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Psychology is the scientific study of the mind and behavior.

The term psychology comes from the Greek word psyche meaning "breath, spirit, soul" and the logia meaning "study of." Psychology emerged from biology and philosophy and is closely linked to other disciplines including sociology, medicine, linguistics and anthropology. . Research in psychology seeks to understand and explain how we think, act and feel. Applications for psychology include mental health treatment, performance enhancement, self-help, ergonomics and many other areas affecting health and daily life. 4 Major Goals in Psychology

Describing and Explaining Behavior


The first goal of psychology is to observe and describe behavior. Differentiating between normal, healthy and unhealthy behaviors is the cornerstone of psychology, so it is important that psychologists have a keen sense of observation. Not only does the psychologist have to observe ones actions but also his or her attitudes, feelings, goals, motivations, reactions and thoughts to the best of his or her abilities. In addition to observation, psychologists have to use other methods to describe behavior including case studies, correlation studies, surveys and other testing. the second goal of psychology is explaining. The attempt to explain behavior based on observation is actually rather difficult due to many factors. For instance, behavior varies among culture and can change over time. An accepted behavior in one culture may not be acceptable in another. Furthermore, as the world continues to through the use of technology, transferring acceptable modes of behavior to new technology can become confusing or create new modes of behavior.

Predicting and Influencing Behavior


The third goal of psychology is to predict behavior. Psychologists try to determine if a person is likely to make healthy or unhealthy decisions when confronted with certain situations. Most of the time, they will use experiments to make their predictions. A subject can be placed in an environment and given a stimulus or stimuli to see how he or she will perform. Sometimes, a psychologist will look at past behavior in order to predict. In any case, predictions can sometimes be wrong. The last of the goals of psychology is to influence behavior. This can be to change unhealthy behavior as well as encourage already existing healthy behavior. There are many methods used to influence behavior such as positive reinforcement or rewarding good behavior. Cognitive discourse is also a well known method in which the psychology helps the subject get to the true underlying issues that may be behind unhealthy behaviors and attitudes.
The historical development of psychology Psychology is the study of human behaviour and the study of the human mind. Psychological thought was first explored by Greek philosophers from around 550 BC 322 BC. These philosophers proposed a theory of psyche meaning mind, soul and spirit, from which the first one, the word Psychology comes

from. The most influential of these philosophers were Pythagoras, Hippocrates, Socrates, Plato and Aristotle. Other theories during this period were The theory of perception (Empedocles), ideas of behaviour leading to Empiricism (Aristotle), Platonic forms and the tripartite psyche (Plato) and Socrates dispute that there is no objective truth. These theories would end up being the foundations of Psychological thought. Schools of Thought

When psychology was first established as a science separate from biology and philosophy, the debate over how to describe and explain the human mind and behavior began. The different schools of psychology represent the major theories within psychology. The first school of thought, structuralism, was advocated by the founder of the first psychology lab, Wilhelm Wundt. Almost immediately, other theories began to emerge and vie for dominance in psychology. Structuralism was the first school of psychology, and focused on breaking down mental processes into the most basic components. The focus of structuralism was on reducing mental processes down into their most basic elements. Structuralists used techniques such as introspection to analyze the inner processes of the human mind. Functionalism formed as a reaction to the theories of the structuralist school of thought and was heavily influenced by the work of William James.Instead of focusing on the mental processes themselves, functionalist thinkers were instead interested in the role that these processes play. Behaviorism became a dominant school of thought during the 1950s. It was based upon the work of thinkers such as:

John B. Watson Ivan Pavlov B. F. Skinner

Behaviorism suggests that all behavior can be explained by environmental causes rather than by internal forces. Behaviorism is focused on observable behavior. Theories of learning including classical conditioning and operant conditioning were the focus of a great deal of research.
Psychoanalysis is a school of psychology founded by Sigmund Freud. This school of thought emphasizes the influence of the unconscious mind on behavior.Freud believed that the human mind was composed of three elements: the id, the ego and the superego. The id is composed of primal urges, while the ego is the component of personality charged with dealing with reality. The superego is the part of personality that holds all of the ideals and values we internalize from our parents and culture. Freud believed that the interaction of these three elements was what led to all of the complex human behaviors. Humanistic psychology developed as a response to psychoanalysis and behaviorism. Humanistic psychology instead focused on individual free will, personal growth and the concept of self-actualization.

While early schools of thought were largely centered on abnormal human behavior, humanistic psychology differed considerably in its emphasis on helping people achieve and fulfill their potential. Gestalt psychology is a school of psychology based upon the idea that we experience things as unified wholes. This approach to psychology began in Germany and Austria during the late 19th century in response to the molecular approach of structuralism. Instead of breaking down thoughts and behavior to their smallest elements, the gestalt psychologists believed that you must look at the whole of experience. According to the gestalt thinkers, the whole is greater than the sum of its parts. Cognitive psychology is the school of psychology that studies mental processes including how people think, perceive, remember and learn. As part of the larger field of cognitive science, this branch of psychology is related to other disciplines including neuroscience, philosophy and linguistics.One of the most influential theories from this school of thought was the stages of cognitive development theory proposed by Jean Piaget. Branches of Psychology

Abnormal Psychology primarily focused on the study of abnormal behavior. The study is conducted to determine, describe, predict, explain, illustrate and change abnormal patterns of performance. It studies the nature of psychopathology and its causes. It is very applicable in treating the patient with psychological disorders. Biological Psychology scientific study of biological basis of behavior and mental condition. Since the persons behavior is controlled by the nervous system, biological psychologist suggested to examine the way the brain operate in order to comprehend the persons behavior. Cognitive Psychology studies cognition or the mental processes bring about behavior. Various subjects included to this field are perception, learning, problem solving, memory attention, language and emotion. It is associated with a school of thought called cognitivism. Personality Psychology generally refers to the persons personality. The main focused of this study are the patterns of persons behavior, thought and emotions as well. Psychology and Law also known as Legal psychology. Explore the topic regarding jury decision-making, eye witness memory, scientific evidence and legal policy. Quantitative Psychology involves and usage of mathematical and statistical methods in psychological research and the development of statistical technique in analyzing and illustrating a behavioral data. School Psychology the combined principles of educational psychology and clinical psychology in understanding and treating students with learning difficulties and disabilities. As well as to encourage intellectual growth to every gifted students. Social psychology focus on how human think about each other and how they relate to one another. It primarily studies about the humans social behavior and mental processes. Comparative Psychology the focal point of this studies are the behavior and mental process of animal compare to human beings. Counseling Psychology it performs personal and interpersonal operations in a persons being wherein the main concern are the emotional, social, vocational, educational, healthrelated, developmental and organizational areas.

Industrial/ Organization Psychology it is more related to optimizing humans potentiality in the work place. Environmental psychology is the practice of making sure employees and visitors to the office feel appreciated, important, happy and healthy while in the space. Clinical Psychology the center of its practice are psychological assessment and psychotherapy, however it is also engage in making inquiries, teaching, consultation, forensic testimony and program development and administration. Developmental Psychology concentrating on the growth and development of the human mind in its entire existence. It also tries to find reasons and to comprehend why people perceive, understand and act and how these stages alter as they grow. Forensic Psychology deal with a lot of practices basically including clinical evaluations of defendants, statements to judges and attorneys and courtroom testimony at provided issues. Health Psychology the method of applying psychological theory and studies to health, disease and health care. It is concerned with health-related behavior involving healthy diet, the doctor-patient relationship the patients comprehension regarding health information and viewpoint about illness. Child Psychology studies about the childs growth and development involving the stages of their social, emotional, mental and physical progress. Psychology of Creativity it mainly involves new discoveries and usually resulted from different way of thinking. Psychology of Beauty how an individual perceive and appreciates the beauty of other people and the things around him. Animal Psychology how the animal respond to a stimuli in a trial and error process. Their responds to this method determines their behavior.

Importance of Psychology
Psychology is important as it is concerned with the study of behavior and mental processes and at the same time, it is also applied to many different things in human life. Psychology is important in a lot of different ways. Through studying psychology we are able to understand and determine how the mind and body of an individual works. With that said, people would no longer make things complicated for themselves and for their health as well. They are going to avoid things that can cause stress, they are able to manage time very well, and are more effective with their studies or chosen career.