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Tm hi u t ng quan h th ng MIMO (multi-user)

n ng

i dng (single-user) v a ng

i dng

K thu t MIMO (MIMO technique) trong l nh v c truy n thng l k thu t s d ng nhi u anten pht v nhi u anten thu truy n d li u. K thu t MIMO t n d ng s phn t p (khng gian, th i gian, m ha ...) nh m nng cao ch t l ng tn hi u, t c d li u ... (khc v i khi ni m beam forming c a smart aray antenna nh m nng cao l i thu, pht theo khng gian...). Tuy v y, h n ch c a k thu t MIMO l chi ph cho thi t b cao h n v gi i thu t x l tn hi u ph c t p h n. K thu t MIMO ngy nay ang c ng d ng r t r ng ri: MIMO-Wifi, MIMOUMTS ... nh tnh t i u trong vi c s d ng hi u qu b ng thng, t c d d li u cao, robust v i knh truy n fading ... K thu t MIMO t ng i a d ng v ph c t p.
S1

S/P

S2 S3 S4

S4,S3,S2,S1 (Cc k hi u truy n)

Hnh 1: M hnh m t h MIMO 4x4. MIMO c th chia thnh 3 m ng chnh: M tr SM, v m phn t p. c (Precoding), h p knh khng gian

y M tr c l cch t o bp sng nhi u l p. Trong cch t o bp sng n l p m i anten pht s pht cc tn hi u gi ng nhau v i cc tr ng s pha thch h p c c i cng su t t i u thu. K t qu l t o bp sng lm t ng h s cng su t thng qua c u trc t ng h p, v lm gi m hi u ng fading do a ng. N u mi tr ng khng c tn x th cch t o bp sng ny r t c hi u qu . Nh ng th t khng may nh ng h th ng trong th c t u khng nh v y. Khi s d ng nhi u anten nh n th bn pht khng th t o bp sng c c i tn hi u trn t t c cc anten nh n. Khi m tr c c n c s d ng. Trong k thu t ny, nhi u lu ng tn hi u c l p c pht ng th i t cc anten pht v i cc tr ng s thch h p sao cho thng l ng t i b thu c c i. M tr c yu c u bn pht ph i bi t thng tin tr ng thi knh (CSI). y H p knh khng gian: yu c u c u hnh anten ph h p. Trong h p knh khng gian, tn hi u t c cao c chia thnh nhi u lu ng t c th p h n, m i lu ng c pht b i m t anten khc nhau trn cng m t b ng t n. N u

cc lu ng tn hi u ny n b thu c s khc bi t k hi u khng gian thch h p th b thu c th tch bi t cc lu ng ny, t o thnh cc knh song song. H p knh khng gian r t h u hi u lm t ng dung n ng ng k trong tr ng h p t s SNR cao. S lu ng khng gian c c i ng b ng ho c nh h n s anten nh nh t bn pht v bn thu. H p knh khng gian khng yu c u bn pht ph i bi t knh. Spatial multiplexage (SM) i v i k thu t space-time MIMO nh STBC hay STTC, ta t c l i v phn t p (v m ha cho STTC). Tuy nhin trong cng i u ki n v b ng thng tn hi u v cng k thu t i u ch tn hi u (signal modulation) t c l cng s bits/symbol, th STBC v STTC khng cho l i v t c d li u so v i k thu t SISO truy n th ng. - i v i k thu t MIMO Spatial Multiplexage, trong cng i u ki n v b ng thng s d ng v k thu t i u ch tn hi u, SM cho php t ng t c d li u (data rate) b ng s l n c a s l ng anten pht. M t trong nh ng k thu t SM c bi t n nhi u nh t l V-BLAS, c pht tri n b i phng th nghi m Bell Labs. - Trong k thu t V-BLAST, tn hi u truy n c s p x p d c (vertically) cho t ng anten pht. M i anten s truy n ng th i 1 stream symbols khc nhau c a tn hi u, do t c d li u t ng ln N_t l n (N_t: s anten pht...). - T i cc anten thu, tn hi u ch ng ch p c a nhi u anten pht khc nhau s c x l b i b gi i m t i u tm ra chu i d li u ML (maximum likelyhood). Trong tr ng h p b gi i m t i u c s d ng, V-BLAST s t c l i phn t p t l v i tch s c a s anten pht x s anten thu. y M phn t p l k thu t khi bn pht khng bi t thng tin tr ng thi knh. Khng nh k thu t SM, m phn t p ch pht i m t lu ng tn hi u c m ho theo k thu t c g i l m khng th i gian. Cc anten pht tn hi u m ho tr c giao. K thu t phn t p khai thc tnh c l p c a fading trong h nhi u anten nng cao s phn t p c a tn hi u. V bn pht khng bi t knh nn m phn t p khng t o bp sng. Trong th c t ng i ta c th k t h p k thu t h p knh khng gian v i m tr c khi bn pht bi t tr ng thi knh, ho c k t h p v i m phn t p trong tr ng h p ng c l i. 1. S l c Space diversity, time diversity

Gi s r ng my thu c l ng chnh xc h s knh truy n t i m i th i i m. Tn hi u pht, tnh hi u thu, nhi u Gauss u vo my thu v gi tr knh truy n t i

th i i m nT l x(nT),y(nT),b(nT) v h(nT). 1.1 Phn t p pht (Tranmission diversity): s d ng 2 hay nhi u anten cng 1 tn hi u. Tn hi u thu c truy n

Tn hi u

cl

ng c a x(nT)

1.2 Phn t p thu (Reception diversity): s d ng 2 hay nhi u anten hi u pht. Tn hi u thu c

nh n 1 tn

Tn hi u

cl

ng MRC (maximum ratio combining ) c a x(nT)

1.3 Phn t p th i gian (Time diversity): truy n cng 1 tn hi u khc nhau. Tn hi u thu c

hai th i i m

Tn hi u

cl

ng c a x(nT)

2. Space time block code (STBC) K thu t phn t p n gi n, hi u qu s d ng 2 anten pht c gi i thi u b i Alamouti [1] v c t ng qut ha cho tr ng h p nhi u anten pht b t k b i Tarork [2].

STBC s d ng ph ng php s p x p tr c giao l i th t cc tn hi u t i cc anten pht. Ta c matrix tnh hi u pht X ( [X_ij] v i i t ng tr ng cho anten Tx pht th i v j la symbol pht th j c a anten i): Alamouti codes 2 anten pht (2 Tx): Block Matrix tn hi u c d ng (v i s1 v s2 l 2 symbol tn hi u lin ti p nhau)

Tn hi u t i anten thu:

Tn hi u c l hi u y1 v y2:

ng c a s1 v s2 s

c t ng h p theo khng gian-th i gian t tn

Orthogonal STBC Tarokh cho s anten pht b t k : Tarokh t ng qut ha matrix STBC cho s anten pht b t k (Tx = 3,4,5,6,8 ...) cho tn hi u th c (BPSK, PAM ...) [2]. Tuy nhin i v i tn hi u ph c (modulation QPSK, M-PSK, M-QAM ...), m b o full-diversity, Tarokh ch ng minh khng t n t i ma tr n pht cho tr ng h p s anten pht l n h n 4 v i v i s aten pht 3 v 4 th khng t n t i full-rate matrix [2], maximun rate = 3/4. Ma tr n tn hi u tr c giao cho 3, 4 anten pht cho tn hi u th c v ph c: Full-rate matrix cho 3 anten pht (3 Tx)

Full-rate matrix cho 4 anten pht (4 Tx)

Rate 3/4 matrix for complex symbol: 3 anten Tx

4 anten Tx

3. Space time trellis codes (STTC) Trong Space-time Block Codes, tn hi u pht c t o thnh b ng cch s p x p tr c giao cc symbols d li u ln cc anten pht khc nhau (cc symbols cs px p thnh d ng block, nn g i l block code). i v i STTC, cc tn hi u pht cho t ng anten c t o ra nh vo cc a th c sinh generation function v c th bi u di n d i d ng trellis ( gi ng gi ng trellis code nh convolution codes hay trellis codes modulation ...) T i cc anten thu, tn hi u thu t i t ng anten s c s d ng gi i thu t Viterbi tm ng i trong trellis (trellis path) c xc su t l i nh nh t (g n gi ng v i k thu t viterbi tm trellis path trong gi i m convolution codes, TCM...) v t xc nh c d li u truy n.

Dung l

ng knh truy n

Shannon capacity of Gaussian channel: C = log2(1 + ) bps/Hz : signal to noise ratio (SNR)

The capacity is expressed by the maximum achievable data rate for an arbitrarily low probability of error

SISO systems :

C ! log 2 (1 
SIMO Systems:

P | h |2 ) W2
NR 2

(b / s / Hz )

C ! lo g 2 (1  h i
i !1

P ) 2 W

(b / s / z )

MISO Systems :

C ! lo g 2 (1  h i
i !1

NT

P ) 2 NT W

(b / s / z )

- In case :

| hi |2 !| h j |2  i, j 1 ...
- As CSI knows at TX site, capacity can get:
NT 2

CM I S O ! C S I S O

C ! lo g 2 (1  h i
i !1

P ) 2 W

(b / s / z )