leaves the hand is v(0) 64 ft/sec. (b) s(t) 64t c 2.6t# v(t) ds 64 c 5.2t. The maximum height is reached when v(t) 0 t 12.31 sec. dt The maximum height is about s(12.31) 393.85 ft. 12. s" 3t\$ c 12t# b 18t b 5 and s# ct\$ b 9t# c 12t v" 9t# c 24t b 18 and v# c3t# b 18t c 12; v" v# 9t# c 24t b 18 c3t# b 18t c 12 2t# c 7t b 5 0 (t c 1)(2t c 5) 0 t 1 sec and t 2.5 sec. 13. m av# c v# b k ax# c x# b m 2v ! ! substituting
dx dt dv dt

k c2x

dx dt

dv dt

2x k c 2v

dx dt

dv dt

ckx " v

dx dt

. Then

v m

dv dt

ckx, as claimed.
# " # "

## 14. (a) x At# b Bt b C on ct" t# d v

" # " " # # # #

dx dt

2At b B v t
" #

bt #

2A t

bt #

b B A at" b t# b b B is the
?x ?t

instantaneous velocity at the midpoint. The average velocity over the time interval is vav
" # " #

aAt b Bt b Cb c aAt b Bt b Cb t ct

(b) On the graph of the parabola x At b Bt b C, the slope of the curve at the midpoint of the interval ct" t# d is the same as the average slope of the curve over the interval.
b 15. (a) To be continuous at x 1 requires that lim sin x lim (mx b b) 0 m1 b b m c 1 ;

at c t b cA at b t b b Bd t ct #

A at# b t" b b B.

w

#

x!

" c cos x x

" #

# lim sin x x x!

x!

lim

x!

## . Therefore f (0) exists with value

17. (a) For all a, b and for all x 2, f is differentiable at x. Next, f differentiable at x 2 f continuous at x 2 lim f(x) f(2) 2a 4a c 2b b 3 2a c 2b b 3 0. Also, f differentiable at x 2 f w (x)
c
x2

## a, x  2 . In order that f w (2) exist we must have a 2a(2) c b a 4a c b 3a b. 2ax c b, x 2

3 4

Then 2a c 2b b 3 0 and 3a b a

and b

9 4

.
\$ %

\$ #

## which matches the y-coordinate of the point

\$ %

on the straight line at x #. In addition, the slope of the parabola at the match up point is

slope of the straight line. Therefore, since the graph is differentiable at the match up point, the graph is smooth there. 18. (a) For any a, b and for any x c1, g is differentiable at x. Next, g differentiable at x c1 g continuous at x c1 lim g(x) g(c1) ca c 1 b 2b ca b b b 1. Also, g differentiable at x c1 gw (x) ac". # (b) For x c", the graph of f is a straight line having a slope of c a, x  c1 . In order that gw (c1) exist we must have a 3a(c1)# b 1 a 3a b 1 3ax# b 1, x c1
" #

## a parabola. At x c", the value of the y-coordinate on the parabola is

on the straight line at x c". In addition, the slope of the parabola at the match up point is c " which is equal to the # slope of the straight line. Therefore, since the graph is differentiable at the match up point, the graph is smooth there. 19. f odd f(cx) cf(x)
d dx

x c"

\$ #

(f(cx))

d dx

x1

x1

cos x c0 x

x " #

## which is equal to the

194

Chapter 3 Differentiation
d dx

(f(cx))

d dx

## (f(x)) f w (cx)(c1) f w (x) f w (cx) cf w (x) f w is odd.

! !

g(x f(x! ) x lim g(x) c g(x ) b g(x! ) f w (x! ) 0 x lim g(x) c x ) b g(x! ) f w (x! ) g(x! ) f w (x! ), if g is xcx xc x x

continuous at x! . Therefore (fg)(x) is differentiable at x! if f(x! ) 0, and (fg)w (x! ) g(x! ) f w (x! ). 22. From Exercise 21 we have that fg is differentiable at 0 if f is differentiable at 0, f(0) 0 and g is continuous at 0. (a) If f(x) sin x and g(x) kxk , then kxk sin x is differentiable because f w (0) cos (0) 1, f(0) sin (0) 0 and g(x) kxk is continuous at x 0. (b) If f(x) sin x and g(x) x#\$ , then x#\$ sin x is differentiable because f w (0) cos (0) 1, f(0) sin (0) 0 and g(x) x#\$ is continuous at x 0. (c) If f(x) 1 c cos x and g(x) \$ x, then \$ x (1 c cos x) is differentiable because f w (0) sin (0) 0, f(0) 1 c cos (0) 0 and g(x) x"\$ is continuous at x 0. " (d) If f(x) x and g(x) x sin " , then x# sin x is differentiable because f w (0) 1, f(0) 0 and x
x

" 23. If f(x) x and g(x) x sin " , then x# sin x is differentiable at x 0 because f w (0) 1, f(0) 0 and x
x

" " h (0) g(0) f (0) 0. However, for x 0, hw (x) <x# cos " c x b 2x sin x . But x " " lim hw (x) lim <ccos " b 2x sin x does not exist because cos x has no limit as x 0. Therefore, x w w

the derivative is not continuous at x 0 because it has no limit there. 24. From the given conditions we have f(x b h) f(x) f(h), f(h) c 1 hg(h) and lim g(h) 1. Therefore,
h!

x!

x!

f (x)

h!

## Step 2: Assume the formula holds for n k:

du duk dx u\$ uk b b u" u# uk-1 dx If y u" u# uk uk 1 au" u# uk b uk 1 , then dy d(u u uk ) uk 1 b u" u# uk duk 1 dx dx dx du u# u\$ uk b u" du u\$ uk b b u" u# uk 1 duk uk 1 b u" u# uk duk 1 dx dx dx dx du du duk dx u# u\$ uk 1 b u" dx u\$ uk 1 b b u" u# uk 1 dx uk 1 b u" u# uk duk 1 . dx
b
# " # "

y u" u# uk
#

dy dx

du dx

u# u\$ uk b u"

Thus the original formula holds for n (kb1) whenever it holds for n k. 26. Recall m k
m! m! m! m! m m m k! (m c k)! . Then 1 1! (m c 1)! m and k b k b 1 k! (m c k)! b (k b 1)! (m c k c 1)! m! (k b 1) b m! (m c k) m! (m b 1) (m b 1)! b1 (k b 1)! (m c k)! (k b 1)! ((m b 1) c (k b 1))! mb 1 . Now, we prove (k b 1)! (m c k)! k d(uv) dv du dx u dx b v dx . Assume that the statement is true for n k, that is: k k k d (uv) du d u dv dk v k d u d v k du d v dxk dxk v b k dxk dx b 2 dxk dx b b k c 1 dv dxk b u dxk . k k k k k k (uv) d If n k b 1, then d dx(uv) dx d dxk < d k u v b d u dv b k d u dv b k d k u d v k dx dxk dx dxk dx dx dx
# #

## Leibniz's rule by mathematical induction. Step 1: If n 1, then

k k

"b

Step 2:

"c "c

"

25. Step 1: The formula holds for n 2 (a single product) since y u" u#

"c "c

"b "b

#c #c

"b

"c "c

"

x!

x!

"

sin x

lim

"

x!

x!

"

sin x

lim

t_

sin t t

t_

sin t t

dy dx

du dx

u# b u"

du dx

x lim x

x lim x

"

"

"c "c
# # \$ \$

195

## Therefore the formula (c) holds for n (k b 1) whenever it holds for n k.

# # # #

(c) Since there are 86,400 sec in a day, we have a0.00613 secba86,400 sec/dayb 529.6 sec/day, or 8.83 min/day; the clock will lose about 8.83 min/day. 28. v s\$
dv dt

\$s# ds cka's# b dt

ds dt

## c#k. If s! the initial length of the cube's side, then s" s! c #k

! % \$ \$"

av b
!

% \$" \$

" "c

"" hr.

\$"

"

#k s! c s" . Let t the time it will take the ice cube to melt. Now, t

s #k

s s cs

\$"

(b) T#

41 L g

#1 L; g

dT

#1 g

" dL # L

27. (a) T#

41 L g

T g 41

"b "b

L 0.8156 ft
1 Lg dL;

dT

1)

"c "c

"b

"b

"b "b

"c "c

"b "b

"b "b

b < du dx

k k k k

#c #c

"c "c

b k 2

dk u d v dxk dx

b k 2

dk u d v dxk dx

k b b k c 1

d u dk v dx dxk

k b k c1

du dk u dx dxk

v b

< k 1

## ftb 0.00613 sec.

av b c v

196

Chapter 3 Differentiation

NOTES: