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B GIO DC V O TO

TRNG I HC S PHM K THUT TP.HCM


KHOA IN- IN T
B MN VIN THNG

N TT NGHIP
Ti :

PHN TCH CHT LNG


THOI
MNG GSM

PHN A : GII THIU

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Trang i

LI CM N
Trc ht nhm thc hin xin chn thnh cm n thy Nguyn Huy Hng,
ngi tn tnh hng dn v a ra mt phng php lm vic khoa hc
n tt nghip hon thnh ng thi hn. ng thi chng em cng xin cm n cc
Thy C trong Khoa in T Vin Thng thuc trng i hc S Phm K
Thut TP H Ch Minh truyn t nhng kin thc qu bu trong qu trnh hc
tp ti trng.
quyn lun vn ny hon thnh cn c s h tr v ng gp khng
nh t pha gia nh v tt c b bn c v phng din vt cht ln tinh thn.
Nhm thc hin v cng trn trng v bit n vi nhng s ng gp !
D rt c gng nhng khng th trnh khi nhng thiu st trong qu
trnh thc hin. Nhm thc hin rt mong nhn c nhng li nhn xt cng
nh l cc kin ng gp t qu Thy c v cc bn.
Nhm thc hin n cng xin cm n tt c bn b gp cho lun
vn ny hon chnh hn.

Xin by t lng bit n su sc


Nhm thc hin n
Trn Th Ngc Duyn
Nguyn Th Ti

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Trang ii

B GIO DC V O TO
TRNG I HC S PHM K
THUT TP. H CH MINH

CNG HA X HICH NGHA VIT


NAM
c lp T do Hnh phc

QUYT NH GIAO TI
H v tn sinh vin:

Ngnh:

Trn Th Ngc Duyn

MSSV: 06117012

Nguyn Th Ti

MSSV: 06117096

Cng ngh in t - Vin thng

Tn ti: PHN TCH CHT LNG THOI MNG GSM


1) C s ban u:
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2) Ni dung cc phn thuyt minh v tnh ton:
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Cc bn v:
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3) Gio vin hng dn: ThS. Nguyn Huy Hng

4) Ngy giao nhim v:


5) Ngy hon thnh nhim v:
Ngy .. thng .. nm 2011
Gio vin hng dn

Ch nhim b mn

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Trang iii

NHN XT CA GIO VIN HNG DN


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Tp.HCM , ngy

thng

nm 2011

Gio vin hng dn

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Trang iv

NHN XT CA GIO VIN PHN BIN


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Tp.HCM , ngy

thng

nm 2011

Gio vin phn bin

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Trang v

LI NI U
Trong cuc sng hng ngy thng tin lin lc ng mt vai tr rt quan trng
v khng th thiu c. N quyt nh nhiu mt hot ng ca x hi, gip con
ngi nm bt nhanh chng cc thng tin c gi tr vn ho, kinh t, khoa hc k
thut rt a dng v phong ph.
Ngy nay vi nhng nhu cu c v s lng v cht lng ca khch hng s
dng cc dch v vin thng ngy cng cao, i hi phi c nhng phng tin thng
tin hin i nhm p ng cc nhu cu a dng ca khch hng mi lc, mi ni
m h cn.
Thng tin di ng ngy nay tr thnh mt dch v kinh doanh khng th
thiu c ca tt c cc nh khai thc vin thng trn th gii. i vi cc khch
hng vin thng, nht l cc nh doanh nghip th thng tin di ng tr thnh phng
tin lin lc quen thuc v khng th thiu c. Dch v thng tin di ng ngy nay
ang dn tr thnh dch v ph cp cho mi i tng vin thng.
Trong nhng nm gn y, lnh vc thng tin di ng trong nc c
nhng bc pht trin vt bc c v c s h tng ln cht lng phc v. Vi s
hnh thnh nhiu nh cung cp dch v vin thng mi to ra s cnh tranh thu
ht th phn thu bao gia cc nh cung cp dch v. Cc nh cung cp dch v lin
tc a ra cc chnh sch khuyn mi, gim gi v thu ht c rt nhiu khch
hng s dng dch v. Cng vi , mc sng chung ca ton x hi ngy cng c
nng cao khin cho s lng cc thu bao s dng dch v di ng tng t bin
trong cc nm gn y.
Cc nh cung cp dch v di ng trong nc hin ang s dng hai cng
ngh l GSM (Global System for Mobile Communication - H thng thng tin di
ng ton cu) vi chun TDMA (Time Division Multiple Access - a truy cp phn
chia theo thi gian) v cng ngh CDMA (Code Division Multiple Access - a truy
cp phn chia theo m). Cc nh cung cp dch v di ng s dng h thng thng tin

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Trang vi

di ng ton cu GSM l Mobiphone, Vinaphone, Viettel v cc nh cung cp dch


v di ng s dng cng ngh CDMA l S-Fone, EVN, Hanoi Telecom.
Cc nh cung cp dch v di ng s dng cng ngh CDMA mang li nhiu
tin ch hn cho khch hng, v cng ang dn ln mnh. Tuy nhin hin ti do nhu
cu s dng ca khch hng nn th phn di ng trong nc phn ln vn thuc v
cc nh cung cp dch v di ng GSM vi s lng cc thu bao l p o. Chnh v
vy vic ti u ha mng di ng GSM l vic lm rt cn thit v mang mt ngha
thc t rt cao.
Trn c s nhng kin thc tch lu trong nhng nm hc tp chuyn ngnh
in T - Vin Thng ti trng i Hc S Phm K Thut TP.H Ch Minh cng
vi s hng dn ca thy Nguyn Huy Hng, nhm thc hin n tm hiu,
nghin cu v hon thnh n tt nghip vi ti Phn tch cht lng thoi
mng GSM .
Ni dung ca n bao gm 3 phn :
Phn A : Gii thiu
Phn B : Ni dung
Chng 1: Tng quan v mng GSM.
Chng 2: Cc yu t nh hng n cht lng tn hiu.
Chng 3 : Gii thiu Tems Investigation.
Chng 4 : Phn tch logfile.
Phn C : Ph lc v ti liu tham kho
Trong qu trnh thc hin ti, ngi thc hin c nhng hn ch v kh nng v
cn nhiu sai st , rt mong s ng gp kin ca thy c v bn b .
Nhm thc hin n:
Trn Th Ngc Duyn
Nguyn Th Ti

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Trang vii

MC LC
LI CM N...........................................................................................................i
NHN XT CA GIO VIN PHN BIN......................................................iv
LI NI U...............................................................v
MC LC..............................................................................................................vii
MC LC HNH..................................................................................................xii
MC LC BNG..................................................................................................xv
CHNG 2............................................................................................................28
CHNG 3............................................................................................................46
CHNG 4............................................................................................................61
KT LUN V HNG PHT TRIN TI..............................................82
PH LC...............................................................................................................84
DANH SCH T VIT TT...............................................................................84

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Trang viii

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Trang xii

MC LC HNH
LI CM N...........................................................................................................i
NHN XT CA GIO VIN PHN BIN......................................................iv
LI NI U...............................................................v
MC LC..............................................................................................................vii
MC LC HNH..................................................................................................xii
MC LC BNG..................................................................................................xv
CHNG 2............................................................................................................28
CHNG 3............................................................................................................46
CHNG 4............................................................................................................61
KT LUN V HNG PHT TRIN TI..............................................82
PH LC...............................................................................................................84
DANH SCH T VIT TT...............................................................................84

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MC LC BNG
LI CM N...........................................................................................................i
NHN XT CA GIO VIN PHN BIN......................................................iv
LI NI U...............................................................v
MC LC..............................................................................................................vii
MC LC HNH..................................................................................................xii
MC LC BNG..................................................................................................xv
CHNG 2............................................................................................................28
CHNG 3............................................................................................................46
CHNG 4............................................................................................................61
KT LUN V HNG PHT TRIN TI..............................................82
PH LC...............................................................................................................84
DANH SCH T VIT TT...............................................................................84

PHN B : NI DUNG

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CHNG 1
TNG QUAN V MNG GSM
Gii thiu chung v mng GSM
Qu trnh pht trin ca mng thng tin tri qua cc giai on sau:
- Giai on th nht: Sau 1946, kh nng phc v nh, cht lng khng cao,
gi c t.
- Giai on th hai: T 1970 1979, cng vi s pht trin ca cc thit b in
t t hp c ln v cc b vi x l, ta c th thc hin c mt h thng phc tp
hn. Bi v vng ph sng ca anten pht ca cc my di ng b hn ch nn h
thng c chia thnh mt vi trm nhn cho mt trm pht.
- Giai on th ba: T1979 -1990, l mng t ong tng t. Cc trm thu pht
c t theo cc t ong. Mng ny cho php s dng li tn s v cho php
chuyn giao gia cc trong cuc gi. Tt c cc mng trn da trn mng truyn
in thoi tng t bng iu ch tn s. Chng s dng tn s 450 hoc 900 Mhz.
Vng ph sng ca n ch mc quc gia v phc v c vi trm thu bao.
- Giai on th t: T u nhng nm 1980, sau khi cc h thng NMT hot
ng thnh cng th n cng biu hin mt s hn ch v s lng thu bao, thit b
ca mng ny khng th truy nhp vo mng khc, vn u t qu ln. Tt c nhng
hn ch trn dn n mt nhu cu l phi thit k mt h thng loi mi c lm
theo kiu chung c th dng cho nhiu nc. Nm1988, vin tiu chun vin
thng chu u ETSI (Europe Telecommunication Standard Institute) thnh lp
nhm c trch di ng GSM (Groupe Special Mobile). GSM cn c ngha l h
thng thng tin di ng ton cu (Global System for Mobile Communication). GSM
l tiu chun in thoi di ng s ton chu u s dng di tn s 900Mhz.
Nm 1990, Vng quc Anh a ra h thng DCS (Digital Cellular System).
DCS da trn h thng GSM vi vic s dng tn s 1800Mhz.
Hin nay, p ng nhu cu ngy cng tng v cc dch v vin thng mi,
cc h thng thng tin di ng ang tin ti th h th ba. th h th ba ny, cc h
thng thng tin di ng c xu th ho nhp thnh mt tiu chun duy nht v c kh
Chng 1 : Tng quan v mng GSM

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nng phc v tc ln n 2Mbit/s.


1.2 Cu trc mng GSM
1.2.1 Cc thnh phn chc nng trong h thng

Hnh 1.1: M hnh h thng thng tin di ng GSM.

Cu trc ca h thng GSM c th c chia lm 3 h thng con:


-

H thng con trm gc ( BSS Base Station Subsystem) : gm BTS v


BSC.

H thng con chuyn mch mng ( NSS Network Switching Subsystem):


gm MSC/GMSC, HLR, VLR, EIR, AUC.

H thng con vn hnh bo dng mng di ng v qun l ( OSS


Operation and Support Subsystem )
Ngoi ra trong mng cn c cc thu bao khc c gi l MS.

Chng 1 : Tng quan v mng GSM

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1.2.1.1 Trm di ng (MS - Mobile Station)


-

L thit b cm tay trong mng di ng GSM, thc hin chc nng thu v
pht tn hiu v tuyn vi mt BTS (trong vng ph sng).

i vi h thng GSM, mt MS gm hai thnh phn l: ME ( Mobile


Equipment) v SIM ( Subcriper Indentity Module ).

ME ( Mobile Equipment )
-

L thit b cng thc hin chc nng thu pht tn hiu, n tng i thng
minh v c iu khin bi mt chng trnh bn trong my.

C kh nng t iu chnh cng sut pht, do tit kim pin v hn ch


hin tng near and far.

ME tr thnh MS ch khi no SIM c chn vo trong ME.

Mi ME cha 1 s IMEI dng nhn dng thit b. S IMEI l duy nht


cho tt c cc MS trn ton th gii.

SIM ( Subcriber Indentity Module)


-

L mt th chip, bn trong c b nh lu tr thng tin c nhn ca thu


bao v thng tin ca nh cung cp dch v.

Trong qu trnh hot ng, MS s dng cc thng tin c sn trong SIM.

1.2.1.2 Phn h trm gc (BSS - Base Station Subsystem)


Phn h trm gc BSS bao gm:
-

TRAU (Transcoding and Rate Adapter Unit): B chuyn i m v


phi hp tc .

BSC (Base Station Controler): B iu khin trm gc.

BTS (Base Transceiver Station): Trm thu pht gc.

Chng 1 : Tng quan v mng GSM

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Khi BTS (Base Tranceiver Station)


Mt BTS bao gm cc thit b thu /pht tn hiu sng v tuyn, anten v b
phn m ha v gii m giao tip vi BSC.

Hnh 1.2: Cc thnh phn trong khi BTS.


BTS l thit b trung gian gia mng GSM v thit b thu bao MS, trao i
thng tin vi MS qua giao din v tuyn. Mi BTS to ra mt hay mt s khu vc
vng ph sng nht nh gi l t bo (cell).
Khi TRAU (Transcode/Rate Adapter Unit)
Khi thch ng v chuyn i m thc hin chuyn i m thng tin t cc
knh v tuyn (16 Kb/s) theo tiu chun GSM thnh cc knh thoi chun (64 Kb/s)
trc khi chuyn n tng i. TRAU l thit b m qu trnh m ho v gii m
ting c th ring cho GSM c tin hnh, ti y cng thc hin thch ng tc
trong trng hp truyn s liu. TRAU l mt b phn ca BTS, nhng cng c th
c t cch xa BTS v thm ch cn t trong BSC v MSC.

Chng 1 : Tng quan v mng GSM

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Hnh 1.3: Khi TRAU.


Khi BSC (Base Station Controller)
B iu khin trm gc BSC thc hin cc chc nng sau:

iu khin mt s trm BTS: x l cc bn tin bo hiu, iu khin,


vn hnh v bo dng i hoc n BTS

Khi to kt ni.

iu khin chuyn giao.

Kt ni n MSC, BTS, v OMC.

1.2.1.3 Phn h chuyn mch (SSS- Switching Subsystem)


Phn h chuyn mch bao gm cc khi chc nng sau:
-

Trung tm chuyn mch nghip v di ng MSC

Thanh ghi nh v thng tr HLR

Thanh ghi nh v tm tr VLR

Trung tm nhn thc AuC

Thanh ghi nhn dng thit b EIR

Phn h chuyn mch (SS) bao gm cc chc nng chuyn mch chnh ca
mng GSM cng nh cc c s d liu cn thit cho s liu thu bao v qun l di
ng ca thu bao. Chc nng chnh ca SS l qun l thng tin gia nhng ngi s
dng mng GSM vi nhau v vi mng khc.
Chng 1 : Tng quan v mng GSM

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Trung tm chuyn mch di ng MSC


Tng i di ng MSC (Mobile services Switching Center) thng l mt
tng i ln iu khin v qun l mt s cc b iu khin trm gc BSC. MSC
thc hin cc chc nng chuyn mch chnh, nhim v chnh ca MSC l to kt ni
v x l cuc gi n nhng thu bao ca GSM, mt mt MSC giao tip vi phn h
BSS v mt khc giao tip vi mng ngoi qua tng i cng GMSC (Gateway
MSC).
Chc nng chnh ca tng i MSC:
-

X l cuc gi (Call Processing)

iu khin chuyn giao (Handover Control)

Qun l di ng (Mobility Management)

Tng tc mng IWF(Interworking Function): qua GMSC

B ghi nh v thng tr (HLR - Home Location Register)

HLR l c s d liu tham chiu lu gi lu di cc thng tin v thu bao, cc


thng tin lin quan ti vic cung cp cc dch v vin thng. HLR khng ph thuc
vo v tr hin thi ca thu bao v cha cc thng tin v v tr hin thi ca thu bao.

Hnh 1.4: B nh v thng tr HLR.


HLR bao gm:
-

Cc s nhn dng: IMSI, MSISDN.

Cc thng tin v thu bao

Danh sch cc dch v m MS c s dng v b hn ch

S hiu VLR ang phc v MS

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B ghi nh v tm tr (VLR - Visitor Location Register)

Hnh 1.5: B nh v tm tr VLR.


VLR l mt c s d liu cha thng tin v tt c cc MS hin ang vng
phc v ca MSC. Mi MSC c mt VLR, thng thit k VLR ngay trong MSC.
Ngay c khi MS lu ng vo mt vng MSC mi. VLR lin kt vi MSC s yu cu
s liu v MS t HLR. ng thi HLR s c thng bo rng MS ang vng
MSC no. Nu sau MS mun thc hin mt cuc gi, VLR s c tt c cc thng
tin cn thit thit lp mt cuc gi m khng cn hi HLR, c th coi VLR nh
mt HLR phn b. VLR cha thng tin chnh xc hn v v tr MS vng MSC.
Nhng khi thu bao tt my hay ri khi vng phc v ca MSC th cc s liu lin
quan ti n cng ht gi tr.
Hay ni cch khc, VLR l c s d liu trung gian lu tr tm thi thng tin
v thu bao trong vng phc v MSC/VLR c tham chiu t c s d liu HLR.
VLR bao gm:
-

Cc s nhn dng: IMSI, MSISDN, TMSI.

S hiu nhn dng vng nh v ang phc v MS

Danh sch cc dch v m MS c v b hn ch s dng

Trng thi ca MS ( bn: busy; ri: idle)

Thanh ghi nhn dng thit b (EIR - Equipment Identity Register)

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Hnh 1.6:Thanh ghi nhn dng thit b EIR.


EIR c chc nng kim tra tnh hp l ca ME thng qua s liu nhn dng di
ng quc t (IMEI-International Mobile Equipment Identity) v cha cc s liu v
phn cng ca thit b. Mt ME s c s IMEI thuc mt trong ba danh sch sau:
-

Nu ME thuc danh sch trng ( White List ) th n c quyn truy nhp

v s dng cc dch v ng k.
-

Nu ME thuc danh sch xm ( Gray List ), tc l c nghi vn v cn kim

tra. Danh sch xm bao gm nhng ME c li (li phn mm hay li sn xut thit
b) nhng khng nghim trng ti mc loi tr khi h thng
-

Nu ME thuc danh sch en ( Black List ), tc l b cm khng cho truy

nhp vo h thng, nhng ME thng bo mt my.

Hnh 1.7: Trng hp ME thuc Black List.


Khi trung tm nhn thc AuC (Aunthentication Center)

Chng 1 : Tng quan v mng GSM

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Hnh 1.8: Khi trung tm nhn thc AuC.

AuC c ni n HLR, chc nng ca AuC l cung cp cho HLR cc tn s


nhn thc v cc kho mt m s dng cho bo mt. ng v tuyn cng c
AuC cung cp m bo mt chng nghe trm, m ny c thay i ring bit cho
tng thu bao. C s d liu ca AuC cn ghi nhiu thng tin cn thit khc khi thu
bao ng k nhp mng v c s dng kim tra khi thu bao yu cu cung cp
dch v, trnh vic truy nhp mng mt cch tri php.
1.2.1.4 Phn h khai thc v bo dng (OSS)

Hnh 1.9: Phn h khai thc v bo dng (OSS).


OSS (Operation and Support System) thc hin 3 chc nng chnh:
-

Khai thc v bo dng mng.

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Qun l thu bao v tnh cc.

Qun l thit b di ng.

1.2.2 Phn cp vng phc v


Mi mng in thoi cn mt cu trc nht nh nh tuyn cc cuc gi
n tng i cn thit v cui cng n thu bao b gi. mt mng di ng, cu
trc ny rt qun trng do tnh lu thng ca cc thu bao trong mng. Trong h
thng GSM, mng c phn chia thnh cc phn vng sau

Hnh 1.10: Cu trc a l ca mng GSM.


Vng phc v PLMN (Public Land Mobile Network)
Phn cp tip theo l vng phc v PLMN, c th l mt hay nhiu vng
trong mt quc gia ty theo kch thc ca vng phc v.
Kt ni cc ng truyn gia mng di ng GSM/PLMN v cc mng khc
(c nh hay di ng) u mc tng i trung k quc gia hay quc t. Tt c cc
cuc gi vo hay ra mng GSM/PLMN u c nh tuyn thng qua tng i v
tuyn cng G-MSC (Gateway - Mobile Service Switching Center). G-MSC lm vic
nh mt tng i trung k vo cho GSM/PLMN.

Chng 1 : Tng quan v mng GSM

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Vng phc v MSC/VLR


Vng MSC l mt b phn ca mng c mt MSC qun l. nh tuyn
mt cuc gi n mt thu bao di ng. Mi thng tin nh tuyn cuc gi ti
thu bao di ng hin ang trong vng phc v ca MSC c lu gi trong b ghi
nh v tm tr VLR.
Mt vng mng GSM/PLMN c chia thnh mt hay nhiu vng phc v
MSC/VLR.

Hnh 1.11: Cc vng phc v (MSC/VLR) I-IV ca GSM/PLMN.


Vng nh v (LA - Location Area)
Mi vng phc v MSC/VLR c chia thnh mt s vng nh v.Vng nh v
l ni trm di ng c th chuyn ng t do m khng cp nht thng tin v v tr
cho tng i MSC/VLR. Vng nh v l vng m mt thng bo tm gi s
c pht qung b tm thu bao di ng b gi. Vng nh v c th c mt s
v ph thuc vo mt hay vi BSC nhng n ch ph thuc vo mt MSC/VLR.

Chng 1 : Tng quan v mng GSM

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Hnh 1.12: Vng nh v LAI v vng phcv MSC/VLR.


Cell (T bo hay )
Vng nh v c chia thnh mt s m khi MS di chuyn trong th
khng cn cp nht thng tin v v tr vi mng. Cell l n v c s ca mng, l
mt vng ph sng v tuyn c nhn dng bng nhn ng ton cu (CGI). Mi
c qun l bi mt trm v tuyn gc BTS.

Hnh 1.13: Chia cell trong vng nh v.

Chng 1 : Tng quan v mng GSM

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1.2.3 Cu trc lp v giao thc

Hnh 1.14: GSM di u trc lp v giao thc.


Giao thc bo hiu trong GSM chia thnh ba lp tng qut, ph thuc vo giao
tip nh trong hnh trn.
-

Lp mt l lp vt l dng giao tip khng trung.

Lp hai l lp lin kt d liu. Thng qua giao tip

Um, lp lin kt d liu l mt phin bn sa i ca giao thc LAPD (cc


th tc truy tm knh D) s dng ISDN gi l LAPDm (cc th tc truy
cp ng truyn knh Dm). Thng qua giao tip A, lp hai s dng
phn truyn bn tin (MTP) ca h thng bo hiu s 7.
-

Giao thc bo hiu GSM lp ba c chia thnh ba

lp con:

RR (Radio Resource management)_ Qun l ti nguyn v tuyn:


iu khin thit lp, duy tr, hy kt ni MS v MSC v c nh gm c
chuyn giao.

MM (Mobility Management)_Qun l di ng: qun l vic cp nht


v tr v th tc ng k cng nh bo mt v nhn thc.

CM (Communication Management) Qun l truyn tin : iu khin


cuc gi tng qut, v qun l cc dch v b sung v dch v bn tin
ngn.

Chng 1 : Tng quan v mng GSM

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1.2.4 Cc giao din trong mng GSM

Hnh 1.15: Giao din trong mng GSM.

Giao din v tuyn(Um)

Giao din v tuyn Um l giao din gia BTS v MS. y l giao din quan trng
nht, quyt nh ln nht n cht lng dch v mng GSM.
Giao din ny cung cp mt s lng cc knh lgic. Thng tin v ngi s dng
(thoi, d liu) c truyn dn qua cc knh thng tin.
Giao din Abis

Giao din Abis l giao din gia BTS v BSC. Giao din ny c s dng
trao i thng tin thu bao (thoi, s liu..) v thng tin iu khin (bo hiu, ng
b..). BSC kim sot BTS qua giao din ny.
Giao din A
Giao din A l giao din gia MSC v BSC, qua b chuyn i m TRAU.
Giao din B
Giao din B l giao din gia MSC v VLR c tiu chun ho GSM pha
1. Giao din ny s dng CCS7 trao i s liu gia MSC v VLR, nh cc s
liu v quyn truy nhp ca thu bao, s nhn dng cc thu bao vng lai, v cc s
liu cn trao i gia tng i v thu bao trong thi gian ni mch

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Giao din C
Giao din C l giao din gia MSC v HLR. Giao din ny s dng CCS7 v
c quy nh phn ng dng ring cho GSM-MAP. MSC s dng giao din ny
truy nhp HLR ly s liu.
Giao din D
Giao din D l giao din gia VLR v HLR. Giao din ny s dng MAP trao
i s liu v cc thu bao di ng gia cc c s ca VLR v HLR nh:
-

Cc tham s v quyn truy nhp mng ca thu bao.

Ti thit lp li s liu ca thu bao trong VLR khi cn thit.

Khi c cuc gi t mng PSTN vo mng GSM, HLR s chuyn yu cu ca


G-MSC v MSRN cho VLR.

Thit lp mi cc s liu ca thu bao cho VLR khi MS di chuyn t vng phc
v khc ti.

X l v lu gi cc thng tin lin quan n dch v ph khi c thu bao no


yu cu.

Giao din E
Giao din E l giao din gia cc tng i trong mng GSM. Giao din E c s
dng thit lp cc cuc ni gia cc thu bao thuc vng kim sot ca cc tng
i khc nhau.
Giao din F
Giao din F l giao din gia EIR v MSC. Giao din F s dng MAP MSC
trao i s liu v vic nhn dng thit b thu bao quc t IMEI vi cc c s d
liu c ghi sn trong EIR khi cn kim tra cc thu bao MS.
Giao din G

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Giao din G l giao din gia cc VLR. Giao din ny c cc VLR s dng
trao i s liu v MS trong qu trnh to lp v lu gi h khu tm tr ca cc MS
. Giao din G s dng CCS7 vi phn ng dng MAP trao i nhng thng tin
nh:
-

Gi cc yu cu v IMSI t VLR c sang VLR mi.

Gi cc yu cu v tham s quyn truy nhp ca thu bao t VLR ny sang


VLR khc khi di chuyn gia hai MSC tng ng.
Giao din Ater
Giao din Ater l giao din gia BSC v TRAU, thng qua giao din ny TRAU

s chuyn cc knh Traffic t BSC c tc 13Kb/s thnh knh tiu chun c tc


64Kb/s v ngc li.
1.2.5 Giao din v tuyn
1.2.5.1 Bng tn trong GSM 900

Hnh 1.16: Di tn trong GSM 900.


H thng thng tin di ng GSM 900 dng bng tn xung quanh bng tn
900MHz (890 960MHz) c chia thnh 2 dy tn:
-

Dy tn t 890 915 MHz dng cho ng ln t MS n BTS (uplink).

Dy tn t 935 960 MHz dng cho ng xung t bts n MS


(downlink).

Tt c c 124 tn s sng mang.

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Khong cch gia hai sng mang ng ln v ng xung l 45 MHz.

Khong cch gia 2 sng mang cng chiu l 200 KHz.

1.2.5.2 Phn cp cu trc khung

Hnh 1.17: Cu trc khung.


Mt siu siu khung c chia thnh 2048 siu khung vi thi gian l 6,12s.
Siu khung li c chia thnh cc a khung, c hai loi a khung:
- a khung 26 khung cha 26 khung TDMA. a khung ny c s dng
mang TCH (v SACCH cng FACCH). 51 a khung ny to nn mt siu khung.
- a khung 51 khung cha 51 khung TDMA. a khung ny s dng mang
BCH v CCH. 26 a khung ny to nn mt siu khung.

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1.2.5.3 Cu trc BURST


Burst l n v pht ca GSM. Mt burst thng thng (Normal Burst_NB) cha
hai gi58 bit (57 bit d liu c m ha + 1 bit ly cp S (Stealing bit)) v mt
chui hun luyn 26 bit. Ba bit ui T c thm vo mi bn. (Xem hnh 1.8).

Hnh 1.18: Cu trc ca Normal Burst.

Bit ui TB (Tail Bits): Cc bit ui TB lun l 0,0,0 gip b cn bng xc


nh u v cui mu bit.

Cc bit c mt m (Coded Bits) 2x(57+1) bit gm cc bit d liu hay thoi


v mt c ly cp. C ly cp S: cho bit burst c b ly cp cho bo hiu
FCCH hay khng v thng thng burst c s dng cho lu lng.

Chui hng dn 26 bit ( Training Sequence) y l chui c nh c MS


v BTS bit trc, dng ng b. C 8 chui hun luyn khc nhau trong
GSM. Cc MS trong mt cell u dng chung mt chui hun luyn c trng
cho cell . Chui ny thng c chn sao cho l duy nht v khng th
nhm ln vi cc d liu khc trong burst.

Khong bo v GP l mt khong trng cho php my pht dch ln hay dch


xung trong gii hn do khuyn ngh GMS qui nh.

1.2.5.4 Phn knh trong GSM


Knh vt l (Physical Channel)
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Mi knh tn s c cp pht cho cc MS s dng chung theo phng php


phn chia theo thi gian to thnh cc khung TDMA vi 8 khe thi gian. Mi khung
TDMA c chiu di 4615s mi khe thi gian c chiu di 577s. Mi khe thi
gian ny c gi l knh vt l

Hnh 1.19: Mi khe thi gian l mt knh vt l.


Mt knh tn s c 8 knh vt l .
Knh logic

Knh lu lng

Knh lu lng dng chuyn m thoi v d liu. TCH nh ngha s dng


26 khung a khung (ngha l mt nhm 26 khung TDMA). Chiu di ca 26 khung
a khung l 120ms, l chiu di ca mt chu k burst (120ms/26 khung/8 chu k
burst mi khung). Trong 26 khung th 24 khung dng lu thng, mt khung
dng cho knh iu khin lin kt chm (Slow Associated Control Channel_SACCH)
v mt khung cha dng. (Xem hnh ). Tuyn ln v tuyn xung cch nhau mt
khong thi gian 3 burst thu bao khng pht v thu ng thi, n gin ha mch
in t.
D liu c truyn trong cc burst t trong cc khe thi gian. Tc bit
truyn l 271 kbps (chu k bit l 3.79 s). Do sai s theo thi gian, phn tn thi

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gian, burst d liu hi ngn hn khe thi gian. (148 thay v 156.25 chu k bit trong
mt khe thi gian).

Hnh 1.20: Phn loi knh lu lng.


-

Knh lu lng ton tc TCH/F (Traffic Channel/Full rate) 22.8kbps


(TCH/FS, TCH/F9.6, TCH/F4.8, TCH/F2.4)

Knh lu lng bn tc TCH/H (Traffic Channel/Half rate) 11.4kbps


(TCH/HS, TCH/H4.8, TCH/H2.4)

Knh iu khin

Cc knh chung di ng c th truy cp c ch ng Idle v ch Dedicated .


Cc knh chung di ng s dng ch Idle trao i thng tin bo hiu cn thit
chuyn qua ch Dedicated. Di ng ch Dedicated gim st cc trm gc
xung quanh thc hin handover v cc thng tin khc.

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Hnh 1.21: Knh iu khin.


-

Knh qung b BCH (Broadcast Channel) dng cho hng xung, mang thng
tin qung b ca cell n cc MS.

Knh iu khin chung CCCH (Common Control Channel) dng cho hng
xung, v hng ln truyn thng tin cho cc MS.

Knh iu khin ring DCCH (Dedicated Control Channel) dng cho hng
xung v hng ln bo hiu iu khin cho ring mt MS (gim st truyn
d liu gia MS v BTS).

Nhm knh BCH (FCCH, SCH, BCCH):

Knh hiu chnh tn s FCCH (Frequency Correction Channel), hng

xung, hiu chnh tn s cho cc MS.

Knh ng b SCH (Synchronization Channel), hng xung, mang

thng tin tram BTS v ng b khung cho MS.

Knh iu khin qung b BCCH (Broadcast Control Channel), hng

xung, pht qung b cc bn tin h thng, bn tin ca cell.


-

Nhm knh CCCH (PCH, RACH, AGCH):

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Knh tm gi PCH (Paging Channel), hng xung, tm MS khi thu bao


b gi.

Knh truy xut ngu nhin RACH (Random Access Channel), hng ln,
dng khi MS mun yu cu mt knh SDCCH.

Knh cho php truy xut AGCH (Access Grant Channel), hng xung,
ch nh mt knh SDCCH.

Nhm knh DCCH (SDCCH, SACCH):

Knh iu khin ring chun SDCCH (Standalone Dedicated Control

Channel), hng ln v hng xung, dng dnh bo hiu ring cho mt


MS cho cc th tc cp nht, thit lp cuc gi trc khi n nh knh
TCH

Knh iu khin kt hp chm SACCH (Slow Associated Control

Channel), hng ln v hng xung, dng kt hp vi mt knh TCH


hay SDCCH mang thng tin o lng, iu khin cng sut,

Knh iu khin lin kt nhanh (Fast Associated Control

Channel_FACCH): knh ny lin kt vi mt knh TCH. FACCH lm


vic ch ly cp bng cch thay i lu lng ting hay s liu bng
bo hiu. FACCH khc SDCCH ch l SDCCH tn ti sn, cn FACCH
ch thit lp theo kiu trng dng (ly ln) TCH. FACCH cn cho cc bn
tin khn v di phc v chuyn giao. FACCH chim ch ca TCH trong
burst v ch bo vic bng c ly ln S.
1.2.6 Cc m nhn dng s dng trong h thng GSM
Trong GSM, mi phn t mng cng nh mi vng phc v u c a ch
ho bng mt s gi l m (code). Trn phm vi ton cu, h thng m ny l n tr
(duy nht) cho mi i tng v c lu tr ri rc trong tt c cc phn t mng.

M xc nh khu vc LAI ( Location Area Identity ): LAI l m quc t cho

cc khu vc, c lu tr trong VLR v l mt thnh phn trong m nhn dng t


bo ton cu CGI (Cell Global Identity). Khi mt thu bao c mt ti mt vng ph
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sng no , n s nhn CGI t BSS, so snh LAI nhn c trc xc nh


xem n ang u. Khi hai s liu ny khc nhau, MS s np LAI mi cho b nh.
Cu trc ca mt LAI nh sau:

Hnh 1.22: M xc nh khu vc LAI


MCC (Mobile Country Code): m quc gia ca nc c mng GSM.
MNC (Mobile Network Code): m ca mng GSM, do quc gia c
mng GSM qui nh.
LAC (Location Area Code): m khu vc, dng nhn dng khu vc
trong mng GSM.

Cc m s a dch v ton cu (International ISDN Numbers): Cc phn

t ca mng GSM nh MSC, VLR, HLR/AUC, EIR, BSC u c mt m s tng


ng a dch v ton cu. M cc im bo hiu c suy ra t cc m ny c s
dng cho mng bo hiu CCS7 trong mng GSM.
Ring HLR/AUC cn c mt m khc, gm hai thnh phn. Mt phn lin
quan n s thu bao a dch v ton cu - MSISDN (International Mobile
Subscriber ISDN Number) c s dng trong vic thit lp cuc gi t mt mng
khc n MS trong mng. Phn t khc lin quan n m nhn dng thu bao di ng
quc t - IMSI (International Mobile Subscriber Identity) c lu gi trong AUC.

M nhn dng t bo ton cu CGI: CGI c s dng cc MSC v

BSC truy nhp cc t bo.


CGI = LAI + CI
CI (Cell Identity) gm 16 bit dng nhn dng cell trong phm vi ca LAI.
CGI c lu gi trong c s d liu ca MSC/VLR.
M nhn dng trm gc BSIC (Base Station Identity Code):
Cu trc ca m nhn dng trm gc nh sau:

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Hnh 1.23: M nhn dng trm gc BSIC


NCC (Network Color Code): m mu ca mng GSM. c s dng phn
bit vi cc mng khc trong nc.
BCC ( BTS Color Code ): m mu ca BTS. Dng phn bit cc knh s
dng cng mt tn s ca cc trm BTS khc nhau.

S thu bao ISDN ca my di ng - MSISDN (Mobile Subscriber ISDN

Number):
MSISDN c s dng bi MSC truy nhp HLR khi cn thit lp cuc ni.
MSISDN c cu trc theo CCITT, E164 v k hoch nh s ISDN nh sau:

Hnh 1.24: S thu bao ISDN ca my di ng


CC (Country Code): m nc, l ni thu bao ng k nhp mng (Vit Nam
th CC = 84).
NDC (National Destination Code): m mng GSM, dng phn bit cc
mng GSM trong cng mt nc.
SN (Subscriber Number): s thu bao, ti a c 12 s, trong c 3 s
nhn dng HLR.
Nhn dng thu bao di ng ton cu IMSI (International Mobile
Subscriber Identity):

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IMSI l m s duy nht cho mi thu bao trong mt vng h thng GSM.
IMSI c ghi trong MS v trong HLR v b mt vi ngi s dng. IMSI c cu
trc nh sau:

Hnh 1.25: Nhn dng thu bao di ng ton cu.


MCC (Mobile Country Code): m nc c mng GSM, do CCITT qui nh
nhn dng quc gia m thu bao ang c mt.
MNC (Mobile Network Code): m mng GSM.
MSIN (Mobile Subscriber Identification Number): s nhn dng thu bao di
ng, gm 10 s c dng nhn dng thu bao di ng trong cc vng dch v
ca mng GSM, vi 3 s u tin c dng nhn dng HLR.
MSIN c lu gi c nh trong VLR v trong thu bao MS. MSIN c
VLR s dng khi truy nhp HLR/AUC to lp H khu thng tr cho thu
bao.
Nhn dng thu bao di ng cc b - LMSI (Location Mobile subscriber
Identity):
Gm 4 octet. VLR lu gi v s dng LMSI cho tt c cc thu bao hin ang
c mt ti vng ph sng ca n v chuyn LMSI cng vi IMSI cho HLR. HLR s
dng LMSI mi khi cn chuyn cc mu tin lin quan n thu bao tng ng
cung cp dch v.
Nhn dng thu bao di ng tm thi - TMSI (Temporaly Mobile
subscriber Identity):
TMSI do VLR t to ra trong c s d liu ca n cng vi IMSI sau khi vic
kim tra quyn truy nhp ca thu bao chng t hp l. TMSI c s dng cng vi
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LAI a ch ho thu bao trong BSS v truy nhp s liu ca thu bao trong c s
d liu ca VLR.
S vng lai ca thu bao di ng - MSRN (Mobile Station Roaming
Number )
MSRN do VLR tm thi to ra yu cu ca HLR trc khi thit lp cuc gi
n mt thu bao ang lu ng n mng ca n. Khi cuc gi kt thc th MSRN
cng b xo. Cu trc ca MSRN bao gm CC, NDC v s do VLR tm thi t to
ra.
S chuyn giao HON (Handover Number)
Khi thu bao di chuyn t MSC1 sang MSC2 m vn ang s dng dch v.
MSC2 yu cu VLR ca n tm thi to ra HON gi cho MSC1 v MSC1 s dng
HON chuyn cuc ni sang cho MSC2. Sau khi ht cuc thoi hay thu bao ri
khi vng ph sng ca MSC1 th HON s b xo.
Nhn dng thit b di ng quc t - IMEI (International Moble
Equipment Identity):
IMEI c hng ch to ghi sn trong thit b thu bao v c thu bao cung
cp cho MSC khi cn thit. Cu trc ca IMEI:

Hnh 1.26: Nhn dng thit b di ng quc t


TAC (Type Approval Code): m chng nhn loi thit b, gm 6 k t, dng
phn bit vi cc loi khng c cp bn quyn. TAC c qun l mt cch tp
trung.
FAC (Final Assembly Code): xc nh ni sn xut, gm 2 k t.
SNR (Serial Number): l s Seri, dng xc nh cc my c cng TAC v
FAC.

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CHNG 2
MT S YU T NH HNG N
CHT LNG TN HIU
2.1 Cc yu t nh hng n cht lng thoi
Mt c im ca cell l cc knh ang s dng c th c s dng cc
cell khc. Nhng gia cc cell ny phi c mt khong cch nht nh. iu ny c
ngha l cell s b nhiu ng knh do vic cc cell khc s dng cng tn s. Cui
cng vng ph sng ca trm gc s b gii hn bi l do ny hn l do tp m thng
thng. V vy, ta c th ni rng mt h thng t ong hon thin l gii hn c
nhiu m c qui chun, loi tr c nhiu h thng. Mt vn trong thit k
h t ong l iu khin cc loi nhiu ny mc chp nhn c. iu ny c
thc hin mt phn bi vic vic iu khin khong cch s dng li tn s. Khong
cch ny cng ln th nhiu cng b.
cht lng thoi lun c m bo th mc thu ca sng mang mong
mun C (Carrier) phi ln hn tng mc nhiu ng knh I (Interference) v mc
nhiu knh ln cn A (Adjacent).
2.1.1 Nhiu ng knh

Hnh 2.1: Nhiu ng knh.


Nhiu ng knh xy ra khi c hai my pht pht trn cng mt tn s hoc
trn cng mt knh. My thu iu chnh knh ny s thu c c hai tn hiu vi
cng ph thuc vo v tr ca my thu so vi hai my pht.
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T s sng mang trn nhiu c nh ngha l cng tn hiu mong mun


trn cng tn hiu nhiu.
C/I = 10log(Pc/Pi) .
Trong :
Pc = cng sut tn hiu thu mong mun
Pi = cng sut nhiu thu c.

Hnh 2.2: T s nhiu ng knh C/I.


Hnh 2.1 trn ch ra trng hp m my di ng (cellphone) t trong xe
ang thu mt sng mang mong mun t mt trm gc phc v (Serving BS) v ng
thi cng ang chu mt nhiu ng knh do nhiu pht sinh ca mt trm gc khc
(Interference BS).
Gi s rng c hai trm u pht vi mt cng sut nh nhau cc ng
truyn sng cng tng ng (hu nh cng khng khc nhau trong thc t) v
im gia, my di ng c C/I bng 0 dB, c ngha l c hai tn hiu c cng
bng nhau. Nu my di ng i gn v pha trm gc ang phc v n th C/I > 0 dB.
Nu my di ng chuyn ng v pha trm gy ra nhiu th C/I < 0 dB.
Theo khuyn ngh ca GSM gi tr C/I b nht m my di ng vn c th lm
vic tt l 9 dB. Trong thc t, ngi ta nhn thy rng gi tr ny cn thit phi ln
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n 12 dB ngoi tr nu s dng nhy tn th mi c th lm vic mc C/I l 9dB.


mc C/I thp hn th t l li bit BER (Bit Error Rate) s cao khng chp nhn
c v m ho knh cng khng th sa li mt cch chnh xc c.
T s C/I c dng cho cc my di ng ph thuc rt ln vo vic quy
hoch tn s v mu ti s dng tn s. Ni chung vic s dng li tn s lm dung
lng tng ng k tuy nhin ng thi cng lm cho t s C/I gim i. Do vic
quy hoch tn s cn quan tm n nhiu ng knh C/I.
2.1.2 Nhiu knh ln cn
Nhiu knh ln cn xy ra khi sng v tuyn c iu chnh v thu ring
knh C song li chu nhiu t knh ln cn C-1 hoc C+1. Mc d thc t sng v
tuyn khng c chnh thu knh ln cn , nhng n vn ngh mt s p
ng nh l cho php knh ln cn gy nhiu ti knh m my thu ang iu chnh. T
s sng mang trn knh ln cn c nh ngha l cng ca sng mang mong
mun trn cng ca sng mang knh ln cn.
C/A = 10.log(Pc/Pa)
Trong :
Pc = cng sut thu tn hiu mong mun
Pa = cng sut thu tn hiu ca knh ln cn
Gi tr C/A thp lm cho mc BER cao. Mc d m ho knh GSM bao gm
vic pht hin li v sa li, nhng vic thnh cng th cng c gii hn i
vi nhiu. Theo khuyn ngh ca GSM, cho vic quy hoch tn s c tt th gi
tr C/A nh nht nn ln hn - 9 dB.
Khong cch gia ngun to ra tn hiu mong mun vi ngun ca knh ln
cn ln s tt hn cho C/A. iu ny c ngha l cc cell ln cn khng nn c n
nh cc sng mang ca cc knh cnh nhau nu C/A c c ngh trong
mt gii hn nht nh.
C hai t s C/I v C/A u c th c tng ln bng vic s dng quy hoch
cu trc tn s.
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2.1.3 Phn tn thi gian


Phn tn thi gian xy ra l do c nhiu ng truyn sng t my pht n
my thu. Hin tng phn tn thi gian gy ra mt s vn cho mng thng tin di
ng s. Vic s dng truyn dn s cng gy ra mt s vn khc nh: phn tn
thi gian do cc tn hiu phn x (Reflection) gy ra.

Hnh 2.3: S phn tn thi gian.


S phn tn thi gian s gy ra hin tng giao thoa gia cc k t. Gi
thit chng ta pht i mt chui bit 1 v 0. Nu tn hiu phn x i chm hn tn hiu
i thng ng 1 bit th my thu pht hin bit 1 t sng phn x ng thi cng pht
hin bit 0 t sng i thng.
Ca s thi gian c nh ngha l khong thi gian 15 ms sau khi my thu
nhn c tn hiu trc tip t my pht. Gi s cc tia phn x n my thu bn
ngoi ca s thi gian, tc l sau 15 ms, s gy phin phc cho h thng ging nh l
nhiu.Ta bit gi tr ti thiu ca C/I trong h thng GSM l 9 dB.
Chng ta c th coi gi tr ny l gi tr cc i ca phn tn thi gian. Ngha
l tt c cc tn hiu phn x m n tr hn 15 ms, bn ngoi ca s thi gian, phi
c gi tr tng nh hn 9 dB. T s ny chnh l C/R.
Phn tn thi gian ch c th xy ra khi hiu qung ng gia tn hiu trc
tip v tn hiu phn x t nhng chng ngi vt k trn ln hn ca s cn bng
(4,5 km).

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Ni chung, s nguy him ca phn tn thi gian s tng cng vi khong cch
gia BTS v MS. Khi mt MS gn BTS c th nhn c tn hiu phn x mnh vi
hiu qung ng ln nhng vn khng nh hng g do tn hiu trc tip mnh
m bo t s C/R trn ngng ti hn. Khi MS chuyn ng ra xa BTS th nguy c t
s C/R thp s tng ln do tn hiu trc tip yu i.
Tuy nhin, mt iu cn ch l tia phn x cng l mt phn ca sng
mang cho nn vic quy hoch mt h thng cn phi ch ra c cc trng hp c
th c th xy ra hin tng giao thoa k t.
2.1.4 Nhiu gia cc h thng
Trong mt vi trng hp cng c th b nhiu t cc ngun nhiu ngoi, nh t
cc h thng GSM khc c tn s ln cn nhau, hoc t cc ng vi ba c hoc cc
h thng ca qun i c cng tn s hoc gn bng tn GSM. Loi nhiu ny thng
kh x l, v phi c quan tm trong qu trnh thit k tn s c bin php trnh
nhiu trn h thng tng trm v tng vng c th.
2.1.5 Fading
-

Fading l s bin i cng tn hiu sng mang cao tn ti anten thu do

c s thay i khng ng u v ch s khc x ca kh quyn, cc phn x ca t


v nc trn ng truyn sng v tuyn i qua.
-

Nguyn nhn: Multipath cung la mt nguyn nhn gy ra fading ngoai ra

con nhiu nguyn nhn khac nh khi hu thi tit, s phan xa cua cac sng tai tng
in ly.....
-

Phn loi fading

Fading phng.

Fading chn lc tn s.

gim phn no tc hi do Fading gy ra, ngi ta thng tng cng sut

pht ln to ra mt lng d tr Fading, s dng mt s bin php nh: phn


tp anten, nhy tn ...

Chng 2 : Mt s yu t ng hng n cht lng tn hiu

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Mt s k thut tng cht lng h thng:


2.2.1 iu khin cng sut thu pht ca MS v BTS:
-

iu khin cng sut nhm cc tiu ha nhiu ng knh v bo tn cng

sut trm di ng v trm thu pht gc hot ng vi mc cng sut thp nht m
vn duy tr cht lng tn hiu chp nhn c.
-

Cho php iu khin cng sut hng xung, BTS ch pht cng sut max

ti khe thi gian mang BCCH, cc TCH c iu chnh ti u theo yu cu cng


sut.
-

Trm di ng o cng tn hiu hoc cht lng tn hiu v chuyn

thng tin n b iu khin trm gc BSC, cui cng quyt nh c thay i mc


cng sut hay khng v khi no.
-

MS c iu khin cng sut nhm tit kim pin v gim nhiu hng ln.

iu khin cng sut phi cn thn v c kh nng dao ng. iu ny xut

hin khi mt di ng trong cc cell ng knh nhn c tn hiu tng mc cng sut
trong cell ang xt ( trit nhiu ng knh) lm tng thm nhiu ng knh cell
ang xt.
2.2.2 Truyn pht gin on (DTX):
Thc cht ca phng php DTX (Discontinuous Transmission ) l BTS hay
MS ch pht khi nhn c tn hiu u vo (tn hiu thoi) v khi kt thc tn hiu
n s ngng pht.
Mc ch ca phng php ny l tit kim nng lng v gim nhiu trn
knh ln cn mt cch ti a.
Khi s dng phng php truyn dn gin on ta cn thm cc thit b ph
tr khc nh VAD (Voice Active Detector) pht hin tn hiu vo v to ra ting
n gi khi mt pha no ngng cung cp tn hiu.
2.2.3 Nhy tn:
Khi nim nhy tn

Chng 2 : Mt s yu t ng hng n cht lng tn hiu

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Mt tp hp cc tn s c s dng trong mi t bo v MS c th thay i


cc tn s ngay trong mi khung TDMA c gi l nhy tn. Tc nhy tn
trong h thng GSM l 217 ln/s.
c im chung ca k thut nhy tn
- Ch c cc knh SDCCH/8, TCH, v knh d liu gi c php nhy tn.
-

Khe thi gian s 0 mang knh BCCH ca sng mang BCCH (sng mang f0)

khng c php nhy tn cho d n thuc v nhm knh c nhy tn, v cho
php cc thu bao cc cell ln cn thc hin o lng trong ch ri.

u im ca k thut nhy tn

Lm gim nh hng ca fading a ng, ca nhiu nn cht lng thoi


c ci thin, lm cho qu trnh s dng li tn s cht ch v hiu qu hn.
2.2.4 Chia cell
Kch thc Cell v phng thc ph sng
Cell ln: Bn knh ph sng khong: n km n*10 km (GSM: 35

km)
V tr thit k cc Cell ln:
-

Sng v tuyn t b che khut (vng nng thn, ven bin )

Mt thu bao thp.

Yu cu cng sut pht ln.

Cell nh: Bn knh ph sng khong: n*100 m. (GSM: 1 km)

V tr thit k cc Cell nh:


-

Sng v tuyn b che khut (vng th ln).

Mt thu bao cao.

Yu cu cng sut pht nh.

Chng 2 : Mt s yu t ng hng n cht lng tn hiu

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C tt c bn kch thc cell trong mng GSM l macro, micro, pico v


umbrella. Vng ph sng ca mi cell ph thuc nhiu vo mi trng.
Macro cell c lp trn ct cao hoc trn cc to nh cao tng.
Micro cell li c lp cc khu thnh th, khu dn c.
Pico cell th tm ph sng ch khong vi chc mt tr li n thng c lp
tip sng trong nh.
Umbrella lp b sung vo cc vng b che khut hay cc vng trng gia cc
cell.
Chia Cell (Cells Splitting)
Mt cell vi kch thc cng nh th dung lng thng tin cng tng. Tuy
nhin, kch thc nh i c ngha l cn phi c nhiu trm gc hn v nh th chi
ph cho h thng lp t trm cng cao hn.
Khi h thng bt u c s dng s thu bao cn thp, ti u th kch
thc cell phi ln. Nhng khi dung lng h thng tng th kch thc cell cng
phi gim i p ng vi dung lng mi. Phng php ny gi l chia cell.

Hnh 2.4: Phn chia Cell.


Ty theo nhu cu v lu lng v mt thu bao gia cc vng m c s
chia cell khc nhau cho ph hp vi cu trc mng ca vng .

Chng 2 : Mt s yu t ng hng n cht lng tn hiu

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2.2.5 cao v gc nghing ca anten (down tilt):


nhng khu vc th trn nh hay nng thn, lu lng ca h thng thp nn
vic ti s dng tn s l khng cn thit. Do vy, ta nn s dng cc v tr cao hay
t anten cao ti a ho vng ph sng.
Tuy nhin nhng khu vc th ln, lu lng h thng cao, kch thc cell
hp th c l thch hp nht l gim cao anten c th lm gim can nhiu knh
chung. Tuy nhin, nu t qu thp, cc vt cn (nh cao tng...) s c nh hng ln
ti cht lng h thng. Do vy, hin nay cao anten cc th thng l
30 50m. gii quyt phm vi vng ph sng hp, mt k thut c a ra l
lm nghing hng bp sng chnh ca anten (down tilt).
Vic nghing gc anten c th dng gii quyt vn ph sng. Tuy nhin
vic p dng nghing gc anten cn c s phn tch k cng nhng yu t lin quan
c th xy ra trong vng ph sng.
2.2.6 Ti s dng tn s
Ton b di tn pht cho mng GSM 900Mhz l t 890Mhz-915Mhz tc l c
25Mhz, c chia thnh 125 knh thoi c th s dng cng lc, mi knh c
rng l 200Khz. Mi knh thoi li c chia nh thnh 8 khe thi gian, trong c
1 khe dnh cho tn hiu bo hiu-iu khin v 7 khe cn li dnh cho MS. Nh vy
tng s MS c th lin lc trong cng mt thi im l 7*125 = 875.
Tuy nhin i vi mt mng di ng th con s 875 thu bao lin lc ng thi
l qu t i. V th m "Ti s dng tn s ra i", y l phng php nhm tng s
lng thu bao c th lin lc cng mt thi im ln n con s hng triu.
Ti s dng tn s : Cc nhm tn s ging nhau c th c s dng cc
cell khc nhau min sao khong cch gia cc cell ln trnh nhiu do cc tn s
trng nhau gy ra.

Chng 2 : Mt s yu t ng hng n cht lng tn hiu

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Hnh 2.5: Ti s dng tn s.


C ba kiu mu s dng li tn s ph bin l: 7/21, 4/12 v 3/9 s dng cho
cc trm gc c anten pht 3 hng, mi hng dnh cho mt v gc phng v
phn cch nhau 1200. Mi s dng cc anten pht 600 v hai anten thu phn tp
600 cho mt gc phng v. Mi c xp x ho l hnh lc gic, c bn knh R
(bng cnh hnh lc gic v bng 1/3 khong cch gia cc trm).
2.2.7 K thut chuyn giao
2.2.7.1 Chuyn giao
Chuyn giao l qu trnh chuyn mt kt ni thoi (cuc gi) hoc kt ni d
liu t knh ny sang knh khc ( Cell ny sang cell khc ), gip cho cuc gi c
lin tc.

Hnh 2.6: Chuyn giao trong h thng di ng t bo.

Chng 2 : Mt s yu t ng hng n cht lng tn hiu

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2.2.7.2 Nguyn nhn chuyn giao


Duy tr cht lng ng truyn:

MS lin tc di chuyn nn cht lng ng truyn b thay i. S thay i


ph thuc vo khong cch gia BTS v MS, hay cng sut pht ca BTS, nhiu,
Do , duy tr cht lng khi cn thit, n phi s dng mt knh khc (cell
khc).
Gim nhiu:

Handover l k thut ct li iu khin nhiu trong h thng t bo. Khi m


MS cch xa BTS phc v, nhiu xuyn knh s tng nu cng tn s vi cc cell k
cn.
Ci tin vic qun l mng:

Ti thi im khi to cuc gi, cn phi cp pht knh mt cch ti u, vn


cp pht knh ti u s kh thc hin khi user di chuyn. Thc t th Handoff c
thc hin phn phi li ti lu lng bn trong h thng, ci tin cht lng chung
ca dch v.
2.2.7.3 Phn loi Handover
H thng phn loi cc qu trnh chuyn giao cuc gi thnh nhng loi sau:
-

Intra-cell Hand Over.

Inter-cell Hand Over.

Intra-MSC Hand Over.

Inter-MSC Hand Over.

Intra-cell Hand Over (Chuyn giao trong ni b t bo):

Th tc chuyn giao thc hin gia hai knh vt l ca cell ang phc v.
Intra-cell Hand Over khng c s dng khi thu bao di chuyn sang cell khc,
ngoi tr trng hp nu mc nhiu trn knh ring l cao th s chuyn giao
sang mt knh vt l khc phi c thc hin.

Chng 2 : Mt s yu t ng hng n cht lng tn hiu

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Hnh 2.7 Intra-cell Handover.

Inter-cell Hand Over (Chuyn giao lin t bo):


MS c chuyn mch sang mt knh v tuyn mi ca mt cell khc

nhng c iu khin ca cng mt b iu khin trm gc BSC.

Hnh 2.8: Inter-cell Handover.

Chng 2 : Mt s yu t ng hng n cht lng tn hiu

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Intra-MSC Hand Over (Chuyn giao trong ni b MSC):

Chuyn mch knh v tuyn gia hai BSC ca cng mt tng i di ng MSC.

Hnh 2.9: Intra-MSC Handover.


Inter-MSC Hand Over (Chuyn giao lin MSC):
Chuyn mch knh v tuyn gia hai tng i di ng MSC.

Hnh 2.10: Inter-MSC Handover.


Trong trng hp ny, MSC ban u gi ton quyn iu khin cuc gi v
sp t truy nhp mng cho n khi kt thc cuc gi. Cuc gi c nh tuyn vt
l li t MSC ban u trc tip n MSC ch.

Chng 2 : Mt s yu t ng hng n cht lng tn hiu

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2.2.7.4 Khi to th tc Handover


Th tc Handover s c khi to vo bt k lc no mi khi xut hin nhu
cu chuyn i ng v tuyn gia BSS v MS sang mt knh mi, c th l cng
BSS hay mt BSS khc. BSS s nhn thy yu cu thit lp th tc Handover duy
tr s lin tc ca cuc gi trong khi MS di chuyn.
Nu cell ch u tin nm trong cng BSC th th tc Handover s c thc
hin bi BSC. Nu khng, BSC s gi n MSC mt danh sch u tin cc cell ch.
Trong danh sch ny, MSC ch cn nhc n ba cell u tin.
Gii thut MSC (vi v d l c ba cell c cn nhc) l bc th nht s th
vi cell u tin, nu khng c th s chuyn sang th vi cell th hai ri th ba,
m khng c vic tnh n nhng kha cnh lu lng. Nu nh trong khi th tc
handover ny ang din ra m c thm mt yu cu Handover khc nhn c t
BSC, danh sch s c cp nht tnh ton n cc cell mi.
Nu nh MS khng hon thnh vic t c mt knh mi t cell ch th n
s gi mt bn tin thng bo chuyn giao tht bi thng qua cell trc ti mng
li v MSC s hi phc li kt ni trc ca MS hoc nu MSC nhn thy MS
mt kt ni th cuc gi s c gii phng.
2.2.7.5 Quy trnh chuyn giao cuc gi:
Gm 4 giai on
Giai on 1: BSC quyt nh thc hin th tc handover m bo kt ni

ca cuc gi.

Chng 2 : Mt s yu t ng hng n cht lng tn hiu

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Hnh 2.11: Trong lc kt ni, MS vn tip tc o c mc thu v cht lng


truyn dn ca cell phc v v nhng cell xung quanh.
Nhng kt qu o c c gi ti BSC v l cn c yu cu mt th tc
Handover sang mt cell khc c mt cht lng truyn dn tt hn.

Hnh 2.12: Quyt nh chuyn giao_Handover Decision.


Handover Margin: Thc cht ca Handover Margin l s chnh lch gia
mc thu ca cell ang phc v v cc cell ln cn. Khi mc thu ca mt cell ln cn
no vt qu mc thu ca cell ang phc v mt khong ln hn gi tr Handover
Chng 2 : Mt s yu t ng hng n cht lng tn hiu

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Margin nh sn th mt Handover Alarm s c gi v h thng nhm a n


quyt nh chuyn giao. Thng thng th th tc Handover s c thc hin ngay
sau .
Nu vic t gi tr Handover Margin qu thp s dn ti vic Handover qu
nhiu, nhng ngc li khi gi tr ny t qu ln c th lm cho cht lng cuc gi
b gim xung.
V vy, ty vo tnh cht ph sng ca tng vng cng nh mc nhiu ca
tng cell phc v, Handover Margin cn c iu chnh thch hp t c cht
lng tt nht. V d nh vng b nhiu nhiu c th t gi tr Handover Margin
thp MS c th nhanh chng chuyn giao sang cell khc c cht lng tt hn.
BSC s thng bo cho MSC v s cn thit thc hin th tc Handover, v
khai bo thng tin vi MSC1.

Hnh 2.13: BSC khai bo thng tin vi MSC.


Giai on 2: Mt kt ni mi c thit lp, song song vi kt ni gc.

MSC1 yu cu mt Handover Number (HON) t MSC2 v thng bo vi


MSC2 thng tin v cell B.

Chng 2 : Mt s yu t ng hng n cht lng tn hiu

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M HON (Handover Number) ch quan trng trong trng hp Inter-MSC


Handover. N c dng MSC1 thit lp kt ni knh lu lng vi MSC2. Cu
trc ca m HON c cung cp bi VLR mi.
MSC2 yu cu VLR cung cp mt m HON, ng thi yu cu BSC cung cp
knh v tuyn. Sau , knh v tuyn v m HON c gi li cho MSC1.

Hnh 2.14: MSC2 yu cu VLR cung cp mt m HON v knh v tuyn t BSC.


Giai on 3: MSC chuyn cuc gi sang kt ni mi.

Hnh 2.15: MSC1 chuyn mch kt ni cho MS trn knh lu lng thit lp vi
MSC2.

Chng 2 : Mt s yu t ng hng n cht lng tn hiu

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Vi m HON, MSC1 c th thit lp knh lu lng kt ni vi MSC2.


MSC1 thng bo cho MS v knh v tuyn m n phi chuyn mch ti.
Giai on 4: Gii phng kt ni vi BTS c.

Hnh 2.16: Kt ni vi BTS c c gii phng.

Chng 2 : Mt s yu t ng hng n cht lng tn hiu

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CHNG 3
GII THIU TEMS INVESTIGATION
3.1 Gii thiu chung
Hin nay, trn th gii c nhiu cng c v ng dng c s dng kim
nh v qun l cht lng ca mt mng thng tin di ng. TEMS l mt trong
nhng ng dng nh vy. Khong 20 nh khai thc mng thng tin di ng ln nht
th gii ang s dng thit b TEMS ca Ericsson. Theo hng ny, khi cc mng
thng tin di ng th h 2G pht trin thnh mng thoi v d liu bng rng, cc sn
phm TEMS s l gii php chc chn, d s dng, gip kim sot v qun l hiu
qu mng thng tin di ng. Dng sn phm TEMS s h tr cho cc chun 2.5G v
3G m mng thng tin di ng s pht trin ti trong tin trnh to ra mt th gii
Internet di ng mi.Mt s phn mm v ng dng nh TEMS Investigation, TEMS
Pocket, TEMS Automatic, TEMS CellSight .
3.2 Tems Investigation
3.2.1 Gii thiu
Thit b o Tems Investigation l cng c o kim nh gi v phn
nh cht lng mng di ng qua giao din v tuyn. N cho php ta theo
di knh thoi v knh d liu qua GPRS.
Do d liu hin th dng thi gian thc nn n h tr rt tt cho vic

pht hin s c, ti u ha mng. Cc d liu c ghi li di dng


logfile phc v cho vic nh gi phn tch pht hin ra s c ti u
mng.
TEMS investigation h tr kt ni c 8 Mobile mt lc

- Cc loi mobile c th kt ni c : T68i, T62u, R520m.


- Band tn h tr : GSM850, GSM900,1800,1900 AMR.
- Kh nng o kim :
+ Thng s GSM, GPRS
Chng 3 : Gii thiu TEMS INVESTIGATION

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+ Scan tn s
+ Export logfile sang Mapinfo
3.2.2. Chc nng
-

Ghi li logfile phc v vic phn tch cht lng mng.

Kim tra cc thng s ca trm BTS theo thit k v tuyn: ARFCN


BCCH, ARFCN TCH, BSIC, NEIGHBOR

o kim cc thng s v cht lng trn ng v tuyn: C/I, BER,


FER, RxLev, RxQual

o kim cc thng s cht lng cuc gi: CSSR, CDR, HO, SQI,
DTX, Power Control

o cc tn hiu Uplink, Downlink, Timing Advance Distribution

Pht hin nhiu nh qut tn s.

Kim tra vng ph sng ca trm BTS hay mt khu vc.

3.3 Cch kt ni cc thit b


3.3.1 S kt ni nguyn l

Hnh 3.1: S kt ni nguyn l.


Chng 3 : Gii thiu TEMS INVESTIGATION

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3.3.2 S kt ni thc t

Hnh 3.2: S kt ni thc t.

Gm cc thit b:
-

My tems.

Sim in thoi.

GPS.

Laptop.

Cp kt ni gia my Tems v GPS vo Laptop.

Chng 3 : Gii thiu TEMS INVESTIGATION

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3.4 Gii thiu v cc ca s chc nng ca Tems


3.4.1 Mt s ca s GSM

Hnh 3.3: Mt s ca s GSM.

3.4.2 Current Channel

Chng 3 : Gii thiu TEMS INVESTIGATION

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Hnh 3.4 : Ca s Current Channel.

Ti ca s ny, ta nhn c nhng gi tr thng s c bn v cell ang kim tra.

Time: Thi gian qut.

Cell name: tn cell ang phc v.

CGI (Cell Global Idenfity): Cc thng s nhn dng cell ton cu, bao gm
bn gi tr:

MCC (Mobile Country Code): M di ng quc gia, gm 3 ch s, ty theo


mi quc gia. Vit Nam, MCC c gi tr l 452.

MNC (Mobile Network Code): M mng di ng, ty theo dch v mng m


c m khc nhau. V d Vit Nam, m MNC cho tng mng nh sau:
+ Mobiphone : 01
+ Vinaphone : 02
+ Viettel

: 04

LAC (Location Area Code): M vng nh v


-

CI (Cell Identity): Nhn dng cell. Mi cell c mt CI ring.

Cell GPRS Support: Bo co l c h tr GPRS hay khng.

Band: Bng tn hot ng ca cell.

BCCH ARFCN (Broadcast Control Channel_Absolute Radio Frequency


Channel Number): S lng knh tn s v tuyn tuyt i ca knh iu
khin qung b.

TCH ARFCN : S lng knh tn s v tuyn tuyt i ca knh lu lng.

BSIC (Base Station Identity Code): M nhn dng trm gc, l s kt hp ca


NCC ( Network Control Code) v BCC (Base Station Colour Code), c
nh du trong khong t 00-77.

Mode: Cc ch hot ng:


+ Idle mode.
+ Dedicated mode.

Time Slot: Khe thi gian c dng.

Channel Type: Loi knh ang c dng.

Chng 3 : Gii thiu TEMS INVESTIGATION

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Channel Mode: Ch knh truyn, hot ng trn knh Signalling only,


s truyn thoi hoc truyn data.

Speech Code: M ha ting ni, c 4 dng l FR (Full Rate) v HR (Half


Rate), EFR (Enhanced Full Rate) v AMR (Adaptive Multi Rate).

Ciphering Algorithm: Thut ton m ha

Hopping Channel: Bo co c trng hp nhy tn hay khng, Yes hoc No.

Hopping Frequencies : Nu c nhy tn th s bo co nhng tn s c


dng cho nhy tn.

Mobile Allocation Index Offset (MAIO): Ch s nh v di ng trng. Ch


s ny bo cho bit ch no danh sch tn s nhy c bt u. Ch s ny
ch hp l nu tn s nhy c dng.

Hopping Sequence Number (HSN): S lng chui nhy tn s c dng.


(t 0 n 63).

3.4.3 Radio Parameters


Cc thng s v tuyn c lit k nh trong ca s.

Hnh 3.5: Ca s thng s v tuyn Radio Parameters.

RxLev: cng nhn tn hiu (dBm).

RxQual: Cht lng nhn tn hiu.

FER: Frame Erasure Rate: t l khung b xa.

Chng 3 : Gii thiu TEMS INVESTIGATION

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BER Actual: T l bit li thc t (%).

FER Actual: T l khung b xa thc t.

SQI (Speech Quality Index): Ch s cht lng thoi.

C/I Worst[0]: T s sng mang trn nhiu t nht. Nhng gi tr C/I c

dng cho tt c nhng knh nhy tn trong tt c nhng khe thi gian c dng.
Ton b danh sch c sp xp bi vic tng dn t s C/I.
Gm 2 phn: C/I Worst[0] dnh cho t l C/I ca knh xu nht. C/I Worst[1]
dnh cho t l C/I ca knh xu th 2.

AMR C/I (Adaptive Multi Rate C/I): Gi tr C/I ny c dng nh l ng


vo ti ch iu khin AMR. Thng s ny c phn bit vi nhng
yu t thng tin C/I c bn khc.

MS Power Control Level (t 0-31): Mc iu khin cng sut ca thu


bao di ng, cng sut truyn ca trm di ng c nh x ti mt s t 0
n 31. Ch s ny ch hp l ch Dedicated.

RL (Radio Link) Timeout Counter: B m thi gian cht ca lin kt v


tuyn, s dng nguyn tc leaky bucket. Ngha l khi mi khi c m
ha, th b m s tng ln 1 (nu cha dt gi tr cc i) v mi khi b li
s gim b m xung 2. Mt cuc gi s ngt kt ni khi no b Counter
gim xung gi tr 0. Cc gi tr ny ch hp l trong ch hot ng
Dedicated. C hai loi:
+ RL Timeout Counter (Act): gi tr thc t ca b m ny. (t 0-64)
+ RL Timeout Counter (Max): gi tr ban u ca b m. (gi tr l 4,864)

TA (Timing Advance): thi gian tng (th hin khong cch t BTS ti MS),
c gi tr t 0-63. Thng s ny ch c gi tr ch dedicated.

DTX (Discontinuous Transmission): S truyn gin on.

Chng 3 : Gii thiu TEMS INVESTIGATION

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3.4.4 Line Chart

Hnh 3.6: Biu Line Chart ca h thng GSM.


Ta quan st c hnh dng v s bin i qua tng thi im ng vi cc gi tr
thu c t Logfile.

RxLev: tnh theo dBm, biu din mc thu qua cc thi dim, c xc
nh trong khong t -120dBm n -10dBm

SQI: ch s cht lng dch v, c xc nh trong khong t -20 n 30.

FER Actual: t l khung li b xa, tnh theo %, c xc nh trong khong


t 0 n 100%.

C/I Worst: t l sng mang trn nhiu trong trng hp t nht.

Bn cnh , ta thu c cc gi tr thng tin tng ng vi hnh dng trn biu


nh: thi gian qut, tn Cell, BSIC, t l C/I Worst v ch s cht lng thoi SQI.
3.4.5 Events

Chng 3 : Gii thiu TEMS INVESTIGATION

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Trang 54

Hnh 3.7: Ca s Events.


: Dedicated mode (ch dnh ring).
: Idle mode (ch ri).
: Call established (thit lp cuc gi).
: Blocked call (cuc gi b nghn).
: Call set up (cuc gi va c thit lp bi MS).
: Call end (Kt thc cuc gi).
: Handover inter cell (chuyn giao lin cell).
:Handover intra cell (chuyn giao trong cell).
: MS connected (MS kt ni vi TEMS Investigation).
: MS Disconnected (MS ngt kt ni vi TEMS).
: Cell reslection (chn li cell).
: Dropped call (cuc gi b rt).
: Handover failure (chuyn giao lin cell b hng).
: Handover intracell failure (chuyn giao trong cell b hng).
: Location area update (cp nht v tr).

Chng 3 : Gii thiu TEMS INVESTIGATION

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Trang 55

3.4.6 Serving + Neighbors


Ca s ny ch hin th cc thng s v cell ang qun l v nhng cell ln
cn. Gm cc gi tr ARFCN, BSIC v RxLev ca cc cell ang qun l v cell ln
cn.

Hnh 3.8: Ca s cell qun l v nhng cell ln cn.

Chng 3 : Gii thiu TEMS INVESTIGATION

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Trang 56

3.4.7 Ca s map

Hnh 3.9 : Ca s map.


3.5 Mt s thng s chnh s dng trong Tems
3.5.1 Mc thu cng tn hiu (RxLev)
-

L mc cng tn hiu thu c ti MS (ng xung) hoc BTS


(ng ln).

n v : dBm hoc W

Rxlev cng ln, th hin mc thu cng tt v ngc li.

Khong gi tr : Rxlev t -110 n -47 dBm, tng ng vi Rxlev t 0 n


63W. Vi mc thu Rxlev < -110 th gi tr c quy i Rxlev = 0, vi
nhng mc thu Rxlev > -47 th quy i Rxlev = 63.

3.5.2 T s tn hiu trn nhiu (C/I)


-

L t s gia cng sut sng mang v cng sut nhiu trn mt knh tn s
v tuyn.

n v : dB

Chng 3 : Gii thiu TEMS INVESTIGATION

n tt nghip
-

Trang 57

T s C/I t l thun vi cht lng mi trng v tuyn c cht lng tt,


C/I cng ln th mi trng v tuyn cng ln v ngc li.

Mng GSM chp nhn C/I >= 9dB, trn thc t C/I >= 12dB th cho cht
lng tt trn ng v tuyn. T l C/I thp thng dn ti t l li bit
tng cao (BER), gy ra cht lng sng v tuyn ti.

3.5.3 Mc cht lng tn hiu (RxQual)


-

RxQual phn nh cht lng ca sng v tuyn, th hin bng t l li bit.

RxQual cng ln th phn nh cht lng sng v tuyn cng ti v ngc


li.

Vi t l RxQual <= 4 c coi l chp nhn c; vi RxQual >4 th cht


lng cuc thoi b nh hng xu.

Bng 3.1: Bng t l tng ng gia RxQual v BER.

BER

(Bit Error Rate): c tnh ton qua 26 a khung (1 a khung

SACCH), mi khi TCH (8/2=4 burt TCH) v trn khi SACCH (4 burst SACCH).
BER Sau khi b m ha knh gii m khi 456 bit, n s c m ha li v
so snh vi 456 bit vo. Nu c s khc nhau th c hai khi s gy ra BER.
Cc li bit c tch tr trong tng BER cho mi a khung SACCH, tng li
bit ny c chia cho ton b s bit trn a khung SACCH v c phn chia (0-7).
Chng 3 : Gii thiu TEMS INVESTIGATION

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Trang 58

3.5.4 FER
T l khung b xa c gi tr t 0-100% c tnh ton v th hin qua mi a
khung SACCH trong TEMS, ng gi tr vi RxQual. Cng ging nh RxQual, FER
c tnh trn cc khi TCH v SACCH.
FER(%) = (s block ko ng trong CRC/ tng s block).100
3.5.5 Ch s cht lng thoi ( Speech Quality Index ):
SQI c tnh ton trn c s t l li bit (BER), t l li khung (FER), c s
kin handover v vic s dng DTX trn mng
Bng 3.2: Bng gi tr SQI.

3.6 Cc thng s KPI


3.6.1 T l nghn knh SDCCH
T l ca knh SDCCH khng c n nh trong sut qu trnh thit lp lin
kt v tuyn do nghn trn giao din v tuyn.
Khng thit lp c cuc gi nu sau 3 ln nghn lin tc, nu khng thi
gian thit lp cuc gi b ko di khng nh mong i.
T l nghn khuyn ngh nh hn 5%.
3.6.2 T l rt knh SDCCH
L t l knh SDCCH b rt, lm cho cuc gi khng c thit lp thnh
cng.

Chng 3 : Gii thiu TEMS INVESTIGATION

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Trang 59

T l rt knh SDCCH khuyn ngh nh hn 4%, tuy nhin trong khu vc mt


trm cao t l rt knh SDCCH nn nh hn 1%. Thng thng t l SDCCH yu
cu nh hn t l cuc gi b rt do thi gian chim dng ca thu bao trn knh
SDCCH (thng km hn 5s) nh hn thi gian chim dng trn knh TCH (khong
vi chc giy).
3.6.3 T l n nh knh TCH khng thnh cng
T l chim knh lu lng khng thnh cng cho mc ch n nh bnh
thng. Thng thng do nghn knh lu lng hay do vn v tuyn hoc BSS.
T l n nh knh lu lng khng thnh cng khuyn ngh nh hn 3%, tuy
nhin trong khu vc mt trm cao t l ny nn nh hn 1%.
3.6.4 T l nghn knh lu lng TCH mc nghn v tuyn
Th hin s lng hay t l cc cell b nghn thng xuyn.
KPI ny dng qun l phn trm mng b nghn, thng thng t l nghn
knh lu lng TCH cho php 2%. Nghn TCH c th lm cho thit lp cuc gi b
tht bi.
3.6.5 T l rt cuc gi
-

L t l cc cuc gi b rt trn tng s cuc gi kt thc thnh cng.

y l KPI quan trng nht, c s dng vi t l thit lp cuc gi


thnh cng so snh vi cc mng di ng mt t khc.

T l rt cuc gi khuyn ngh nh hn 4%, tuy nhin trong khu vc mt


trm cao t l CDR nn thp hn 2% thm ch nh hn 1% hay thp
hn trong trng hp c s dng nhy tn chm.

3.6.6 T l thit lp cuc gi thnh cng


-

T l cc cuc gi c thc hin cho ti khi n nh TCH thnh cng m


khng b ngt do rt SDCCH hay do n nh tht bi.

y l thng s KPI quan trng th 2 sau t l rt cuc gi, n c dng


so snh vi cc mng di ng mt t khc.

Chng 3 : Gii thiu TEMS INVESTIGATION

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-

Trang 60

T l thit lp cuc gi thnh cng khuyn ngh >95%, tuy nhin trong khu
vc mt trm cao, t l ny nn ln hn 98%. T l SDCCH cng nh
hng n thit lp cuc gi.

3.6.7 T l cuc gi thnh cng


- T l cuc gi c thc hin cho ti khi c gii phng m khng b ngt
do rt knh SDCCH, hay do n nh tht bi hay do cuc gi b rt.
- T l cuc gi thnh cng khuyn ngh <92%, tuy nhin trong khu vc trm
cao t l cuc gi thnh cng nn ln hn 97%.
3.6.8 T l chuyn giao ra thnh cng
-

Th hin t l chuyn giao SDCCH v TCH ra ngoi thnh cng t mt


cell n cc cell ln cn ca n (cng BSS hay khc BSS).

T l chuyn giao ra ngoi thnh cng khuyn ngh > 90%.

3.6.9 T l chuyn giao vo thnh cng


-

Th hin t l chuyn giao SDCCH v TCH thnh cng n mt cell t


cc cell ln cn ca (cng BSS hay khc BSS).T l chuyn giao vo thnh
cng khuyn ngh > 90%.

Chng 3 : Gii thiu TEMS INVESTIGATION

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CHNG 4
PHN TCH LOGFILE
4.1 Cc bc chy li logfile
Giao din Tems ban u

Hnh 4.1: Giao din Tems ban u.

Chng 4 : Phn tch logfile

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Trang 62

M bn khu vc cn o

Hnh 4.2: M bng khu vc cn o.


Add cellfile

Hnh 4.3: Add cellfile.

Chng 4 : Phn tch logfile

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Trang 63

Cu trc cell file

Hnh 4.4: Cu trc cellfile.

Chng 4 : Phn tch logfile

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Trang 64

Chy li Logfile

Hnh 4.5: M logfile.

Hnh 4.6: Chy logfile.

Chng 4 : Phn tch logfile

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Hnh 4.7: Chy logfile.

Chng 4 : Phn tch logfile

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Trang 66

4.2 Cc ch o
4.2.1 Ch Idle
Ch Idle l ch khng thc hin cuc gi, ch o c mc thu ca tn
hiu (RxLev) nn khng o c cht lng thoi (RxQual).

Hnh 4.8: Ch Idle.


Cc thng s th hin trong ch Idle
-

Danh sch tn s BCCH ca cell ang phc v v tn s BCCH khc m


MS thu c.

Cc thng s ca cell ang phc v:

Mc thu v C/I ti MS

CGI, Band, BASIC

C1, C2

Cc thng s ca cell k cn:

Mc thu ti MS

Chng 4 : Phn tch logfile

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Trang 67

BASIC

C1, C2

4.2.2 Ch Dedicated
Ch Dedicated l ch MS thc hin cuc gi nn o c cht lng thoi
(RxQual).

Hnh 4.9: Ch Dedicated.


Cc thng s th hin trong ch Dedicated
-

Danh sch tn s BCCH ca cell phc v v tn s BCCH khc m MS thu


c.

Cc thng s ca cell phc v:

Mc thu, C/I, RxQual, BER, FER, SQI, mc iu khin cng sut ti


MS.

CGI, Band, BASIC.

Chui tn s nhy tn, HSN, MAIO (nu ang ch nhy tn)

Chng 4 : Phn tch logfile

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Trang 68

Time Advance, Time Slot

Ch m ha knh, ch m ha thoi

Cc thng s ca cc cell ln cn:

Mc thu ti MS

BASIC

4.2 Phn tch v khuyn ngh iu chnh


Ba ch tiu cht lng quan trng nht l : vng ph, dung lng, cht lng.
Chng tng ng ch yu vi cc vn mng sau:
Vng ph sng.
Nghn.
Nhiu.
Chuyn giao.
4.2.1 Vng ph sng
-

nh hng ca cc vn vng ph sng n cht lng

thoi

Mc tn hiu thp, cht lng ti.

D b nh hng nhiu.

Cc vn chuyn giao.

Rt cuc gi.

Gii quyt cc vn ph sng

iu chnh cc thng s v tuyn

iu chnh cc thng s anten: downtilt, azimuth, li.

S dng b khuch i.

Chng 4 : Phn tch logfile

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Trang 69

t site ng ta , t thm site mi.

4.2.2 Vn v nghn
-

nh hng ca nghn knh TCH

Gy ra cc vn chuyn giao : chuyn giao tr, khng chuyn

giao c

Cht lng cuc gi gim nh cuc gi b nghn, rt cuc gi.

Cn bng lu lng

iu chnh cao anten, downtilt v thay i cng sut TX ca

BTS v MS.

iu chnh cc thng s cho s chn cell, chn li cell v

chuyn giao.

Cho php chuyn giao.

Quy hoch cell.

4.2.3 Nhiu
-

Cc yu t gy nhiu: do fading, nhiu thit b, nhiu ngoi

nh hng ca nhiu:

Cht lng thoi km.

Hng chuyn giao.

Rt cuc gi.
Mt s phng php c th ci thin tnh trng nhiu:

Thay i tn s trn cell phc v hoc ngun nhiu.

Tng khong cch s dng li gia cng tn s v cc tn s k cn.

Tng cng sut ca cell phc v hoc gim cng sut pht ca
ngun nhiu.

Chng 4 : Phn tch logfile

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Trang 70
S dng cc k thut chng nhiu nh l nhy tn s, iu khin
cng sut, truyn gin on.

iu chnh cao anten, gc azimuth, hng down-tilt.

Kim tra v loi tr cc vn nhiu thit b.

4.2.4 Chuyn giao


-

Cc vn chuyn giao thng gp:

S hng chuyn giao v chuyn giao tr gy ra cht lng t

hay rt cuc gi.

Chuyn giao thng xuyn lm gim cht lng cuc gi v

tng ti truyn tn hiu h thng.

T l khng hp l ca chuyn giao ra vi chuyn giao vo gy

ra s khng cn bng lu lng.


-

Nguyn nhn ca chuyn giao bt thng

Gii hn chuyn giao qu cao hoc qu thp.

Cc cell k cn b nghn.

Khng xc nh c mi quan h vi cc cell k cn.

S chuyn giao tr v s u tin chuyn giao l khng hp l.

Nhiu.

Cc thng s ca cell ngoi (nh l LAC, CI v BCCH) phi ng.

- Hng gii quyt

iu chnh gii hn chuyn giao cho thch hp.

Quy hoch cell.

S dng cc k thut gim nhiu.

Chng 4 : Phn tch logfile

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4.3 Tng hp cc vn khi phn tch cht lng thoi t logfile


4.3.1 Vng ph sng qu xa

M t hin tng: Cell pht ra vi khong cch xa nhng v tr c

nhiu cell xung quanh gn hn.

Hnh 4.10: Trng hp vng ph sng qu xa.

L do:
-

Cell pht xa do t downtilt qu nh.

Cell t trn i cao, cc cell gn hn cng b pht xa.

Khng gii m c BSIC ca cc cell gn hn.

X l:
-

Kim tra downtilt anten, chnh ng h ng b ca cc cell ln

cn.

Chng 4 : Phn tch logfile

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Trang 72

4.3.2 Vng ph khng c cell ph sng vt tri

M t hin tng:
-

Mc thu ca cc cell ln cn gn bng vi cell phc v.

Hnh 4.11: Khng c cell ph sng vt tri.

L do:
-

Downtilt anten qu nh, s lng cell khng .

X l: xem xt iu chnh anten, kho st b xung thm site.

Chng 4 : Phn tch logfile

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4.3.3 Vng sng ph yu

Hnh 4.12: Mc RxLev qu thp.

M t hin tng:
-

Rxlevel thp, SQI thp

Mc nhiu ln, Rxqual, FER, BER cao.

L do:
-

Thiu site, khng th gii m c BSIC ca cell phc v.

Cell phc v b kha hoc b cm thm nhp.

Cell ln cn b mt hoc khai bo khng ng, tr handover...

X l:
-

B xung thm site mi, kim tra cht lng cell phc v.

X l cc vn v handover.

Chng 4 : Phn tch logfile

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Trang 74

4.3.4 Vng phc v khng ng hng anten

M t hin tng:
-

Vng ph sng ca cell khng ng hng anten.

Hnh 4.13: Trng hp khng ng hng anten.

L do:
u ni cp t t BTS ln anten sai, lp sai hng anten hoc nh du
hng anten sai.

X l: Hiu chnh hng anten ng theo thit k tn s v hng anten.

Chng 4 : Phn tch logfile

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4.3.5 Vng ph khng c cell phc v

Hnh 4.14: Khng c cell phc v

M t: MS khng c phc v.

Nguyn nhn

Do che chn, nh ta nh, cy ci

Downtilt qu nh

Thiu cell hoc do thiu quan h neighbor.

X l: t thm site, iu chnh anten.

Chng 4 : Phn tch logfile

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4.3.6 Missing Neighbour


Thiu neighbour s dn n hin tng thu bao khng th chuyn giao sang
cell c cht lng phc v tt hn, lm tn hiu, mc cht lng ngy cng t, dn
n rt cuc gi.

Hnh 4.15: Missing Neighbour.

M t:
MS thng bo mt mc tn hiu mnh hn mc tn hiu ang c phc v
nhng khng c s chuyn giao no xy ra vo cell c cng mnh hn.

L do:
-

Cell ng c b nghn hoc khng c cell ln cn no nh vy trong c s


d liu.

Ln cn ngoi khng ng, LAC/BCCH/BSIC ca cell ln cn khc vi


thc t trn mng hoc nh khai thc thay i thuc tnh ln cn ca cell.

X l:

Chng 4 : Phn tch logfile

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Trang 77

- Kim tra li xem c nghn trn cell ng c khng, nu c cn t thm site,


chnh li downtilt
- Kim tra, thit lp mi quan h neighbour cho ph hp.
4.3.7 S c handover

Hnh 4.16 : Hng chuyn giao.

M t hin tng:
-

MS khng thnh cng khi chuyn sang cell ch, quay tr li cell c.

MS gi bn tin HO Failure ti cell gc v c p ng.

L do:
-

Nhiu tn s, vng ph sng khng kn.

C ngun nhiu ngoi hng uplink, nhiu di rng.

Cc khe thi gian bt kh dng do lu lng ln, s qu ti, mnh tn


hiu thp hay cht lng ti trong cell ch .

Chuyn giao c th hng v vn phn cng trong cc cell ch, nhiu


kh nng TRX hoc cc vn n khe thi gian.

X l:

Chng 4 : Phn tch logfile

n tt nghip
-

Phn tch v x l tn s nhiu, thm trm mi.

o ph knh tn xc nh ngun nhiu ngoi.

Trang 78

4.3.8 Trng hp khng thc hin c Handover

M t hin tng:

BSIC ca cell ln cn c gii m v yu cu handover chung c p


ng nhng khng thc hin c Handover, dn n rt cuc gi.

Hnh 4.17: Trng hp khng thc hin c handover.

Nguyn nhn:
-

Mt quan h Handover, do khng c cell ln cn no nh vy trong c s


d liu.

Ln cn ngoi khng ng, LAC/BCCH/BSIC ca cell ln cn khc vi


thc t trn mng hoc nh khai thc thay i thuc tnh ln cn ca cell.

Thng s HO_MARGIN t qu ln.

Cell phc v qu mnh hoc bao ph vng qu rng.

X l:

Chng 4 : Phn tch logfile

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Phn tch v b xung quan h handover ca cell.

iu chnh thng s HO_MARGIN ca cc cell ln cn.

iu chnh downtilt anten.

4.3.9 Trng hp Ping Pong Handover

M t hin tng: Qu nhiu handover gia cc cell.

Hnh 4.18: Ping Pong Handover

Chng 4 : Phn tch logfile

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Trang 80
Hnh 4.19: Trng hp ping pong handover.

L do:
-

MS ang di chuyn vng bin cell,

Thng s nh thi handover t khng ng.

S c phn cng BTS, nhiu UL/DL.

Gc tilt ca cell phc v qu ln hoc anten t khng ng hng.

X l:
-

Kim tra, thay th phn cng, tn s ca cell ln cn.

Kim tra gc hng anten, thng s nh thi handover.

4.3.10 Nhiu tn s
M t hin tng:
-

Mc tn hiu Rxlevel cao trong khi mc cht lng Rxquality ln.

Hnh 4.20 : Trng hp nhiu tn s.

L do:
-

Nhiu tn s hoc khng dng ng cell phc v tt nht.

Khng handover c hoc c tr handover ln.

Chng 4 : Phn tch logfile

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X l:
-

Kim tra v iu chnh gc, hng anten, thit k v i tn s nhiu.

B xung quan h handover hoc iu chnh thng s handover_margin.

Chng 4 : Phn tch logfile

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KT LUN V HNG PHT TRIN TI


n tt nghip trnh by nhng nt c bn nht v mng thng tin di ng
GSM. Phn tch cht lng thoi l mt cng vic i hi ngi thc hin phi nm
vng h thng, ngoi ra cng cn phi c nhng kinh nghim thc t v s tr gip
ca nhiu phng tin hin i c th gim st v kim tra ri t mi a ra cc
gii php ci thin cht lng.
Do thi gian c hn v nhng hn ch khng trnh khi ca vic hiu bit cc
vn da trn l thuyt l chnh nn chc chn khng trnh khi nhng thiu st.
Nhm thc hin rt mong c c nhng kin nh gi, gp ca cc thy v cc
bn n thm hon thin.
Phn tch cht lng thoi rt cn thit cho cc mng vin thng hin ti ni
chung v mng thng tin di ng ni ring. Kh nng ng dng ca ti l gip ch
cho nhng ngi lm cng tc ti u ho mng, l c s l thuyt phn tch v tin
hnh, t hon ton c th tm ra gii php ti u khoa hc nht.
Hng pht trin ti :
- Kt hp phn tch cht lng thoi, ti u ha v quy hoch cell.
- Tm hiu, phn tch cht lng mng WCDMA ng dng phn mm Tems.

T so snh cht lng mng GSM v WCDMA.

PHN C
PH LC
v
TI LIU THAM KHO

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PH LC
DANH SCH T VIT TT

A
ACCHAssociated Control Channel

Knh iu khin lin kt

AGCH

Access Grant Channel

Knh cho php truy nhp

ARFCH

Absolute Radio Frequency

Knh tn s tuyt i

Channel
AUC

Authentication Center

Trung tm nhn thc


B

BCCH

Broadcast Control Channel

Knh iu khin qung b

BCH

Broadcast Channel

Knh qung b

BER

Bit Error Rate

T l li bt

BS

Base Station

Trm gc

BSC

Base Station Controller

B iu khin trm gc

BSIC

Base Station Identity Code

M nhn dng trm gc

BSS

Base Station Subsystem

Phn h trm gc

BTS

Base Transceiver Station

Trm thu pht gc


C

C/A

Carrier to Adjacent

T s sng mang/nhiu knh ln cn

CCCH

Common Control Channel

Knh iu khin chung

CCH

Control Channel

Knh iu khin

Ph lc

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CCITT

Trang 85

International Telegraph and U ban t vn quc t v in thoi v


Telephone Consultative Committee

in bo

CDMA

Code Division Multiple Access

a truy nhp phn chia theo m

Cell

Cellular

(t bo)

CI

Cell Identity

Nhn dng ( xc nh vng LA )

C/I

Carrier to Interference

T s sng mang/nhiu ng knh

C/R

Carrier to Reflection

T s sng mang/sng phn x

CSSR

Call Successful Rate

T l cuc gi thnh cng


D

DCCHDedicated Control Channel

Knh iu khin dnh ring


E

EIR

Equipment Identification

B ghi nhn dng thit b

Register
F
FDMA

Frequency Division Multiple

a truy nhp phn chia theo tn s

Access
FACCH

Fast Associated

Knh iu khin lin kt nhanh

Control Channel
FCCH

Frequency Correction Channel

Knh hiu chnh tn s

G
GMSC

Gateway MSC

Tng i di ng cng

GSM

Global System for Mobile

Thng tin di ng ton cu

Ph lc

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Trang 86

Communication
H
HLR

Home Location Register

B ng k nh v thng tr

HON

Handover Number

S chuyn giao
I

IHOSR

Incoming HO Successful Rate

T l thnh cng Handover n

IMSI

International Mobile

S nhn dng thu bao di ng

Subscriber Identity

quc t

Integrated Service Digital

Mng s a dch v

ISDN

Network
L
LA

Location Area

Vng nh v

LAC

Location Area Code

M vng nh v

LAI

Location Area Identifier

S nhn dng vng nh v

LAPD

Link Access Procedures

Cc th tc truy cp ng

on D channel

truyn trn knh D

Link Access Procedures

Cc th tc truy cp ng

on Dm channel

truyn trn knh Dm

LAPDm

M
MCC

Mobile Country Code

M quc gia ca mng di ng

MNC

Mobile Network Code

M mng thng tin di ng

MS

Mobile station

Trm di ng

Ph lc

n tt nghip
MSC

Trang 87

Mobile Service

Tng i di ng

Switching Center
MSIN

Mobile station Identification

S nhn dng trm di ng

Number
MSISDN

Mobile station ISDN Number

S ISDN ca trm di ng

MSRN

MS Roaming Number

S vng lai ca thu bao di ng


N

NMC

Network Management Center

Trung tm qun l mng

NMT

Nordic Mobile Telephone

in thoi di ng Bc u
O

OHOSR

Outgoing HO Successful Rate

T l thnh cng Handover ra

OSI

Open System Interconnection

Lin kt h thng m

OSS

Operation and Support

Phn h khai thc v h tr

Subsystem
OMS

Operation & Maintenace

Phn h khai thc v bo dng.

Subsystem
P
PAGCH

PCH

Paging and Access Grant

Knh chp nhn truy cp

Channel

v nhn tin

Paging Channel

Knh tm gi

PLMNPublic Land Mobile Network


PSPDN
Ph lc

Packet Switch Public

Mng di ng mt t cng cng


Mng s liu cng cng

n tt nghip
Data Network
PSTN

Trang 88
chuyn mch gi

Public Switched Telephone Mng chuyn mch in thoi cng


Network

cng
R

RACHRandom Access Channel


Rx

Knh truy cp ngu nhin

Receiver

My thu
S

SACCH

Slow Associated

Knh iu khin lin kt chm

Control Channel
SDCCH

SIM

Stand Alone Dedicated

Knh iu khin dnh ring

Control Channel

ng mt mnh (c lp)

Subscriber Identity Modul

M un nhn dng thu bao


T

TACH

Traffic and Associated Channel

Knh lu lng v lin kt

TCH

Traffic Channel

Knh lu lng

TDMA

Time Division Multiple Access

a truy nhp phn chia theo


thi gian

TRAU

Transcoder/Rate Adapter Unit

B thch ng tc v chuyn m

TRX

Tranceiver

B thu pht

Ph lc

TI LIU THAM KHO

[1] PTS.Nguyn Phm Anh Dng, Thng tin di ng GSM, Nh xut bn bu in,
H Ni 1999.
[2] V c Th, Tnh ton mng thng tin di ng s CELLULAR, Nh xut bn
gio dc, H Ni 1999.
[3] J. Dahlin, Ericssons Multiple Reuse Pattern For DCS 1800, in Mobile
Communications International, Nov., 1996.
[4] Asha K. Mehrotra, GSM System Engineering, Artech House, Inc Boston London
1996.
[5] GSM Association
[6] http://www.wikipedia.org
[7] http://www.tapchibcvt.gov.vn
[8] http://www.gsmworld.com
[9] http://www.itu.int

Ti liu tham kho