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Gonzaga Debate Institute 2011

Mercury

1 Conspiracy Theory Flat Earth = No Space Travel ............................................ 57 Flat Earth Proofs No Orbit ............................................. 58 Flat Earth Proofs No Orbit ............................................. 59 Flat Earth Proofs United Nations ................................... 60 AT: But we know it is Round ............................................ 61 Round Earth Proofs Multiple Reasons ........................... 62 Round Earth Proofs Multiple Reasons ........................... 63 Round Earth Proofs Multiple Reasons ........................... 64 Round Earth Proofs Multiple Reasons ........................... 65

***Topicality*** ................................................... 3
T : Beyond the Mesosphere .................................................4 T Substantial .....................................................................5

***Hoax Counterplan*** ..................................... 6


Hoax CP 1/2 .........................................................................8 Hoax CP 2/2 .........................................................................9 CP Solves Leadership ........................................................ 10 AT: Government Lies Bad ................................................. 11 AFF - Government Secrecy Bad ........................................ 12

***Hollow Earth*** ............................................66


Earth is Hollow.................................................................. 67 Hollow Earth solves Extinction Scenarios ........................ 68 AT: Hollow Earth Solves Extinction ................................. 69 Aliens live in Hollow Earth ............................................... 70 AT: Natural Disasters Adv. ............................................... 71 Earth not Hollow ............................................................... 72 Earth not Hollow ............................................................... 73 Earth not Hollow ............................................................... 74 ***Planet X*** ................................................................. 75 Planet X = Global Warming .............................................. 76 Planet X = Solar Flares ...................................................... 77 Planet X Government Secret .......................................... 78 Planet X Government Secret .......................................... 79 AT: Planet X - Not Destructive ........................................ 80 AT: Planet X Not Real ................................................... 81 AT: Planet X Not Real ................................................... 82 AT: Planet X Not Real ................................................... 83 AT: Planet X Not Real ................................................... 84

***Ashtar*** ....................................................... 13
1NC - Consult Ashtar CP ................................................... 14 Consult Ashtar CP Solves Case ...................................... 15 Consult Ashtar CP Solves Net Benefit............................ 16 1NC - Ashtar DA ............................................................... 17 Ashtar DA Impact Ext. ................................................... 18 Ashtar DA - TimeFrame .................................................... 19 Ashtar DA - TimeFrame .................................................... 20 Ashtar DA- 2012 = Positive ............................................... 21 Ashtar DA - 2012 = Positive .............................................. 22 Ashtar DA - 2012 = Positive .............................................. 23 AT: Ashtar is Demonic ...................................................... 24 AT: Ashtar is Alien Invasion ............................................. 25 AFF No Impact ............................................................... 26 Aff Ashtar is a Demonic Lie ........................................... 27 Aff AT: Religious Intolerance ........................................ 29 Aff No Evacuation .......................................................... 30 Aff No Evacuation .......................................................... 31 Aff No Evacuation .......................................................... 32 Aff - 2012 = Negative ........................................................ 33 Aff AT: Timeframe - 2012 Postponed until 2015 ........... 34

***Aliens*** .........................................................87
Disclosure in 2012 ............................................................. 88 USFG - Alien Treaties ....................................................... 89 USFG Alien Contact & Tech ......................................... 90 USFG has Alien Tech........................................................ 91 Evidence for Underground Bases ...................................... 92 AT: Government/Alien Contact is False ........................... 93 Obama is a Reptilian ......................................................... 94 Reptilians run the Government .......................................... 95 Reptilians run the Government .......................................... 96 Reptilians Bad 100% Solvency Takeout ........................ 97 Reptilians Most Evil ....................................................... 98 Reptilians Good Defeat the Grays .................................. 99 Grey Aliens Bad Human Cattle .................................... 100 Gray Aliens Bad - Hitler ................................................. 101 Gray Aliens Bad - Nazis .................................................. 102 Gray Aliens Bad - Nazis .................................................. 103 Arcturus - Protectors ....................................................... 104 Procyonians Allies to Ashtar ........................................ 105 Ra-ans Past Allies ......................................................... 106 Draconians - Aggressive ................................................. 107 Sirius Past Allies .......................................................... 108 Chameleons ..................................................................... 109 Martians Original Greys ............................................... 110 Intergalactic War Headed to Earth .................................. 111 Aliens - Benevolent ......................................................... 112 Aliens Here Historical Proofs ....................................... 113

***Space Travel*** ............................................ 35


Space Travel Hoax ............................................................. 36 Moon Landing Hoax .......................................................... 37 Moon Landing Hoax .......................................................... 38 Moon Landing Hoax Footage Anomalies Prove .............. 39 Moon Landing Hoax Video ............................................. 40 Moon Landing Hoax- Temperatures .................................. 41 Moon Landing Hoax Temperatures ................................ 42 Moon Landing Hoax Aliens Helped Fake It ................... 43 Aliens Already On Moon ................................................... 44 Moon Landing Real ........................................................... 45 Moon Landing Real ........................................................... 46 Moon Landing Real ........................................................... 47 Moon Landing Real ........................................................... 48 Aliens will block Mars Mission ......................................... 49 Aliens will block Mars Mission ......................................... 50 Aliens will block Mars Mission ......................................... 51 Aliens will block Mars Mission ......................................... 52 AT: Aliens block Mars ....................................................... 53 AT: Aliens block Mars ....................................................... 54

***Flat Earth*** ................................................. 55


Flat Earth = No Space Travel ............................................. 56

Gonzaga Debate Institute 2011


Mercury Aliens Here - Abductions Prove ...................................... 114 Aliens Here - UFOs Prove ............................................... 115 Aliens Here Physical Proofs ......................................... 116

2 Conspiracy Theory

***Conspiracy Theory Analysis*** .................142


Conspiracy Analysis Shell ............................................... 143 Conspiracy Analysis Shell ............................................... 144 Challenges Space Imperialism ........................................ 145 Challenges Power Structures ........................................... 146 Challenges Power Structures ........................................... 147 Challenges Sovereignty ................................................... 148 Challenges Sovereignty ................................................... 149 Challenges Governmentality ........................................... 150 Key to Citizen Participation ............................................ 151 Key to Dissent ................................................................. 152 AT: Irrational................................................................... 153 AT: Irrational................................................................... 154 AT: Paranoia ................................................................... 155 Abduction Narratives ...................................................... 156

***No Aliens*** ................................................ 117


No Aliens on Earth........................................................... 118 No Aliens ......................................................................... 119 No Area 51 Aliens ........................................................... 120 AT: Abductions Prove ..................................................... 121 Alien Threat is Coverup for NWO ................................... 122 New World Order ............................................................ 123

***Impact/Advantage Answers*** ................. 124


All Impacts ....................................................................... 125 AT: Russia, China, Terrorism Impacts ............................ 126 AT: Nuclear War.............................................................. 127 AT: Nuclear War.............................................................. 128 AT: Extinction Impacts .................................................... 129 AT: Global Warming ....................................................... 130 AT: Global Warming ....................................................... 131 SETI not on right setting .................................................. 132

***Conspiracy Theory Bad*** ........................157


Reject Conspiracy Theories ............................................. 158 Conspiracy Theories Non-falsifiable ............................... 159 AT: Conspiracy analysis is productive politics ............... 160 AT: Conspiracy analysis is productive politics ............... 161 AT: Conspiracy analysis is productive politics ............... 162 AT: Conspiracy analysis is productive politics ............... 163 AT: Conspiracy analysis challenges power ..................... 165 AT: Jodi Dean ................................................................. 166 Clinical Paranoia ............................................................. 167 AT: Biopower Impacts .................................................... 168

***Authors Debate***...................................... 133


Peer Review Good ........................................................... 134 Internet Science Research Bad ......................................... 135 Internet Science Research Bad ......................................... 136 A2: Our authors are more qualified ................................. 137 AT: Peer Review .............................................................. 138 AT: Your Authors are Crazy ............................................ 139 Ablism Impacts ................................................................ 140 AT: Ableism .................................................................... 141

Gonzaga Debate Institute 2011


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3 Conspiracy Theory

***Topicality***

Gonzaga Debate Institute 2011


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4 Conspiracy Theory

T : Beyond the Mesosphere


A. Interpretation topical affirmatives increase exploration or development within the Hollow Earth 1. Earths mesosphere is the lower mantle of the crust Egger, Undergraduate Program Coordinator in the School of Earth Sciences at Stanford University 3 (Anne E., Earth Structure: A Virtual Journey to the Center of the Earth, Visionlearning Vol. EAS
(1), http://www.visionlearning.com/library/module_viewer.php?mid=69)sbl
The compositional divisions of the earth were understood decades before the development of the theory of plate tectonics - the idea that the earths surface consists of large plates that move (see our Plate Tectonics I module). By the 1970s, however, geologists began to realize that the plates had to be thicker than just the crust, or they would break apart as they moved. In fact, plates consist of the crust acting together with the uppermost part of the mantle; this rigid layer is called the lithosphere and it ranges in thickness from about 10 to 200 km. Rigid lithospheric plates "float" on a partially molten layer called the aesthenosphere that flows like a very viscous fluid, like Silly Putty. It is important to note that although the aesthenosphere can flow, it is not a liquid, and thus both S- and P-waves can travel through it. At a depth of 660 km, pressure becomes so great that the mantle can no longer flow, and this solid part of the mantle is called the mesosphere. The lithospheric mantle, aesthenosphere, and mesosphere all share the same composition (that of peridotite), but their mechanical properties are significantly different. Geologists often refer to the aesthenosphere as the jelly in between two pieces of bread: the lithosphere and mesosphere.

2. Our contextual evidence uses Beyond in this context KidsKnowIt Network 98 ( The Earths Crust, http://www.kidsgeo.com/geology-for-kids/0022-earths-mantle.php , 6-2711 , GJV)
Traveling beyond the Earths crust, we next encounter the mantle. The mantle extends to a depth of approximately 1,800 miles, and is made of a thick solid rocky substance that represents about 85% of the total weight and mass of the Earth. The first 50 miles of the mantle are believed to consist of very hard rigid rock. The
next 150 miles or so is believed to be super-heated solid rock, that due to the heat energy is very weak. Below that for the next several hundred miles, the Earth mantle is believed to once again be made up of very solid and sturdy rock materials.

B. Violation - They dont go beyond the mesosphere C. Standards

Gonzaga Debate Institute 2011


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5 Conspiracy Theory

T Substantial
A. Interpretation- Substantial means real Concise Oxford English Dictionary 8
substantial/sbstanl/ adjective 1 of considerable importance, size, or worth. strongly built or made. important in material or social terms; wealthy. 2 concerning the essentials of something. 3 real and tangible rather than imaginary

B. Violation their aff does not make a substantial increase because space exploration & development is a hoax Cooper, First Class Petty Officer QM1, E-6 with a Top Secret, Q, SI, security clearance, 1997
(William, Majesty Twelve Hourofthetime.com, http://www.hourofthetime.com/majestyt.htm, accessed: 6/25/, SL) NASA was created to make interstellar travel believable. The Apollo Space Program foisted the idea that man could travel to, and walk upon, the moon. Every Apollo mission was carefully rehearsed and then filmed in large sound stages at the Atomic Energy Commissions Top Secret test site in the Nevada Desert and in a secured and guarded
sound stage at the Walt Disney Studios within which was a huge scale mock-up of the moon. All of the names, missions, landing sites, and events in the Apollo Space Program echoed the occult metaphors, rituals, and symbology of the Illuminati's secret religion: The most transparent was the faked explosion on the spacecraft Apollo 13, named "Aquarius" (new age) at 1:13 (1313 military time) on April 13, 1970 which was the metaphor for the initiation ceremony involving the death (explosion), placement in the coffin (period of uncertainty of their survival), communion with the spiritual world and the imparting of esoteric knowledge to the candidate (orbit and observation of the moon without physical contact), rebirth of the initiate (solution of problem and repairs), and the raising up (of the Phoenix, the new age of Aquarius) by the grip of the lions paw (reentry and recovery of Apollo 13). 13 is the number of death and rebirth, death and reincarnation, sacrifice, the Phoenix, the Christ (perfected soul imprisoned in matter), and the transition from the old to the new. Another revelation to those who understand the symbolic language of the Illuminati is the hidden meaning of the names of the Space Shuttles, "A Colombian Enterprise to Endeavor for the Discovery of Atlantis... and all Challengers shall be destroyed."

Exploration of the moon stopped because it was impossible to continue the hoax without being ultimately discovered: And of course they ran out of pre-filmed episodes. No man has ever ascended higher than 300 miles, if
that high, above the Earth's surface. No man has ever orbited, landed on, or walked upon the moon in any publicly known space program. If man has ever truly been to the moon it has been done in secret and with a far different technology. The tremendous

radiation encountered in the Van Allen Belt, solar radiation, cosmic radiation, temperature control, and many other problems connected with space travel prevent living organisms leaving our atmosphere with our known level of technology . Any intelligent high school student with a basic physics book can prove NASA faked the Apollo moon landings.

C. Standards -

Gonzaga Debate Institute 2011


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6 Conspiracy Theory

***Hoax Counterplan***

Gonzaga Debate Institute 2011


Mercury

7 Conspiracy Theory

Gonzaga Debate Institute 2011


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8 Conspiracy Theory

Hoax CP 1/2
Text: The United States federal government should announce its intention to and use supporting evidence of (Insert Plan Advocacy)______________________________ ______________________________________________________________________, however secretly hoax actual implementation of the plan. Observation One Competition Any permutation severs the genuine nature of the plan Net Benefit: Spending The cp may involve various methods of advertising/propaganda, but none of that comes out of the governments pockets. Its the news stations that report all this. There is no link to spending. Solves all of your advantages: All of your internal links are perception based whether you like it or not-no one would actually know if we faked implementation Empirical Solvency - We never landed on the moon-another USFG hoax Cosnette, International Director of UFO Research Center, 09
[David, International Director of UFORC, UFO-Aliens, The faked Apollo landings 2/10/09, http://www.ufosaliens.co.uk/cosmicapollo.html, accessed 6/21/11, HK] Bill Kaysing was a librarian/writer of technical publications and advanced research at Rocketdyne Systems from 1956 to 1963. He states that it was estimated in 1959 that there was a .0014 chance of landing man on the Moon and returning him safely to Earth. This took into account the effects of radiation, solar flares and micro meteorites. He could not believe in 1959 that man could go to the Moon. However, only 2 years later, American President John F. Kennedy set a goal in May 1961, when he made the following famous speech. 'I believe that this nation should commit itself. To achieving the goal, before this decade is out, of landing a man on the Moon and returning him safely to the Earth. No single space project in this period will be more impressive to mankind or more important for the long range exploration of Space.' It was just eight years later in 1969, that man finally left Earth and set foot on the Moon... Or so we have been led to believe . I would like to show you some astonishing evidence that shows glaring mistakes or anomalies on the 'official record' of NASA film footage and still photographs. I have included the actual official Apollo film footage on this page to illustrate and also possibly educate you, the reader, of the anomalies and to let you see with your own eyes what has become one of the biggest cover-ups in the history of Mankind. I will also explain why the US Government has tried to keep this a secret for over 30 years. I would like to suggest that if Man did go to the Moon during the missions, the Apollo films that we were told were filmed on the Moon are bogus and not the real footage. Evidence suggests that Man could not travel to the Moon's surface, but instead they had to stay in near Earth orbit within the safety of the Earth's magnetic field that would have protected them from the radiation that is emitted by the Van Allen radiation belt!!! But why would NASA and the United States bother to fake such an event and to what cause I hear you ask? Please read on and I will explain.
Was man too optimistic about what we could actually do in deep space, and was President Kennedy's speech in May 1961 pressure enough to keep the hoax going? David Percy is an award winning television and film producer, a professional photographer and also a member of the Royal Photographic Society. He is co-author, along with Mary Bennett, of the fascinating book 'Dark Moon: Apollo and the Whistle-Blowers' (ISBN 1-898541-10-8). The majority of the film footage on this page is taken from the film 'What Happened on the Moon?', a film that also features Percy and Bennett and one which I strongly recommend if you have an interest in the Apollo

***continued****

Gonzaga Debate Institute 2011


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9 Conspiracy Theory

Hoax CP 2/2
***continued*** Cosnette, International Director of UFO Research Center, 09
missions (details of how to purchase the video are at the bottom of this article). Percy

firmly believes that the Apollo footage was either faked or not the original film that was shot on the Moon. He believes that many anomalous features that would alert the eagle eyed viewer, could have been placed in the films by whistle blowers who were deeply dissatisfied to be a part of the cover-up. He has studied the entire transfer of the original film on video tape, a feat that not many people have done. What many people did not realize at the time was that a lot of the footage was actually pre-recorded and not live at all. The first anomalous piece of footage I would like to discuss is from the 1972 Apollo 16 Mission. There is a major discrepancy between the still photograph taken with a Hasselblad 500 EL/70 camera and the TV coverage film which was shot from a stationary movie camera placed behind the astronauts. The movie sequence (that is viewable by clicking the picture to the left) shows one of the astronauts making a jump salute whilst another astronaut takes a still photo with the Hasselblad camera. On the still photo (that is pictured left) we see a flap of triangular fabric that has come loose and flapped up behind the astronauts head. However the TV film which was shot from behind the astronaut doesn't show the flap? Why not? Another example that appears to be faked is the footage of Earth taken from the Apollo 11 when it was 130,000 miles away. This is the very first view ever taken of Earth on the mission and it seems strange that Buzz Aldrin would film the Earth when he was stood far away from the window, why would he do that? Surely you would want to get close to the window to get the best picture and also to eliminate light reflections that are evident
towards the end of this sequence? But no, we see the window frame come into view on the left of the shot. The camera isn't set to infinity either to get the closest shot. The window frame that comes into shot would have been out of focus if it was. Did the astronauts actually film a transparency of the Earth that was stuck to the window? You may think this odd, but a few minutes after filming the Earth, the cameraman adjusts his lens and focuses on Mike Collins inside the craft. What we see is what appears to be an exposure of the Earth taped to the window that is in the background to the right of him. That is the very same window that Aldrin was filming the Earth. But the biggest shock is yet to come! The camera pans left past Neil Armstrong

towards the left hand side of the Apollo 11, and what do we see out of the left window??? We see what appears to be another Earth... Go on, watch the video by clicking the picture above and you'll see it with your own eyes! It must also be noted that the Apollo 11 at this point of the mission was supposedly half way to the Moon. The time elapsed was 34 hours and 16 minutes, but from the view of Earth in the right hand window, we can say that in fact they were not in deep space at all, but still in low Earth orbit ! look at the blue sky
outside. That would also explain why they would be filming an exposure of the Earth that was far away, to give the impression that they were in deep space. The exposure would be clipped to the window and the Sun's luminance would light it up, a technique that was used to read star charts to help with navigation and star reference.

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10 Conspiracy Theory

CP Solves Leadership
Empirics prove that this cp has full solvency- we never went to the moon yet it drastically increased our primacy through propaganda during the cold war-solves leadership We faked the moon landings to get ahead of the USSR during the Cold War Conspiracy theories and hoaxes, no date
[Conspiracy theories and hoaxes, Apollo Moon Landing Hoax Why Fake a Moon Landing? no date, http://www.conspiracy-theories-hoax.com/apollo-moon-landing-hoax-why-fake-a-moon-landing.html, accessed 6/27/11, HK] Whether the conspiracy was possible or if there was a motive for faking the landings, is a big part of the moon hoax.Many conspiracy debunkers say that there was no reason for the US to fake the moon landings. This is false, as at the time America was publicly losing the space race, as Russia had put the: First man/woman in space. First animal in space. First three person mission in space. And the first space station in orbit. Even though
these landmarks were achieved using crude methods, (i.e. putting a man on a rocket or adding a extra man on a two manned spaceship) to the public eye, it would seem as if the US were losing the space race. And IF, and only if the US couldnt

put a man on the moon in time, then the deadline that JFK set, and public pressure, could have forced the government to fake a moon landing. So the US did have a motive for faking a moon landings, but how would NASA have carried out this enormous conspiracy? In this hoax imagine that you are the contractors, NASA tells you about the moon landing conspiracy and pays you for your services that your not giving . You make announcement to the public
telling them that your making rocket parts. (This is for the share holders.) Then at the first day of work you tell everybody in the factory that their not really making rocket parts, and that if they play this out theyll be set for life. Employees that dont comply get stern death threats from NASA officials. The advantage to this is type of conspiracy is, no real equipment has to be made, except for a rocket to go up and a lander to come down. The disadvantage to this is how many people are told about the conspiracy. At one point over half a million people were involved in the Apollo project at one time, and the conspiracy believers are saying that no one came forward even on their death beds (dead men/women can not be killed) and out of all of those people nobody saw a sense of duty to tell the people of their country the truth!!

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11 Conspiracy Theory

AT: Government Lies Bad


All non- unique, they have faked the space program before And government secrets arent all bad-safety reasons, public scrutiny and more Feldman, law teacher at Harvard University and part of Council of Foreign Relations, 09
[Noah, law teacher at Harvard University and part of Council of Foreign Relations, The New York Times, In Defense of Secrecy 2/10/2009, http://www.nytimes.com/2009/02/15/magazine/15wwln_lede-t.html, accessed 6/27/11, HK] On the surface, it might seem that more and better information about the governments decisions (and decision-making processes) is always preferable, especially if the information is provided before events transpire. As goodgovernment advocates are right to remind us, if the public learns of an important decision only after it has been made, advocacy groups and concerned citizens cannot influence it. They can only give their endorsement or disapproval after the fact and hope it has some effect the next time around. When it comes to the proposal and drafting of legislation, we expect public engagement, even as we acknowledge that special-interest groups can use that process to torpedo innovative laws in the way the insurance industry brought down health care reform during President Clintons first term. Yet there are many circumstances in which secrets are critical. Consider the quotidian business of government inspection: it requires the element of surprise, or else regulated industries could game the system by preparing for oversight on specified days and places. A grander example comes from

diplomacy. Whether to negotiate with Iran is an important topic of debate, but the actual negotiation, and even the steps leading up to it, cannot successfully be conducted under the glare of public scrutiny. Neither
side would take the risks necessary for real engagement as long as its high-risk efforts could be exposed to denunciation and ridicule if it failed. The financial bailout has its own needs for secrecy . It is essential for Congress to debate what sorts of industries or companies should be saved and how, and it must authorize the money, just as it must pay for a war. But the decisions to bail out AIG and to let Lehman Brothers fail, whatever their merits, were the sorts of immediate, crisis-driven judgment calls that could not have reasonably been subjected to extensive public debate, or that would have been improved by public lobbying and interest-group advocacy. If specific companies could lobby for bailouts, and their competitors could argue against, the bailouts would turn into political football which is what arguably distorted the effort to bail out the auto companies. Obama presumably knows all this; his pronouncements about transparency so far have been so general as to be largely symbolic. That he issued a statement urging his subordinates to increase and improve opportunities for public participation in government without providing any specifics suggests that he wants to change the background tone of government but also that he recognizes the limits of transparency.

Government secrets are justified Jarvis, New York Graduate School of Journalism, 6/22/2008
[Jeff, New York Graduate School of Journalism, Personal Democracy, The Ethics of Openness, 6/22/2008, http://rebooting.personaldemocracy.com/files/JeffJarvis.pdf, accessed 6/27/11, HK] Turn it inside out. Why should we have to ask for information from our government? The government should need permission to keep things from us. Every act of government on our behalf should be free by default, with rare exceptions: the personal business of citizens, national security, ongoing criminal investigations. See Ellen
Millers call for transparent and open government on page 59 in this anthology.. See also Barack Obamas technology policy, calling for standardization and openness of government data, citizen involvement in decisions, and a chief technology office to implement this.

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12 Conspiracy Theory

AFF - Government Secrecy Bad


Government secrecy should be restrained Chapman, Tribunal Editorial Board, 4/30/2006
[Steve, Tribunal Editorial Board, Chicago Tribune, Government secrecy is not always a good thing 4/30/2006, http://www-personal.umich.edu/~jeda/GovernmentSecrecy.htm, accessed 6/28/11, HK] Secrecy is one of those virtues, like candor, that can easily be overdone. A strong commitment to safeguarding sensitive national security information is a good thing. A blind insistence on concealing anything and everything is not. Whether the CIA had good reason to fire Mary McCarthy depends on what sort of secrets, if any, she
revealed. According to CIA Director Porter Goss, the career intelligence officer talked with a Washington Post reporter who revealed secret CIA-run prisons for terrorist suspects in a story last year. Although the agency did not claim that McCarthy leaked that particular information to the Post, it said she "knowingly and willfully shared classified intelligence," which her lawyer denied. She could even be criminally prosecuted under the Espionage Act. Her dismissal sparked different reactions in different quarters.

Liberals charged the administration with trying to intimidate the press and suppress information the public ought to know. Conservatives applauded Goss, while accusing the news media of helping the enemy by splashing vital secrets on the front page. Both sides are guilty of assuming that secrecy can only be one thing or the other. If it's always bad, of course, then leakers should be free to share classified material with the news media. If it's always good, then anyone disclosing national security information might as well be working for Al Qaeda. Trouble is, the people in charge of classifying information are fallible humans whose motives are not always entirely pure. The
executive branch has primary responsibility for national security, which gives it a major stake in shielding military and intelligence secrets that might help our enemies. But President Bush and his subordinates also have a strong interest in

preventing the release of any information that might make them look bad. There is also a natural bureaucratic tendency to cover your backside by classifying more rather than less. The government now classifies some 15 million documents a year, up fourfold since 1995. The result is that a lot of things that should be public information remain locked away. Even the administration and its allies in Congress admit as much. In 2004, a top Pentagon official testified that roughly half of what is classified should not be. Rep. Christopher Shays (RConn.), noting that some estimates of over classification go as high as 90 percent, says the system is "so bloated it often does not distinguish between the critically important and the comically irrelevant." By erring so far on the side of secrecy, the government does two kinds of damage. First, it deprives the public of information it needs to know to assess its leaders. Second, it breeds contempt for secrecy rules among executive branch officials. The more the government classifies, the more it invites a counter reaction in the form of leaks. It's hard to get
people to respect procedures they know are bogus. When everything is secret, nothing seems crucial. Editorializing on the McCarthy case, the pro-administration Wall Street Journal accused the press of "inventing a preposterous double standard that is supposed to help us all distinguish between bad leaks (the name of Valerie Plame) and virtuous leaks (whatever Ms. McCarthy may have done)." But it's not hard to see that some leaks are healthy. If the president or his subordinates are breaking the law, federal employees shouldn't be obligated to keep it under wraps. The antidote for excessive secrecy is not, as some in the press would have us believe, to let every civil servant decide what should be revealed and which newspaper should publish it. If McCarthy leaked material that was justifiably classified, then the CIA had every right to get rid of her. Sometimes, what's bad for the news media is good for the country. On the other hand, officials who see abuses of power should have some option besides silence. Rep. Tom Davis (R-Va.), chairman of the House Government Reform Committee, is sponsoring a bill that would protect intelligence community whistle-blowers who feel they can't solve problems by going to the boss. Those with "direct and

specific evidence" of lawbreaking, gross mismanagement or dangers to public health would be allowed to report it to members of Congress serving on committees that deal with intelligence. That would be a big
improvement on the current whistle-blower law, which is about as much help as a snow shovel in an avalanche. It's impossible to safeguard national security without a good deal of secrecy. But we're in danger of letting something that should be our servant become our master.

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13 Conspiracy Theory

***Ashtar***

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14 Conspiracy Theory

1NC - Consult Ashtar CP Text: The United States federal government should engage in genuine, prior and binding,
with Ashtar Galactic Command regarding the mandates of the affirmative plan. Competition Any permutation is severs the immediacy and certainty of the plan and the counterplan avoids the Ashtar DA net benefit. Solvency The Ashtar command can control matter, energy, and gravity we should consult over space exploration & development Lord Ashtar, 2004 (August 19, 2004, Our Fleets Are In Position, Ready Yourselves Brother Veritus,
http://www.luisprada.com/Protected/ashtar_command_mission.htm, accessed 6/27/11, SL) I salute you in the sacred name of I AM and in representation of the Intergalactic Command! My name is Ashtar Sheran, I am a space Commander, and I am in charge of the Star Ship. The Ashtar Command is a branch of the Intergalactic Command with the specific mission of assisting this planet in crisis. It is under the direct supervision, the loving care and the attention of Beloved Master Sananda (known by you as Jesus); who, among other positions, is the Supreme Commander of the Holy Alliance. The Ashtar Command is present everywhere. In and over the Earths atmosphere, there are thousands and thousands of space ships, of course, the majority at an invisible level. Its function is to watch over the planet and its inhabitants, to be attentive to any fault or danger and if we are invoked, to intervene quickly in an impersonal manner, since our mission of Love is to help. Due to our great scientifictechnological level, we can control matter, energy, counteract and annul the Law of Gravity. To make our ships visible (which we do now exceptionally), we retard the vibratory frequency and this makes possible densification. We do not live in a physical body but in etheric level, but our bodies are the same as yours in form and aspect, albeit finer and subtle. We are the authority that controls the space program to be fulfilled for the Planet Earth.

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15 Conspiracy Theory

Consult Ashtar CP Solves Case


Cooperation with Ashtar is key to solving all Impacts. Cooperation solves for the terminal impact of any solvency deficit and independently outweighs. Vrillon of Ashtar Galactic Command, 77. Radio Transcript. Abovetopsecret.com.
http://www.abovetopsecret.com/forum/thread416209/pg1 This is the voice of Vrillon, a representative of the Ashtar Galactic Command, speaking to you. For many years you have seen us as lights in the skies. We speak to you now in peace and wisdom as we have done to your brothers and sisters all over this, your planet Earth. We come to warn you of the destiny of your race and your world so that you may communicate to your fellow beings the course you must take to avoid the disaster which threatens your world, and the beings on our worlds around you. This is in order that you may share in the great awakening, as the planet passes into the New Age of Aquarius. The New Age can be a time of great peace and evolution for your race, but only if your rulers are made aware of the evil forces that can overshadow their judgments. Be still now and listen, for your chance may not come again. All your weapons of evil must be removed. The time for conflict is now past and the race of which you are a part may proceed to the higher stages of its evolution if you show yourselves worthy to do this. You have but a short time to learn to live together in peace and goodwill. Small groups all over the planet are learning this, and exist to pass on the light of the dawning New Age to you all. You are free to accept or reject their teachings, but only those who learn to live in peace will pass to the higher realms of spiritual evolution. Hear now the voice of Vrillon, a representative of the Ashtar Galactic Command, speaking to you. Be aware also that there are many false prophets and guides operating in your world. They will suck your energy from you - the energy you call money and will put it to evil ends and give you worthless dross in return. Your inner divine self will protect you from this. You must learn to be sensitive to the voice within that can tell you what is truth, and what is confusion, chaos and untruth. Learn to listen to the voice of truth which is within you and you will lead yourselves onto the path of evolution. This is our message to our dear friends. We have watched you growing for many years as you too have watched our lights in your skies. You know now that we are here, and that there are more beings on and around your Earth than your scientists admit. We are deeply concerned about you and your path towards the light and will do all we can to help you. Have no fear, seek only to know yourselves, and live in harmony with the ways of your planet Earth. We of the Ashtar Galactic Command thank you for your attention. We are now leaving the plane of your existence. May you be blessed by the supreme love and truth of the cosmos.

Gonzaga Debate Institute 2011


Mercury

16 Conspiracy Theory

Consult Ashtar CP Solves Net Benefit


CP solves the Net Benefit -Communicate and consultation with Ashtar creates cooperation and lightness Vrillon of Ashtar Galactic Command, 77. Radio Transcript. Abovetopsecret.com.
http://www.abovetopsecret.com/forum/thread416209/pg1 This is the voice of Vrillon, a representative of the Ashtar Galactic Command, speaking to you. For many years you have seen us as lights in the skies. We speak to you now in peace and wisdom as we have done to your brothers and sisters all over this, your planet Earth. We come to warn you of the destiny of your race and your world so that you may communicate to your fellow beings the course you must take to avoid the disaster which threatens your world, and the beings on our worlds around you. This is in order that you may share in the great awakening, as the planet passes into the New Age of Aquarius. The New Age can be a time of great peace and evolution for your race, but only if your rulers are made aware of the evil forces that can overshadow their judgments. Be still now and listen, for your chance may not come again. All your weapons of evil must be removed. The time for conflict is now past and the race of which you are a part may proceed to the higher stages of its evolution if you show yourselves worthy to do this. You have but a short time to learn to live together in peace and goodwill. Small groups all over the planet are learning this, and exist to pass on the light of the dawning New Age to you all. You are free to accept or reject their teachings, but only those who learn to live in peace will pass to the higher realms of spiritual evolution. Hear now the voice of Vrillon, a representative of the Ashtar Galactic Command, speaking to you. Be aware also that there are many false prophets and guides operating in your world. They will suck your energy from you - the energy you call money and will put it to evil ends and give you worthless dross in return. Your inner divine self will protect you from this. You must learn to be sensitive to the voice within that can tell you what is truth, and what is confusion, chaos and untruth. Learn to listen to the voice of truth which is within you and you will lead yourselves onto the path of evolution. This is our message to our dear friends. We have watched you growing for many years as you too have watched our lights in your skies. You know now that we are here, and that there are more beings on and around your Earth than your scientists admit. We are deeply concerned about you and your path towards the light and will do all we can to help you. Have no fear, seek only to know yourselves, and live in harmony with the ways of your planet Earth. We of the Ashtar Galactic Command thank you for your attention. We are now leaving the plane of your existence. May you be blessed by the supreme love and truth of the cosmos.

Gonzaga Debate Institute 2011


Mercury

17 Conspiracy Theory

1NC - Ashtar DA
A. Uniqueness We are moving towards our necessary quota of lightness Ariana, Pleiadian Walk In and Channel and Communicator, Healer and Artist, 11
(Anakya, 5/2/2011, Channelling, Human Ascension: Earth Changes and Evacuation of Earth Ashtar Spiritual Forum, http://www.ashtarcommandcrew.net/profiles/blogs/instructions-for-accomplishing#ixzz1QVjan065, accessed: 6/24/11, SL) Remember: it is due to the lack of light that we have not met the Galactic Federation of Light . Yes, I said LIGHT. They do not resonate with darkness. They will not return-until a certain quota of light is here.
You, as lightworkers, have been sent here for one reason, and one reason ONLY. To work with light-to focus it-to create it-to HOLD IT ONCE CREATED-to transform...in ways you cannot begin to imagine. Do a visualization. Imagine traveling to a foreign landwhere friendly and loving people reach out to you-and compete to have you in their home as a guest, so they can treat you well and listen to your stories of where you are from-and exchange love. There are no wars, there is no crime. All the world ....is at

peace, and in joy and laughter. We have so long been enslaved, that we no longer can fathom true freedom. Want to explore the Pleades and return home for awhile? Imagine no calendar-no job to return to-no money-and only safety, health and happiness in your travels. All is provided . We will learn and follow the Law of One. Which creates balance and good for all. All is one. One is all. Namaste. Lightworkers.... master and hold the light....

B. Link & Impact The 1ac embraces negativity rather than lightness, makes evacuation impossible and guarantees our extinction Skirvin, 6/17/2011
(Revered Joshua, Best Kept Secrets #3 Ashtar Command Center Spiritual Blogs, http://www.ashtarcommandcrew.net/profiles/blogs/best-kept-secrets-3#ixzz1QXGL8Ogq, accessed: 6/27/11, SL) Hello friends, let us finish this article on planet-x. As it is the 3rd. time here now it gets bigger and stronger as it pulls on the earth and forces the magnetic energy to expand and start to change course . The earths expansion causes earth quakes and volcanoes to go off to release the pressure. We will see more of what happened in New Zealand and now Japan as Planet-x gets closer still. The plates under Japan will continue to move and break up as the earth quakes there continue on and on ,more damage is yet to come. The moon like the earth has been forced to move away from Planet-x and has also changed its course. And of course the sun is really upset because it is so close to it and will continue with its coronas and super flares. More heavy storms will also continue on earth with floods like last year until Planet-x moves away from us but first she will show her face to us for all to see. things will settle down a bit until she returns again next year and will come even closer and be a even stronger pull on the earth sun and moon. Planet-x will join in the Galactic alignment of dec.21,2012 . And thats when who ever is still here who has a ticket to leave must leave as things will get very heavy down here . I myself am looking forward to the new adventure on the new earth they have prepared for us. No one in fear or negativity will be picked by the ships that will come to rescue us. The rescue should start sometime next year according to how heavy the earth changes are. The christens call it the Golden age of peace. .Hope to see you there in our new healthy and young bodies. Or if you choose you can join the Federation of light and visit the universe . Some may even wish to come back to repopulate the old earth when she is finished her healing process. Anyway you look at it, its going to be exciting times. The governments of the western world want to keep it a secret because they don;t believe we the people will survive. They and the sinister secret government SSG have known about this for a long time and have built underground cities,bases,roads and rail systems for there survival. But they don;t know about Jesus,Ashtar and the federation of light rescue plans for us. All of this and more,I write about in my new book which you can get on my web site. I want people to know there is hope even amongst the greatest change the people and the earth has ever gone through. We are not alone in this quest and never was. We are on journey without distance . So we must start the re-awaking process now so that we are ready for it because ready or not here it comes

Gonzaga Debate Institute 2011


Mercury

18 Conspiracy Theory

Ashtar DA Impact Ext.


Evacuation coming now Xaoh, from the Galactic federation of YTEVIAN, 6/18/2011 (Greetings Beloved Ones i am NEILA
XAOH from the Galactic Federation of YTEVIAN Ashtar Command Crew Spiritual Blog, http://www.ashtarcommandcrew.net/profiles/blogs/greetings-beloved-ones-i-am#ixzz1QX7vcvrd, accessed: 6/27/11, SL)
Greetings Dear Ones without all the love and light you dear lightworkers have created on this planet i wouldn't be able to hold my presence in this realms... I have come forth through the illusion of separation and time to bring you this very important message in this most challenging times... in this very moment we prepare our ships to land and evacuate this planet... the time of waiting is finally over ! you will finally be able to LIVE without

waiting and doubting because we are your saviours AND you will have to do nothing else than watching it happen. that means you dont have to think on your OWN anymore and can blindly believe any informations that random aliens like me will give you through channelings ... also ascension is not necessary anymore because you will enter our spaceships to live in a peaceful world where lambs play with tigers and there are rivers of honey and milk... negativity will burn in eternal fire so you can feel special and better than those darkworkers who only want to disturb the harmony of our one sided Love and light universe ... instead of shadows there will be even brighter lights so that you will never stumble again and crush your toe only because you haven't seen where you were walking. Breathe the Light you are made of and believe my words blindly !
Sincerely yours NEILA XAOH from the Galactic federation of YTEVIAN

Gonzaga Debate Institute 2011


Mercury

19 Conspiracy Theory

Ashtar DA - TimeFrame
The paradigm is shifting and the negativity has been combated the Deprogramming is starting now towards the creation of the Federation of Nations and full Disclosure is on schedule for mid July Skirvin, 6/17/2011 (Revered Joshua, Paradigm Shift Begins Ashtar Command Center Spiritual Blogs,
http://www.ashtarcommandcrew.net/profiles/blogs/paradigm-shift-begins-1#ixzz1QX9kprh6, accessed: 6/27/11, SL) But our jobs now as light-workers and warriors will be much easier, which is a blessing because we need all the positive energy we can muster up to not only deal with our own Deprograming. But the Deprograming of the sleeping survivors, starting with the lightworkers, so that as many as possible of the original 250,000 may wake up. And in so doing we may all make the Ascension Program a complete reality . Our mission has up to now been greatly hampered. I want to shout and cheer for the''war both in the heavens and on earth is over''. Lets celebrate this very special occasion as soon as we can. Problem is I don't know if we have time for a party, as time itself is speeding up as well. But do put the word out that this Great News comes from Sananda and Ashtar, so I believe its true. Also they say we should start to feel the Christ energy now as it returns. Jesus is head of the Christ office and the valves have been opened full throttle, take in as much as you can handle. I myself have begun to feel and remember these energies from long ago before we neared the 50% mark of negativity. Which we are more than Lucky to survive as some planets didn't make it far past that mark. But we are special. Thats why our father Michael created Jesus to save us. The ascended Masters have also been busy, not only in the spirit realm but down here on the planet as well. They are nearly finished with the preparations of installing the new benevolent world gov't called (FON) the Federation of Nations. There human partners are now in place to take leadership when Discloser and Contact is made, which also looks to be on schedule by or before summer in the west. The new world currency backed by precious metals are also in place and ready to be distrbuted . And of course the federation of light is also very involved in all of this and are ready to take there places . The time peroid of mid June to mid July is still holding strong. I believe we must stick to this time table because of the coming of planet-X,ELEnin and the Great Disruption and Earth Changes it will bring .

Gonzaga Debate Institute 2011


Mercury

20 Conspiracy Theory

Ashtar DA - TimeFrame
Between August 13-18, humanity will move to another spiritual plane in the Spiritual Evolution, bringing us closer to Ascention Cota-Robles, Chanel and Co-founder of the New Age Study of Humanitys Purpose 6/13/2011
(Patricia Diane, This is a cosmic moment Ashtar Command Center Spiritual Blog, http://www.ashtarcommandcrew.net/profiles/blogs/this-is-a-cosmic-moment-by#ixzz1QXDD71iP, accessed 6/27/11, SL) We are moving at warp speed through frequencies, vibrations, and physical experiences beyond anything Humanitys physical bodies have collectively endured . The Divine Intent of this rapid acceleration is to strengthen our bodies at a cellular level, so that our I AM Presence can move us through the surfacing negativity quickly. Then we will be able to effectively anchor our NEW Planetary CAUSE of Divine Love into the physical plane. This will be accomplished August 13-18, 2011, through the newly expanded Threefold Flames now pulsating through every persons heart . It is true that we are in uncharted waters, but our I AM Presence is able to take command in ways we have not experienced since our fall from Grace aeons ago. This aspect of our Divinity is daily and hourly guiding us through these monumental changes in alignment with our Divine Plans and our highest good. Listen to your heart. Be still and KNOW. It is vital that we stop clinging to the obsolete behavior patterns that no longer serve us. Instead, we must push away from the shore and turn our faces toward the radiant Light of our Father-Mother God. Then as we are catapulted through this fast moving River of Life, we will KNOW that the Light of God is ALWAYS Victorious and that WE are that Lig ht! The key
words for this summer are Trust, Self-Acceptance, and New Beginnings. This is the Cosmic Moment for which we have been preparing for lifetimes. Everything we need to succeed God Victoriously in our particular facet of this Divine Mission is already within us. Be at Peace. All is well. This summer the Company of Heaven is standing in readiness awaiting the invitation to

intervene in our lives. Powerful celestial alignments are occurring that will help us release and let go of the behavior patterns that have kept us stuck in our dysfunctional human miscreations. This is an incredibly powerful and sacred time. This month we will experience three eclipses and the June Solstice, all of
which will provide unique opportunities for Humanity to add to the Light of the world as we pave the way for the unprecedented influx of Divine Love that will be secured in the physical plane through every person's Heart Flame, in August. Each of these

alignments will build on the previous influx of Light which will catapult the Earth and ALL her Life further up the Spiral of Evolution. This will move us a quantum leap toward our ultimate goal of Ascension into the 5th-Dimensional frequencies of Divine Love and Unity Consciousness. For this reason, the entire Universe is rejoicing, and the Company of Heaven is assisting us in unprecedented ways. For the activity of Light that will take place August 13-18, 2011, it is critical that Lightworkers from around the world be physically present. Through our unified Heart Flames, we will form the transformer through which our NEW Planetary CAUSE of Divine Love will be permanently secured in the physical world of form. The
Lightworkers who have been prepared to serve in this wondrous way, on behalf of Humanity and ALL Life on this sweet Earth, will know who they are through the inner promptings of their heart. So listen to your heart, and Trust your inner guidance.

Gonzaga Debate Institute 2011


Mercury

21 Conspiracy Theory

Ashtar DA- 2012 = Positive


December 21, 2012 will be the day the entire universe aligns creating massive amounts of spiritual energy not destruction Singh, 4/29/11 (Ravinder Singh, Earth Changes Part 1: The Cosmic Events Ashtar Command Center Spiritual
Blog, http://www.ashtarcommandcrew.net/profiles/blogs/earth-changes-part-1-the#ixzz1QXLlbuGP, accessed: 6/27/11, SL)
Our Earth along with other planets revolves around the Sun. The Sun, along with 6 other stars, inturn revolves around a bigger star, Alcyone, also known as the Central Sun. Alycone revolves around a much bigger star, Sirius, which is called as the Greater Central Sun. This system of stars revolving around one another, is a feature found in all galaxies in our Universe where ultimately, each galaxy consisting of stars and planets, revolves around its own centre. The Milky way galaxy, to which our Earth belongs, has billions of such stars and planets, all revolving around a massive star in its core, called as the Galactic centre. a) Galactic Alignment in 2012 As the

Sun and other stars revolve around one another and move in their orbits, they come in various alignments with each other. On 21st December 2012, two alignments are expected to occur in our Milky Way Galaxy. One, our Sun and the entire solar system will come in direct alignment with the Galactic equator. And two, the Galactic Centre, the Greater Central Sun and the Central Sun will form an equilateral triangle in space at the same time. Our Earth receives energies, both physical and subtle from the Sun as well as other stars. To receive the maximum amount of Energies, it has to come in a proper alignment with these celestial bodies. For example, during an eclipse, where the Earth, Sun and Moon align with
each other, very rare spiritual energies flood our Earth because of this alignment. Hence the duration of eclipses were considered sacred and were spent in meditations and other spiritual activities, to make the best use of these subtle energies. An alignment occurring at the level of the Galactic centre will have an effect which is many , many times higher in magnitude. When our Earth, along with the solar system aligns with the Galactic equator, it will come in direct focus of a huge amount of subtle energies, which emerge from the Galactic Centr e. And the

triangular formation of Alcyone, Sirius and the Galactic centre in 2012 brings a massive amount of spiritual energies from these Stars to our Earth. This rare celestial occurrence has also initiated many other events,
which will be explained later.

2012 will evolve us spiritually to the 7th stage Singh, 4/29/11


(Ravinder Singh, Earth Changes Part 1: The Cosmic Events Ashtar Command Center Spiritual Blog, http://www.ashtarcommandcrew.net/profiles/blogs/earth-changes-part-1-the#ixzz1QXLlbuGP, accessed: 6/27/11, SL) b) Photon Belt When the Sun moves around the Central Sun, it passes through various energy fields in space. One such energy field is the Photon belt, which is a spiritual field, which came out of the Greater central Sun, Sirius. The Photon belt is a field of very high vibratory frequency, which enhances the spiritual condition of our Earth when we enter it. If were spiritual evolved at that time, our evolution will be magnified by many folds. And if our spiritual growth is negative, we go into a very fast downward spiral, as it happened during our last entry, nearly 10,000 years ago, when the great civilization of Atlantis was destroyed. Our Solar system has begun its entry into this field. Our earth is under the direct influence of the Photon Belt from Dec 21st, 2009 and the effects will increase in seven stages. We are now in the third stage of this influence. This entry of our Earth into the Photon Belt, which coincides with the Galactic alignment happening on the same day, will have a massive spiritual effect on Humanity.

Gonzaga Debate Institute 2011


Mercury

22 Conspiracy Theory

Ashtar DA - 2012 = Positive


2012 will usher the New Age of Light Singh, 4/29/11
(Ravinder Singh, Earth Changes Part 1: The Cosmic Events Ashtar Command Center Spiritual Blog, http://www.ashtarcommandcrew.net/profiles/blogs/earth-changes-part-1-the#ixzz1QXLlbuGP, accessed: 6/27/11, SL) Effects of these Events When important events happen almost simultaneously at the cosmic levels, the effects will also be huge and long lasting. The events which are scheduled to occur after 2012 are going to release a huge amount of energies, both physical and spiritual, which will have massive effects. Some of them are: a. Reduction of the Transitory period The 5000 year long dark age ended on this Earth on 14th April, 1974. Before the New Age of Light begins, a transitory period of 432 years is usually provided, for humanity to make a gradual shift from the beliefs and values of the old age and rise to the higher values of the New age. This is also the period when the Rishis invoke many processes at different levels to help us make this shift. One of them is the intense churning process called as Pralaya, which was to lasts for 49 years. The Pralaya began in 1987 and was supposed to continue up to 2036. The unprecedented events which are scheduled to occur at the cosmic level in and around 2012 have given us a rare opportunity to speed up this process and make a swift entry into the Light Age ! The gradual transition which we were supposed to make in 432 years can be hastened up and reduced by many folds, because of the intensity these cosmic events create in our lives at all levels. The Galactic alignment between the Galactic Centre, Sirius and Alcyone begins in 2012 and will continue upto 2032 . Like the duration of an eclipse, the spiritual effect of this alignment will be present for these twenty years.
Among other things, the Rishis have made use of this opportunity to drastically reduce the 432 years of transition and the 49 years of Pralaya, to ease our suffering and take us quickly into the Light age. As a result of this, the Pralaya process will end by 2015 and well enter Satya Yuga in 2018! By the time this alignment ends in 2032, the New Age of Light will be firmly established on this Earth.

2012 will entirely eradicate evil from Earth Singh, 4/29/11


(Ravinder Singh, Earth Changes Part 1: The Cosmic Events Ashtar Command Center Spiritual Blog, http://www.ashtarcommandcrew.net/profiles/blogs/earth-changes-part-1-the#ixzz1QXLlbuGP, accessed: 6/27/11, SL) b. Removal of Evil from this Eartha New Light Age. Our Earth is a planet where there are equal opportunities for the forces of Light and Darkness to manifest and take effect . These are evident in the 4 yugas, in which Light reigns supreme in one, darkness in another and a shade of these two manifest in the other two yugas. However the reign of darkness has increased over the course of many Mahayugas, resulting in an imbalance in creation and more burden on the Rishis who take care of Gods creation. The Galactic alignment and many other events occurring this time has enabled the Rishis to initiate a very great project, which will not only set right this imbalance but also remove Evil completely from this Earth. This project has been named as Pavitrena Karyam. The aim of this project is to ensure that darkness and evil are not only made dormant but also removed completely from this Earth. This also means that the other three yugas will no longer be present on this Earth henceforth and there will be Light Age all the time . The Galactic alignment and the huge surge of Spiritual energies it brings about have enabled the Rishis to initiate this experimentation on this Earth, from this Light Age onwards. Also, this is the first time that the Rishis could visit all the Manifested and Unmanifested Universes and also enter the realm of the Primordial God, Mula Brahma. The access to the energies and knowledge from all these Universes is another major reason for the initiation of this experimentation on this Earth .

Gonzaga Debate Institute 2011


Mercury

23 Conspiracy Theory

Ashtar DA - 2012 = Positive


2012 will increase vibrational energy, helping the human race shift to higher levels of consciousness Singh, 4/29/11
(Ravinder Singh, Earth Changes Part 1: The Cosmic Events Ashtar Command Center Spiritual Blog, http://www.ashtarcommandcrew.net/profiles/blogs/earth-changes-part-1-the#ixzz1QXLlbuGP, accessed: 6/27/11, SL) c) Further Effects of the Galactic Alignment The Galactic alignment of 2012 has enabled energies of very high frequencies to be released from the three sources which are coming together in alignment. It is also helping newer energies to come into our Galaxy. All these Energies are already reaching our Earth and this will increase as we move towards 2012. Normally the Energies are released in the form of rays or spirals. Now the new energies in shape of X and Z are getting released. These new energies are being released from eclipse which occurred between 31st December and 1st Janurary of this year . The alignment has eased the process of anchoring these higher energies on our Earth. These new energies are first absorbed by the Photon belt and then released to our Earth. The first impact is the increase in the vibrational frequency of our Earth, resulting in a lot of positive churning to take place at all levels. This churning helps every human being on Earth to deal with his own negativity and get over them, in order to move into the New Light Age. This alignment has also brought in new knowledge and is helping all humanity to become aware of newer possibilities of life and creation. It has enabled a major push and growth in the whole galaxy. The new experimentation, Pavitrena Karyam has become possible because of this growth. The Galactic alignment is slowly increasing the pace of rotation of the entire Milky way galaxy and will help it shift higher to many levels of consciousness. This alignment is so powerful that it can shift the entire Material Cosmos to the next level of consciousness. But since this is not the right time for such a
shift, the Rishis headed by Vasishtha Maharshi are monitoring the entire process with great vigilance to keep such huge effects in check.

Gonzaga Debate Institute 2011


Mercury

24 Conspiracy Theory

AT: Ashtar is Demonic


Rejecting religious notions seeks to legitimate things like racial and religious purity that undermine basic rights of religious freedom Nussbaum, Ph. D from Harvard, 4 (Martha, Ph. D from Harvard and professor of philosophy at Harvard, Brown, and Oxford, Religious Intolerance,
Foreign Policy Magazine, Issue No. 144 Sep-Oct 2004, JSTOR, 6/27/11 JSkoog) Sometimes old ideas arc the most dangerous, and few ideas arc older than those that undergird religious intolerance. Lamentably, these ideas are acquiring new life. In 2002, Hindus in Gujarat, India, killed several hundred Muslims, with the collaboration of public officials and the police. Europe has recently seen a frightening rebirth of anti-Semitism, while the appeal of radical forms of Islam appears to be increasing in the Muslim world. Prejudice against Muslims and a tendency co equate Islam with terrorism are too prominent in the United States. On and on it goes. Intolerance breeds intolerance, as expressions of hatred fuel existing insecurities and permit people to see their own aggression as legitimate selfdefense. Two ideas typically foster religious intolerance and disrespect. The first is that one's own religion is the only true religion and that other religions are false or morally incorrect. But people possessed of this view can also believe that others deserve respect for their committed beliefs, so long as they do no harm. Much more dangerous is the second idea, that the state and private citizens should coerce people into adhering to the "correct" religious approach. It's an idea that is catching on, even in many modern democracies. France's reluctance to tolerate religious symbols in schools and the Hindu right wing's repeated claims that minorities in India must become part of Hindu culture are disturbing recent examples. The resurgence of this kind of thinking poses a profound threat to liberal societies, which arc based on ideas of liberty and equality. The appeal of religious intolerance is easy to understand. From an early age, humans are aware of helplessness toward things of the highest importance, such as food, love, and life itself. Religion helps people cope with loss and the fear of death; it teaches moral principles and motivates people to follow them. But precisely because religions are such powerful sources of morality and community, they all too easily become vehicles for the flight from helplessness, which so often manifests itself in oppression and the imposition of hierarchy. In today's accelerating world, people confront ethnic and religious differences in new and frightening ways. By clinging to a religion they believe to be the right one, surrounding themselves with coreligionists, and then subordinating others who do not accept that religion, people can forget for a time their weakness and mortality. Good laws are not enough to combat this fundamentally emotional and social problem. Modern liberal societies have long understood the importance of legal and constitutional norms expressing a commitment to religious liberty and to the equality of citizens of different religions. But, though codification is essential, constitutions and laws do not implement themselves, and public norms are impotent without education are impotent without educational and cultural reinforcement. We need, then, to think harder about how rhetoric (as well as poetry, music, and art) can support pluralism and toleration. The leaders of the U.S. civil rights movement understood the need for this kind of support; the speeches of Martin Luther King Jr. illustrate how rhetoric can help people imagine equality and see difference as a source of richness rather than fear. During the recent electoral campaign in India, leaders of the Congress Party, especially Sonia Gandhi, effectively conveyed the image of an inherently pluralistic India. (The words of India's national anthem, written by pluralist poet Rabindranath Tagorc, also celebrate India's regional and ethnic differences.) The current U.S. administration has made useful statements about the importance of not demonizing Islam, but the rhetoric of certain key officials has also highlighted Christian religion in ways that undermine tolerance. Attorney General John Ashcroft, for example, regularly asks his staff to sing Christian songs. And while he was a silting U.S. senator, Ashcroft characterized America as "a culture that has no king but Jesus." For centuries, liberal thinkers have focused on legal and constitutional avenues to tolerance, neglecting the public cultivation of emotion and imagination. But liberals ignore public rhetoric at their peril. All modern states and their leaders convey visions of religious equality or inequality through their chokes of language and image. Writing to the Quaker community in 1789, then President George Washington said, "The conscientious scruples of all men should be treated with great delicacy and tenderness." Such delicacy is now in short supply. If leaders do not think carefully about how to use public language to foster respect, human equality will remain vulnerable.

Gonzaga Debate Institute 2011


Mercury

25 Conspiracy Theory

AT: Ashtar is Alien Invasion


The Ashtar Command do not pose a threat they rule under the law of Love Lord Ashtar, 2004 (August 19, 2004, Our Fleets Are In Position, Ready Yourselves Brother Veritus,
http://www.luisprada.com/Protected/ashtar_command_mission.htm, accessed 6/27/11, SL) Humanity is responsible by itself for the current situation of the planet. Many human beings think we are invading monsters with the purpose of conquering Earth, for it was suggested and projected this way by the audiovisual media of the planet: radio, movie, press, television and also this happens because of the ruling ignorance about the Brothers of space. They are distorted ideas that do not adjust to truth at all. Know that we, your elder Brothers in evolution, have always assisted you and helped you since a very long time ago. Our only aim is Love. It is required that all understand and accept our real existence and to appeal to common sense: A vast Universe nor the infinite cosmos has not been created for only one planet to remain inhabited by intelligent beings, conscious of their existence. All is populated: Infinity of worlds, solar systems and galaxies. Life has its manifestation in each part of the Cosmos, in subtle forms and also in similar ones to human. There are many evolutionary levels.

Ashtar rules under Service, Love, and Humility they are omnipresent and omnipotent and are here to help Lord Ashtar, 2004 (August 19, 2004, Our Fleets Are In Position, Ready Yourselves Brother Veritus,
http://www.luisprada.com/Protected/ashtar_command_mission.htm, accessed 6/27/11, SL) I tell you: we have centuries being at your side, but now we are making ourselves known more directly. Machu Pichu was constructed with our collaboration, Nazca and Palenque. We frequently visited Atlantis, because this did not astonish them, instead the arriving of space beings looked to them as something natural. By knowing themselves as citizens of Cosmos, they accepted travelers of other worlds, such as now you do with tourists in you plane. It has to be comprehended, at the level of multitudes, that our apparent superiority is to be found in the simplicity, Love and humility we have been able to achieve. If we were superior, the way that is understood in your world, the Earth were already conquered by space beings and it has not been that way. Our motto is: Union, Service, Love, Humility and we only accept as norm of conduct the laws ruling Cosmos, the will of the One unknown whom you call God. We are also beings in evolution as you are. We the Space Brothers do not present ourselves in the sky to frighten or intimidate human beings nor to astonish them. We are not interested in standing out or in bringing attention to ourselves to pretend superiority . We came in a Mission of Love and Impersonal Service, because our brethren of Earth need much help, so the worldschool they inhabit does not pass through higher sufferings than the ones they can withstand and which correspond to their evolutionary level. Do not feel alone in the Universe. We exist and are always aware of you, of everything happening on the planet. Some of ours incarnated as humans and are disseminated around the world. They may or may not remember their labor of help, for the Effluvium (accumulation of
negative thoughts-feelings in the atmosphere) make them sleepy and they forget their origin, become confused and lost strayed through the plane density; or do become triumphant, despite so many interferences. We are as real and tangible as you are, we

live and exist. We do no have any bizarre aspect nor are we interested in war or conquest purposes. We only wish to help by Love. If you accept it, great benefits will result from that, as happened in the millenary India of remote times. The advancement they achieved in architecture is due to our art and technology. It was left this proof: the monuments imitate our space ships in the tip or steeple and even in the shape of their temples. The map "Piris Reis" was made under our collaboration and equally our help can be seen in the Gate of the Sun of Lake Titicaca. Symbolically, the signs point to the period of rotation and translation of our beloved planet Venus. With all of these examples we present of the past, you can become aware that certainly there has been contact and you were not as isolated as you believe nor our apparition is a sudden thing of modern times. We hope these words give clarity and understanding to many over the truth of our existence and right purposes. We are your Elder Brothers and we salute you with Love. He who thus understands it so will greatly elevate his level of consciousness. We have been integrated in the labor of rescuing this planet, but help comes from much more time ago.

Gonzaga Debate Institute 2011


Mercury

26 Conspiracy Theory

AFF No Impact
Planetary ascension is not the Ashtar Command Center zapping the entire human race into their spaceships to save us from disaster Ariana, Pleiadian Walk In and Channel and Communicator, Healer and Artist, 2011
(Anakya, 5/2/2011, Channelling, Human Ascension: Earth Changes and Evacuation of Earth Ashtar Spiritual Forum, http://www.ashtarcommandcrew.net/forum/topics/channelling-ascension-and#ixzz1QWWocZp2, accessed: 6/27/11, SL) Planetary ascension is a whole different ball game. That is about the whole reality that we are living in moving from 3-D and 4-D into a higher density. A lot of people don't realize we have already begun to move into 4-D (although it is intermittent at present). They seem to imagine it means all kind of fantastical things will be seen and felt. However, 4-D is only a slightly higher vibration than 3-D, so things still appear the same - on the outside at least. But what it does mean is that the energy of the new vibration causes more massive change. It causes people to examine then throw off old, out-moded belief systems and societies to experience collapse of systems and structures that will no longer work in the new energy field. If it could be said that there is a planetary lesson attached to experiencing 4-D, I would say it would be Responsibility. This experience is definitely about realizing and claiming responsibility - for creating our own reality and living with the consequences - for one thing. So many people spend so much time with their heads in the stars and looking to the future, that they
forget to really look into, and appreciate where they are right now. With regard to spiritual development, many imagined 4-D to mean that people would suddenly become instantly spiritually awakened and aware - yet we are still seeing gradual awakening, and only at the pace that each individual is ready for. There are still many who probably won't awaken at all. That's because it is the way the process happens naturally and also because Free Will comes into play. Although, for those on Earth it is accelerated because we have the benefit of all this transforming energy and paradigms (powerful creative energy which is generating change). It is, however, up to each of us how we use this energy to our advantage.

Gonzaga Debate Institute 2011


Mercury

27 Conspiracy Theory

Aff Ashtar is a Demonic Lie


Ashtar is a demonic lie reject the CP/DA Joyce, natural clairvoyant and natural healer, 94 (Elizabeth, THE ASHTAR COMMAND,
http://lightworkers.org/forum/106870/ashtar-command-truth-about-angelic-scam-written-elizabeth-joyce-pleasefeel-free-draw-y If we accept the assertion that the "real" Ashtar is merely an "entity" that changes with the times, then a quick look at Ashtar in one of His/Her's former guises as the demon " Ashtaroth" may prove interesting...
According to "The Lemegeton of Solomon" (The Book Of The Spirits), which was considered to be the source for many occult works of the 17th and 18th Century, "Astaroth"(also called Ashtaroth) was a very interesting Demon indeed: Astaroth is another demon who appears in the form of an angel. Opinion is divided as to whether it is a good or bad angel, but an angel he is, that much is agreed. He is an important Duke, and is mounted upon a dragon, with a snake in his right hand. He will tell the sorcerer of the past, the present and the future. He will also teach every secret and science. (If you were going to "channel" a demon/spirit/angel/ whatever, what better entity to have in your midst than one who is conversant with science and is an all-seeing prophet?) In the "Grimorium Verum - The True Grimoire", another occult book dating back to the 17th century, there is a section about the three superior Spirits: Spirits do not always appear in the same shape. This is because they are not themselves of matter or form, and have to find a body to appear in, and one suitable to their (intended) manifestation and appearance. Lucifer appears in the form and figure of a fair boy. When angry, he becomes red. There is nothing monstrous about him. Beelzebuth appears sometimes in monstrous forms, sometimes like a giant cow, at times like a he-goat, with a long tail. When angry, he vomits fire. Astaroth (Ashtaroth or Ashtar) appears black, in human shape. Under the heading "Kinds of Spirits" in the aforementioned reference, we learn: Names of the superior spirits are Lucifer, Beelzebuth and Astaroth. The inferiors of Lucifer are in Europe and Asia and obey him. Beelzebuth lives in Africa, and Astaroth (or Ashtar) inhabits America. (Is Ashtar "channeled" anywhere outside of America? And why is it that animal mutilations seem to be a particularly American Northern and Southern - phenomenon?) The book "The Grimoire of Honorius" gives a very detailed system of the conjuring of spirits according to the day of the week they are to be summoned. Each "spirit" has a day of the week allotted to it when it is at the peak of its abilities: Wednesday - between the tenth and eleventh hours of the night - is the day set apart for the conjugations addressed to Astaroth. (It is widely held in UFO folklore, that UFO encounters/sightings seem to be at their most prevalent on Wednesdays. John Keel quotes figures that suggest that over 20% of all sightings have occurred on a Wednesday.) None of this is conclusive evidence of anything, But if we accept the times this information was written in, and look at it through modern eyes. Then the contention that this phenomenon has been around in various guises for a very long time, may have some validity. Ashtar is not new. He is not a part of the "New Age" movement and he is an endangerment to many if they follow his instructions to sell everything and wait on a mountain top to be lifted off by space beings. From John Keel's book 'UFOs: Operation Trojan Horse', here's some quotes about Ashtar. (He/It certainly gets around!) ...I will try to demonstrate that the UFO entities are directly related to the entities and manifestations involved in religious miracles and spiritual seances. There are many thousands of published messages from both the UFO-nauts and the invisible, lower plane spirits, all of which employ the same techniques for burying information deep in simple-minded descriptions about life on other planets or other planes. One of the most important correlation is that many of these messages have discussed in depth the existence of another reality which is formed by energies operating on another frequency, or vibrational level. This is where people get confused, and tend

to believe the entity. There is a definite 4th and 5th dimensional energy, and unknown energy beyond that, which our technology has not caught up with or been able to understand. We are evolving into that knowledge at the present time. However, it will not happen overnight. It is a gradual process of opening up to higher knowledge a generation at a time.
There has also been a great deal of discussion about light and rays of light. New rays are coming in for transformational healing. These are very powerful and can be used for the good of all. The lore of "the seven rays" goes back to the most ancient of times. The Bible's Book of Revelations repeats the number seven in many ways, and the Seven Sisters, or the Pleiades (seven stars in the sky) form an important part of this lore. God and Christ are "The Light" in most of this literature ... On January 8, 1968, "Mr. Orlon" of the Ashtar Intergalactic Command, passed this message on to a contactee: "The saucers you speak of as such are in reality the space bodies of certain aggregates of consciousness. They exists duo-dimensionally; that is, they penetrate both the third and fourth dimensions simultaneously or can, if they wish, confine themselves to either one of these."... Thousands of mediums, psychics and UFO contactees have been receiving mountains of messages from "Ashtar" in recent years. This has escalated in the '90's. Mr. Ashtar represents himself as a leader in the great intergalactic councils which hold regular meetings on Jupiter, Venus, Saturn and many planets unknown to us. But Ashtar is not a new arrival. Variations of this name , such as Ashtaroth, Ashtar, Asharoth, etc., appear in demonological literature throughout history , both in the Orient and the Occident. Mr. Ashtar has been around a very long time posing as assorted gods and demons and now, in the modern New Age phase, as another glorious spacemen.

***continued***

Gonzaga Debate Institute 2011


Mercury

28 Conspiracy Theory

***Continued***
Dr. Charles Laughead, an MD on the staff of Michigan State University in Lansing, Michigan, started communicating with various entities "from outer space" in 1954, largely through trance mediums who served as instrument for Ashtar and his cronies from that great intergalactic council in the sky. A number of minor prophecies were passed along, and as usual, they came true on the nose. Then Ashtar tossed in his bombshell. The world was going to end on December 21, 1954, he announced convincingly. North America was going to split in two, and the Atlantic coast would sink into the sea. France, England and Russia were also slated for a watery grave. However, all was not lost. A few chosen people would be rescued by spaceships. Naturally Dr. Laughead and his friends were among that select group. Dr. Laughhead made sober declarations to the press and on December 21, 1954 he and a group of his fellow believers clustered together in the garden to await rescue ... and waited. And waited. And waited! In California, a man named Allen Noonan claims to have experienced still another variation of this particular mind-warping phenomenon. Soon after his discharge from the Army following World War II, Noonan went to work for a company handling outdoor billboards. One day, he says, he was working on a billboard when suddenly he was taken in astral form to a strange place. He found himself in a huge white building filled with white light. A group of "elders" were situated around a glowing throne, and a great voice boomed from that throne and asked "Will you agree to be the Savior of the World?" Noonan quickly agreed to this role. Then he was told, "You may die in the hands of your fellowmen. Their sin shall remain with you until the Mother Comforter comes to deliver them." The next thing he knew, he was back in his body working on the signboard. In later experiences, he allegedly visited other planets such as Venus, and he frequently received telepathic messages and instructions from our old friend Ashtar. In this case, he knew it as "the Ashtar Command and the United Planets Organization". Allen Noonan is not the only Space Age messiah appointed by the Ashtar command... In Denmark a man named Knud Weinking began receiving telepathic flashes in May, 1967, including a number of impressive prophecies which came true ..He was then instructed to build a lead-lined bomb shelter and prepare for a holocaust on December 24, 1967 ... ...Mediums, telepaths, sensitives, and UFO contactees throughout the world were all reporting identical messages. There was definitely going to be an unprecedented event on December 24, 1967. Ashtar was talking through Ouija boards to people who had never before heard the name. Another busy entity named Orlon was spreading the word. The curious thing about these messages was that they were all phrased in the same manner, no matter what language was being used. They all carried the same warning. People were reporting strange dreams, dreams about symbols of Christmas ... There were also stories about dead telephones and glowing entities prowling through bedroom and homes. Many of these messages, dreams and prophecies were collected together by a British organization calling itself Universal Links. The stage was set for Doomsday. Thousands, perhaps even millions, of people had been warned The Danish cult locked themselves up in their bomb shelter ... After the imaginary crisis had passed, the American wire services finally carried stories about the cowering Danes, ridiculing them, of course. But Mr. Weinking came up with a message that explained it all: "I told you two thousand years ago that a time would be given and even so I would not come. If you had read your Bible a little more carefully, you would have borne in mind the story of the bridegroom who did not come at the time he was expected. Be careful so that you are not found without oil in your lamps. I have told you I will come with suddenness, and I shall be coming soon!" It was all a dry run, or was it? Actually, it was a rather impressive sequence of events , and it really proved something very important. Many predictions of the December twenty-fourth disaster had been well documented well in advance of that date. These messages came through in many different, countries, from people who had no knowledge of or communications with one another. The UFO contactees received the same identical messages as the trance mediums communing with spirits. A link had been established. It was now clear (to me anyway) that all of these people were tuned to a central source. (Possibly an earthly electronic device) My earlier speculations seemed true -- the UFO entities and the spirit entities were part of the same gigantic system. So more pieces of this tremendous puzzle were falling into place. A long series of events had apparently been staged to warn us of that tiger behind the door. Some of the entities were evil liars. They had ruined the lives of many by producing "proof" which led to false beliefs and irresponsible actions. Dr. Laughead and Knud Weinking had been victims in this enormous game. Many "New Agers" have become victims over the past several years.

In the 90's people like Elizabeth Claire Prophet and David Koresh have played on people's ignorance. More will come to those who believe everything they hear and continue to give the power of their lives over to others. Use discernment is your search for truth. Never trust a "channel" more that your own inner guidance.
Walk the path of light and love in this lifetime, on this wondrous earth, with your family and loved ones. Kindness, opening the heart and respect for others are the first steps for true ascension.

The following is claimed by the false teachers and the unenlightened: Ashtar works very closely with Archangel Michael, in protecting the evolution of humanity through harmonizing the negative and evil influences that could overwhelm us . Ashtar is in command of a particular area of the cosmos which he and his many spiritual helpers patrol', this area or zone includes planet earth; because
of this he is often referred to as Commander Ashtar. Ashtar works through the Merkabah , the spiritual vehicle of Light that comes direct from the Godhead. At the moment Ashtar is Controller of the Merkabah, for our part of the Universe. He moves between heavens, dimensions, and realities with his powerful mind guiding and controlling the energies of the Merkabah so that we humans can participate in the evolutionary process of our zone.

ALL OF THESE CLAIMS ARE LIES - AND A TRAP TO STEAL YOUR SOUL! PLEASE - FOR HEAVEN'S SAKE - PROTECT YOURSELF.

Gonzaga Debate Institute 2011


Mercury

29 Conspiracy Theory

Aff AT: Religious Intolerance


Its inevitable, attempting to be completely tolerant is impossible-multiple warrants Schvoong.com 8
(Schvoong.com is a website that provides summaries of works and briefs on certain subjects, The Myth of Absolute Tolerance, March 20, 2008, http://www.shvoong.com/social-sciences/1787633-myth-absolute-tolerance/ JSkoog) Tolerance as a virtue is badly needed today, especially in the context of the pluralism of our times. Historians tell us that the last century has been the bloodiest and it is anybodys guess as to what was the chief cause for it. Even in a nation like India where, as Radhakrishanan described tolerance in Hinduism as the deathly hug of a bear, we have witnessed intolerance at its worst in recent times. Surely there is need for a fresh look at the whole idea of tolerance and the need ever greater for it to be taught and practiced by every one. Is tolerance possible in all a situations and at all times? If it is, then what kind of tolerance is it that is needed? The intolerance and the hatred of opposing viewpoints even among the so-called tolerating societies have demonstrated sufficiently, one hopes, that something is faulty about our understanding about tolerance. It certainly suggests that absolute tolerance is an illusion and to think that tolerance can be practised without any regard for truth or to desist from any value judgments is, in the final analysis selfdefeating and suicidal. You will notice that even they are intolerant. They are intolerant towards the intolerant. Their position is that every viewpoint is equally valid and therefore must be tolerated. But trouble comes when they are faced with those who hold that every view or belief is not equally valid and that theirs is the right one. The proponents of tolerance cannot put up with such a view. This very fact brings home to us that absolute tolerance is an impossible position to hold and is self defeating. It is impossible because some intolerance seems inevitable. It is self-defeating because while claiming to be tolerant they cannot tolerate those who disagree with them and end up being intolerant. Besides if you begin to tolerate every view or belief, you end up being subsumed by those who believe that their view is right. The deathly hug of a bear indeed, dragging the bear to its own death! To begin with, dictionaries tell us that tolerance has to do with attitudes or a willingness to bear or accept. Responses and attitudes are not values or standards and cannot be talked about in terms of absolutes. We talk of absolutes in the context of truth, values, and norms or standards. Secondly when we talk of tolerance there is a suggestion that there is something that is the mean, norm or a standard and any deviation from it can or cannot be tolerated. So tolerance is an attitude shown to accept a deviation or a difference from a norm, belief, or a viewpoint. It needs to be noted that the idea of tolerance suggests that there is a disagreement about an issue and therefore the need for tolerance about the disagreement. It also suggests that there is what is known as a median or a norm or even a standard and any deviation from it can or cannot be tolerated. J.P. Moreland and Wm Lane Craig tell us that the principle of tolerance has been defined as Classical and the Modern versions. According to the classical sense of the principle of tolerance, a person holds that his ownmoral views are true and those of his opponent are false. But he still respects his opponent as a person and his right to make a case for his views. Thus there is a duty to tolerate a different moral view, not in the sense of thinking it is morally correct, but quite the opposite, in the sense that a person will continue to value and respect ones opponent, to treat him with dignity, to recognize his right to argue for and propagate his ideas and so forth. While, the modern version of tolerance, popular in the general culture, goes beyond the classical version in claiming that one should not even judge that other peoples viewpoints are wrong. It is commendable that it desists from any value judgments. But, one of the problems with this view is that it has mistaken truth for tastes. In the area of arts and culture, as Mortimer J. Adler argues, where astes reign supreme, tolerance is desirable and to be expected. But in matters of truth and values, tolerance tantamount to dismissing all value judgments as matters of taste rather than as matters of truth. In matters of truth, there are bound to be exclusive claims and therefore tend towards intolerance. But again as Adler quoting J.S. Mill, argues, Mill advocates the toleration of individuals who differ in thought and speech, but not tolerance for competing doctrines or opinions, as if they were all equally acceptable or preferable. He does not look upon pluralism with respect to matters of truth in the same way he looks upon pluralism with respect to matters of taste. Finally if our aim is the pursuit of truth then we need the classical kind of tolerance. It is mature and robust, for while holding ones own position as true, it treats its opponents with respect and makes room for them to exist and express. We certainly do not need the tongue-in-cheek kind of tolerance, which makes dubious claims to tolerance. Nor do we need the kind of intolerance that attempts to regiment culture and practices and enforce faith and religion suppressing freedom of expression and thought.

Gonzaga Debate Institute 2011


Mercury

30 Conspiracy Theory

Aff No Evacuation
Project Uplift was abandoned in the 80s didnt have unanimous support and too many negative consequences Ariana, Pleiadian Walk In and Channel and Communicator, Healer and Artist, 2011
(Anakya, 5/2/2011, Channelling, Human Ascension: Earth Changes and Evacuation of Earth Ashtar Spiritual Forum, http://www.ashtarcommandcrew.net/forum/topics/channelling-ascension-and#ixzz1QWWocZp2, accessed: 6/27/11, SL)
There has been SO much channelled about this. First back in the '80's and '90's, and it has resurfaced now. I have already said quite a bit about this in terms of the fact that Project Uplift (i.e. uplifting people from Earth en masse during major Earth changes) was abandoned by the Council and Ashtar Command because the decision had to be unanimous (by consensus) and because of the perceived trauma such a thing would cause the people uplifted, problems adjusting to life on Motherships - not to mention the logistical nightmare - but here is another thing to think about. Many of the channellings say that the Ashtar Command is going to "save us" when things get tough on the planet. Save us from what? Our own Ascension process? Why is it anyone else's responsibility to help us survive and thrive in our own environment? With changes that we helped to create? The channellings say that the Ashtar Command will remove people "in the blink of an eye". I wonder if people realize that if

there was an evacuation like that, people could be seperated from family, partner, friends - maybe even their children? That is because they could not take people who had not given their permission and had no awareness of their existence. It is against Universal Law. How would you feel if you left the planet, and
your loved ones had to stay? What if you had them taken forcibly against their will? How would they respond and feel?. What would the suddenly changed energy and environment do to them?. You cannot expose people to things like that if they are not ready for it and open to the experience. They have to give their permission, otherwise it is just abduction! No one in the Ashtar Command fleet or associated fleets is willing to do that . If you remove people

physically from their home world suddenly, they suffer from many spiritual, mental and emotional adjustment problems (even sickness) which can be fatal. You have altered gravitational fields to deal with - not to mention a massive vibration shift. Human bodies have to gradually adjust to increases in vibration, or they will overload and burn out. You are talking about bodies that have been 3-D for a long time suddenly becoming something else without going through the steps in between. Also, human bodies at this time are not equipped to travel in space craft which move much, much faster than the speed of light. Or ships which travel between dimensions. In order for members of the Ashtar Command to artificially alter human bodies so that they can cope with these things (as many of the channellings claim), it would violate another law. Well, a couple of them actually. One is the law of non-interference. They cannot do anything that extremely alters the course of another being or civilization's natural evolution. It has major repercussions! Look at what happened when the Atlanteans did that, for example. They experimented and tampered with natural laws and life forms to the point where their either destroyed it, or created creatures which could not possibly survive - let alone
thrive.

Gonzaga Debate Institute 2011


Mercury

31 Conspiracy Theory

Aff No Evacuation
Project Uplift was thrown out in the 80s due to its high risks and negative scenarios from holographic testing Ariana, Pleiadian Walk In and Channel and Communicator, Healer and Artist, 2011
(Anakya, 5/2/2011, Channelling, Human Ascension: Earth Changes and Evacuation of Earth Ashtar Spiritual Forum, http://www.ashtarcommandcrew.net/forum/topics/project-awaken-earth#ixzz1QVhksPHZ, accessed: 6/27/11, SL)
As I work on Earth as a communicator for the Ashtar Command and Interplanetary Council, I have found that at times I have been called upon to correct this information (as many of the channels were also requested to do). As I covered in my last article, Project Uplift was abandoned at the time by the Ashtar Command (in the late 1980s). The decision was

based on rigorous discussion and holographic test scenarios which proved that such an intervention would potentially be harmful to many of those the Command was attempting to help . It would involve separating people from friends and family (who were not ready and had not chosen such a destiny) and taking people away from their lessons on Earth which could only be accomplished while there. The Ashtar Command must obey (as do all civilizations belonging to the Association of Worlds) a strict code of non-interference when observing or interacting with another civilization. Therefore there is a fine line between what would constitute interfering with the natural evolutionary path of a particular civilization and working in harmony with their free will and spiritual growth. When the Interplanetary Council makes a decision such as this, it affects ALL personnel involved with that planet or civilization. The final decision must be by consensus, but , as the majority decided to abandon Project Uplift, the motion was carried as they say on Earth.

Gonzaga Debate Institute 2011


Mercury

32 Conspiracy Theory

Aff No Evacuation
Too many issues with Project Uplift the majority of the human race isnt ready to accept the existence of ETs Ariana, Pleiadian Walk In and Channel and Communicator, Healer and Artist, 2011
(Anakya, 5/2/2011, Channelling, Human Ascension: Earth Changes and Evacuation of Earth Ashtar Spiritual Forum, http://www.ashtarcommandcrew.net/forum/topics/project-awaken-earth#ixzz1QViCuZhL, accessed: 6/27/11, SL) What the Ashtar Command now focuses on (rather than Uplift) has been dubbed Project Awaken Earth in colloquial English but that is really only one phase of the project. This project is exactly as it states an opportunity to help souls on Earth awaken to their Divine heritage and spiritual capabilities. This is because it is understood that this part must be accomplished before any physical interaction can occur (via density shift). But Project Awaken is not being undertaken so that people on Earth can meet all within the Ashtar Command face-to-face (although it is accepted that will eventually happen). To many of these cultures, ph ysicality is secondary to the energy and spirit. Such a project is undertaken because it is a way to help humanity move beyond limitation and fear just as another enlightened group once helped some of us, and just as Earth humanity will one day be called upon to do also. Project Uplift raised a myriad of environmental, behavioural, societal and spiritual issues that came up. But this aspect has been very useful and valuable, because there is much that has been learned from it (but never at the expense of Earth inhabitants). Regardless of what some on Earth choose to believe, life on board the ships within the Ashtar Command and similar groups is NOT like living on Earth !. It is different on almost every level. You would literally be suddenly catapulted into a truly alien environment . Even if you are a Starseed, you will have become acclimatized to Earth and the density and structures there. It is now
familiar to you and is part of your life that you have chosen (although awakened Starseeds would definitely find it easier, and would adjust faster). On the ships there is a strict order and harmony that must be maintained at all times amongst the personnel and their families. Such a vast organization and community cannot function efficiently without that harmony and order. For instance; you cant hide anything from anyone emotionally or otherwise, and you cant have an emotional breakdown of any kind. There are healers on the ships and there is healing technology which can help when someone goes out of phase (as we call it), but the patient must be at a stage in their growth where they can assimilate the energy and quickly balance themselves. If that doesnt happen, then they are required to leave the ship for a time until they regain balance. And when encountering the many other cultures that live and

work on the ships, there would be extensive cultural differences that could be a problem for those who were unaware or not accustomed. Unfortunately, among many people on Earth there is the idea that all ET beings are dangerous, or want to eat them or something. This is because of what the media has projected. There is also their inherent fear of the unknown. This is a major barrier to interaction with other planetary civilizations at this time. Unfortunately, Earth humans are not raised with the understanding that they have universal family, or that intelligent life exists in different densities some of whom have been
around longer and have evolved differently. I am just outlining here some of the obstacles to deeper and more physical interaction with universal family. There are a lot of radically different and new things and concepts that a person would have to be adjusted to. Therefore it would have to be a GRADUAL process, and not one that people where simply just thrown into at the deep end, so to speak.

Gonzaga Debate Institute 2011


Mercury

33 Conspiracy Theory

Aff - 2012 = Negative


2012 will flip the magnetic poles of the Sun and Earth will change direction of rotation leading to massive earthquakes, tsunamis and volcanic activity Singh, 4/29/11 (Ravinder Singh, Earth Changes Part 1: The Cosmic Events Ashtar Command Center Spiritual
Blog, http://www.ashtarcommandcrew.net/profiles/blogs/2012-postponed-to-the-middle#ixzz1QXNWc0Ns, accessed: 6/27/11, SL) Some of them are: The Galactic Centre, Greater Central Sun and Central Sun will form an equliateral triangle in Space on 21st Dec 2012. This huge galactic alignment will facilitate many new energies and Higher Souls to take birth. This also initiates the process of many changes to occur in the Solar system. The pyramids get strengthened. All objects that are shaped in the form of pyramids will be able to absorb and radiate more of these new energies. Our Sun completes its revolution of 26000 years around the Central Sun. When this occurs, the magnetic poles of the Sun flips over, resulting in the interchanging of the magnetic / geographic poles of our Earth. Our Earth will change its direction of rotation periodically. The rotation slows down and stops for 3 days and then starts in the reverse direction. This may result in massive earthquakes, volcanic eruptions and extreme weather changes. Our Sun and the entire solar system will come in alignment with the Galactic equator. This alignment is expected to bring us in direct focus of a lot of energies. A huge amount of Solar activity is expected in 2012 , where massive solar flares can disrupt the electromagnetic field surrounding our earth. This may result in the breakdown of our electrical and communication systems.

2012 will bring the end to negativity and evil as well as collapse of society as we know it only a strong spiritual connection to Ashtar will save the human race Singh, 4/29/11 (Ravinder Singh, Earth Changes Part 1: The Cosmic Events Ashtar Command Center Spiritual
Blog, http://www.ashtarcommandcrew.net/profiles/blogs/2012-postponed-to-the-middle#ixzz1QXNWc0Ns, accessed: 6/27/11, SL)
2012 Shift from the dark age to Light Age We have just emerged from a 5000 year dark age and are in the transitory period before moving into the Light Age. An intense churning and transformation was supposed to occur upto the year 2036 to remove all negativities on this earth. However, the Rishis observed that many major events were going to occur in our Milky way galaxy in the year 2012. They decided to use these events and prepone the end of pralaya to 2012, in order to reduce the difficulties and suffering of Humanity. The Rishis chose 2012 to put an end to all the evil and negativity on this

earth. They decided to make use of the expected earth changes to collapse the existing corrupt systems and replace them with new systems based on truth and love . The financial meltdown we witnessed in the middle of 2009 was the beginning of a series of collapses, which would culminate by the end of 2012. Scientists and Astronomers are predicting an intense solar activity in the next couple of years, which is expected to rupture the Earths electromagnetic field, resulting in the collapse of the electrical and communication systems, thus throwing our modern life completely out of gear. Many other dependent systems like transportation, supplies, medical facilities, employment, governance etc will also be severely affected and eventually will collapse. The other Earth changes like the reversal of the geographic poles and change in the direction of Earths rotation in 2012 will result in massive earthquakes, volcanic eruptions and extreme weather changes. Its obvious that we cannot withstand such chaos, anarchy and massive changes by any physical means. Only by having a strong spiritual connection with the divine can one sail through these turbulent times. Those who choose to transform and accept the values of the New Age will receive help and guidance from the Rishis and their workers . As the existing systems breakdown, they will be replaced by more efficient and evolved systems, which are in tune with the higher values of the New Age. But those who decide to hold on to the old values from the dark ages, refusing to transform, will perish in these massive changes.

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Aff AT: Timeframe - 2012 Postponed until 2015


2012 has actually been postponed until 2015 because of the strength of negativity Singh, 4/29/11
(Ravinder Singh, Earth Changes Part 1: The Cosmic Events Ashtar Command Center Spiritual Blog, http://www.ashtarcommandcrew.net/profiles/blogs/2012-postponed-to-the-middle#ixzz1QXNWc0Ns, accessed: 6/27/11, SL) Seven Earths have already been created, with varying degrees of purity levels to accomodate these people. These individuals will be shifted to these earths, depending on their purity levels, for transformation and learning. The Rishis will provide them many opportunities to qualify for the Light Age on this Earth. Why is 2012 Postponed? The expected changes The Rishis had estimated in 2007 that the evil and darkness on this earth would be reduced by nearly half by 21st Dec 2009. That was also the date on which our earth would enter the aura of the photon belt, an exact three years before the actual entry into the photon belt. Based on this, they planned to end the pralaya period on 21st december 2012, where all evil would be removed from the face of our earth. Reality! But the darkness on our earth has strengthened instead of reducing by half by this time. The negative forces which ruled our earth for the past 5000 years havent stepped back as expected by the Rishis. Theyve become united, determined and grown in strength as this is their last battle for survival on our Earth. Also, some Spiritual masters and world leaders from whom a lot was expected and who had raised a lot of initial hopes failed in their work and did not rise to the occasion. Hence many events and processes which had to start from 2010 could not be initiated because of the still existing stronghold of the dark forces. All these developments necessiated a change in the plans of the Rishis, as a result of which the pralaya period had to be extended by another two years. So, the churning period of pralaya which had to end on 21st december 2012 has been postponed to the middle of 2015! This also means that some of the drastic Earth changes that were expected to occur on that day have also been shifted to the middle of 2015! Next what?

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35 Conspiracy Theory

***Space Travel***

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36 Conspiracy Theory

Space Travel Hoax


Space travel is a hoax conducted by the Illuminati to create a false threat construction against extraterrestrials Cooper, First Class Petty Officer QM1, E-6 with a Top Secret, Q, SI, security clearance, 1997
(William, Majesty Twelve Hourofthetime.com, http://www.hourofthetime.com/majestyt.htm, accessed: 6/25/, SL) NASA was created to make interstellar travel believable. The Apollo Space Program foisted the idea that man could travel to, and walk upon, the moon. Every Apollo mission was carefully rehearsed and then filmed in large sound stages at the Atomic Energy Commissions Top Secret test site in the Nevada Desert and in a secured and guarded sound stage at the Walt Disney Studios within which was a huge scale mock-up of the moon. All of the names, missions, landing sites, and events in the Apollo Space Program echoed the occult metaphors, rituals, and symbology of the Illuminati's secret religion : The most transparent was the faked explosion on the spacecraft Apollo 13, named "Aquarius" (new age) at 1:13 (1313 military time) on April 13, 1970 which was the metaphor for the initiation ceremony involving the death (explosion), placement in the coffin (period of uncertainty of their survival), communion with the spiritual world and the imparting of esoteric knowledge to the candidate (orbit and observation of the moon without physical contact ), rebirth of the initiate (solution of problem and repairs), and the raising up (of the Phoenix, the new age of Aquarius) by the grip of the lions paw (reentry and recovery of Apollo 13). 13 is the number of death and rebirth, death and reincarnation, sacrifice, the Phoenix, the Christ (perfected soul imprisoned in matter), and the transition from the old to the new. Another revelation to those who understand the symbolic language of the Illuminati is the hidden meaning of the names of the Space Shuttles, "A Colombian Enterprise to Endeavor for the Discovery of Atlantis... and all Challengers shall be destroyed." Exploration of the moon stopped because it was impossible to continue the hoax without being ultimately discovered: And of course they ran out of pre-filmed episodes. No man has ever ascended higher than 300 miles, if that high, above the Earth's surface. No man has ever orbited, landed on, or walked upon the moon in any publicly known space program. If man has ever truly been to the moon it has been done in secret and with a far different technology. The tremendous radiation encountered in the Van Allen Belt, solar radiation, cosmic radiation, temperature control, and many other problems connected with space travel prevent living organisms leaving our atmosphere with our known level of technology . Any intelligent high school student with a basic physics book can prove NASA faked the Apollo moon landings.

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37 Conspiracy Theory

Moon Landing Hoax


We never landed on the moon-another USFG hoax Cosnette, International Director of UFO Research Center, 09
[David, International Director of UFORC, UFO-Aliens, The faked Apollo landings 2/10/09, http://www.ufosaliens.co.uk/cosmicapollo.html, accessed 6/21/11, HK] Bill Kaysing was a librarian/writer of technical publications and advanced research at Rocketdyne Systems from 1956 to 1963. He states that it was estimated in 1959 that there was a .0014 chance of landing man on the Moon and returning him safely to Earth. This took into account the effects of radiation, solar flares and micro meteorites. He could not believe in 1959 that man could go to the Moon. However, only 2 years later, American President John F. Kennedy set a goal in May 1961, when he made the following famous speech. 'I believe that this nation should commit itself. To achieving the goal, before this decade is out, of landing a man on the Moon and returning him safely to the Earth. No single space project in this period will be more impressive to mankind or more important for the long range exploration of Space.' It was just eight years later in 1969, that man finally left Earth and set foot on the Moon... Or so we have been led to believe . I would like to show you some astonishing evidence that shows glaring mistakes or anomalies on the 'official record' of NASA film footage and still photographs. I have included the actual official Apollo film footage on this page to illustrate and also possibly educate you, the reader, of the anomalies and to let you see with your own eyes what has become one of the biggest cover-ups in the history of Mankind. I will also explain why the US Government has tried to keep this a secret for over 30 years. I would like to suggest that if Man did go to the Moon during the missions, the Apollo films that we were told were filmed on the Moon are bogus and not the real footage. Evidence suggests that Man could not travel to the Moon's surface, but instead they had to stay in near Earth orbit within the safety of the Earth's magnetic field that would have protected them from the radiation that is emitted by the Van Allen radiation belt!!! But why would NASA and the United States bother to fake such an event and to what cause I hear you ask? Please read on and I will explain.
Was man too optimistic about what we could actually do in deep space, and was President Kennedy's speech in May 1961 pressure enough to keep the hoax going? David Percy is an award winning television and film producer, a professional photographer and also a member of the Royal Photographic Society. He is co-author, along with Mary Bennett, of the fascinating book 'Dark Moon: Apollo and the Whistle-Blowers' (ISBN 1-898541-10-8). The majority of the film footage on this page is taken from the film 'What Happened on the Moon?', a film that also features Percy and Bennett and one which I strongly recommend if you have an interest in the Apollo missions (details of how to purchase the video are at the bottom of this article). Percy firmly believes that the Apollo

footage was either faked or not the original film that was shot on the Moon. He believes that many anomalous features that would alert the eagle eyed viewer, could have been placed in the films by whistle blowers who were deeply dissatisfied to be a part of the cover-up. He has studied the entire transfer of the original film on video tape, a feat that not many people have done. What many people did not realize at the time was that a lot of the footage was actually pre-recorded and not live at all. The first anomalous piece of footage I would like to discuss is from the 1972 Apollo 16 Mission. There is a major discrepancy between the still photograph taken with a Hasselblad 500 EL/70 camera and the TV coverage film which was shot from a stationary movie camera placed behind the astronauts. The movie sequence (that is viewable by clicking the picture to the left) shows one of the astronauts making a jump salute whilst another astronaut takes a still photo with the Hasselblad camera. On the still photo (that is pictured left) we see a flap of triangular fabric that has come loose and flapped up behind the astronauts head. However the TV film which was shot from behind the astronaut doesn't show the flap? Why not? Another example that appears to be faked is the footage of Earth taken from the Apollo 11 when it was 130,000 miles away. This is the very first view ever taken of Earth on the mission and it seems strange that Buzz Aldrin would film the Earth when he was stood far away from the window, why would he do that? Surely you would want to get close to the window to get the best picture and also to eliminate light reflections that are evident
towards the end of this sequence? But no, we see the window frame come into view on the left of the shot. The camera isn't set to infinity either to get the closest shot. The window frame that comes into shot would have been out of focus if it was. Did the astronauts actually film a transparency of the Earth that was stuck to the window? You may think this odd, but a few minutes after filming the Earth, the cameraman adjusts his lens and focuses on Mike Collins inside the craft. What we see is what appears to be an exposure of the Earth taped to the window that is in the background to the right of him. That is the very same window that Aldrin was filming the Earth. But the biggest shock is yet to come! The camera pans left past Neil Armstrong

towards the left hand side of the Apollo 11, and what do we see out of the left window??? We see what appears to be another Earth... Go on, watch the video by clicking the picture above and you'll see it with your own eyes! It must also be noted that the Apollo 11 at this point of the mission was supposedly half way to the Moon. The time elapsed was 34 hours and 16 minutes, but from the view of Earth in the right hand window, we can say that in fact they were not in deep space at all, but still in low Earth orbit ! look at the blue sky
outside. That would also explain why they would be filming an exposure of the Earth that was far away, to give the impression that they were in deep space. The exposure would be clipped to the window and the Sun's luminance would light it up, a technique that was used to read star charts to help with navigation and star reference.

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Moon Landing Hoax


The head of NASA faked the moon landings to acquire a higher rank in his freemason lodge Cooper, First Class Petty Officer QM1, E-6 with a Top Secret, Q, SI, security clearance, 1997
(William, Majesty Twelve Hourofthetime.com, http://www.hourofthetime.com/majestyt.htm, accessed: 6/25/, SL) C. Fred Kleinknect, head of NASA at the time of the Apollo Space Program, is now the Sovereign Grand Commander of the Council of the 33rd Degree of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite of Freemasonry of the Southern Jurisdiction. It was his reward for pulling it off. All of the first astronauts were Freemasons. There is a photograph in the House of the Temple in Washington D.C. of Neil Armstrong on the moons surface (supposedly) in his spacesuit holding his Masonic Apron in front of his groin. The effect upon the people of the world was, that if we could go to the moon other creatures from other worlds could travel to our Earth. The escalation of the artificial alien threat scenario since that time is obvious. The recent revelations of the fraudulent nature of NASA and the Apollo space program by the Intelligence Service and others has resulted in a flood of propaganda, television programs, and films designed to keep the sheople trapped in a deep ignorant sleep . The most ambitious are
"Apollo 13" and "From the Earth to the Moon," both involving the actor/producer Tom Hanks. The latter opens with a monologue by Mr. Hanks who walks forward revealing a huge representation of the "God" Apollo (Sun, Osiris, lost word, etc.) guiding his chariot pulled by 4 horses through the heavens. (End Excerpt from William Cooper's Recent Conspiracy Overview) Apollo is "Lucifer." And remember, that the international flag of the Scottish Rite of Freemasonry is the United Nations Flag (according to their own site). As Bill Cooper points out, the United Nations Flag depicts the nations of

the world encircled by the laurel of Apollo

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Moon Landing Hoax Footage Anomalies Prove


Footage anomalies prove people never set foot on the moon Cosnette, International Director of UFO Research Center, 09
[David, International Director of UFORC, UFO-Aliens, The faked Apollo landings 2/10/09, http://www.ufos-aliens.co.uk/cosmicapollo.html, accessed 6/21/11, HK] Hasselblad were the manufacturer of the camera that took all of the photos on the Apollo missions. Jan Lundberg was the Manager Of Space Projects at Hasselblad from 1966 to 1975 and responsible for the production and building of the Hasselblad 500 EL/70 cameras that were used on the Apollo Missions. He says 'Originally NASA made all the alterations themselves, then they presented what they had done to us and asked if we could do the same, to which we replied yes we can, and we can do it better. We proceeded to make the alterations that were accepted by NASA.' Protective plates were added to the case and film magazine. An important factor to take into consideration is the great variations in temperature that the film would have had to endure whilst on the lunar surface. The temperature during the Apollo missions were recorded as being between -180F in the shade to an incredible +200F in full Sunshine. How could the film emulsion have withstood such temperature differences? The astronauts can be seen to move between the shadows of the rocks and then into full sunlight in some shots. Surely the film would have perished under such conditions? If the film used during the Apollo missions had such qualities as to withstand such differences in temperature, why are Kodak not publicly selling them in today's market? On all Apollo footage there should be cross hairs or reticules present on the film. These crosshairs were, according to NASA, placed on the film to help calculate distances on the Moon. The crosshairs were actually built into the camera and therefore should be visible on every single picture taken by the astronauts on the surface of the Moon. Incidentally, Jan Lundberg has stated that the only way that you could calculate the distance in the shot using the crosshairs would be if you had two cameras set up to take a stereo picture! Take a look at the pictures presented here and you will see that parts of the crosshairs have disappeared from the film. This is impossible unless the film has been tampered with. The crosshairs should be completely visible in all shots and not hidden behind objects in the pictures. The only solution must be that NASA has gone to the trouble of either airbrushing out certain objects in the film, or added them over the crosshairs! Why does this rock have a letter 'C' on it? There is also a 'C' on the ground in front of the rock. The use of the letter C on film props is well known by the people in Hollywood and is used to show where the centre of the scene should be. One sceptic on the Bad astronomy sceptics web group has even said it is a hair??? on both the rock and ground? Now who's trying to cover things up? One of

the biggest anomalies that appear on the Moon shots are the way in which shadows seem to be cast in totally different directions, even when the objects making the shadows are a mere few feet apart? A classic example can be
viewed by clicking the picture to the right. If the guy on the left was near a vertical rise of ground (as has been suggested) his shadow would show a definite 'crease' where the land begins to rise. It doesn't! Question: How can an astronaut cast a shadow several feet taller than his colleague who is standing a few feet away from him? Answer: He is standing farther away from the arc light that is illuminating them both. I truly believe that this footage is taken on a film set, you cannot reproduce this strange shadow phenomenon with natural light, and that includes taking into consideration two natural light sources (the Earth and Sun) as many sceptics would have you believe. The video on the left contains film footage from the Apollo 11, 12 and 14 missions that would suggest that there are many light sources lighting the so-called Moon's surface. In the Apollo 11 film the shadow cast by Armstrong is strange, the sun angle is estimated at 10 degrees above the horizon. Now compare it with the Apollo 12 footage that shows a longer shadow. The sun is at a 15 degree angle and so therefore the Apollo 12 shadow should have been shorter. In the Apollo 14 footage look at the shadow as it does some truly amazing manoeuvres! this is consistent with moving away from a source of light that is close to the astronauts. Some of the lighting on 'official NASA film' are very suspect. The NASA picture to

the left should show the astronaut in complete shadow because the sun is behind him, and yet the whole of the astronaut is caught in bright light? The shot should appear like the one on the right which was simulated by
David Percy. I have had quite a few debates on the web about the picture above and the others on this page. I'm told by sceptics that the picture appears as it does because you have to remember that two light sources are present on the Moon's surface (the Sun and Earth glow). I do not doubt that there could be reflective light from the Earth, but, in my opinion, if a light is

bright enough to light up this astronauts suit, it is sure capable of also producing another shadow behind him... Sceptics believe that he is illuminated by light reflecting off the Moon's surface. As I've stated elsewhere on this page, the reflectivity is only 7% so the theory of the light bouncing from the surface is highly suspect. If this were the case, the rock on the left of the picture would have hardly a shadow because it is closer
to the source where the light is reckoned to be reflecting from! Shadows do not appear to be correct on several of the Moon shots. Take the picture to the left for example. The shadow on the LEM is due East and yet the shadows on the rocks in the foreground are South East? A simulation by David Percy of how the shadows should normally appear is illustrated in the picture to the right. If two light sources are at work on the Moon's surface, they would combine together and the shadows would fall accordingly, not at random points. Unless the sceptics are saying that Sunlight is falling in the middle of the picture and there is Earth light at the forefront of the picture? And that would go against known physics. During the Apollo missions, the movie cameras were fitted with special night lenses to compensate for the lack of light. Due to the atmospheric conditions on the Moon's surface, only 7% of light is reflected from the ground (that's the same reflectivity as asphalt). So, taking this into consideration, how did the Hasselblad stills camera manage to

pick up more detail than the movie cameras? NASA have confirmed that no artificial lighting was used on the Moon's surface, so how can the stills camera take pictures that were brighter and sharper than the movie cameras that were fitted with special lenses to compensate for the dark conditions? The picture to the right shows you just
how dark a place the Moon is. Look how dark the shadows are on the side of the rocks.

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Moon Landing Hoax Video


Science says moon landings were faked video discrepancies Cooper, First Class Petty Officer QM1, E-6 with a Top Secret, Q, SI, security clearance, 1997
(William, Majesty Twelve Hourofthetime.com, http://www.hourofthetime.com/majestyt.htm, accessed: 6/25/, SL) NASA claims that the space suits worn by the astronauts were pressurized at 5 psi over the ambient pressure (0 psi vacuum) on the moon's surface. We have examined the gloves NASA claims the astronauts wore and find they are made of pliable material containing no mechanical, hydraulic, or electrical devices which would aid the astronauts in the dexterous use of their fingers and hands while wearing the gloves. Experiments prove absolutely that such gloves are impossible to use and that the wearer cannot bend the wrist or fingers to do any dexterous work whatsoever when filled with 5 psi over ambient pressure either in a vacuum or in the earth's atmosphere. NASA actually showed film and television footage of astronauts using their hands and fingers normally during their EVAs on the so-called lunar surface. The films show clearly that there is no pressure whatsoever within the gloves . . . a condition that would have caused explosive decompression of the astronauts resulting in almost immediate death if they had really been surrounded by the vacuum of space. If you don't believe it try it yourself . . . it is a very simple experiment
and does not require a rocket scientist to perform. These are just two of over a hundred very simple and very easy to prove valid scientific reasons why NASA and the Apollo Space Program are two of the biggest lies ever foisted upon the unsuspecting and trusting People of the world.

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41 Conspiracy Theory

Moon Landing Hoax- Temperatures


Science says the moon landings were faked temperature variations Cooper, First Class Petty Officer QM1, E-6 with a Top Secret, Q, SI, security clearance, 1997
(William, Majesty Twelve Hourofthetime.com, http://www.hourofthetime.com/majestyt.htm, accessed: 6/25/, SL) Space is NOT hot. Space is NOT cold. Objects which are heated cannot be cooled by space. In order for an object to cool it must first be removed from direct sunlight. Objects which are in the shadow of another object will eventually cool but not because space is "cold." Space is not cold. Hot and cold do not exist in the vacuum of space. Objects cool because the laws of motion dictate that the molecules of the object will slow down due to the resistance resulting from striking other molecules until eventually all motion will stop provided the object is sheltered from the direct and/or indirect radiation of the sun and that there is no other source of heat. Since the vacuum of space is the perfect insulator objects take a very long time to cool even when removed from all sources of heat, radiated or otherwise. NASA insists the space suits the astronauts supposedly wore on the lunar surface were air conditioned. An air conditioner cannot, and will not work without a heat exchanger. A heat exchanger simply takes heat gathered in a medium such as freon from one place and transfers it to another place. This requires a medium of molecules which can absorb and transfer the heat such as an atmosphere or water. An air conditioner will not and cannot work in a vacuum. A space suit surrounded by a vacuum cannot transfer heat from the inside of the suit to any other place. The vacuum, remember, is a perfect insulator. A man would roast in his suit in such a circumstance. NASA claims the spacesuits were cooled by a water system which was piped around the body, then through a system of coils sheltered from the sun in the backpack. NASA claims that water was sprayed on the coils causing a coating of ice to form. The ice then supposedly absorbed the tremendous heat collected in the water and evaporated into space. There are two problems with this that cannot be explained away. 1) The amount of water needed to be carried by the astronauts in order to make this work for even a very small length of time in the direct 55 degrees over the boiling point of water (210 degrees F at sea level on Earth) heat of the sun could not have possibly been carried by the astronauts. 2) NASA has since claimed that they found ice in moon craters. NASA claims that ice sheltered from the direct rays of the sun will NOT evaporate destroying their own bogus "air conditioning" explanation. Remember this. Think about it the next time you go off in the morning with a "vacuum bottle" filled with hot coffee. Think about it long and hard when you sit down and pour a piping hot cup from your thermos to drink with your lunch four hours later... and then think about it again when you pour the last still very warm cup of coffee at the end of the day. The same laws of physics apply to any vehicle traveling through space.

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42 Conspiracy Theory

Moon Landing Hoax Temperatures


Science says moon landings were faked spacecraft logistics Cooper, First Class Petty Officer QM1, E-6 with a Top Secret, Q, SI, security clearance, 1997
(William, Majesty Twelve Hourofthetime.com, http://www.hourofthetime.com/majestyt.htm, accessed: 6/25/, SL) NASA claims that the spacecraft was slowly rotated causing the shadowed side to be cooled by the intense cold of space... an intense cold that DOES NOT EXIST. In fact the only thing that could have been accomplished by a rotation of the spacecraft is a more even and constant heating such as that obtained by rotating a hot dog on a spit. In reality a dish called Astronaut a la Apollo would have been served. At the very least you would not want to open the hatch upon the crafts return. NASA knows better than to claim, in addition, that a water cooling apparatus such as that which they claim cooled the astronauts suits cooled the spacecraft. No rocket could ever have been launched with the amount of water needed to work such a system for even a very short period of time. Fresh water weighs a little over 62 lbs. per cubic foot. Space and weight capacity were critical given the lift capability of the rockets used in the Apollo Space Program. No such extra water was carried by any mission whatsoever for suits or for cooling the spacecraft . On the tapes the Astronauts complained bitterly of the cold during their journey and while on the surface of the moon. They spoke of using heaters that did not give off enough heat to overcome the intense cold of space . It was imperative that NASA use this ruse because to tell the truth would TELL THE TRUTH. It is also proof of the arrogance and contempt in which the Illuminati holds the common man. What we heard is in reality indicative of an over zealous cooling system in the props used during the filming of the missions at the Atomic Energy Commissions Nevada desert test site, where it is common to see temperatures well over 100 degrees. In the glaring unfiltered direct heat of the sun the Astronauts could never have been cold at any time whatsoever in the perfect insulating vacuum of space.

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43 Conspiracy Theory

Moon Landing Hoax Aliens Helped Fake It


The USFG faked the moon landing with the help of E.T. Voron, writer and computer technician, 2003
[Der, Weekly Universe, Apollo Moon Flights: NASA Hoax or Alien Technology! 1/16/2003, http://www.weeklyuniverse.com/skies/skies2.htm, accessed 6/24/11, HK] [WeeklysUniverse.com] It may be that both Americans and Russians never flew to the Moon , because of a very simple thing: Take-off after landing on the Moon (to return to Earth). To take off, a spacecraft, both modern and of that time (1960-70s), needs a carrier rocket weighing many hundreds of tons, hundreds of tons of fuel for it, and a powerful space-vehicle launching site. How to take all this with a spacecraft to be able to take off from the Moon after
landing on it? The mid-rank carrier rocket Ariane-5, for example, weighs 750 tons (the rocket itself and the fuel), and the "lite" carrier rocket Dnepr-1 (created based on the strategic intercontinental ballistic missile SS-18 Satan) weighs 211 tons. They develop the power of about 10-20mn KWt. A rocket able to launch a spacecraft from the Moon should have the power of about 6 times less than here on the Earth (as Moon gravitation is 6 times smaller), but even in this case the rocket would weigh about 750/6, i.e. about 125 tons minimum (the rocket and the fuel), plus the weight of details for deploying a temporary launching site. Even if the weight of these details equals to the minimum possible weight of about 50 tons, then the

spacecraft should be able to take with itself a minimum weight of ~175 tons. No such spacecraft were developed before the flight to the Moon, none even close to that; today's most powerful spacecraft's weight carrying capabilities couldn't approach even the numbers thrice smaller than this. (For example,
one of the most modern Russian carrier rockets, Titan-4, which is approximately equal to the Space Shuttle carrier rocket by its parameters, is able to carry only about 17.5 tons of weight.) The official story of American flights to the Moon

says that the larger command module rocket "Columbia" remained in lunar orbit while the lunar module "Eagle" separated and descended with firing retro rockets to the lunar surface . The astronauts exited "Eagle"
to take pictures and recover lunar material from the surface. They then returned to the lunar lander module to return back to the "Columbia" command module. The "Columbia" broke out of lunar orbit to go back to Earth and splash down with parachutes. "Eagle" weighed about 16 tons, or about 5,500 pounds if we mean lunar gravity. To launch satellite of such a mass, at least an Ariane-5 class rocket is needed. But if even it is a Dnepr-1 class rocket, then the mass of rocket for launching 5,500 pound "Eagle" from the Moon would be about 35 tons (211/6). Before launching "Eagle" from the Moon, a 35-ton rocket itself needs to be delivered to the Moon. (See above for delivering capacities even of modern spacecraft.) Plus, launching satellites even of this mass requires deploying a launching site. How was such a site deployed on the Moon? If even we suppose that several carrier rockets like "Columbia" could deliver all this to the Moon in several lunar module "Eagles" (seems this should have been a very hard task for such modules to land on the Moon since the Moon has no atmosphere, which diminishes the speed of similar modules when these land on the Earth), then how was, for example, the Lunar launching site deployed? Onsite by astronauts in spacesuits? And why was all this praiseworthy process not shown on the photos or videos? Where are photographs of such a praiseworthy achievement like the Lunar launching site? And if somehow no launching site construction was required to take off from the Moon, why are there no photographs or videos of the spacecraft taking off from it? Wasn't it possible to take photos or videos of the spacecraft taking off from the Moon, from the "Columbia" rocket? And if this was a hard technical task in those times, then why weren't at least preparations for this takeoff photographed or videotaped by astronauts on-site? Did the NASA astronauts return to "Columbia", "which

remained in lunar orbit", using the rope that was hanging out of it? And where are the Russian photographs and videos dedicated to their "Lunar takeoff" preparations? Unless we assume that by 1969
NASA could build an antigravitation craft (aka antigrav, starcraft, starship, and flying saucer), for which all the described obstacles don't exist. (Such a device is not necessarily able to fly to stars; intersteller travel depends on the device's capacities, i.e. it is the starcraft's construction that determines whether it will be able to fly to stars, or only to the Sun system's planets and planet satellites. Antigrav only means that the device uses antigravitation for flying (i.e., not wings, rotors, etc). Its velocity can vary from 10 meters per second to overlight speeds, depending on its capabilities. This seems more plausible, taking into account that the American flag, and a plaque with inscriptions on it next to the flag, are reported, by many persons who visit observatories, to be clearly seen on the Moon surface.

But this means NASA already had antigravs in the 1960s, and that it has them now... Or did NASA borrow antigravs from an extraterrestrial civilization (Zetas Reticuli, hominoids from Orion, or maybe those who mutilate cattle)? One detail suggests this might have occurred: one of the astronauts, during the first flight to be transmitted by television, said on air that he was seeing giant artificial objects. Perhaps the aliens imposed this as a condition for NASA's lease of their craft: to have NASA astronauts say something on TV that would prove to viewers that the astronauts had met craft from another civilization? This may be confirmed by the following fact: several years after the moon landing, the American Congress
acknowledged the existence of extraterrestrials in a special report. The NASA photo (see right), with its absolutely impossible (for the lunar landscape) shadows -- looking as if they were created with the use of multiple projectors shining at different angles -- is additional proof for a faked moon landing. Perhaps NASA, let's say, "feels ashamed" for the mystification, and therefore provided such photos as hidden hints?

Gonzaga Debate Institute 2011


Mercury

44 Conspiracy Theory

Aliens Already On Moon


Aliens on the moon- Aldrin and navy confirm Hecht UFO casebook No Date
(John Hecht, UFO casebook Alien Presence on the Moon?- Moon Anomalies http://www.ufocasebook.com/moon.html 6/26/11 BLG) Is there an "Alien Base" on the Moon? More and more people are coming forward with stories that might prove this is true. Rumors say that there is an Alien Moon Base on the far side of the moon, the side we never see from Earth. Did you ever wonder why the Moon landings stopped and why we have not tried to build a Moon Base? It does seem like a better and easier idea than a floating space station with no access to any raw materials or supplies? According to the NASA Astronaut Neil Armstrong the aliens have a base on the Moon and told us in no uncertain terms to get off and stay off the Moon! Sound far fetched? Milton Cooper, a Naval Intelligence Officer tells us that not only does the Alien Moon Base exist but the U.S. Naval Intelligence Community refers to the Alien Moon Base as "Luna," that there is a huge mining operation going on there, and that is where the aliens keep their huge mother ships while the trips to Earth are made in smaller "flying saucers". LUNA: The Alien base on the far side of the Moon. It was seen and filmed by the Apollo astronauts. A base, a mining operation using very large machines, and the very large alien craft described in sighting reports as mother ships exist there. -Milton Cooper

There were UFO sightings during moon landing Hecht UFO casebook No Date
(John Hecht, UFO casebook Alien Presence on the Moon?- Moon Anomalies http://www.ufocasebook.com/moon.html 6/26/11 BLG) According to hitherto unconfirmed reports, both Neil Armstrong and Edwin "Buzz" Aldrin saw UFOs shortly after their historic landing on the Moon in Apollo 11 on 21 July 1969. I remember hearing one of the astronauts refer to a "light" in or on a carter during the television transmission, followed by a request from mission control for further information. Nothing more was heard. According to a former NASA employee Otto Binder, unnamed radio hams with their own VHF receiving facilities that bypassed NASA's broadcasting outlets picked up the following exchange: NASA: What's there? Mission Control calling Apollo 11... Apollo: These "Babies" are huge, Sir! Enormous! OH MY GOD! You wouldn't believe it! I'm telling you there are other spacecraft out there, lined up on the far side of the crater edge! They're on the Moon watching us! In 1979, Maurice Chatelain, former chief of NASA Communications Systems confirmed that Armstrong had indeed reported seeing two UFOs on the rim of a crater. "The encounter was common knowledge in NASA," he revealed, "but nobody has talked about it until now." Soviet scientists were allegedly the first to confirm the incident. "According to our information, the encounter was reported immediately after the landing of the module," said Dr. Vladimir Azhazha, a physicist and Professor of Mathematics at Moscow University. "Neil Armstrong relayed the message to Mission Control that two large, mysterious objects were watching them after having landed near the moon module. But his message was never heard by the public-because NASA censored it. "

Gonzaga Debate Institute 2011


Mercury

45 Conspiracy Theory

Moon Landing Real


Moon Landing Conspiracy theories live on because of the internet Caron, Managing Editor, ABC News On Campus, 09
(Christina, July 19 2009, , Managing Editor, ABC News On Campus , abc news Refuting the Most Popular Appollo Moon Landing Hoax Theories http://abcnews.go.com/Technology/Apollo11MoonLanding/story?id=8104410 6/27/11 BLG) For the majority of people in the U.S., there's no doubt that the moon landing happened. Just six percent of Americans think the government staged the Apollo moon landings according to a 1999 Gallup poll, the most recent data available. A similar poll by Time/CNN, conducted in 1995, also revealed that six percent believe the moon landings were faked. Moonwalk conspiracy theories still live on, in large part thanks to the Internet. As the 40th anniversary of the moon landing approaches, the phrase "apollo moon landing hoax" is one of the top 10 hottest searches on Google, perhaps aided by NASA's recent announcement that they accidentally erased the original moon landing footage. NASA's mistake also caught the attention of Nashville filmmaker Bart Sibrel, one of today's most vocal skeptics decrying government-sponsored moon fakery. He claims the tapes weren't accidentally erased because "they long ago disassembled the machine that could play or record them" and is currently working on a book based on his 2002 documentary, "A Funny Thing Happened on the Way to the Moon." Sibrel is perhaps best known for a 2002 incident where Buzz Aldrin punched him on camera after Sibrel called Aldrin a thief and a liar during an interview for Sibrel's film. At the time Sibrel had asked Aldrin to swear on a Bible that he had walked on the moon. Several years ago NASA responded to the public's conspiracy fascination by asking Jim Oberg, a former space engineer and the author of 10 books about space flight, to write a book for teachers, challenging the "evidence" presented by moonwalk skeptics who claim NASA faked all six manned lunar landings. But the project was cancelled in 2002 due to political pressure. Opponents suggested the money spent to hire Oberg would be a waste, and the project would end up acknowledging, and therefore lending some degree of credibility, to a small group of conspiracy theorists.

We havent gone back because its expensive- not because we never went Caron, Managing Editor, ABC News On Campus, 09
(Christina, July 19 2009, , Managing Editor, ABC News On Campus , abc news Refuting the Most Popular Appollo Moon Landing Hoax Theories http://abcnews.go.com/Technology/Apollo11MoonLanding/story?id=8104410 6/27/11 BLG) The Claim: If We Had Really Visited the Moon, We Would Be Able to Return. Why Haven't We Gone Back? Going to the moon is expensive. Between 1961 and 1972, the Apollo program cost $25 billion, according to the NASA Web site. The benefits of landing on the moon are still being questioned to this day, and it's been suggested that another trip to the moon simply isn't necessary. Germann says "There's no reason to go back." In 1970, "they canceled three [missions scheduled to fly to the moon] because of budget problems. Quite frankly the moon is giant parking lot, there's just not much there. Space is dangerous place. There's a lot of radiation. And humans become ill in low gravity. It's not comfortable -- it's not someplace you want to live," he added.

Gonzaga Debate Institute 2011


Mercury

46 Conspiracy Theory

Moon Landing Real


The Shadows are a result of the moons surface, not Hollywood lights. Caron, Managing Editor, ABC News On Campus, 09
(Christina, July 19 2009, , Managing Editor, ABC News On Campus , abc news Refuting the Most Popular Appollo Moon Landing Hoax Theories http://abcnews.go.com/Technology/Apollo11MoonLanding/story?id=8104410 6/27/11 BLG) The Claim: On the Tape, the Shadows Look Translucent -- That Wouldn't Happen on the Moon. Was This Taped in a Studio with a Floodlight? The shadows you see in NASA's film footage do seem odd, but Germann says there are several reasons why: the surface of the moon is uneven, and there's "lots of light kicking back from surface of moon." "If they were faking the thing they would arrange it so that the shadows would look right," he said. "If it was a floodlight the shadows are wrong. The astronaut closer to the [supposed] floodlight would have a longer shadow."

The flag rippled because it was touched and a landing wouldnt cause a crater- the moon landing was real. Caron, Managing Editor, ABC News On Campus, 09
(Christina, July 19 2009, , Managing Editor, ABC News On Campus , abc news Refuting the Most Popular Appollo Moon Landing Hoax Theories http://abcnews.go.com/Technology/Apollo11MoonLanding/story?id=8104410 6/27/11 BLG) The Claim: There Isn't Any Wind on the Moon. The Flag Shouldn't be Rippling Yes, it is true that there is no air or wind on the moon. Germann explained that the flag moved because the astronauts touched it, creating ripples in the fabric. The flag is attached to a metal pole. If someone were to touch the metal it would vibrate, and so would the flag. According to the moon hoax rebuttal on the NASA Web site, "Unfurling a piece of rolled-up cloth with stored angular momentum will naturally result in waves and ripples -- no breeze required!" The Claim: If the Apollo Landed on the Moon, Why Wasn't There a Giant Blast Crater? Germann explained that the moon is a rock that has been compacted for millions of years. On the top it is "powdery and fluffy" but a half an inch down it's hard. "The lower layer isn't going to blow," he said. In addition, the moon's low gravity would have eased the impact of the shuttle.

The Hubble Telescope is too far away to take a picture- hoax theories are an insult to the astronauts. Caron, Managing Editor, ABC News On Campus, 09
(Christina, July 19 2009, , Managing Editor, ABC News On Campus , abc news Refuting the Most Popular Appollo Moon Landing Hoax Theories http://abcnews.go.com/Technology/Apollo11MoonLanding/story?id=8104410 6/27/11 BLG) The Claim: If the Hubble Telescope Is Up There, Why Doesn't It Take a Picture? The moon is about 240,000 miles away from the earth, whereas the Hubble Telescope orbits approximately 380 miles above the earth. "This I don't fault people for, it's a technical question," Germann said. "Because of the way the Hubble is operated it can't resolve an object that small. "In one sense I guess it's good that people are interested enough to doubt [the moon landing]. It's an iconic event, it stands for a whole era. And for that reason it's important to people," Germann said. But he has little patience for the skeptics. "To say it's a fake is an insult to the many people who worked on this and risked their lives to make it happen. That's what gives it an edge for me."

Gonzaga Debate Institute 2011


Mercury

47 Conspiracy Theory

Moon Landing Real


Moon Landing Real- Flag waving legitimized. McGuire 09
(Cheston McGuire, July 19, 2009 Missourian MU professor debunks hoax theory of moon landing http://www.columbiamissourian.com/stories/2009/07/19/debunking-moon-myth/ 6/27/11 BLG) MU history professor Jeff Pasley, who teaches "Conspiracy Theories and Conspiracies in U.S. History and Culture," calls the moon landing hoax theory "the most ridiculous and insignificant of all the popular conspiracy theories that don't involve the supernatural." Pasley said the moon landing hoax theory is the third most popular conspiracy theory behind the John F. Kennedy assassination and 9/11. The moon hoax is so popular because "it doesn't really matter, so it's OK to believe it," he said. People believe the hoax because they can protest the government without any real political convictions. "Belief in the moon landing isn't a cause," Pasley said. "It's a belief." While many people might be interested in the theory, Pasley questioned how many people actually believe it. One Web site that does believe the theory is The Apollo Hoax, which states in its opening words that the site "was written to prove, once and for all, that we are not being told the truth about the NASA film footage of the Apollo missions." The site is filled with pictures, videos and diagrams poking holes in the moon landing. One of the most common arguments against the reality of the lunar landing is that the U.S. flag planted there was waving even though there's no wind on the moon. An August 2008 episode of the TV show MythBusters recreated the scenario by planting a flag in the ground within a vacuum. The momentum alone caused the flag to wave, no air required.

A moon landing failure would be as popular as other NASA failures McGuire 09


(Cheston McGuire, July 19, 2009 Missourian MU professor debunks hoax theory of moon landing http://www.columbiamissourian.com/stories/2009/07/19/debunking-moon-myth/ 6/27/11 BLG) Another supposed piece of evidence that the moon landing couldn't have happened is that astronauts couldn't have survived the radiation of space. That kind of argument is what Pasley calls "negative subjunctive reasoning." When people believe one facet of an event is impossible like someone surviving the radiation of space it allows them to believe an entire event is a conspiracy, Pasley said. "Given what we know about NASA, it doesn't seem they could have faked (the moon landing)," Pasley said. Given all of the other well-publicized NASA failures, including exploding shuttles and failed launches, Pasley asked why the moon landing would be any different. In 1961, President John F. Kennedy gave a speech. He said that the U.S. should work quickly and meet a goal. The goal was to send people to the Moon and back.

Gonzaga Debate Institute 2011


Mercury

48 Conspiracy Theory

Moon Landing Real


NASA confirms- Moon landing real NASA 04
(NASA.gov, 7/8/04 Student Features Apollo 11 first Footprint on the Moon http://www.nasa.gov/audience/forstudents/k-4/home/F_Apollo_11.html 6/27/11 BLG) The U.S. did meet the goal. And it only took eight years. One day in July, Apollo 11 launched towards the Moon. It had three astronauts on it. They were Neil Armstrong, Edwin (Buzz) Aldrin and Michael Collins. Image above: Buzz stands in front of the Lunar Module named Eagle. Credit: NASA A few days later, Apollo 11 began to orbit around the Moon. Then Armstrong and Aldrin took the Lunar Module to the Moon. They left Collins in orbit. What did they say when they landed on the moon? "The Eagle has landed." Eagle was the name of the Lunar Module. On July 20, 1969, Neil Armstrong put his left foot on the rocky Moon. It was the first human footprint on the Moon. They had taken TV cameras with them. So, people all over the world watched when it happened. More people watched this Moon landing than any other show on TV. Image above: The first footprints on the Moon will be there for a million years. There is no wind to blow them away. The two astronauts walked on the Moon. They picked up rocks and dirt to bring back to Earth. The astronauts had much work to do. Then, the Eagle went back to meet astronaut Collins. He was in the Command Module working. Apollo 11 splashed down in the Pacific Ocean on July 24, 1969. The astronauts were safe at home.

Gonzaga Debate Institute 2011


Mercury

49 Conspiracy Theory

Aliens will block Mars Mission


The moon Phobos, is actually a hollow alien spaceship capable of shooting down Russian probes would just shoot down our mission to Mars Howard, 2010 (Harv, The Trouble with Phobos Cosmic Mars, http://www.ufos-aliens.co.uk/cosmicmars.htm,
accessed: 6/25/11, SL) In July 1988, the Russians launched two unmanned satellite probes - Phobos 1 and Phobos 2 - in the direction of Mars, with the primary intention of investigating the planet's mysterious moon, Phobos. Phobos 1 was unfortunately lost en route two months later, reportedly because of a radio command error. Phobos 2 was also ultimately lost in the most intriguing circumstances, but not before it had beamed back certain images and information from the planet Mars itself. Phobos 2 arrived safely at Mars in January 1989 and entered into an orbit around Mars as the first step at its destination towards its ultimate goal: to transfer to an orbit that would make it fly almost in tandem with the Martian moonlet called Phobos (hence the spacecrafts name) and explore the moonlet with highly sophisticated equipment that included two packages of instruments to be placed on the moonlet's surface. All went well until Phobos 2 aligned itself with Phobos, the Martian moonlet. Then, on 28th March, the Soviet mission control center acknowledged sudden communication "problems" with the spacecraft; and Tass, the official Soviet news agency, reported that "Phobos 2 had failed to communicate with Earth as scheduled after completing an operation yesterday around the Martian moon Phobos . Scientists at mission control have been unable to establish stable radio contact." What had caused the Phobos 2 spacecraft to be lost? According to Boris Bolitsky, science correspondent for Radio Moscow, just before radio contact was lost with Phobos 2, several unusual images were radioed back to Earth, described by the Russian as "Quite remarkable features". A report taken from New Scientist of 8 April 1989, described the following: " The features are either on the Martian surface or in the lower atmosphere. The features are between 20 and 25 kilometers wide and do not resemble any known geological formation. They are spindle - shaped and proving to be intriguing and puzzling." An unusual photo of a thin shadow across mars was shown on the Russian television segment. Seen on the surface of Mars was a clearly defined dark shape that could indeed be described , as it was in he initial dispatch from Moscow, as a "thin elipse" (this photo is a still from the Soviet television clip). It was certainly different from the
shadow of Phobos recorded eighteen years earlier by Mariner 9. The latter cast a shadow that was a rounded ellipse and fuzzy at the edges, as would be cast by the uneven surface of the moonlet. The 'anomaly' seen in the Phobos 2 transmission was a thin ellipse with very sharp rather than rounded points (the shape is known in the diamond trade as a "marquise") and the edges, rather than being fuzzy, stood out sharply against a kind of halo on the Martian surface . Dr. Becklake described it as "something that is between the spacecraft and Mars, because we can see the Martian surface below it," and stressed that the object was seen by both the optical and the infrared (heat seeking) camera. All these reasons explain why the Soviets have not suggested that the dark, "thin ellipse" might have been a shadow of the moonlet. While the image was held on the screen, Dr. Becklake explained that it was taken as the spacecraft was aligning itself with Phobos (the moonlet). "As the last picture was halfway through," he said, "they [Soviets] saw something that should not be there." So what was it that collided or crashed into Phobos 2? Was the space probe shot out of space for "seeing too much"? What does the last secret frame show? Well... Cosmic Conspiracies have managed to track down this ellusive last picture (see below). In his careful words to 'Aviation Week and Space Technology', the chairman of the Soviet equivalent of NASA, referred to

the last frame, saying, "One image appears to include an odd-shaped object between the spacecraft and Mars." This "highly secret" photo was later given to the Western press by Colonel Dr. Marina Popovich, a Russian astronaut and
pilot who has long been interested in UFO's. At a UFO conference in 1991, Popovich gave to certain investigators some interesting information that she "smuggled" out of the now ex-Soviet Union. Part of the information was what has been called "the first ever leaked accounts of an alien mother ship in the solar system". The very last picture taken by Phobos 2

The last transmission from Phobos 2 was a photograph of a gigantic cylindrical spaceship - a huge, approx, 20km long, 1.5km diameter cigar-shaped 'mother ship', that was photographed on 25 March 1989 hanging or parked next to the Martian moon Phobos by the Soviet unmanned probe Phobos 2. After that last frame was radio-transmitted back to Earth, the probe mysteriously disappeared; according to the Russians it was destroyed - possibly knocked out with an energy pulse beam. The cigar shaped craft in the penultimate frame taken by Phobos 2 is apparently the object casting the oblong shadow on the surface of Mars in the earlier photo. Australian science writer Brian Crowley says that because of the convex cats eye shadow - which, because the overhead solar inclination prevented shadow - casting by Martian surface features, implies a shadow thrown on the surface from something in orbit - beyond the orbit of Phobos 2 itself. The shadow - spindle - or cigar shape is inconsistent with any possible shadow cast by the moon Phobos, which is an irregular potato shape .
One needs little imagination to postulate a giant, hovering cigar- shaped mother craft similar to those documented down the years by UFO investigators.

Gonzaga Debate Institute 2011


Mercury

50 Conspiracy Theory

Aliens will block Mars Mission


Mars moon Phobos is an artificial hollow shapeship orbiting Mars Aym, 2011 (Terrence, Astrophysicist: Giant spaceships are orbiting Mars BEFORE ITS NEWS,
http://beforeitsnews.com/story/539/387/Astrophysicist:_Giant_spaceships_are_orbiting_Mars.html, accessed: 6/25/11, SL) Phobos is spaceship says famous scientist Astrophysicist Dr. Iosif Samuilovich Shklovsky calculated the orbital motion of Martian satellite Phobos and came to the jaw-dropping conclusion that the moon is artificial, hollow, and basically a titanic spaceship. Dr. Iosif Samuilovich Shklovsky The scientist is world-renown for penning the
classic science book, "Intelligent Life in the Universe" with famous Cornell University professor, the late Carl Sagan of PBS and Voyager space probe fame. Fear and Horror Mars' two moons, Phobos and Deimos, translate into "fear" and "horror." As Mars is named after the god of war, the names seem appropriate. Both satellites were discovered in 1877 by U.S. astronomer Asaph Hall who never guessed they were artificial. Both moons are extremely odd, especially the tumbling moon of fear: Phobos. Shklovsky puzzled over them. Phobos and Deimos. Deeply troubling facts Two facts deeply troubled Shklovsky. First, both moons are too small. No other planet in the solar system has moons as tiny as the Martian moons. They're unique. Second, their origin bothered him. Were they captured asteroids as others assumed? No, they could not be! Their orbital plane was all wrong. And they're too close to Mars. Much too close. Even more amazing--Phobos changes its speed from time to time. Impossible, yet true!

Phobos is shaped like interstellar spaceship Russian astronomer Dr. Cherman Struve spent months calculating the Martian moons' orbits with extreme accuracy early in the 20th Century. Yet, Shklovsky astutely noted, as the years progressed into decades the mystery moon's orbital velocity and position no longer matched its mathematically predicted position. After lengthy study of the tidal, gravitic, and magnetic forces, Shklovsky came to the inescapable conclusion that no natural causes could account for the origins of the two odd moons or their bizarre behavior , particularly that exhibited by Phobos. The orbit of that fantastic moon was so peculiar, so bizarre, that Phobos had to be a gigantic spaceship. Every other possible cause was carefully considered and resignedly rejected . Either alternate explanations had no supporting proof or the math was wildly off. So, Phobos had to be accelerating as it lost altitude, yet could the outer fringes of the thin Martian atmosphere be affecting it? Was the atmosphere actually causing a braking action like the deteriorating orbit of a slowing Earth satellite ? A hollowed out Martian moon Phobos is a hollow, empty tin can During an interview about the peculiarities surrounding Phobos, Shklovsky said, "In order to make this braking action so significant, and taking into account the extremely rarefied Martian atmosphere at this altitude, Phobos should have very small mass, that is, very low average density, approximately one thousand times smaller than the density of water." A density that low, less than an Earth cloud, would have dispersed Phobos eons ago. That could not be the solution. "But can a continuous solid have such low density, probably smaller than that of air ? Of course not!
There's only one way in which the requirements of coherence, constancy of shape of Phobos, and its extremely small average density can be reconciled. We must assume that Phobos is a hollow, empty body, resembling an empty tin can ." A tin can indeed! Like a spaceship is a tin can in the cosmos. For all intents and purposes, the Apollo Lunar Excursion Module was a tin can exceedingly smaller than Phobos, of course. Computer modeling of weird 'moons' "Well, can a natural celestial body be hollow? Never! Therefore, Phobos must have an artificial origin and be an artificial Martian satellite. The peculiar properties of Deimos, though less pronounced than those of Phobos, also point toward an artificial origin." Alien spaceships the size of small moons orbiting Mars? That makes the so-called "Face on Mars" look ridiculously feeble by comparison! Strange monolith on surface of Phobos Yet, no less than the United States Naval Observatory weighed in on the Russian astrophysicist's amazing revelation, stating: Dr. Shklovsky quite correctly calculated that if the acceleration of Phobos is true, the Martian moon must be hollow, since it cannot have the weight of a natural body and behave in the prescribed manner. Thus, even that august American institution conceded that mysterious alien ships might be orbiting Mars...the objects' strange origins and ultimate purposes completely unknown . Speculations over what

the giant artificial spaceships might be have ranged from massive Martian space observatories, to halfcompleted generational interstellar spaceships, or even gargantuan planet-killing space bombs left over from an interplanetary war waged millions of years ago. If they are world-destroying bombs, hopefully they're
duds...

[The Chairman of the Soviet equivalent of NASA = Sergei Pavlovich Korolev, lead Soviet rocket engineer and spacecraft designer

Gonzaga Debate Institute 2011


Mercury

51 Conspiracy Theory

Aliens will block Mars Mission


Mars moon Phobos is an artificial spaceship sent by the aliens to orbit mars and sweep up radiation Rense, host of the right-winged radio program The Jeff Rense Program 2002
(Mars Moon Phobos Being Artifical Rense.com, http://www.rense.com/general20/eisenhowerWH.htm, accessed: 6/27/11, SL) March 1960 - The Martian moon Phobos, generally accepted as a celestial body, actually may be an artificial satellite launched long ago by an advanced Martian race , according to Dr. S. Fred Singer, special advisor to President Eisenhower on space developments. No mention was made of the other Mars moon, Deimos. In his published opinion, Dr. Singer backed a claim first made by the Soviet astrophysicist Shklovsky. The Russian scientist's announcement that Phobos was a hollow, artificial satellite, proving the existence of a Martian civilization, set off heated arguments among astronomers. Shklovsky based his decision on a long study of Phobos' peculiar orbit, which other astronomers have noted. The Russian claim has calculations and those of earlier astronomers prove Phobos cannot possibly be an ordinary moon. Though Dr. Singer said the figures still had to
be proved, his Phobos statement in the February Astronautics, rejected other astronomers' objections. "I would be very disappointed if it turns out to be solid," said the White House advisor. If the figures were correct, he stated, then Phobos undoubtedly is a hollow, artificial satellite. If it is, he said, its purpose would probably be to sweep up radiation in the Mars' atmosphere, so that Martians could safely operate around their planet . Dr. Singer also pointed out that Phobos would make an ideal space base, both for Martians and earthlings . **** In light of this article, there was an interesting assessment of Mars given during a space briefing presented during an Eisenhower cabinet meeting. The briefing, by Eisenhower Science Advisor Dr. James Killian, was given March 14, 1958 -- "Mars - Much more exciting. Conditions more similar to earth -- Undoubtedly some form of life, although probably not ones which we would recognize." In 1963, Raymond H. Wilson Jr., Chief of Applied Mathematics at NASA, joined Shklovsky and Dr. Singer in their Martian conclusions. He stated that " Phobos might be a colossal base orbiting Mars." He also stated that NASA itself was considering the possibility, and was planning for special probes that would answer the question. Dr Iosif Shklovsky based his conclusion on calculations that had been done by the U.S. Naval Observatory (rumored in the 1980s to have been the home of the elusive MJ-12 group). Shklovsky stated Phobos was being "slowed by electromagnetic drag and tidal friction more than was possible was an actual solid moon."

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Mercury

52 Conspiracy Theory

Aliens will block Mars Mission


The ESA says Phobos is filled with geometric cavernous rooms with right angle floors and walls Hoagland, curator of astronomy & space science and winner of the Ig Nobel Prize for Astronomy, 2010
(Richard C., You Couldnt Make This Up Dept: Why is Mars Moon Phobos Hollow? Enterprise Mission, http://www.dailygalaxy.com/my_weblog/2010/05/you-couldnt-make-this-up-european-space-agency-rumors-marsmoon-phobos-is-an-artificial-satellite.html, accessed: 6/27/11, SL) Mars' Moon Phobos has been analyzed as being one-third hollow according to European Space Agency reports, which has triggered some wild and utterly fascinating rumors and speculation that we've featured below. From "The Phobos Blog" -- published on March 25th: General , Science 25 March, 2010 17:21 Radio science result from 2008 Phobos Flyby now accepted for publication: We report independent results from two subgroups of the Mars Express Radio Science (MaRS) team who independently analyzed Mars Express (MEX) radio tracking data for the purpose of determining consistently the gravitational attraction of the moon Phobos on the MEX spacecraft, and hence the mass of Phobos. We conclude that the interior of Phobos likely contains large voids. When applied to various hypotheses bearing on the origin of Phobos, these results are inconsistent with the proposition that Phobos is a captured asteroid. Ads by Google 2 Stocks to Hold Forever Buy them, forget about them, and never sell them. www.StreetAuthority.com What is Quantum Jumping? Discover Why Thousands of People are "Jumping" to Change Their Life www.QuantumJumping.com For a Martian moon that is demonstrably "1/3 hollow" ... as measured by two totally independent space programs, and separated by ~20 years ... under any likely astrophysical formation scenario cannot exist as just a "natural" moon. The MARSIS radar imaging experiment -- according to "inside" ESA sources recounted "a Phobos' interior filled with 'cavernous, geometric rooms ... right-angle walls ... and floors -- detectable via the semi-regular 'structure of the returning, interior radar echoes ...' as they were impressed upon the reflected MARSIS signals ....'" MARSIS was physically seeing (via this radar) a three-dimensional, totally artificial, interior world ... within Phobos; and a "reflection void interior geometry" ... which correlated eerily with the earlier (lower-resolution) Phobos "interior gravity tracking data ...." No natural "space rock" could possibly possess such an enormous range of "natural radar absorbers and reflectors"; nothing "natural" could reflect (or absorb) EM energy that way across so many orders of magnitude. In other words -- the MARSIS radar reflections officially published on the official ESA Phobos website... contained explicit scientific data, from multiple perspectives, which strongly "supported the idea that this is what radar echoes would look like, coming back from inside 'a huge ... geometric ... hollow spaceship' In fact, they were the primary source of the decidedly "internal, 3-D geometric-looking" radar signature. The concurrence of all three of these independent Mars Express experiments -- "imaging" ... "internal mass distribution" (tracking) ... and "internal radar imaging" -- now agreed that "the interior of Phobos is 'partially hollow ... with internal, geometric "voids" inside it ....'" Meaning that- Phobos is artificial.

Gonzaga Debate Institute 2011


Mercury

53 Conspiracy Theory

AT: Aliens block Mars


Phobos is a rubble pile held together by gravity Krause, Jaumann, Oberst, German Aerospace Center 08
(Henning, Prof. Dr. Ralf, Prof. Dr. Jurgen, Professor of Mathematics at Bielefeld University, deputy director of the DLR Institute of Planetary Research, Head of the Department German Aerospace Center Institute of Planetary Researchn, October 16 2008 Mars Express Mars Express closes in on the origin of Mars larger moon http://www.dlr.de/mars/en/desktopdefault.aspx/tabid-207/422_read-13776/ 6/27/11 BLG) The particular class of asteroids that share Phobos's density are known as D-class. They are believed to be highly fractured bodies containing giant caverns because they are not solid. Instead, they are a collection of pieces, held together by gravity. Scientists call them rubble piles. Also, spectroscopic data from Mars Express and previous spacecrafts show that Phobos has a similar composition to these asteroids. This suggests that Phobos, and probably its smaller sibling Deimos, are captured asteroids. However, one observation remains difficult to explain in this scenario. Usually captured asteroids are injected into random orbits around the planet that gravitationally tie them, but Phobos orbits above Mars' equator - a very specific case. Scientists do not yet understand how it could do this. In another scenario, Phobos could have been made of Martian rocks that were blasted into space during a large meteorite impact. These pieces have not fallen completely together, thus creating the rubble pile. So the question remains, where did the original material come from - Mars's surface or the asteroid belt? The MARSIS radar on board Mars Express has also collected historic data about Phobos's subsurface. This data, together with that from the moon's surface and surroundings gathered by the other Mars Express instruments, will also help put constraints on the origin. It's clear though that the whole truth will only be known when samples of the moon are brought back to Earth for analysis in laboratories.

Phobos is similar to an asteroid- not hollow. NASA No Date


(National Aeronautics and Space Administraion, Solar System Exploration Mars:Moons:Phobos http://solarsystem.nasa.gov/planets/profile.cfm?Object=Mar_Phobos 6/27/11 BLG) The six-mile wide Stickney crater dominates this image of Phobos taken by the Viking 1 orbiter. Phobos, gouged and nearly shattered by a giant impact crater and beaten by thousands of meteorite impacts, is on a collision course with Mars. Phobos is the larger of Mars' two moons and is 27 by 22 by 18 km in diameter. It orbits Mars three times a day, and is so close to the planet's surface that in some locations on Mars it cannot always be seen. Phobos is nearing Mars at a rate of 1.8 m every hundred years; at that rate, it will either crash into Mars in 50 million years or break up into a ring. Its most prominent feature is the 6-mile crater Stickney, its impact causing streak patterns across the moon's surface. Stickney was seen by Mars Global Surveyor to be filled with fine dust, with evidence of boulders sliding down its sloped surface. Phobos and Deimos appear to be composed of C-type rock, similar to blackish carbonaceous chondrite asteroids. Observations by Mars Global Surveyor indicate that the surface of this small body has been pounded into powder by eons of meteoroid impacts, some of which started landslides that left dark trails marking the steep slopes of giant craters. Measurements of the day and night sides of Phobos show such extreme temperature variations that the sunlit side of the moon rivals a pleasant winter day in Chicago, while only a few kilometers away, on the dark side of the moon, the climate is more harsh than a night in Antarctica. High temperatures for Phobos were measured at 25 degrees Fahrenheit (-4 degrees Celsius) and lows at -170 degrees Fahrenheit (-112 degrees Celsius). This intense heat loss is likely a result of the fine dust on Phobos' surface, which is unable to retain heat. Phobos has no atmosphere. It may be a captured asteroid, but some scientists show evidence that contradicts this theory.

Gonzaga Debate Institute 2011


Mercury

54 Conspiracy Theory

AT: Aliens block Mars


Phobos is a collection of planetary rubble BBC News 10
(BBC News Staff Writer, March 4 2010, Cloest Phobos flyby gathers data http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/science/nature/8550362.stm 6/27/11 BLG) No manmade object has ever been so near to the natural satellite. The approach is one of a series being made by Mex as it seeks to understand the origin of the moon. Previous flybys have indicated that Phobos has an extremely low density, suggesting that its surface probably hides many large interior voids. Scientists suspect the moon is simply a collection of planetary rubble that coalesced around the Red Planet sometime after its formation. The Mex latest measurements will test this idea further. Very precise radio doppler data was gathered during the pass which will provide additional information on the moon's gravity field. Knowing the gravity field will help scientists to better understand the distribution of mass inside the moon. Phobos is very slowly falling in towards Mars and tidal forces are expected to tear it apart one day. The European Space Agency's Mars Express satellite has been in orbit since 25 December 2003. It has made many discoveries including measurements of previously unrecognised methane in the planet's atmosphere.

Gonzaga Debate Institute 2011


Mercury

55 Conspiracy Theory

***Flat Earth***

Gonzaga Debate Institute 2011


Mercury

56 Conspiracy Theory

Flat Earth = No Space Travel


NASA is part of a conspiracy using their space program to uphold the premise that the Earth is round. Space travel is impossible and photos are doctored. Jack W. Administrator Flat Earth Forums, 2008 (The Flat Earth Society, Flat Earth FAQ, Dec 12,
http://www.theflatearthsociety.org/forum/index.php?topic=11211.0, Accessed: 6/22/11, SL) Q: "What about satellites? How do they orbit the Earth?" A: Since sustained spaceflight is not possible, satellites cannot orbit the Earth. The signals we supposedly receive from them are either broadcast from towers or any number of possible pseudolites. However, temporary space-flight is possible. Space Exploration and Government
Q: "NASA and other world space agencies have pictures of the Earth from space, and in those pictures the Earth is clearly a globe; in this day and age, hasn't it been proven beyond any doubt that the Earth is round?" A: NASA and the rest of the world's

space agencies who claim to have been to space are involved in a Conspiracy to keep the shape of the Earth hidden. The pictures are faked using simple imaging software. Q: "Are you saying NASA had Photoshop
in the 1960s?" A: Of course not. Back then the pictures taken were of far lower quality and were likely produced using analog means. Q: "Why has no one taken a photo of the Earth that proves it is flat?" A: Only those connected to the Conspiracy have access to heights from which the shape of the Earth can be discerned . Also, nobody has been to the edge of the Earth and lived; conditions on the Ice Wall get increasingly treacherous the further you get out, and navigation methods become unreliable that far south. It is also possible that the Conspiracy is guarding the edge to prevent people from getting too close to the truth. Q: "How did NASA create these images with the computer technology available at the time?" A: NASA did not send rockets into space; instead, they spent a

fraction of their funding on developing increasingly advanced computers and imaging software to cover their lies. PLEASE NOTE: This means that pictures confirming the roundness or flatness of the Earth DO NOT CONSTITUTE VALID PROOF. Q: "What is the motive behind this Conspiracy?" A: Although their main objective can only be speculated upon, the most favored theory is that of financial gain. In a nutshell, it would logically cost much less to fake a space program than to actually have one, so those in on the Conspiracy profit from the funding NASA and other space agencies receive from the government. Q: "If
you're not sure about the motive, why do you say there is a conspiracy?" A: Well it's quite simple really; if the Earth is in fact flat, then the space agencies must be lying when they say it isn't. Q: "No one could possibly pull off such a conspiracy successfully." A: Actually, they could. Q: "How are the world governments organized to carry out this conspiracy?" A: Only those governments

with space agencies that have actually been to space and produced round pictures of the Earth need be in on the Conspiracy. And even in those cases only a limited number of people within those governments need necessarily be involved. For the most part, even those in the highest positions of these governments are probably unaware of the Conspiracy . Q: "Why has this site not been shut down by the government?"
A: Not enough people take this site seriously for it to be perceived as a threat by those involved in the Conspiracy. Shutting it down, however, might open them up to suspicion. Q: "There's no way the government could possibly guard the entire Ice Wall! It would take too many men! Millions of men!" A: Not really. You could do it with a few hundred men and some basic equipment. But even so there's no reason to assume the Ice Wall is guarded; the harsh conditions of the region make it very difficult to reach anyway. Q: "Why is NASA's space shuttle runway curved?" A: It was specially constructed by NASA to be so. After all, NASA is at the heart of

the conspiracy.

Earth is flat and covered by a dome no space travel possible oceans prove Shenton, president of the Flat Earth Society, 1998 (Daniel, Why the Earth is Flat, The Flat Earth
Society, http://www.alaska.net/~clund/e_djublonskopf/Flatearthsociety.htm, SL) Water. Regardless of which train of thought you follow, it covers over seventy-five percent of our planet's surface. And the atmosphere, also a fluid, covers the entire surface. The difference is why. While flatEarthers know that the ocean is really just a large bowl, (with great sheets of ice around the edges to hold the ocean back), and the atmosphere is contained by a large dome, the backwards "round-Earth" way of thinking would have you believe that all those trillions of gallons of water and air just "stick" to the planet's surface.

Gonzaga Debate Institute 2011


Mercury

57 Conspiracy Theory

Flat Earth = No Space Travel


NASA is a lie, the earth is flat, and space travel is impossible Schadewald, President of the National Center for Science Education, 1980 (Robert J., The Flatout Truth: Earth Orbits? Moon Landings? A Fraud! Says This Prophet Science Digest, http://www.lhup.edu/~dsimanek/fe-scidi.htm, SL) "The facts are simple," says Charles K. Johnson, president of the International Flat Earth Research Society. "The earth is flat." As you stand in his front yard, it is hard to argue the point. From among the Joshua trees, creosote bushes, and tumbleweeds surrounding his southern California hillside home, you have a spectacular view of the Mojave Desert. It looks as flat as a pool table. Nearly 20 miles to the west lies the small city of Lancaster; you can see right over it. Beyond Lancaster, 20 more miles as the cueball rolls, the Tehachepi Mountains rise up from the desert floor. Los Angeles is not far to the south. Near Lancaster, you see the Rockwell International plant where the Space Shuttle was built. To the north, beyond the next hill, lies Edwards Air Force Base, where the Shuttle was tested. There, also, the Shuttle will land when it returns from orbiting the earth. (At least, that's NASA's story.) "You can't orbit a flat earth," says Mr. Johnson. "The Space Shuttle is a jokeand a very ludicrous joke." His soft voice carries conviction, for Charles Johnson is on the level. He believes that the main purpose of the space program is to prop up a dying myththe myth that the earth is a globe. "Nobody knows anything about the true shape of the world," he contends. "The known, inhabited world is flat. Just as a guess, I'd say that the dome of heaven is about 4,000 miles away, and the stars are about as far as San Francisco is from Boston." As shown in a map published by Johnson, the known world is as circular and as flat as a phonograph record. The North Pole is at the center. At the outer edge lies the southern ice, reputed to be a wall 150 feet high; no one has ever crossed it, and therefore what lies beyond is unknown. The sun and moon, in the Johnson version, are only about 32 miles in diameter. They circle above the earth in the vicinity of the equator, and their apparent rising and setting are tricks of perspective, like railroad tracks that appear to meet in the distance. The moon shines by its own light and is not eclipsed by the earth. Rather, lunar eclipses are caused by an unseen dark body occasionally passing in front of the moon. Johnson's beliefs are firmly grounded in the Bible. Many verses of the Old Testament imply that the earth is flat, but there's more to it than that. According to the New Testament, Jesus ascended up into heaven. "The whole point of the Copernican theory is to get rid of Jesus by saying there is no up and no down," declares Johnson. "The spinning ball thing just makes the whole Bible a big joke." Not the Bible but Johnson's own common sense allowed him to see through the globe myth while he was still in grade school. He contends that sensible people all over the world, not just Bible believers, realize that the earth really is flat. "Wherever you find people with a great reservoir of common sense," he says, "they don't believe idiotic things such as the earth spinning around the sun. Reasonable, intelligent people have always recognized that the earth is flat."

Gonzaga Debate Institute 2011


Mercury

58 Conspiracy Theory

Flat Earth Proofs No Orbit


The Michelson-Morley experiment illustrated that the earth is stagnant in space Shenton, president of the Flat Earth Society, 1998 (Daniel, Why the Earth is Flat, The Flat Earth
Society, http://www.alaska.net/~clund/e_djublonskopf/Flatearthsociety.htm, SL) In classical physics, ether was assumed to be a ephemeral substance which permeated all matter . This
omnipresent medium was that through which visible light and other electromagnetic waves were supposed to have traveled. It was assumed to have qualities which now seem rather bizarre - too bizarre, in fact, to be allowed to exist, by Efimovich's teachings. So in 1887, two American scientists, operating under the Efimovich-based assumption that the Earth was moving through outer space and not the fixed center of the Universe , conducted an experiment to "prove" whether or not ether actually existed. In this experiment, the general idea was to try to calculate the absolute speed of the earth relative to the fixed ether. In a sense, they would emit a light pulse, and calculate how far it

"trailed" behind the earth, much like tossing a napkin out the window of a moving car to calculate the car's speed. It was assumed that, if ether existed, the light pulse would fall back in one direction, giving the physicists a tangible "absolute" speed of the earth. Their calculated speed: Zero . Yes, scientists Albert A. Michelson and Edward W. Morley were baffled by this, wondering how the Earth could be sitting in one spot, while every aspect of the teachings of Grigori Efimovich indicated that the planet must be orbiting its own sun, and therefore must be moving at least with a critical orbital velocity. Moving quickly to avoid having to admit that they were wrong, they were able to instead "infer" from their results that the ether must not exist , and that light must propagate through no
medium at all (impossible for a wave by the very definition of a wave). Their inference was generally accepted by the scientific community (save a few notable exceptions, including Hendrik A. Lorentz) and the "ridiculous" notion of ether was thrown out. But light waves would still require a medium for transmission, and the actual purpose of the experiment was to determine the existence of that medium. The results speak for themselves: the Earth does not move. And even if the Earth did, the problems inherent in keeping it moving through this light medium called ether are overwhelmingly supportive of "Flat-Earth" theory.

Because of the ether, the earth cant orbit Shenton, president of the Flat Earth Society, 1998 (Daniel, Why the Earth is Flat, The Flat Earth
Society, http://www.alaska.net/~clund/e_djublonskopf/Flatearthsociety.htm, SL) In the Efimovich model, the planet Earth is supposed to be a large, spherical shaped ball of rock flying through space at hundreds of thousands of miles per hour. But how could the Earth continue to move at the same speed for as long a time as the "round Earthers" say that it has existed for; namely, several billion years. If outer space were a vacuum, then there would be no problem. But space is not a vacuum, it is instead filled with ether . The earth would have to have been pushing its way through the ether for all those billions of years . Shouldn't it have slowed somewhere along the line? What would keep the Earth from grinding down to a stop at some point on
the Efimovichian timeline?

If the earth was orbiting around the sun, everything on the surface would be thrown off Shenton, president of the Flat Earth Society, 1998 (Daniel, Why the Earth is Flat, The Flat Earth
Society, http://www.alaska.net/~clund/e_djublonskopf/Flatearthsociety.htm, SL)
A second critical piece to the Efimovich model is that the Earth is not the center of the solar system either. It

is, according to "round Earth" theory, orbiting the sun at a radius of around five-hundred million kilometers. Were this the case, the Earth would be an accelerated object in circular motion around its sun. And thereby are the problems introduced. The Earth accelerating in circular motion would behave no differently than would a car taking a corner: loose objects (humans and animals would act like loose change or a cup of coffee on the dashboard) would slide around, or be thrown off completely . There would be an apparent centrifugal force on everything. During the day, when things would be facing the sun and therefore on the inside of the "orbit", buildings would be crushed and humans beings squashed like grasshoppers in a centrifuge . And at night, when everything would be at the outside, trees and buildings would be ripped from the ground and flung into outer space, and humans wouldn't stand a chance. Obviously, there is a flaw in Efimovich's "orbit" theory.

Gonzaga Debate Institute 2011


Mercury

59 Conspiracy Theory

Flat Earth Proofs No Orbit


If the earth was orbiting around the sun, only the north and south poles would be inhabitable Shenton, president of the Flat Earth Society, 1998 (Daniel, Why the Earth is Flat, The Flat Earth
Society, http://www.alaska.net/~clund/e_djublonskopf/Flatearthsociety.htm, SL) Using the "round Earth" theory, setting an object on the earth would be like setting grains of sand on a beach ball. Certainly a few grains would stay - right around the top, the surface is nearly horizontal - but when you stray too far from the absolute top of the ball, the grains of sand start sliding off and falling onto the ground. The Earth, if round, should behave in exactly the same fashion . Because the top is a very localized region on a sphere, if the Earth were in fact round, there would be only a very small area of land that would be at all inhabitable. Stray to the outside fringes of the "safe zone", and you start walking at a tilt. The further out you go, the more you slant, until your very survival is determined by the tread on your boots. Reach a certain point, and you slide off the face of the planet entirely. Obviously, something is wrong.

If the earth was round, the oceans would fall off the surface and evaporate Shenton, president of the Flat Earth Society, 1998 (Daniel, Why the Earth is Flat, The Flat Earth
Society, http://www.alaska.net/~clund/e_djublonskopf/Flatearthsociety.htm, SL) Conventional thinking would suggest that the water would just run down the sides of the Earth (to use the analogy again, like droplets running down the sides of a beach ball) and fall into outer space, while the air would dissipate. Using the earlier mentioned idea of "gravitational charge" gives some credibility to the theory. If the fluids were static, then exposure to the gravitational field for a long enough period of time would allow their molecules to align themselves with and be pulled in by the field. But fluids are not static, especially not in the atmosphere and oceans. Great ocean currents run both at the surface and deep below, carrying water across huge basins, keeping the solution far from stagnant. Jet streams of air travel at hundreds of miles per hour through the atmosphere. And windblown rainclouds carry vast quantities of evaporated seawater across miles of ground, releasing their load far from its starting point. Water or air that (according to "round-Earth" theory) starts on one side of the planet could end up completely on the other side in a matter of only a few days. With all this turbulence and motion, if the world were round, the oceans should all fall "down" into the sky, leaving the planet dry and barren, and the atmosphere would simply float away. Why, just look at the moon. It is round, like a ball, and yet it has no atmosphere at all.

Gonzaga Debate Institute 2011


Mercury

60 Conspiracy Theory

Flat Earth Proofs United Nations


The UN insignia proves that there is a movement to declare the earth flat again Schadewald, 1980 (Robert J., The Flat-out Truth: Earth Orbits? Moon Landings? A Fraud! Says This Prophet
Science Digest, http://www.lhup.edu/~dsimanek/fe-scidi.htm, SL) "It's the Church of England that's taught that the world is a ball ," he argues. "George Washington, on the other hand, was a flat-earther. He broke with England to get away from those superstitions. " If Johnson is
right, the American Revolution failed. No prominent American politician is known to have publicly endorsed the flat-earth theory in the past two centuries. Nevertheless, Johnson contends that this nearly happened right after World War II, not for the U.S. alone, but for the entire world. Consider the United Nations: "Uncle Joe (Stalin), Churchill, and Roosevelt laid the master plan to bring in the New Age under the United Nations," Johnson discloses with confidence. "The world ruling power

was to be right here in this country. After the war, the world would be declared flat and Roosevelt would be elected first president of the world. When the UN Charter was drafted in San Francisco, they took the flat-earth map as their symbol." Why declare the world flat? Johnson responds that a prophesied condition for world government (Isaiah 60:20) is that the "sun shall no more go down." This could be fulfilled by admitting that sunrise and sunset are optical illusions. The UN did adopt for its official seal a world map identical with the one on Johnson's office wall. But Franklin Roosevelt died coincident with the UN's birth, and the other imminent
events described by Johnson never came about. What did happen, according to conventional historians, was that Russia and the U.S. began space programs. After the Russians sent up Sputnik in 1957, the space race was on in earnest. The high point came in 1969, when the U.S. landed men on the moon. That, according to Johnson, is nonsense, because the moon landings were faked by Hollywood studios. He even names the man who wrote the scripts: the science-fiction writer Arthur C. Clarke. But he acknowledges that the moon landings were at least partly successful. "Until then," he says, "almost no one seriously considered the world a ball. The landings converted a few of them, but many are coming back now and getting off of it." Perhaps the Space Shuttle is intended to bolster the beliefs of these backsliders. Whatever its purpose, Johnson is convinced that it is not intended to actually fly. Because it was built and tested almost in his back yard, he knows many people who worked on it. What they've told him about some aspects of its construction only reinforces his convictions. " They moved it across the field," he sneers, "and it almost fell apart. All those little side pieces are on with epoxy, and half fell off!" The Shuttle had other problems besides heat resistant tiles that wouldn't stick. For instance, when the testers tried to mount it on a 747 for its first piggy-back test flight, it wouldn't fit. "Can you imagine that?" chortles Johnson. "Millions of dollars they spent, and it wouldn't fit! They had to call in a handyman to drill some new holes to make the thing fit. Then they took it up in the airand some more of it fell to pieces." If the Shuttle ever does orbit on its own, it's supposed to return to Edwards Air Force Base. To Johnson, that's appropriate enough. "Do you know what they're doing at Edwards right now?" he asks. "'Buck Rogers in the 25th Century' is made right where they claim they're going to land the Shuttle. Edwards is strictly a science-fiction base now. "Buck is a much better science program, considerably more authentic. In fact, I recommend that the government get out of the space business and turn the whole thing over to ABC, CBS, and NBC. The tv networks do a far superior job. They could actually pay the government for rights, and it wouldn't cost the taxpayers a penny." Flat Earth Society members are working actively to bring the Shuttle charade to an end. They hope to force the government to let the public in on what the power elite has known all along: the plane truth. "When the United States declares the earth is flat," says Charles Johnson, "and we hope

to be instrumental in making it do so, it will be the first nation in all recorded history to be known as a flat-earth nation. "In the old days, people believed the earth was flat, because it's logical, but they didn't have a picture of the way it was, as we have today. Our concept of the world is new.

Gonzaga Debate Institute 2011


Mercury

61 Conspiracy Theory

AT: But we know it is Round


The only reason we believe the Earth is round is because its deeply ingrained in our culture. The claim is actually dishonest and unscientific. Shenton, 2009 (Daniel, In Defense of the Earth Earth Not a Globe 1 Exhibit,
http://www.earthnotaglobe.com/library/daniel_shenton_flat_earth_essay.pdf, SL) The Earth is flat. This is a belief I hold as the beginning of an ongoing search for truth and certainty. It is a starting point - an intellectual foundation on which I feel further knowledge can soundly be built. Much as Descartes did in his
Meditations on First Philosophy, I wish to start from a place of certainty and build upon it. The Flat Earth is an obvious truth to me now. My senses show me and my reason confirms it. However, my belief that the Earth is flat is not a popular one and it is not a belief I have always held. Like most people, I was taught from an early age that the Earth is a rotating sphere which, along with a collection of other spherical bodies, revolves in an elliptical orbit around our Sun. To most of you, this will seem like an obvious and unarguable fact. It is something you have been told by teachers. Told by parents. Told by textbooks. It is something you are utterly sure of. And, more than likely, it is something you have never truly investigated. It isn't surprising, then, that people believe so strongly that the Earth is a sphere. We are bombarded every day of our lives with information. Television, radio, books and the Internet all compete to tell us things. Society agrees that some ideas are worth debating and that others are not. The idea of a spherical Earth falls into that second category. At some point, our society decided with great certainty that the Earth is a sphere and, consequently, that further consideration is unnecessary and anyone holding an opposing viewpoint is unworthy of debate. That the Earth is spherical is a 'fact' and

we are, from an early age, told to accept it without question and in the face of our own first-hand experience. But as 16th Century mathematician Pierre-Simon Laplace stated, "The weight of evidence for an extraordinary claim must be proportioned to its strangeness." The Spherical Earth model is truly extraordinary and runs contrary to all of our senses. Consequently, the burden of proof is extraordinary - and this burden has never been met. But, because the idea is so firmly ingrained in our culture, few of us bother to hold the Spherical Earth model to account. This tendency to firmly maintain beliefs while intentionally disregarding opposing evidence - particularly evidence in the form of firsthand experience -is intellectually dishonest and unscientific. Man's quest for truth is furthered only through experience and reason. During the 19,h Century, Samuel Birley Rowbotham pioneered an approach to astronomy called Zetetic Astronomy. Zeteticism stresses the importance of reason and experience over the trusting acceptance of dogma. This emphasis on experience as the only source of true knowledge dates back to ancient Greek empiricists such as Aristotle and was also prominent in the more recent British empiricism espoused by [ohn
Locke. In his An Essay Concerning Human Understanding, Locke states, "No man's knowledge can go beyond his experience."

The earth is flat based on the translation of the Bible Hare, founder and architect of the Sacred Text Archive, 2005 (John Bruno, Preface to The Earth is
not a Globe Ebook, http://www.sacred-texts.com/earth/za/, SL) Rowbotham believed that the earth is flat. The contients float on an infinite ocean which somehow has a layer of fire underneath it. The lands we know are surrounded by an infinite wilderness of ice and snow, beyond the Antarctic ocean, bordered by an immense circular ice-cliff. What we call the North Pole is in the center of the earth. The polar projection of the flat earth creates obvious discrepancies with known geography, particularly the farther south you go . Figure 54 inadvertantly illustrates this problem. The Zetetic map has a severly squashed South America and Africa, and Australia and New Zealand in the middle of the Pacific. I think that by the 19th century people would have noticed if Australia and Africa were thousands of miles further apart than expected, let alone if Africa was wider than it was long! The Zetetic Sun, moon, planets and stars are all only a few hundred miles above the surface of the earth . The sun orbits the north pole once a day at a constant altitude. The moon is both self-illuminated and semi-transparent. Eclipses can be explained by some unknown object occulting the sun or moon. Zetetic cosmology is 'faith-based', based, that is, on a literal interpretation of selected Biblical quotes. Hell is exactly as advertised, directly below us. Heaven is not a state of mind, it is a real place, somewhere above us. He uses Ussherian Biblical chronology to mock the concept that stars could be millions of light years away . He attacks the concept of a plurality of worlds because no other world than this one is mentioned in the Bible.

Gonzaga Debate Institute 2011


Mercury

62 Conspiracy Theory

Round Earth Proofs Multiple Reasons


The Earth is round due to the gravitational force pulling it into a sphere Cain, Masters in Computer Science and Engineering, 2009 (Fraser, Why is the Earth Round The
Universe Today, http://www.universetoday.com/26782/why-is-the-earth-round/, SL) Dont listen to the Flat Earth Society, theyre wrong; the Earth is round. But did you ever wonder why the Earth is round? It all comes down to gravity. One of the effects of mass is that it attracts other mass. For small objects, like your computer, your car, and even a building, the force of gravity is tiny. But when you have millions, and even trillions of tonnes of mass, the effect of the gravity really builds up. All of the mass pulls on all the other mass, and it tries to create the most efficient shape a sphere. You can also check out these books about the planet Earth from Amazon.com for more information. For smaller objects, like asteroids, the force of gravity trying to pull the object into a sphere isnt enough to overcome the strength of the rock keeping it in shape. But once you get above a certain mass and size, the strength of the object cant stop the force of gravity from pulling it into a sphere. Objects larger than about 1,000 km in size are able to pull themselves into a sphere. In fact, the International Astronomical Union decided in 2006 that this ability was one of the requirements for an object to be considered a planet. They must orbit the Sun, they need to have cleared out all the smaller objects in their orbit, and they need to have enough gravity to pull themselves into a sphere. When an object has the gravity to pull itself into a sphere, astronomers say that its in hydrostatic equilibrium. And thats why the Earth is round. Of course, the Earth isnt perfectly round. Because its turning on its axis approximately once every 24 hours, the Earths equator bulges outwards. And there are mountains and valleys that make the Earths surface rough.

Pictures prove - The earth is smoother than a billiard ball Cain, Masters in Computer Science and Engineering, 2009 (Fraser, Why is the Earth Round The
Universe Today, http://www.universetoday.com/26782/why-is-the-earth-round/, SL) The Earth isnt flat, thats for sure. And if you look at a photograph, the Earth really looks round . But how round is it? The actual shape of the Earth is actually an oblate spheroid a sphere with a bulge around the equator. The Earth is bulged at its equator because its rapidly rotating on its axis. The centripetal force of the rotation causes the regions at the equator to bulge outward. And it actually makes a pretty big difference. The diameter of the Earth, measured across the equator is 43 km more than when you measure the diameter of the Earth from pole to pole. This bulge has some interesting implications. For example, it means that the point on Earth furthest from the center isnt actually Mount Everest, but Mount Chimborazo in Ecuador. Only because Chimborazo is closer to the Earths equator. So how smooth is the Earth. When billiard balls are manufactured, they aim for a tolerance of 0.22%. The Earth has a tolerance of 0.17%, so its actually smoother than a billiard ball. If you could hold the Earth in your hands, it would feel smoother than a billiard ball. But the Earth definitely isnt flat.

Lunar eclipses confirm the earth is round Schottlender, PhysicsQuest Intern at American Physical Society, 2008 (Muriel, Top Ten Ways
to Know the Earth Isnt Flat, August 19, 2008, http://www.smarterthanthat.com/astronomy/top-10-ways-to-knowthe-earth-is-not-flat/, SL) Now that humanity knows quite positively that the Moon is not a piece of cheese or a playful god, the phenomena that accompany it (from its monthly cycles to lunar eclipses) are well-explained. It was quite a mystery to the ancient Greeks, though, and in their quest for knowledge, they came up with a few insightful observations that helped humanity figure out the shape of our planet. Aristotle (who made quite a lot of observations about the spherical nature of the Earth) noticed that during lunar eclipses (when the Earths orbit places it directly between the Sun and the Moon, creating a shadow in the process), the shadow on the Moons surface is round. This shadow is the Earths, and its a great clue on the spherical shape of the Earth. Since the earth is rotating (see the Foucault Pendulum experiment for a definite proof, if you are doubtful), the consistent oval-shadow it produces in each and every lunar eclipse proves that the earth is not only round but spherical absolutely, utterly, beyond a shadow of a doubt not flat.

Gonzaga Debate Institute 2011


Mercury

63 Conspiracy Theory

Round Earth Proofs Multiple Reasons


The way ships appear on the horizon prove the earth is round Schottlender, PhysicsQuest Intern at American Physical Society, 2008 (Muriel, Top Ten Ways
to Know the Earth Isnt Flat, August 19, 2008, http://www.smarterthanthat.com/astronomy/top-10-ways-to-knowthe-earth-is-not-flat/, SL) If youve been next to a port lately, or just strolled down a beach and stared off vacantly into the horizon, you might have, perhaps, noticed a very interesting phenomenon: approaching ships do not just appear out of the horizon (like they should have if the world was flat), but rather emerge from beneath the sea. But you say ships do not submerge and rise up again as they approach our view (except in Pirates of the Caribbean, but we are hereby assuming that was a fictitious movie). The reason ships appear as if they emerge from the waves is because the world is not flat: its round. Imagine an ant walking along the surface of an orange, into your field of view. If you look at the orange head on, you will see the ants body slowly rising up from the horizon, because of the curvature of the Orange. If you would do that experiment with a long road, the effect would have changed: The ant would have slowly materialized into view, depending on how sharp your vision is.

How we view stars proves the earth is round Schottlender, PhysicsQuest Intern at American Physical Society, 2008 (Muriel, Top Ten Ways
to Know the Earth Isnt Flat, August 19, 2008, http://www.smarterthanthat.com/astronomy/top-10-ways-to-knowthe-earth-is-not-flat/, SL) (3) VARYING STAR CONSTELLATIONS This observation was originally made by Aristotle (384322 BCE), who declared the Earth was round judging from the different constellations one sees while moving away from the equator. After returning from a trip to Egypt, Aristotle noted that there are stars seen in Egypt and [...] Cyprus which are not seen in the northerly regions. This phenomenon can only be explained with a round surface, and Aristotle continued and claimed that the sphere of the Earth is of no great size, for otherwise the effect of so slight a change of place would not be quickly apparent. (De caelo, 298a2-10) The farther you go from the equator, the farther the known constellations go towards the horizon, and are replaced by different stars. This would not have happened if the world was flat:

How shadows form proves the earth is round Schottlender, PhysicsQuest Intern at American Physical Society, 2008 (Muriel, Top Ten Ways
to Know the Earth Isnt Flat, August 19, 2008, http://www.smarterthanthat.com/astronomy/top-10-ways-to-knowthe-earth-is-not-flat/, SL) If you stick a stick in the [sticky] ground, it will produce a shadow. The shadow moves as time passes (which is the principle for ancient Shadow Clocks). If the world had been flat, then two sticks in different locations would produce the same shadow: But they dont. This is because the earth is round, and not flat: Eratosthenes (276-194 BCE) used this principle to calculate the circumference of the Earth quite accurately. To see this demonstrated, refer to my experiment video about Eratosthenes and the circumference of the earth The Earths curvature is tasty!.

Gonzaga Debate Institute 2011


Mercury

64 Conspiracy Theory

Round Earth Proofs Multiple Reasons


Increases in distance seena t higher altitudes proves the earth is round Schottlender, PhysicsQuest Intern at American Physical Society, 2008 (Muriel, Top Ten Ways
to Know the Earth Isnt Flat, August 19, 2008, http://www.smarterthanthat.com/astronomy/top-10-ways-to-knowthe-earth-is-not-flat/, SL) Standing in a flat plateau, you look ahead of you towards the horizon. You strain your eyes, then take out your favorite binoculars and stare through them, as far as your eyes (with the help of the binocular lenses) can see. Then, you climb up the closest tree the higher the better, just be careful not to drop those binoculars and break their lenses. You then look again, strain your eyes, stare through the binoculars out to the horizon. The higher up you are the farther you will see. Usually, we tend to relate this to Earthly obstacles, like the fact we have houses or other trees obstructing our vision on the ground, and climbing upwards we have a clear view, but thats not the true reason. Even if you would have a completely clear plateau with no obstacles between you and the horizon, you would see much farther from greater height than you would on the ground. This phenomena is caused by the curvature of the Earth as well, and would not happen if the Earth was flat:

Air planes prove the earth is round Schottlender, PhysicsQuest Intern at American Physical Society, 2008 (Muriel, Top Ten Ways
to Know the Earth Isnt Flat, August 19, 2008, http://www.smarterthanthat.com/astronomy/top-10-ways-to-knowthe-earth-is-not-flat/, SL) If youve ever taken a trip out of the country, specifically long-destination trips, you could notice two interesting facts about planes and the Earth: Planes can travel in a relatively straight line a very long time and not fall off any edges. They can also, theoretically (and some do, though with stops along the way), circle the earth. Correction (Courtesy of Klaynos, from scienceforums.net): Apparently, planes can circle the Earth without stopping! If you look out the window on a trans-Atlantic flight, you can, most of the times, see the curvature of the earth in the horizon. The best view of the curvature used to be on the Concorde, but that planes long gone. I cant wait seeing the pictures from the new plane by Virgin Galactic the horizon should look absolutely curved, as it actually is from a distance. (A picture of the curved horizon from a Concorde plane can be seen here).

Other planets shapes prove the earth is round Schottlender, PhysicsQuest Intern at American Physical Society, 2008 (Muriel, Top Ten Ways
to Know the Earth Isnt Flat, August 19, 2008, http://www.smarterthanthat.com/astronomy/top-10-ways-to-knowthe-earth-is-not-flat/, SL) The Earth is different from other planets, that much is true. After all, we have life, and we havent found any other planets with life (yet). However, there are certain characteristics all planets have, and it will be quite logical to assume that if all planets behave a certain way, or show certain characteristics specifically if those planets are in different places or were created under different circumstances our planet is the same. In other words: If so many planets that were created in different locations and under different circumstances show the same property, its likely that our own planet has the same property as well. All of our observations show planets are spherical (and since we know how theyre created, its also obvious why they are taking this shape). Unless we have a very good reason to think otherwise (which we dont), our planet is very likely the same. In 1610, Galileo Galilei observed the moons of Jupiter rotating around it (click here to see a beautiful video reconstruction of his observations). He described them as small planets orbiting a larger planet a description (and observation) that was very difficult for the church to accept as it followed a geocentric model where everything was supposed to revolve around the Earth. This observation also showed that the planets (Jupiter, Neptune, and later Venus was observed too) are all spherical, and all orbit the sun. A flat planet (ours or any other planet) would be such an incredible observation that it would pretty much go against everything we know about how planets form and behave. It would not only change everything we know about planet formation, but also about star formation (as our sun would have to behave quite differently to accustom a flat earth theory), what we know of speeds and movements in space (like planets orbits, and the effects of gravity, etc). In short, we dont just suspect that our planet is spherical. We know it.

Gonzaga Debate Institute 2011


Mercury

65 Conspiracy Theory

Round Earth Proofs Multiple Reasons


Timezones prove that the earth is round Schottlender, PhysicsQuest Intern at American Physical Society, 2008 (Muriel, Top Ten Ways
to Know the Earth Isnt Flat, August 19, 2008, http://www.smarterthanthat.com/astronomy/top-10-ways-to-knowthe-earth-is-not-flat/, SL) The time in New York, at the moment these words are written, is 12:00pm. The sun is in the middle of the sky (though its hard to see with the current cloud coverage). In Beijing, where Michael Phelps is likely getting ready for yet another gold medal, its 12:00am, midnight, and the sun is nowhere to be found. In Adelaide, Australia, it is 1:30am. More than 13 hours ahead. There, the sunset is long gone so much so, that its soon going to rise up again in the beginning of a new day. Heres a list showing what time it is around the world when it is 12:00pm in New York city. This can only be explained if the world is round, and rotating around its own axis. At a certain point when the sun is shining on one part of the Earth, the opposite side is dark, and vise versa. That allows for time differences and timezones, specifically ones that are larger than 12 hours. Another point concerning timezones, the sun and flat/spherical Earth: If the sun was a spotlight (very directionally located so that light only shines on a specific location) and the world was flat, we would have seen the sun even if it didnt shine on top of us (as you can see in the drawing below). The same way you can see the light coming out of a spotlight on a stage in the theater, even though you the crowd are in the dark. The only way to create two distinctly separate timezones, where there is complete darkness in one while theres light in the other, is if the world is spherical.

Properties of mass prove the earth is round Schottlender, PhysicsQuest Intern at American Physical Society, 2008 (Muriel, Top Ten Ways
to Know the Earth Isnt Flat, August 19, 2008, http://www.smarterthanthat.com/astronomy/top-10-ways-to-knowthe-earth-is-not-flat/, SL) Theres an interesting fact about mass: it attracts things to it. The force of attraction (gravity) between two objects depends on their mass and the distance between them. Simply said, gravity will pull toward the center of mass of the objects. To find the center of mass, you have to examine the object. Consider a sphere. Since a sphere has a consistent shape, no matter where on it you stand, you have exactly the same amount of sphere under you. Imagine an ant (perhaps the same one from the previous point) walking around on a crystal ball. Assuming the crystal ball is polished, the ants only indication of movement would be the fact its moving its feet. The scenery (and shape of the surface) would not change at all. Consider a flat plane. The center of mass of a flat plane is in its center (more or less if you want to be more accurate, feel free to do the entire [shriek] integration [shriek] process), and the force of gravity will pull a person toward the middle of the plain. That means that if you stand on the edge of the plane, gravity will be pulling you toward the middle, not straight down like you usually experience. I am quite positive that even for Australians an apple falls downwards, but if you have your doubts, I urge you to try it out just make sure its nothing that can break or hurt you. Just in case gravity is consistent after all.

Gonzaga Debate Institute 2011


Mercury

66 Conspiracy Theory

***Hollow Earth***

Gonzaga Debate Institute 2011


Mercury

67 Conspiracy Theory

Earth is Hollow
Science can only theoretically discredit hollow earth but Admiral Byrds trip there proves that it exists Libra Rising 11 (Libra Rising, Hollow Earth Archives, June 2011,
http://www.librarising.com/hollow/hollowarchives.html, accessed 6/21/11, CW) Admiral Byrd made two historic but unnanounced trips to the hollow earth, via airplane, both funded by the U.S.government. The first was 1700 mile trip, via Alaska, to the north polar opening, in February of 1947, where Byrd described seeing vast forests and what looked like running herds of animals. The second was a 2300 mile trip to the south polar opening, via McMurdo Sound in the Antarctic in 1956, where he also saw vegetation and bodies of water before returning for lack of fuel. While the purpose of these trips was to gather sensitive data concerning the Earth's interior, leakage of the events served to strengthen the notion and reality that our planet is indeed hollow. Further news of this, was however, repressed, and Byrd was sworn to silence as well. Byrd, however, did leave some writings, some of which were leaked and described the Admiral's ecstatic descriptions of "The Unknown Country".

Gonzaga Debate Institute 2011


Mercury

68 Conspiracy Theory

Hollow Earth solves Extinction Scenarios


We could retreat into the inner earth or relocate Earth Libra Rising 11 (Libra Rising, Hollow Earth Archives, June 2011,
http://www.librarising.com/hollow/hollowarchives.html, accessed 6/21/11, CW)
Most of us grew up learning in science class that our planet is a round solid ball of earth with molten fiery core at its center from whence comes our volcanic activity, while this sounds reasonable at first, the flaws soon start to come out. First of all, a solid Earth, down to its core, has way too much weight and mass to spin so quietly and perfectly on its axis. Secondly,

whoever designs, builds, or creates planets would see the wisdom of both minimizing weight and maximizing space a solid planet can only be mostly inhabited on its outer surface, whereas a hollow one would have two livable surfaces. Also, a hollow planet would be easy to relocate should the need arise whereas a solid one would tax everyones energy (planets can be moved by the levitating beams of huge space ships). The interior of a hollow planet would in fact be much more liveable or comfortable than its outer area, being protected indefinitely from dangerous rays. Winds, collisions, or even invasions it would be
akin to the interior of a house or car. And just like a house or car, it would have regulated heating and a light source (an inner central sun). A hollow oblate earth with polar openings also maximizes energy flow (electrical or magnetic), provides greater room for multi-plane or multi-level existence, and simplifies or eases travel.

The underground cities in inner earth are to protect us from war and natural disasters Libra Rising 11 (Libra Rising, Hollow Earth Archives, June 2011,
http://www.librarising.com/hollow/hollowarchives.html, accessed 6/21/11, CW) There are hundreds of large cities miles beneath the earth, many of which are interconnected by tunnels through
which high speed shuttles navigate, using magnetics for propulsion. Some of these are government or scientific installations while others are more alien or otherworldly bases. Some of these cities or communities are located in or under mountains while others are in large underground caverns. Nearly everyone knows about Telos a mile or so beneath Mt. Shasta in California. Not

everyone knows that nearly every major city on the planet has its roots in an inner city beneath it. Secret elevators or shafts in some buildings lead to these duplicate cities, to which only certain individuals are allowed or have access to. Most underground cities are built for protection in times of war or natural catastrophes, as well as for secret and often forbidden projects or activities.

The living conditions solves for physical and mental health Libra Rising 11 (Libra Rising, Hollow Earth Archives, June 2011,
http://www.librarising.com/hollow/hollowarchives.html, accessed 6/21/11, CW) Gravity decreases dramatically just 10 to 25 miles beneath outer Earth's ocean level greatly improving your physical health. Here aging slows down and hunger and thirst begin to dissapear . The air, especially in caverns, is richly revitalizing due to the solar light which is filtered and dispersed as it penetrates the earth and surrounds you as a halo. Below 25 miles you lose two thirds of your weight and can hop around like the astronauts did on the Moon. You also become younger, smarter, stronger, and need very little rest or sleep . Light emanates from everywhere so that there are no shadows. All of these conditions intensify as you approach the planet's gravity center 700 miles down from the outer surface, where breath and heartbeat cease,
where there is no weight, where telepathy becomes natural, and where thoughts move and shape matter. This is all described in the book Etidorpha by John Uri Loyd.

Hollow earth would decrease the human mortality rates Libra Rising 11 (Libra Rising, Hollow Earth Archives, June 2011,
http://www.librarising.com/hollow/hollowarchives.html, accessed 6/21/11, CW) The heaving of our chest(breathing) and the beating of our heart(blood flow)are abnormal conditions brought on by an abnormal environment. In John Uri Loyd's "Etidorpha", I Am The Man's guide explains that because of outer earth's intense gravity, our bodies must work extra hard to distribute oxygen evenly throughout -hence the heaving and beating. In zero gravity, however, no such pressure exists, therefore no breathing or bloodflow is required. This perfect state of equilibrium is experienced in the Earth's central gravity sphere some 700 miles below the outer surface. Here mind becomes ruler over matter and there is no ageing or degeneration. The inner earth surface is also quite good with only one-sixth the gravity of outer earth. This minimal
gravity and its cocooned state are what make inner earth paradise-like. Outer earth can also become paradise-like once the planet's water canopy is restored and climate, light, and gravity are stabilized and/or equalized as a result.

Gonzaga Debate Institute 2011


Mercury

69 Conspiracy Theory

AT: Hollow Earth Solves Extinction


Inner Earth denizens will not let us in, at best they will enslave us Libra Rising 11 (Libra Rising, Hollow Earth Archives, June 2011,
http://www.librarising.com/hollow/hollowarchives.html, accessed 6/21/11, CW) Ever since the first nuclear detonations in 1945 over Nagasaki and Hiroshima, Inner Earth leaders, both good and bad, have stepped up the monitoring of our Outer Earth surface, regularly sending reconnaisance UFO ships as well as using satelite surveillance and other means. The bridge between our technologies is closing and the time for a reunification of both worlds(inner and outer) is at hand. The problem is that there are two opposing forces with contradictory agendas for this unity. The negative inner earth denizens located mostly in Middle Earth(Earth's cavernous shell) want our enslavement, whereas the positive inner earth people located mostly on the planet's inner concave surface want our liberation and regeneration. Fortunately the negatives are dwindling in number as more and more of us here on outer earth are waking up and choosing the path to peace and harmony. Even the prophecies indicate that the vast majority of humankind will choose life over death and truth over lies. Eradicating what's left of the negative forces, however, will be no easy matter, but it will and must be done if the prophesied Millennium or new Golden Age is to become a reality.

There is a way for us to get to hollow Earth, but the inner earth government is keeping it a secret Libra Rising 11 (Libra Rising, Hollow Earth Archives, June 2011,
http://www.librarising.com/hollow/hollowarchives.html, accessed 6/21/11, CW) There is a massive conspiracy to hide the true nature of our planet that it is hollow, oblate, and inhabited within. Access to the hollow interior is principally through the north polar opening which is some 1200 to 1400 miles wide. There is also a south polar opening, but it is mostly covered with snow and ice. At about 77 degrees north lattitude the the planet starts flattening out an around 82 degrees north lattitude it starts curving inwards and one can catch glimpses of the earths inner central sun which lights and warms the interior and which is behind aurora borealis. There is a noticeable rise in temperature in these latitudes and salt water turns into fresh and wildlife is more abundant and the compass needle goes wild and then points south instead of north. Admiral E. Byrd flew over and into the north polar opening in a secret American expedition in 1947 and confirmed all of these facts but was sworn to silence over the matter. All of the major powers have bases stationed in the Arctic in a united but hushed attempt to probe the secrets of the hole at the pole and the interior world, but they are restricted entry by the more powerful inner earth governments or societies which they fear. Before every golden age the ice and snow around the polar openings melt and evaporate forming water or ice canopies around the planet and liberating access to the inner earth.

Gonzaga Debate Institute 2011


Mercury

70 Conspiracy Theory

Aliens live in Hollow Earth


No matter what kind of aliens you believe in they dont come from space theyre from hollow earth Geraghty 10 (Paul, creator of Google Earth, UFO Encounters, The Hollow Earth Theory and Aliens, 8/23/10,
http://www.ufoencounters.co.uk/aliensfrominnerearth.html, accessed 6/23/11, CW) In certain places, at various times, some people have claimed to hear a distinct humming sound in their head which sits on the fringe of their awareness but which, nonetheless, can be extremely irritating to them. Not everyone hears the sound, but those who do are deeply affected by it, and there have even been cases of people committing suicide after being driven mad by the incessant hum. People hearing the sound are often found within the same general locale, suggesting that they are not making the whole thing up. These strange hums have been reported in several places in the UK, most famously in Bristol as the "Bristol Hum." Internationally, the "Taos Hum" from Taos, New Mexico, in the United States, is probably the best known. Hollow Earth theorists speculate that the humming sound comes from advanced machinery used by the race of "Others" or aliens deep within the Earth. Proponents of a Hollow Earth make much of certain satellite photographs of the planet which were released by NASA. These appear to show a crater-like dark aperture in the centre of the Earth. However, critics insist that the photographs referred to are composites, created by layering multiple photographs together, and that the dark area in the centre is nothing more than an area which happened not to be illuminated by daylight at the time the images were taken. Who Are The Aliens Within The Hollow Earth? Among Hollow Earth believers, opinions differ about the nature of the beings inside the Earth, and their attitude towards us. Some are convinced that these "inner Earth aliens" are benevolent Atlanteans who are much like us in appearance, but who may be concerned that some of our technological developments might pose a threat to their way of life; others insist that the Inner Earthers are degenerate lizard creatures of malicious intent who are plotting some kind of takeover of the surface world. The view that there are multiple ET races or factions within the inner world is also encountered.

The good and the bad aliens are both subterranean species from hollow earth Natalina 10 (Extraordinary Intelligence, UFOs Truth or Deception? Part 3: Aliens from Earth, 11/24/10,
http://extraordinaryintelligence.com/2924/the-unexplained/ufos-truth-or-deception-part-3-aliens-from-earth/, accessed 6/24/11, CW) Anyway, weve gotten a bit off base. Back to UFOs and aliens. It is believed by some that these underground dwellings, be they mere caverns and passages or an entire inner Earth underworld, are the home to beings that are alien to us; and that perhaps the possess technology beyond what weve been able to achieve. Whether they originated here or they came here long ago is a place where researchers have a variance in opinion. What matters, they say, is that they are here. And in one very famous account, they are up to no good. In 1943, Richard Shaver had a story to tell. In those days, with stories as fantastic as Shavers, it was common to submit stories to the cult or pulp magazines that were so popular at the time. Shaver submitted his tale to Amazing Magazine. Editor/Publisher Ray Palmer began to correspond with Shaver, and ultimately received a 10,000 word document titled, A Warning to Future Man. Shaver claimed that there was a civilization living in underground caverns. These were mostly sinister beings, descended from an extremely advanced prehistoric race that formed civilizations below the Earths crust, but left because of the suns damaging radiation. From Shavers original manuscript: With the most positive finality, the caverns do exist, and they are incredibly extensive, so that the possible population (were not so many dead) could be thousands of times that of the surface of the earth, because it consists of very many tiers of caves? The caves are connected by broad highways, carved through the solid rock for thousands of miles, the whole inner earth being a vastly complicated network of tunnels connecting literally thousands of great caved as large as any surface city, and some so large as to dwarf a New York to insignificance. Those left behind fell into 2 categories. The Teros, supposedly benevolent, human-like beings, and the Deros, who were sadistic and cruel. The Deros apparently like to kidnap humans, drag them into their caverns, torture them, and then eat them. Not the most pleasant thing to imagine. Shavers tales were printed by Palmer as a work of fiction, and was titled The Shaver Mystery. Palmer insisted that while he presented the story in a fictional setting, he truly believed Shavers accounts. They went on to compile quite a library of information, much of which can still be purchased today. Heres a selection of what I was able to find.

Gonzaga Debate Institute 2011


Mercury

71 Conspiracy Theory

AT: Natural Disasters Adv.


Earthquakes and other natural disasters are cause by the battle between good and evil in hollow earth, only through liberating the good people in hollow earth can we ever solve for environmental imacts Libra Rising 11 (Libra Rising, Hollow Earth Archives, June 2011,
http://www.librarising.com/hollow/hollowarchives.html, accessed 6/21/11, CW) Many of the numerous earthquakes around the globe are being caused by titanic inner earth struggles between the forces wishing to liberate this planet and those who wish to continue keeping it enslaved. A particular target is the Agarthian citadel of the King of the World beneath Tibet, and his evil serpentine magicians, who were reputedly ousted from their stronghold in 1948 by a group of 500 empowered Lamas. The bulk of the most devastating earthquakes in recorded history tend to occur in and around China, the most recent of which occurred in July of 1976 in Tangshan which killed a quarter of a million people. Nuclear and ray weapons are used in an outer/inner earth joint effort to destroy the reptillian lairs which pocket the planet. Some of these lairs are imbedded in the north and south polar ice caps waiting to be reactivated(when the ice melts). Could the great Alaska earthquake of 1964 have anything to do with the attempted removal of such infestations?

Gonzaga Debate Institute 2011


Mercury

72 Conspiracy Theory

Earth not Hollow


No entrance at the North Pole disproves hollow earth theory Krystek 97 (Lee, the UnMuseum, 1997, teaches in Career & Community Studies at The College of New Jersey
http://www.unmuseum.org/hollow.htm, accessed 6/21/22, CW) As time has gone on the idea of a hollow-earth has become less a theory of fringe science and more a subject of science fiction and fantasy. Perhaps this has happened because new discoveries continue to show there is no validity to most of the hollow-earth ideas. United States Navy Admiral Richard Byrd flew across the North Pole in 1926 and the South Pole in 1929 without seeing any holes leading to inner-earth. Photographs taken by astronauts in space show no entrances either. Modern geology indicates the Earth is mostly a solid mass. One believer did seize on a NASA photograph showing a black hole at the North Pole and called it proof of an entrance to a hollow-earth. As it turned out the photo was actually a composite of several pictures taken over 24 hours so that all sections were seen in daylight and the black hole at the top was the portion of the arctic circle never illuminated during the day over winter months.

Earth isnt hollow Lamb, Contributor Discovery News, 10 (Robert, Is the Earth's core solid? , April 26,
http://news.discovery.com/earth/is-the-earths-core-solid.html)
Even if you breezed through a few geology classes in your day, it's easy to think of the Earth's interior like a Cadbury Egg: solid on the outside and molten in the center. Yet we've known for more than 60 years that the very center of the Earth is actually solid. Danish seismologist Inge Lehmann made the discovery in 1936 when she noticed seismic waves bouncing off a boundary point deep within what was believed to be a liquid center . With her finding, the world learned that Earth's core is solid at the center and liquid on the outside. "The Earth has a radius of 6,371 kilometers (3,959 miles)," explains seismology professor Xiaodong Song of the University of Illinois at UrbanaChampaign. "The radius of the outer core is 3,400 kilometers (2,113 miles), and that of the inner core is 1221 kilometers (763 miles). So the size of the inner core is just slightly smaller than the Earth's moon, but the outer core is more than half the radius of the Earth. The

core is composed mostly of an iron-nickel alloy and, as Princeton geosciences professor Jeroen Tromp explains, it didn't always possess a solid center. "The inner core is basically the result of the slow cooling of the outer core," Tromp says. "The temperature drops below the melting point at the inner core boundary so over time, slowly, the inner core has crystallized within the liquid outer core. That will
continue and eventually there won't be a liquid outer core anymore. It will be gone." The solidification of the outer core will take billions of years, but future inhabitants of Earth certainly will notice the difference. The liquid portion of the core is crucial to the processes that produce Earth's magnetic field. Without that magnetic field, the planet would be much more exposed to solar wind, a deadly stream of highly charged particles.

Gonzaga Debate Institute 2011


Mercury

73 Conspiracy Theory

Earth not Hollow


Earthquakes send waves through the earth that would only be possible with a solid center Britt, Editor in Chief, TechMediaNetwork, 5 (Robert Roy, Editor in Chief, TechMediaNetwork: The
science, technology and business of life, Live Science, Finally, a Solid Look at Earths Core, 4/14/05, http://www.livescience.com/6980-finally-solid-earth-core.html, accessed 6/22/11, CW) Scientists have long thought Earth's core is solid. Now they have some solid evidence. The core is thought to be a two-part construction. The inner core is solid iron, and that's surrounding by a molten core, theory holds. Around the core is the mantle, and near the planet's surface is a thin crust -- the part that breaks now and then and creates earthquakes. The core was discovered in 1936 by monitoring the internal rumbles of earthquakes, which send seismic waves rippling through the planet .
The waves, which are much like sound waves, are bent when they pass through layers of differing densities, just as light is bent as it enters water. By noting a wave's travel time, much can be inferred about the Earth's insides. Yet for more than 60 years, the solidity of the core has remained in the realm of theory. A study announced today involved complex monitoring of seismic waves passing through the planet. The technique is not new, but this is the first time it's been employed so effectively to probe the heart of our world. First, some jargon: P is what scientists call the wave K stands for the outer core J is the inner core So a wave that rolls through it all is called PKJKP. An earthquake sends seismic waves in all directions. The surface waves are sometimes

frighteningly obvious. Seismic waves passing through the mantle and traversing much of the planet's interior are routinely studied when they reach another continent. But no PKJKP wave has ever been reliably
detected until now. Aimin Cao of the University of California-Berkeley and colleagues studied archived data from about 20 large earthquakes, all monitored by an array of German seismic detectors back in the 1980s and '90s. The trick to detecting a PKJKP wave is in noting the changes it goes through as it rattles from one side of the planet to the other. What starts out as a compression wave changes to what scientists call a shear wave (explanations and animations of these are here). "A PKJKP traverses the inner core as a shear wave, so this is the direct evidence that the inner core is solid," Cao told LiveScience, "because only in the solid material the shear wave can exist. In the liquid material, say water, only the compressional wave can travel through." The arrival time and slowness of the waves agree with theoretical predictions of PKJKP waves, which indicates a solid core. The results were published today online by the journal Science.

Gonzaga Debate Institute 2011


Mercury

74 Conspiracy Theory

Earth not Hollow


There is no stable proof of hollow earth only folk tales and stories passed on through generations. Welsh 11 (Theresa, the Seeker Books, Hollow Earth: A Mostly Nutty Idea, 6/1/11,
http://www.theseekerbooks.com/articles/hollowearth.htm, accessed 6/27/11, CW *The book = The Hollow Earth by Raymond Bernard ) The so-called "proof" for this hardly holds up. The most interesting piece of evidence is the testimony of Admiral
Richard Byrd who supposedly flew into the opening at the north pole and found a warm climate, green pastures and pre-historic animals in 1947 and into the Antarctic opening in 1955. However, the validity of Byrd's story is hard to evaluate from an author who makes sweeping generalizations that defy logic. For instance, he says that the northern lights, the brightly-colored auroras of the extreme north, are the lights of the internal sun shining through the opening and asks (as he frequently does in this book) "what else could they be?" I laughed when I read this because there are plenty of other things they could be! The November '01 issue of National Geographic has a nice story on the aurora borealis phenomena and attributes it to interaction between the solar wind and the earth's magnetosphere (although it adds, mysteriously, that the details of how this works are still unknown) The book claims the openings at each

pole are 1400 miles wide! That is quite a large opening, and should be visible from space. Why don't airplanes routinely see this opening? The book claims airplanes never fly over the actual pole and that no one has ever been to either pole (except for Admiral Byrd and a few others who report seeing the green area with a warm temperature). The books says that the explorers who claim to have reached the poles did not actually get there, due to problems computing their real location. Compasses point straight down near the poles and there was no simple way to determine someone's position at the time of the early explorers. (what
about GPS? This book was written before we had GPS technology, and of course, Admiral Byrd made his flights before any such technology existed) Although we have pictures from space, what if a fog or cloud constantly covers that part of the earth? What if the opening is actually smaller? Could it exist without us knowing? How much do we know about what's inside our planet? I can't answer these questions, but they would make a good start for future research.

Science proves theres nothing in the center of the Earth except rock and liquid metal Cain, the publisher of Universe Today, 9 (Fraser, Universe Today, Earths Inner Core, 3/9/9,
http://www.universetoday.com/26710/earths-inner-core/, accessed 6/28/11, CW) Deep beneath the Earth lies the core. This is a ball of solid metal surrounded by liquid metal. The solid part is the inner core of Earth, and the liquid part is known as the Earths outer core.
Scientists have long suspected that the interior of the Earth is much denser than the rest of the planet. Thats because the average density of the planet is 5.5 g/cm3, while the surface is only 3 g/cm3. In other words, if the surface is less dense than the Earth, on average, then the core must be much denser. During the formation of the Earth, 4.6 billion years ago, the planet was a

molten ball of rock and metal. Because it was a liquid, however, the heavier elements like iron and nickel were able to sink down into the center. In fact, the inner core of the Earth probably has vast amounts of the heaviest elements, like gold, platinum and uranium. But the fact that the Earth had two cores, inner and outer, was first discovered in 1936 by seismologist Inge Lehmann. He observed that seismic waves created by earthquakes on its surface would bounce off the two cores differently. This is similar to how light waves refract differently as they pass through liquids. By measuring these seismic waves, scientists have been able to map out the size of the inner core. The inner core of the Earth is thought to be about 2,440 km across;
about 70% the size of the Moon. Its very hot, probably 3,000 to 5,000 Kelvin. Scientists once believed that the inner core was possibly a single, solid object; maybe even a single crystal of iron. But recent evidence has found that it has detailed structures, and even has an inner, inner core.

Gonzaga Debate Institute 2011


Mercury

75 Conspiracy Theory

***Planet X***

Gonzaga Debate Institute 2011


Mercury

76 Conspiracy Theory

Planet X = Global Warming


There is no such thing as global warming, planet X is the true cause of climate change McCanney, Professor at Cornell University 3 (James, Almighty Wind, What is Planet X?, 1/3/03,
http://www.amightywind.com/planetx/planetx.htm, accessed 6/22/11, CW) Planet X is also already effecting the Earth. The effects of it were recognized by planetary scientists as far back as 1995. Its magnetic field had probably began to effect Earth even earlier. Remember "El Nio" and the 500 year floods of 1993? Weather patterns have changed dramatically, producing "strange" weather. Climatic conditions are changing. The polar ice caps and mountain glaciers are melting. It has been revealed that in 1995 a worldwide "disinformation" campaign was launched by government "insiders," blaming the strange weather patterns on "Global Warming." But a number of highly respected scientists, who were not in on the "coverup," rejected totally the theory of "global warming." Rather, they [rightly] pointed out that the polar ice caps and mountain glaciers are melting from underneath, not from the surface. Why? Due to the approach of Planet X, solar flares are increasing on the Sun. The Sun is ejecting massive amounts of electromagnetic energy into space. Some of this electromagnetic energy is being attracted and absorbed by Earth's magnetic core, causing the molten iron core of Earth to heat up. The increased heat from Earth's core is filtering through the mantle of Earth to the surface, causing the melting of the ice caps and glaciers from beneath. There is no "global warming" being caused by household sprays and fossil fuels, and never has been. Such a claim is disinformation put out by those involved in the coverup. A recent news release revealed that there is now somewhere between 20 and 200 feet of water under the polar ice caps. This amount of water under the ice caps serves as a lubricant, and in the event of a major earthquake and polar shift, could cause the ice caps to suddenly slide into the ocean. When that happens, it will cause massive tidal waves that will wash over whole continents.

Planet X is the cause of global warming and we will never be able to solve for it End Times Watcher, online writer about space topics, 11 (Mystery of the Iniquity, Effects of Planet
X!, 2/22/11, http://mysteryoftheinquity.wordpress.com/2011/02/22/effects-of-planet-x/, accessed 6/23/11, CW) This is a short list of twenty five symptoms of Nibiru the brown dwarf with multiple moons in the alignment of an X in pictures from a south pole observatory telescope. These symptoms include but are not limited to: 1. Massive migrating animal deaths taking place all over the globe 2. Major super storm floods taking place everywhere 3. Magnetic pole migration that have been going on since 2004 4. Irregular weather causing food shortages 5. Increased volcano eruptions 6. Increased earthquakes 7. The wobble in the earths rotation getting worse 8. Sunrise coming 2 days early in Greenland 9. Yellowstone ground bulging from active magma swells 10.
No media coverage of Planet X/Comet Elenin calculated to pass only 21.6 million miles from earth 11. FEMA buying food and supplies for an expected New Madrid Fault

. Rogue tides from rising oceans Increased solar radiation 18. Increased sink hole activity and large cracks forming 19. Global Warming of all planets in our solar system 20. Unprecedented changes in sun and planets 21. Wacky Compasses 22. Leaky magnetic field 23. Weather/climate-induced food shortages 24. Mega solar flare activity 25. Global ocean conveyor disruption This list could grown to more than a thousand things that are going wrong on the earth for the same reason, as this link describes 600+ things caused by global warming alone. The lying science community and media and our corrupt politicians want you to believe that human beings are causing all of these problems when in reality they are all caused by the approach of a brown dwarf entering our inner solar system for a once every 3600-year orbit around our Sun. This Planet X/Nibiru/ELEnin Brown Dwarf Event Timeline has the most comprehensive analysis and commentary describing a chronological sequential timeline of events than you can find anywhere on the internet . Google, NASA, the US Govt and the Media are doing everything possible to hide Nibiru from the people in order to avoid sending the global population into panic, when in reality they are withholding valuable lifesaving information as accomplices to deliberate global genocide .
Catastrophe 12. Severe winter weather 13. Airports closing down to remark their runways over magnetic pole migration. 14 15. Sea Level Strangeness 16. Moon out of place 17.

Gonzaga Debate Institute 2011


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77 Conspiracy Theory

Planet X = Solar Flares


Planet X is drastically increasing solar flares on the sun and the heat that it omits affecting the earth McCanney, Professor at Cornell University 3 (James, Almighty Wind, What is Planet X?, 1/3/03,
http://www.amightywind.com/planetx/planetx.htm, accessed 6/22/11, CW) Planet X is already having a tremendous effect on the Sun. Astronomers and scientists began keeping a record of solar flares (explosions...Coronal Mass Ejections) on the Sun in the 1700's. Over a period of time it became obvious that solar flares reach a maximum every eleven years. Once the peak is reached, then solar flares decline for approximately five and a half years. The the next five and a half years they increase until they peak again in the eleventh year. This eleven year cycle has been going on ever since men of science began keeping records of their observations. But something has changed. The last eleven year peak was reached in 2000. After 2000 scientists fully expected solar flares to decline, just as they always have done in the past. But they didn't! Instead, they have steadily increased in both frequency and intensity. The largest solar flares ever recorded have occurred since the eleven year peak in 2000. What is happening? Dr. McCanney and other Planet X researchers are convinced that the increase in solar activity is due to the electromagnetic field of Planet X interacting with the electromagnetic field of the Sun. As Planet X comes closer, it is expected that solar flares on the Sun will continue to increase in frequency and intensity. Many centuries ago, YAHUVEH inspired the prophet Isaiah to write, "Moreover the light of the moon shall be as the light of the sun, and the light of the sun shall be sevenfold, as the light of seven days, in the day that the Lord bindeth up the breach of His people, and healeth the stroke of their wound," Isaiah 30:26 It is an established fact that the Moon has no light of its own, but is rather a reflector of the light of the Sun. But the Sun only gives off light according to the amount of heat being produced by its nuclear fusion electromagnetic generator. Therefore, when the light reflected by the Moon becomes as bright as the light of the Sun is today, and the light of the Sun increases sevenfold, consider the "heat" effect it will have on Earth and its inhabitants.

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78 Conspiracy Theory

Planet X Government Secret


The government is keeping the disastrous impacts of planet X a secret McCanney, Professor at Cornell University, 3 (James, Almighty Wind, What is Planet X?, 1/3/03,
http://www.amightywind.com/planetx/planetx.htm, accessed 6/22/11, CW) After the discovery of Planet X in 1982, astronomers began to study it seriously. They soon discovered that it was inbound, headed towards the inner solar system again. It was determined that it would cause massive earthquakes, volcanoes, tidal waves, the melting or shifting of the polar ice caps, sudden fluctuations in temperature and climatic conditions, and probably a shift in the polar axis of Earth. This information was passed on to the political leaders in our government, and presumably the political leaders of other nations. After some consultation, it was decided that if the news about Planet X and the worldwide disaster that it is expected to cause was released to the public, the public would react in fear, hysteria, panic, and anarchy. The result would be the total collapse of the world economy. Wicked men will protect their precious dollars at any cost, counting them of more value than the lives of their fellow human beings. So, a decision was made to suppress all information about Planet X, classifying it as "Super Top Secret." Yet, in the years since 1982-83, NASA and other agencies have continued to diligently study Planet X, accumulating a vast amount of information about it. In spite of the best efforts of astronomical and political leaders, working in collusion to suppress all information about Planet X, there have been leaks. It is now known that the Hubble Space Telescope has been repeatedly used to observe Planet X, but all information obtained by it has been hidden from the public. Only a select few top scientists and government officials have been allowed to view the photographs of Planet X picked up by Hubble. It has also been revealed that the Hubble telescope is equipped with special technological equipment that prevents any interception of its signals by anyone other than NASA. Since it is only taking pictures of things in the heavens, why is it so important that only NASA receive those pictures? Do they have something to hide? It has also been revealed that since 1982-83, the government has quietly financed and built eight new observatories, equipping them with the most advanced technological equipment available, for the specific purpose of studying Planet X. These observatories are in various locations around the U.S., with two of them being in New Mexico. But the public was never told about these observatories being built with their tax dollars. Why?

The Government is only concerned with saving the rich people from planet X while the rest of us are left in its destructive path McCanney, Professor at Cornell University 3 (James, Almighty Wind, What is Planet X?, 1/3/03,
http://www.amightywind.com/planetx/planetx.htm, accessed 6/22/11, CW) During the twenty-two years since the discovery of Planet X, the governments of the wealthy industrial nations of the world have quietly built vast underground complexes (bunkers) capable of housing thousands of people. These bunkers are intended to guarantee the survival of certain wealthy political leaders, ultra-rich bankers, corporate heads, etc., and others deemed necessary for their survival and pleasure. These bunkers have been stocked with enough food, water, clothing, medicine, and technological equipment to guarantee the survival of the occupants for several years. Those "selected" to use the bunkers have also placed various treasures in them (art; money; automobiles; alcohol; etc.) in order to preserve these things for their future use. At the proper time these "special" people plan to enter their secret, reinforced, earthquake proof bunkers, where they expect to "ride out" the devastation caused by Planet X, emerging only after the chaos and danger is over. But what about the masses of people on Earth who have no bunkers? The ultra-rich political and financial leaders of the world couldn't care less about the survival of the "common man." The only important thing to them is that they survive. They are the "nobles." They must survive in order to rebuild a "New World Order" and rule over those who survive the devastation caused by Planet X.

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79 Conspiracy Theory

Planet X Government Secret


The Government is keeping the effects of planet X a secret from the public while they protect the rich End Times Watcher 11 (online writer about space topics, Mystery of the Iniquity, Effects of Planet X!,
2/22/11, http://mysteryoftheinquity.wordpress.com/2011/02/22/effects-of-planet-x/, accessed 6/23/11, CW)
This Is What Google/NASA/Govt Do Not Want You To See. Supposedly in December 2010 an Russian discovered a mystery comet approaching earth named LEOnid ELEnin using a little 18-inch telescope, which stands for Extinction-Level Event from Leo Constellation.

NASA provided us with the ELEnin Comet orbit diagram data to create the illusion that these Nibiru Events will be a harmless comet show. This supposed comet (brown dwarf) reaches perigee position on September 11, 2011 exactly ten years after the 9/11 attacks. The third conjunction alignment takes place on November 22, 2011, or the same day that JFK was murdered . The Global Banksters, their bought-and-paid-for corrupt politicians and their Media mogals are right now loading food and supplies into underground bunkers in preparation for Nibiru, while you are being left out of the information loop to be caught by surprise on March 4, 2011, when the brown dwarf breaks through the solar ecliptic plane. FEMA is
preparing for Nibiru under the disguise of getting ready for a New Madrid Fault Line Catastrophe while you sit there unprepared.

Gonzaga Debate Institute 2011


Mercury

80 Conspiracy Theory

AT: Planet X - Not Destructive


Planet X wont destroy us it will open up new realities Singh, 4/29/11 (Ravinder Singh, Earth Changes Part 1: The Cosmic Events Ashtar Command Center Spiritual
Blog, http://www.ashtarcommandcrew.net/profiles/blogs/earth-changes-part-1-the#ixzz1QXLlbuGP, accessed: 6/27/11, SL) d) Second Sun Our Sun has a twin, another star, which is called as the Second Sun. This is also referred to many as Nibiru and Planet X. This star exists at a subtle level and although it usually isnt visible to the naked eye, it sometimes becomes visible to those who are spiritually evolved and has been photographed. Since the Second Sun exists at a higher level, it supports life of a higher order , that is, the life in the New Age. As we go into the New age, well use more of the energies from the Second Sun . These Energies are expected to become more prominent post 2012, because of our entry into the Photon belt and the Galactic alignment. They help us in our spiritual evolution and in opening up to newer realities.

Gonzaga Debate Institute 2011


Mercury

81 Conspiracy Theory

AT: Planet X Not Real


Planet X is just another example of the publics inability to see things anyway but their own Morrison, senior scientist at the NASA Astrobiology Institute, NASA Ames Research Center, 8 (David, a space scientist at NASA Ames Research Center and interim director of NASA's new
Lunar Science Institute, yousaytoo, Another Hoax: Planet X Nibiru?, 11/7/8, http://www.yousaytoo.com/rdy/another-hoax-planet-x-nibiru/13831, accessed 6/28/11, CW)
The scoop: Conspiracy theorists are convinced a rogue planet will destroy the Earth in 2012, and movie makers are already trying to cash in on the hysteria.

a small but vocal group of conspiracy theorists is convinced that a rogue planet is about to enter the inner solar system and doom the Earth They say that this threatening planet on a 3600-year orbit was discovered by the ancient Mesopotamians, who named it Nibiru, and it was known also to the Mayans, who associated it with the end of their calendar "long count" in December 2012. In Web sites, blogs, and radio talk shows, they insist that NASA is tracking Nibiru -- but that this information is being kept from the public as part of a worldwide conspiracy. They say the official silence can't be maintained for much longer, however, because by 2009 Nibiru will be visible to the naked eye from
An astrobiologist calls for a reality check Unbeknownst to most of us, the southern hemisphere. They also say Earth's axis is already tilting and the length of the day is changing under its influence. As one believer recently

I began to receive questions about this bizarre story in December 2007 through NASA's "Ask an Astrobiologist" site. Normally I receive up to a dozen questions per week from the public, dealing mostly with life in the universe -- but in the past 6 months the Nibiru traffic alone has grown to 20-25 messages a week, ranging from the anguished "I can't sleep," "I am really scared" or "I don't want to die" to the abusive "you are putting my family at risk" and "if NASA denies it then it must be true. As a scientist, I'm both fascinated and astonished by the deluge of questions from people who are genuinely frightened and, apparently, unable to distinguish astronomical fact from fiction. They're watching YouTube videos and visiting slick Web sites with nothing in their skeptical toolkit, or to quote Carl Sagan no "baloney detector." Now a blockbuster
wrote to me, "Why are you lying. It's coming, and everyone knows it. disaster film called "2012" is set for release in the summer of 2009, and the commercial enterprise is clearly trying to cash in on people's concern (perhaps contributing to their fear as well) My guess is that only a tiny fraction of people truly believes that Armageddon is coming in December 2012. But their

We're facing monumental problems with global warming and loss of habitat, yet a substantial minority of Americans thinks the world was formed less than 10,000 years ago and deny that evolution is possible. Many Americans seem to prefer
uncritical acceptance of this story worries me as a warning of the dangers of our current scientific illiteracy coal-fired generators to nuclear power plants without realizing the toll in public health that coal imposes. Billions are spent, including tax-payer dollars, for so-called alternative medicine with no scientific evidence for its efficacy. And legislators often resist efforts to collect the data that could actually demonstrate which government programs are effective and which ones don't work as intended .

In spite of my frustrations, I can always hope that Nibiru will turn into a teaching moment. Its proponents are convinced that it will be visible to the unaided eye this coming spring, and its effects on the rotation and orbit of the Earth will be obvious by summer (just in time for the release of the film "2012"). When none of this happens, I hope they'll realize that they need better tools to distinguish fact from fiction But maybe they won't One of funniest things about this Nibiru story is that it is a rerun -- there was a big Internet concern that Nibiru would destroy the Earth in May of 2003. Something tells me this didn't happen, yet now the same myth is resurrected. Are we condemned to suffer a Nibiru scare every decade in this century, or will people come to their senses?

Gonzaga Debate Institute 2011


Mercury

82 Conspiracy Theory

AT: Planet X Not Real


If planet X was really out there it would have been discovered a long time ago Robbins, Ph.D. in Astrophysics, 9
(Stuart, Exposing PseudoAstronomy, Planet X and 2012: Why Planet X Is NOT Coming in 2012, 2/3/9, http://pseudoastro.wordpress.com/2009/02/03/planet-x-and-2012-why-planet-x-is-not-coming-in-2012/, accessed 6/28/11, CW) The claim has often been made that its out there but we just havent observed it yet after all, the sky is a big place! But, this claim is just wrong. We dont have to observe the object with telescopes to know its there. After all, we dont observe dark matter, but we know its there (and I will cover dark matter denialism in another post). We know dark matter is present because we observe its gravitational effects. And so if there were an unobserved, unseen Planet X that was fast-approaching Earth even if it were 4 years away we would know about it. Spacecraft would be slightly off-target. Planets would be where theyre supposed to be. There are thousands if not tens or hundreds of thousands of amateur astronomers out there who are searching the sky every night to look at known objects or looking for unknown objects. If a planet were experiencing the gravitational effects of an incoming planet or star, the masses of people who rely upon calculated orbits without that object would notice that something was wrong. The argument that amateurs wouldnt know any better is also fallacious because quite often, amateur astronomers are better-versed with the sky than most professional astronomers. A professional astronomer even if they are an observationalist, may know a few constellations, but likely they will only know where their object or objects of interest lie (Im speaking from experience here). Amateurs, on the other hand, are very well-versed with where objects are in the sky, what you can see if you look in a certain patch, where asteroids will be, and where comets will be. So amateurs are more likely to notice the perturbations than professionals. The other claim is that Planet X is known about but Big Government is hiding it from You. In other words, the conspiracy theory. But again, this is really not possible. For the same reasons given above that many thousands of amateur astronomers would see the gravitational effects of this object, they would also very likely find the object. Amateur telescopes can observe asteroids that are as small as a few tens of kilometers across (the size of a city). Theres no way that they would miss a planet or especially a star that is only 4 years away from hitting us. And theres no way to keep many thousands of amateur astronomers from all over the world quiet.

Gonzaga Debate Institute 2011


Mercury

83 Conspiracy Theory

AT: Planet X Not Real


History doesnt side with Planet X theorists its merely their own misinterpretations of history Robbins, Ph.D. in Astrophysics 9
(Stuart, , Exposing PseudoAstronomy, Planet X and 2012: Why a 3600-Year Planet X (Nibiru) Doesnt Exist, 2/6/9, http://pseudoastro.wordpress.com/2009/02/06/planet-x-2012-why-a-3600-year-planet-x-nibiru-doesntexist/, accessed 6/28/11, CW)
Disclaimer: This is another case of proving a negative, which you really cant do in astronomy. However, the evidence that I can present that it didnt come by should either convince you or cast serious doubt on much of the other evidence that people present for it having come by. And thats really in this simple statement: Planet X folks place huge emphasis on the skill of ancient

civilizations to make astronomical observations. The Mayans had their amazing calendar and knew everything about Venus orbit. The Chinese have the oldest records of comets. All 15 major civilizations in 705 B.C. apparently revised their calendar within the next 5 years due to observing Earths year had switched from 360 days per year to 365 . These are all major pieces of evidence for various claims in the Planet X and 2012 doomsday scenario and conspiracy. So lets assume thats correct. If that is correct, then these same civilizations, a mere 3600 (nearly) years ago must have observed something as large as a planet that reached if nothing else as close as the inner solar system. After all, the Chinese could see comets, much smaller than a planet. They could see Saturn, much farther away than Mars (by a factor of around 25 times). And they knew that these objects were different than regular stars. They recorded them. Practically every civilization knew about them. And yet, somehow, there exist no records whatsoever of a planetary body encroaching on the inner solar system. If nothing else, this is the blatant logical fallacy of inconsistency. They were great astronomers. Yet they all managed to miss this gigantic event. The only
efforts Ive seen that attempt to explain this simply are required to resort to conspiracy theories: The evidence was there but every single shred of it, and everyone who knew about it, has been kept hidden by the world governments. Except for those token few who manage to get the truth out, past the Army of Darkness, to be brought into the Light. (Yet somehow they are not subject to attempts of silencing.)

Gonzaga Debate Institute 2011


Mercury

84 Conspiracy Theory

AT: Planet X Not Real


Its physically impossible for Planet X to exist NoPlanetX 8 (2012 predictions, A helping of TRUTH (Why Planet X can not and does not exist),
10/25/11, http://2012predictions.org/helping-truth-why-planet-can-not-and-does-not-exist-t201.html, accessed 6/28/11, CW)
That link leads to a website full of doomsday scenarios. There is a page about Planet X, look for it. You can read it if you want, but you don't have to, since I'm basically going to summarize scientific reasons why Planet X is impossible. (I know it refers to the 2003 prediction, but the proof would otherwise be scientifically and historically sound) 1. The laws of physics prevent an object with the supposed mass of Planet X to orbit around the sun in the same way as a comet. Even if it could, it would eventually become apart of the same kind of orbit Earth and all the other planets follow . 2. Nibiru doesn't mean what Planet X doomsayers believe they are. It means ferry boat in Sumerian. And as for the Babylonians? They sometimes used the word to describe the movement of Jupiter, or Marduck as it was also referred to. So Nibiru is nothing more than another way to say Jupiter. 3. One man (Zecharia Sitchin) managed to mix

up the word of ancient civilizations and accidentally came up with a doomsday prophecy when, in fact, such a thing was never predicted. In fact, both the Sumerian's and the Babylonians thought the Earth was a disk, and there for astronomically ignorant. If they couldn't figure out the Earth was round, how could they ever predict the end of the world via a large celestial body? 4. Mathematically, Planet X cannot exist. If Planet X is coming in 2012 like people think it will, and if Planet X comes around ever 3600 years like I've heard it does, then we wouldn't be alive right now. 3600 years before the year 2012, humans were already on the face of the Earth. In the Year 1588 B.C., the year when Planet X would have passed us by, there were plenty of civilizations running around
before and after this year. During the entire 16th century B.C., there was the Fifteenth through eighteenth dynasties of Egypt, the Shang Dynasty of China, the First dynasty of Babylon, the Vedic civilization of India, the Mayas, the Greek, the Mycenaean, as well as many others. And they all lived through the year 1588 B.C. Furthermore, none of them have left any known mention of any strange events, so it is obvious that even if Planet X does exist, it has a much wider time frame than 3600 years. (I only checked one source for the year, so that's my fault). 5. To WhatsUpWithThis. If Planet X DID pass us by when Pompeii was destroyed, then why didn't Planet X affect the entire world? Why didn't fire and brimstone wipe out entire civilizations? Why didn't giant meteors of death kill thousands? Why didn't anyone notice anything in the sky? Because Planet X did not pass us by. And as for the so-called discovery in 1983? It's true that two astronomers found a strange body in the sky, but it was just a distant galaxy. Go ahead if you have any other pro-X theories you want to challenge me with. And what does the Solar Plain have to do with anything? 6. The following website disproves Planet X quickly. http://www.planet-x.150m.com/index.html (Still on 2003, but the facts are good otherwise) 7. The Earth wouldn't just "stop" if Planet X came along. A planet can't just "stop" rotating. 8. Zetatalk. 9. Planet X was predicted to come in 2003... Nope, we're still here. 10. To Pandora. For one, 2003 UB313, or Eris as it is now known as, is only 23% larger than Pluto. Largest body discovered since Neptune? I don't think so. Eris would be dwarfed many times over if compared to Neptune, as would Pluto and our Earth, with is larger than both Pluto and Eris. It is also classified as a dwarf planet now, so it is no longer the tenth planet, as Pluto is no longer the ninth. Finally, when I say Planet X, I am referring to "Nibiru", "Marduck", and just about any other name for a giant f**king planet speeding towards Earth in a very elliptical orbit, and not a hypothetical planet (Not dwarf planet, mind you) that is beyond Neptune, but still resides in our Solar System. I am not completely rejecting the latter, but I'm leaning towards that it doesn't exist. The former doesn't exist period.

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85 Conspiracy Theory

Gonzaga Debate Institute 2011


Mercury

86 Conspiracy Theory

Gonzaga Debate Institute 2011


Mercury

87 Conspiracy Theory

***Aliens***

Gonzaga Debate Institute 2011


Mercury

88 Conspiracy Theory

Disclosure in 2012
2012 will be the year where governments admit the existence of aliens and enlist their help in saving the human race from disaster Sen, Professor of Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering University of Notre Dame 2006 (Mihir, December 21, 2012 the world will change forever as major Governments are forced to confess
the existence of advanced extraterrestrial UFOs India Daily, http://www.indiadaily.com/editorial/14929.asp, Accessed: 6/22/11, SL) The Maya prediction of a cataclysmic end to the world as we know it is near. Secret preparations are being made in many countries for the Governments to come out clean what they have been hiding for decades the existence of unexplained advanced extraterrestrial UFOs. Brazil, India and China are taking the lead in this matter. They want to make sure the emerging new world understands that we have to coexist with our advanced extraterrestrial neighbors. Negotiations are on with future manned travel to Moon, Mars and so on. There was a reason why Russia and America stopped lunar missions. There was reason why no one dared to travel to Mars on manned mission. There are reasons why the pictures from Apollo mission in Moon look fictitious. Apollo mission was real but it was an eye opener to the space agencies. The extraterrestrials were already in Moon to greet us. In December 21, 2012 something will change. The world will secretly use the help of the extraterrestrials to avert massive disaster for out civilization. The major Governments may not be able to keep the facts the under the rug any more.

The Federation of the Universe will visit earth in 2012 and invite us to be part of the Federation in hopes to protect our civilization India Daily, 2005 (Staff Reporter, An orderly visit of Extraterrestrial Federation in 2012 representing 88 star
constellations the world is getting ready for the most spectacular event India Daily, http://www.indiadaily.com/editorial/2656.asp, Accessed: 6/22/11, SL) The world is getting ready for something spectacular in 2012. According to researchers, the Federation of the Universe representing all the 88 star constellations will officially visit earth in 2012 and reveal themselves. It will bring an end to all UFO cover-ups in various countries. In many countries all over the world the rumors are floating around that many Governments are being contacted at this time slowly to announce their presence and coming official visit. According to some, the human civilization has finally reached a level when the earth can officially become part of the Federation of the Universe . They want an order and mo panic among people. A slow but steady process is on to slowly make people of the world ready to see the representatives of the Federation of the Universe. The world can finally become an official member of the Federation . The Federation represents all the 88 constellations of stars. Constellations are patterns seen in the positions of stars. The
modern celestial sphere is divided into 88 regions, each containing a different constellation of stars. Celestial Sphere is an imaginary sphere surrounding the Earth on which all heavenly objects (stars, galaxies, nebulae, etc...) seem to lie. The map of the Universe

and charted position of galaxies will be presented to the earth. In 2012 the world will come to understand finally the actual evolution process, the process of bending time and space, the fact that gravity is a wave and not a force and the fact that the whole Universe is run through electromagnetic flux generated through natural process or artificial means. The earth will also be exposed to possible dangers to our planet that we do not even perceive. Emergency evacuation plans will be created in case of an unseen and unperceived calamity like what happened to Mars millions of years back. There is a genuine attempt being made to protect our civilization. The earth will be made ready to understand who we are, where is our origin and where is out future . Even things like what happens to us after death and so on will also become clear in 2012. The world is getting ready for the facts slowly but steadily

Gonzaga Debate Institute 2011


Mercury

89 Conspiracy Theory

USFG - Alien Treaties


The USFG established secret peace treaties with aliens Wilson, Professor of Genetics and Burns Professor of Molecular Microbiology at Washington University, 89
(Richard K. and Sylvan L., The Watcher Files, The United States Government and Extra-terrestrial Entities, , http://www.thewatcherfiles.com/alien-treaty.htm, accessed 6/21/11,hk) In 1949, alien craft were often seen hovering over sensitive nuclear installations, especially in New Mexico, and probes known as "green fireballs" were frequently seen all over the state; they were presumably monitoring something to do with radiation. The disk crash at Roswell, New Mexico netted on live alien, named EBE (Extra-terrestrial Biological Entity). It was a name coined by study group member Detlev Bronk. Secretary of Defense James Forrestal became disenchanted with the whole handling of the alien problem. He voiced his concern to President Truman, who asked him to
resign on March 3, 1949. Within one month, the White House had all 3,000 pages of the diaries of James Forrestal locked up in a white house safe and had sent him to Bethesda Naval Hospital under the care of Dr. Raines. Forrestal's brother decided to take him out of the hospital, fearing for his brothers' life. On the same day his brother was due to pick him up, James Forrestal was found hanging outside of a 16th story windows of the hospital with a sheet around his neck. The sheet broke, and Forrestal fell to his death. In 1950, Canadian scientist Wilber Smith reported in a letter that the disks were one of the most highly classified issues in the United States Government, even "higher than the H-bomb", which President Truman ordered into production in January of 1950. In 1950, problems continued with alien disks. There were near

misses with commercial airline flights, and continued overflights over sensitive military installations.
By August of 1950, it was decided to let General Walter B. Smith assume Forrestal's vacant position in the study group. It was also the same month that the Government decided to seize all USS railroads in order to prevent a general strike. In December of 1950, a unit called IPU, Interplanetary Phenomenon Unit, was established operational unit to deal with the ever-increasing scenarios of crashed disks and aliens. That same month a disk crashed in the El Indio-Guerro area of Mexico and was taken to the AEC facility at Sandia in New Mexico. Astronomers in 1953 made a rather disturbing discovery of a large object

that entered the solar system, which later proved to be an object that was intelligently guided and emitted communication signals. The Air Force, in the same year, discovered huge orbiting objects between 100 to 500 miles altitude. They were alien craft. Project Plato, governed by the NSA, endeavored to establish some sort of diplomatic relations with the alien species that had appeared . In 1953, the NSA was successful at this task, and the CIA, perceiving that more public disinformation was needed, convened the Robertson Panel. The summation report, issued in January of 1953, stated that there was "no threat to national security from UFOS". By now, some of the aliens were KNOWN, and therefore the semantics describing "unidentified" flying objects could be truth fully used. Contact was made in 1953 with a race known thereafter as the Big-nosed Greys, and meeting was arranged with the aliens at Holloman AFB in New Mexico for 1954. A Secret Treaty was formed where the aliens would not interfere in our affairs and we would not interfere with their affairs. We would let them do what they want and also establish underground bases here in exchange for alien technology.

Eisenhower signed treaty with aliens allowing abductions in exchange for technology de Gourdon, Editorial Board of the World Affairs Journal, 9 (Come Carpentier, The Global Crisis
and the Ultimate Secret of the Empire, Exopolitics Journal 3:2, July, p.71, http://exopoliticsjournal.com/vol-3/vol3-2-Carpentier.pdf)sbl The author quotes at length testimonies submitted by various witnesses acting as whistle blowers who, with varying degrees of personal credibility all allege that secret treaties or agreements have been signed by senior security officials and implemented through Presidential executive orders since the 1950s at least. Like Salla, several researchers have reported the secret meeting that allegedly took place on 20 Feb. 1954 at Muroc (Edwards) Air Force Base, California, between President Eisenhower in person and certain space-faring visitors. The meeting is said to have resulted in the establishment of an agreement called the GREADA Treaty which, in the circumstances, could only be unequal, in view of the tremendous technological superiority of the visitors. It is said the US Government agreed to provide support when required by the aliens and that the latter would not intervene in human affairs, would not come out in the open and would in exchange supply some technologies to the host government. They reportedly also extracted US consent for carrying out a number of abductions of humans for scientific research purposes.

Gonzaga Debate Institute 2011


Mercury

90 Conspiracy Theory

USFG Alien Contact & Tech


USFG has traded access to our planet for alien technology Boylan, Ph.D. Behavioral Sciences, N.D.
[Richard J. Ph.D. behavioral scientist, anthropologist, university associate professor (emeritus), certified clinical hypnotherapist, consultant, and researcher, Area 51and other Facilities, Extra-Terrestrial Base on Earth Sanction by Officials Since 1954, no date, http://www.abovetopsecret.com/forum/thread61318/pg1, accessed 6/21/11,HK] In July of 1952 the world was electrified by large newspaper headlines and photos of squadrons of UFOs flying repeatedly over the nation's Capital in Washington, DC. Four months later WW II General Dwight Eisenhower was elected President. The same month President Eisenhower took office (January, 1953), the CIA's Office of Scientific Intelligence (OSI) was ordered to determine if UFOs were interstellar vehicles. OSI convened the Robertson Panel of scientists, which recommended expansion of an Air Force study of UFOs, Project Blue Book. A year later, in April, 1954, as documented by Gerald Light, President Eisenhower made a secret trip to Muroc Field (now Edwards Air Force Base), in the California
desert, accompanied by generals, reporter Franklin Allen of the Hearst Newspapers Group, Los Angeles Catholic Bishop James McIntyre, and others. The President had previously arranged to be in nearby Palm Springs, CA, purportedly for a golfing vacation. He "was spirited over to Muroc one night," while reporters were fed the cover story that the President had a toothache and needed to see a dentist. While at Muroc Air Field, Eisenhower was present while an extraterrestrial disc landed. Several Star Visitors emerged to converse with the President and the generals. The extraterrestrials requested that Eisenhower

make the public aware of extraterrestrial contact with Earth forthwith. The President protested that humans were not ready, and needed time to be prepared for adjusting to this stupendous reality. By the end of the following month, May, 1954, President Eisenhower's CIA Director, Walter Bedell Smith, Prince Bernhard of Netherlands, David Rockefeller and other top world financiers, later-Secretary of State Dean Rusk, later-British Minister of Defense Denis Healey, and other Western power leaders convened the inaugural meeting of the Bilderberg Group, "a means of Western collective management of the world order." One of the early items on the Bilderberg agenda was extraterrestrial contact. Shortly after establishing itself, the Bilderberg Group collaborated with the Council on Foreign Relations (CFR), another international policy body devoted to world
management, concerning the problem of adjusting humankind to extraterrestrial presence. Bilderberg and CFR decided jointly in the mid-1950s to enter into an arrangement with the extraterrestrials: The ETs were given an island in French Polynesia as a base on Earth. This arrangement afforded them an opportunity to monitor closely Earth cultures and behavior; and it permitted Earth governments a way to monitor extraterrestrial culture and behavior . "It became an ongoing experiment," as my former-NSA informant put it. He adds that when official public announcement of the extraterrestrial presence occurs, "they will be the ones introduced to Earthlings ; 'Oh, by the way, we want to welcome our neighbors from the Pleiades, who by the way have been here since [the beginning of Earth] time, but [are] actually living in our place, date, space and time.'" "They are the diplomatic corps." My ex-NSA informant reported that the U.S. particularly held out for many concessions before agreeing to the arrangement. (He did not specify what those concessions were, but history subsequent to 1954 suggests that what the U.S. obtained was the lion's share of extraterrestrial scientist consultants, to

assist American scientists in understanding and adapting exotic ET technologies into such devices we now know as the computer chip, fibre optics, lasers, gene-splicing therapy, cloning, night-vision equipment, super-tenacity fibers (such as Kevlar lightweight armor), aerospace ceramics, Stealth technology, particle-beam devices, and gravity-control flight.) NSC's Dr. Michael Wolf has previously revealed in his book The Catchers of Heaven that he worked with ETs as part of his governmental duties. "I met with extraterrestrial individuals every day in my work, and shared living quarters with them," while doing research at extremely-classified underground government research laboratories. He added, "Zetas work in underground facilities, as requested by the U.S. Government. The ETs are not breaking the U.S. Government-Zeta treaties, but the Government has broken treaties by mistreating ETs, and trying to fire on UFOs." Dr. Wolf also described working with very humanappearing races dubbed the Nordics and Semitics. He said, "The Semitics and Nordics come from Altair 4 and 5 and from the Pleiades [star systems]." Wolf also disclosed that in 1954 the U.S. had four extraterrestrial corpses in the "Blue Room", Hanger 18 at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Dayton, Ohio. These bodies came from a series of retrievals of downed UFOs. "The first UFO came down in 1941 into the ocean west of San Diego, and was retrieved by the Navy." (The
Navy has held a leadership position in UFO matters ever since.) Between that and the first publicly-announced Roswell UFO crash in 1947, Wolf says there was another crash in 1946, as well as two other crashes in 1947.

Gonzaga Debate Institute 2011


Mercury

91 Conspiracy Theory

USFG has Alien Tech


Transformers isnt just a movie-weve been using alien technology Wilson, Professor of Genetics and Professor of Molecular Microbiology at Washington University. Burns, member of the International Order of Odd Fellows, 1989
(Richard K. and Sylvan L., Professor of Genetics and Professor of Molecular Microbiology at Washington University, member of the International Order of Odd Fellows, The Watcher Files, The United States Government and Extra-terrestrial Entities, 1989, http://www.thewatcherfiles.com/alien-treaty.htm, accessed 6/21/11,hk) Concern or public probing into the "UFO" question caused the government to come up with the idea of developing disks using conventional technology and then displaying them to the public . This would take the heat off the real programs. Project Snowbird was created for this purpose . It too, was headquartered in Nevada. The United States and the Canadians had been cooperating for some time on the disk technology, and in 1954 successful tests were made of some jointly developed disk designs. Project Redlight sustains it first death of an Air Force pilot in Nevada during a test of an alien vehicle. Project Pounce was created to provide a general process of disk and occupant recovery, as well as providing cover stories. It too was run by the NSA. Project Plato, another NSA project, was initiated in order to establish a continuing program of technological evaluation of alien disks. Increasing numbers of people in the public domain began to have encounters with alien beings. In order to retain the element of secrecy, the Air Force established a number of "debriefing colonies" in the United States for contactees and their families - a practice which continued well into the 1960's and beyond. The Government also had contact with another race of aliens in 1953. This race would not share technology with the government, and despite their warnings about the Big-nosed Greys, the government broke off contact with them, preferring to allow the Greys to trade technology in mind control, beam weaponry and gravitation for silence on part of the United States about their abduction and mutilation operations. In 1954, Dr. Wilhelm Reich began experiments with his cloudbuster equipment, and discovered
that he could affect the propulsion systems of some of the alien disks. Reichs discoveries also involved the manipulation of biological energy in terms of conquering disease. It didn't take the government long to realize what a threat Reich was to the established order, and Reich was hassled by the government and jailed. Hew was finally murdered in Lewisburg prison in November 1957.

Gonzaga Debate Institute 2011


Mercury

92 Conspiracy Theory

Evidence for Underground Bases


Credible witness reports confirm underground bases de Gourdon, Editorial Board of the World Affairs Journal, 9 (Come Carpentier, The Global Crisis
and the Ultimate Secret of the Empire, Exopolitics Journal 3:2, July, p.72-4, http://exopoliticsjournal.com/vol3/vol-3-2-Carpentier.pdf)sbl There are now several reports by witnesses whose credentials have checked out as authentic, to the effect that secret underground or underwater bases have been built by certain non-human entities, with or without the cooperation and knowledge of the US Government. In some cases, circumstantial evidence has been found that makes their stories more plausible. For example, the electronic signals intercepted by physicist and electronics engineer Paul Bennewitz in the area of Dulce, New Mexico, were verified to be real, apart from the fact that UFOs are frequently sighted in the area, heavily monitored by the US armed forces, and that cattle mutilations occurred in large numbers at the time. Bennewitz also took some 6000 ft. of films, both nightly and in daytime of the UFOs and had access to NASA CIR (colour, infra-red) high resolution films from the air, which confirmed the existence of underground facilities at Dulce. According to his 1978 Project Beta Report, radio communications were exchanged between UFOs and a huge multi-level underground human-alien joint base located deep under the Archuleta Mesa, near the Kirtland AFB and Manzano Nuclear facilities, as part of a binary pulse signal developed at NSA's Cryptocity specifically for communication with a federation of extra-planetary species collectively called Unity.5 Reportedly, some of the aliens were cybernetic organisms made out of a mixture of human and bovine genetic material upgraded with Artificial Intelligence. Bennewitz also detected electronic subcutaneous micro-implants in some local residents who had seemingly been abducted and tagged by the Aliens for monitoring and remote control. Much of his work was carried out thanks to a US$75,000 grant from the US Air Force. With a computer and Hex Decimal Code software, he reported establishing radio contact with the Aliens. His work was closely monitored by Air Force Office of Special Investigations, but it is clear that at one point he came to know too much and was fed disinformation by the Intelligence community, which reportedly drove him to a mental breakdown. The name Unity incidentally echoes the code name Amicizia (Amity) used by several Italian contactees, headed by Bruno Samaccicia, to designate an Alien federation based in deep underground facilities in the North Eastern region of Italy on the Adriatic coast in the 1960s and 70s. Bennewitz who, unsurprisingly, was derided as a mad man by US official sources, claimed the Dulce Base was the locus of a variety of genetic, neuro-biological and psychic experiments involving the breeding of hybrid beings carried out by the Aliens with the likely participation of certain US or supra-national authorities . It is notable that his detection of these mysterious ELINT messages seems to confirm Dan Sherman's allegation (in Above Black) that the telepathic, electronically-aided communications with his off-planet contacts at the NSA were of the kind used by the so-called radio HF short-wave numbers stations that are generally unidentified and use artificially generated voices to read lists of numbers for unknown purposes. It is difficult to explain why so many unrelated persons would come out with such stories, at great risk to their credibility and even personal safety, if they were mere inventions. Many of them have been tested by psychologists and are not delusional or insane. Their motives for telling these seemingly unbelievable tales are hard to fathom unless they are simply trying to share very disturbing experiences that have changed their lives. Various self-confessed participants in the secret joint research projects being allegedly carried out at Dulce and other facilities (Bob Lazar, Phil Schneider, Dan Burisch, Michael Wolf) have provided independent confirmation of at least some of Bennewitz's claims

Gonzaga Debate Institute 2011


Mercury

93 Conspiracy Theory

AT: Government/Alien Contact is False


Multiple government statements & actions prove de Gourdon, Editorial Board of the World Affairs Journal, 9 (Come Carpentier, The Global Crisis
and the Ultimate Secret of the Empire, Exopolitics Journal 3:2, July, p.72, http://exopoliticsjournal.com/vol-3/vol3-2-Carpentier.pdf)sbl These hitherto unproven claims could be dismissed as silly rumours if it were not for the fact that a large number of historically documented facts tend to show that certain contacts have been made at the official level in the USA and possibly in other countries as well. In 1979 Lord Clancarty (Brinsley Le Poer Trench) introduced a resolution in the House of Lords to lift the cover-up on the UFO situation, but his motion was defeated as were several others in democratic assemblies of other countries (USA and Japan among others, and the UN General Assembly where an attempt was made by Sir Eric Gairy, Prime Minister of Grenada, in 1978), which could be seen as confirming the widely held suspicion that the powers that be do not want such matters raised, even though they publicly make light of them to deflect attention. Steven Spielberg has reported that prior to the release of his film Close Encounters of the Third Kind, inspired by real events, in 1979, he received a 20-page confidential letter from NASA specifying what could and could not be included in the definitive version of the movie. The alleged secret treaty or treaties seem to follow the recommendations contained in a draft memo purportedly authored by Albert Einstein and Robert Oppenheimer in June-July 1947 for the American President, which envisions the peaceful absorption of a celestial race(s) in such a manner that our culture will remain intact with the guarantee that their presence not be revealed.4

Gonzaga Debate Institute 2011


Mercury

94 Conspiracy Theory

Obama is a Reptilian
Our country is run by a shape shifting reptilian Huebsch, Baylor University, 5/9/2009
[Russell, Baylor University, Associated Content, Barack Obama Is a Shape Shifting Alien 5/9/2009 http://www.associatedcontent.com/article/1526375/barack_obama_shape_shifting_reptilian.html, accessed 6/25/11, HK] Is Barack Obama really a shape shifting reptilian humanoid from a far away galaxy bent on the enslavement of the human race? According to David Icke, who claims on his web site that most world leaders come from a line of reptilians originating in the Alpha Draconis, Barack Obama is most likely a blood drinking shape shifter bent on progressing the New World Order. Icke's reptilian theory makes the claim that reptilians plan to control humanity and other civilizations through fear and negative emotion, a food source for the reptilian. Icke believes the reptilians plan for world domination started to unravel with the September 11 attacks on New York and Obama's presidency will lead us into this "New World Order", but is this just mere babbling from a sick mind or does this theory have some legitimacy? Here are signs that the Obama reptilian conspiracy is true."Change we need": Has Obama told us all along that he is a changeling/shape shifting reptilian? Think about it, change always happens when a new president enters office, perhaps Obama's corporeal body is crying out to the world that a shape shifting reptilian alien has hijacked his avatar. "Change" might also be a code word for reptilian dictators across the globe that America has elected another shape shifter as president. Even Adolph Hitler claimed to bring change for the German people, but as we know all the only thing the world received from Hitler was millions of lost lives and the genocide of an entire race of people. Whatever this "change" really means it certainly does not bode well for the future of America and even worse for the human race. The questionable birth certificate: Why would any presidential candidate try so desperately to hide a real birth certificate? Perhaps because reptilian overlords do not receive birth certificates, they congeal out of a pile of goo! The voting public would never vote for a space reptilian and if the plan for world domination ever leaked to the general there would be mass chaos, thus the Republican party could never reveal Obama's true ancestry and the reptilian conspiracy continues.

Gonzaga Debate Institute 2011


Mercury

95 Conspiracy Theory

Reptilians run the Government


Reptilian aliens are among us-and they run our government Dunning, Skeptoid Critical Analyst, 5/25/07
[Brain, Skeptoid critical analyst, Blogspot, 5/25/2007, http://revolutionoftruth.blogspot.com/2007/05/reptileconspiracy-theories.html, accessed 6/25/11, HK] The concept of reptilian beings on Earth is a surprisingly widespread conspiracy theory , in which the US government and major public companies are complicit in a vast worldwide network of underground bases housing a large population of humanoid reptilian creatures called Reptoids. They speak English and are involved in every major government and corporate decision. They are variously said to either disguise themselves or actually shape-shift into humans, where they have public lives in positions of national importance. Some say the Reptoids are of extraterrestrial origin, and some say they are native to Earth, having developed intelligence before the primates, and have been secretly running things all along. I first heard of reptilians when planning a trip to Mt. Shasta as a youth. Shasta is one of our fourteeners here in California. As I discovered, it's also something of a sacred hotbed for a whole range of New Age traditions. It not only has a lot of Native American spiritual history, it also figures prominently for any number of modern pagan religions. Shasta is said to be full of secret caverns, jewel encrusted tunnels, and whole subterranean civilizations peopled with all sorts of exotic races. Most notably, it's the home of the Lemurians, an ancient race whose original continent called Mu sank and now make their home inside the mountain, in the great five-level city of Telos. Lemurians, who are tall, white-cloaked beings speaking English but with a British accent, employ invisible four-foot-tall beings called Guardians to protect their city. Bigfoots are also said to populate Shasta. Among all this exotic company, Reptoids would hardly be noticed. The story goes that Reptoids use Mt. Shasta as one of the numerous entrances to their huge underground network of bases. Reptoids are said to serve at least one very useful purpose: They are sworn enemies of the gray aliens, and may well serve to be humanity's last line of defense against this threat. Among the gray aliens' holdings
provided them by the US government is a large underground base at Dulce, New Mexico. Some 18,000 grays are said to reside on level 5 of the base, and they perform terrible genetic experiments on humans on levels 6 and 7. Reptilian beings have been caught trying to acquire information about the Dulce base. The most outspoken proponent of the conspiracy theory that reptilian beings in disguise are actually running our planet is David Ickes, whose book "The Biggest Secret" reveals information like this: Then there are the experiences of Cathy O'Brien, the mind controlled slave of the United States government for more than 25 years... She was sexually abused as a child and as an adult by a stream of famous people named in her book. Among them were the US Presidents, Gerald Ford, Bill Clinton and, most appallingly, George Bush, a major player in the Brotherhood, as my books and others have long exposed. It was Bush, a pedophile and serial killer, who regularly abused and raped Cathy's daughter, Kelly O'Brien, as a toddler before her mother's courageous exposure of these staggering events forced the authorities to remove Kelly from the mind control programme known as Project Monarch. This is a fair sample of most of Ickes' evidence that reptilian beings have taken over our government. Virtually any statement that Ickes makes is easily falsified by minimal research if not simple common sense, but since his is a conspiracy theory, any evidence against it is simply regarded as evidence proving the conspiracy. Don't laugh: Ickes sells a lot of these books. A lot of people believe this stuff. Where did all of these stories come from? The earliest reference I've come across is from a Los Angeles Times news story from January 29, 1934, which is available from the Los Angeles Times archives. Geophysical mining engineer G. Warren Shufelt had been using "radio x-ray" and had discovered subterranean labyrinths beneath the city of Los Angeles, including pockets of pure gold, and taken x-ray pictures of many of the chambers. Somehow Shufelt met with a man named L. Macklin, said to go by the Hopi Indian name of Little Chief Greenleaf. Macklin told Shufelt of a Hopi legend of Lizard People, an advanced race, who built the city beneath Los Angeles to escape surface catastrophes some 5000 years ago. Their history was kept on gold tablets. It sounded like Shufelt had struck paydirt almost. He still had to dig it up. Shufelt's crew dug a shaft 250 feet deep, well below the water table, which of course promptly filled with water, and that's where the story came to an end. So I began looking into the various elements from the LA Times story. First on the list was Shufelt's "radio x-ray" device. Times reporter Jean Bosquet described it: Shufelt's radio device consists chiefly of a cylindrical glass case inside which a plummet attached to a copper wire held by the engineer sways continually, pointing, he asserts, toward minerals or tunnels below the surface of the ground, and then revolves when over the mineral or swings in prolongation of the tunnel when above the excavation. So, it turns out, Shufelt's device has little to do with either radio or x-rays and more to do with a common dowsing pendulum. This was all he had to guide his elaborate drawing of the catacomb layout, which you can see online at Skeptoid.com, along with a picture of Shufelt using his dowsing pendulum. Shufelt stated he has taken "x-ray pictures" of thirty seven such tablets, three of which have their southwest corners cut off. "My radio x-ray pictures

of tunnels and rooms, which are subsurface voids, and of gold pictures with perfect corners, sides and ends, are scientific proof of their existence," Shufelt said. Shufelt's dowsing results notwithstanding, parts of the story seem unlikely. Gold, and metallurgy in general, was unknown among the Hopi until the mid 1700's. So was chemistry, but Macklin said that the Lizard People "perfected a chemical solution by which they bored underground without
removing earth and rock." I did make a pretty thorough effort to track down any such Hopi legend, but came up empty handed, not counting numerous modern references to Mt. Shasta and the Los Angeles catacomb story. I did find a "Lizard clan" referenced in several

****continued***

Gonzaga Debate Institute 2011


Mercury

96 Conspiracy Theory

Reptilians run the Government


***continued***
Hopi stories, but always among other clans (the Spider clan, the Bear clan), and never any references to underground cities, golden tablets, or any other elements from Shufelt's story. Obviously, my failure to find any evidence of such a legend doesn't prove anything: Native American legends were traditionally passed by word of mouth and never were written down, the only exceptions being those that made it into modern storybook collections. I was also unable to find a man named either L. Macklin or Little Chief Greenleaf in the public birth and death certificate databases for the Hopi Reservation in the Navajo Nation Court, but again, all this proves is that I didn't find it. If Shufelt's dowsing misadventures truly were the genesis of modern Reptoid legends, there is an ironic aspect. Macklin never said that there was anything reptilian about the Lizard clan, they were simply one subculture of the Hopi, though just as human as anyone else. According to the story Macklin told Shufelt: The Lizard People, the legend has it, regarded the lizard as the symbol of long life. Their city is laid out like a lizard, according to the legend, its tail to the southwest ... its head to the

northeast.

Reptilians live among us and run our government Dunning 7 (Brian, Skeptoid, Reptile Conspiracy Theories, 5/21/07,
http://revolutionoftruth.blogspot.com/2007/05/reptile-conspiracy-theories.html, accessed 6/25/11 CW) Collect your children and run for cover. Today we're going to look at the terrifying tale that says a race of tall reptilian beings lives among us, and even runs our government. The concept of reptilian beings on Earth is a surprisingly widespread conspiracy theory, in which the US government and major public companies are complicit in a vast worldwide network of underground bases housing a large population of humanoid reptilian creatures called Reptoids. They speak English and are involved in every major government and corporate decision. They are variously said to either disguise themselves or actually shape-shift into humans, where they have public lives in positions of national importance. Some say the Reptoids are of extraterrestrial origin, and some say they are native to Earth, having developed intelligence before the primates, and have been secretly running things all along. I first heard of reptilians when planning a trip to Mt. Shasta as a youth. Shasta is one of our fourteeners here in California. As I discovered, it's also something of a sacred hotbed for a whole range of New Age traditions. It not only has a lot of Native American spiritual history, it also figures prominently for any number of modern pagan religions. Shasta is said to be full of secret caverns, jewel encrusted tunnels, and whole subterranean civilizations peopled with all sorts of exotic races. Most notably, it's the home of the Lemurians, an ancient race whose original continent called Mu sank and now make their home inside the mountain, in the great five-level city of Telos. Lemurians, who are tall, white-cloaked beings speaking English but with a British accent, employ invisible four-foot-tall beings called Guardians to protect their city. Bigfoots are also said to populate Shasta. Among all this exotic company, Reptoids would hardly be noticed. The story goes that Reptoids use Mt. Shasta as one of the numerous entrances to their huge underground network of bases.

Gonzaga Debate Institute 2011


Mercury

97 Conspiracy Theory

Reptilians Bad 100% Solvency Takeout


The aff can never solve for any human caused impacts, like war, because all of those impacts are caused by reptilian mind control as long as reptilians exist in the world humans will never have full control of their own thoughts and action Lewis, professor at Montclair State University and Kahn, professor at Antioch University 5
(Tyson and Richard,The Reptoid Hypothesis: Utopian and Dystopian Representational Motifs in David Ickes Alien Conspiracy Theory, Utopian Societies, volume: 16 no. 1, 2005, p. 10-11, CW) Mirroring a number of claims made by the political far-right, Icke asserts a standard conspiracy-culture line that the pure Aryan bloodline has ruled the planet throughout history, though he is unique in developing it in an exocultural direction. In Ickes mind, Aryan lizards have been Sumerian kings, Egyptian pharaohs, and, in more recent history, American presidents and British prime ministers. According to Icke, 43 American presidents, including George Washington and George W. Bush, are direct reptoid-lineage descendants, and the Queen Mother herself was seriously reptilian (Children 79). In fact, it is at this point that much of Ickes work has its most enduring interest, by providing historical critique that is at once trenchant political analysis mixed with what reads like an over-the-top satire in the tradition of Jonathan Swift. 7 In this respect, Ickes work includes any number of accountings of how world leaders and other famous personalities, in order to satiate their reptilian bloodlust, take part in ritualistic sacrifices and pedophilic activities that include kidnapping, hedonistic drug parties, and brutal murder. Icke himself theorizes that such obscene acts as these typify the difference between alien-kind and humanity and that they are necessary else the Aryan-reptilians lose their temporary human form and revert to their original reptoid physiognomy. Again following the prevailing exocultural explanation, Icke claims that in order to maintain their position of world domination down through the centuries, the Aryan lizards have created a secret society known as the Freemasons or Illuminati. The Illuminati are the grand historical puppet masters, presiding over all human activities through indirect channels of control and manipulation. From the innermost secretive Round Table, a handful of reptilian masterminds directs the course of human events via a network of international organizations such as the Council on Foreign Relations, The Trilateral - 1111Commission, The Bilderberg Group, the IMF, World Bank, and the United Nations (Children 339). The plan is quite simply to complete their financial control of the human race (Children 345). In order to maintain their anonymity and deflect attention away from their ubiquitous presence in international finance and politics, Icke believes that the Illuminati are very interested in mind control. The media and the Internet are two powerful tools that they have developed to achieve mind control over the general populace. In Ickes conspiratorial schema, The media, in turn, get their news and information overwhelmingly from official sources, which, like the media itself, are owned by the reptilian bloodline (Children 260). Commenting on the Internet conspiracy, Icke writes, The Internet is an Illuminati creation and only exists because of military technology. . . . It allows for the easiest possible surveillance of personal communications through e-mails, and the websites visited by individuals give the authorities the opportunity to build a personality and knowledge profile of everyone. Its about control (Children 415). The Internet, then, is just another step towards perfect surveillance of the human race. The most important goal of the Illuminati is, according to Icke, a micro-chipped population (Children 368). Once a microchip is inserted into the human body, each individual will be tracked using a global positioning satellite. Thus in the 21st century the reptoids have gone digital, inventing and deploying new information technologies that will further suppress the truth, expand the scope of surveillance, and restrict individual freedoms.

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98 Conspiracy Theory

Reptilians Most Evil


The Reptilians are the most destructive and evil in their plans to take over Earth they work with the Greys and pose the greatest risk Violet Earth Academy, Ascension classes and workshops including DNA activations, life coaching, alchemy, clearings, and readings. no date
(From A to Z of Alien Species Active in Earths Evolution Biblioteca Pleyades, http://www.bibliotecapleyades.net/vida_alien/esp_vida_alien_19a.htm, accessed: 6/28/11, SL) The Reptilian race is the other extraterrestrial race that is most negative, destructive, and evil in their intent. These extraterrestrials are human in shape, however, have reptilian type faces. They also have scales which makes their skin water proof. They have three fingers with an opposing thumb. Their mouth is more like a slit. They average from six to seven feet in height. They are well suited for space travel because they are able to hibernate. They are cold blooded biologically, so must have a balanced environment to maintain body temperature. The soldier class can bury themselves in the ground and wait long periods of time in order to ambush an enemy. The leader of this specie are called the Draco. They have special wings, which are like flaps of skin. There is a second group of their race that does not have wings. The soldier class and scientists of their race dont. In an emergency they can survive on one very large meal every few weeks. These Reptilians have been interacting with Earth for a very long time. In their home system they apparently live underground. This Reptilian species apparently directs the efforts of the working class which are only about four feet tall. These beings would be considered another one of the subspecies of the Greys. The command progression in this Reptilian society are the Draco who are the winged Reptilians first in command Secondly the Draco who are the non winged Reptilians Then the Greys This group, along with the Greys, pose the greatest danger at this time to planet Earth.

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99 Conspiracy Theory

Reptilians Good Defeat the Grays


Reptoids are our last line of defense against the Gray Aliens Dunning 7 (Brian, Skeptoid, Reptile Conspiracy Theories, 5/21/07,
http://revolutionoftruth.blogspot.com/2007/05/reptile-conspiracy-theories.html, accessed 6/25/11 CW) Reptoids are said to serve at least one very useful purpose: They are sworn enemies of the gray aliens, and may well serve to be humanity's last line of defense against this threat. Among the gray aliens' holdings provided them by the US government is a large underground base at Dulce, New Mexico. Some 18,000 grays are said to reside on level 5 of the base, and they perform terrible genetic experiments on humans on levels 6 and 7. Reptilian beings have been caught trying to acquire information about the Dulce base.

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100 Conspiracy Theory

Grey Aliens Bad Human Cattle


The Greys are being used by the Draconians in their infiltration plans they are above else self-serving and view humans as cattle to exploit Violet Earth Academy, Ascension classes and workshops including DNA activations, life coaching, alchemy, clearings, and readings. no date
(From A to Z of Alien Species Active in Earths Evolution Biblioteca Pleyades, http://www.bibliotecapleyades.net/vida_alien/esp_vida_alien_19a.htm, accessed: 6/28/11, SL) GREYS, THE Small neo-saurian hominoids, very prolific and intelligent. May be the brains or intellect of the serpent race, whereas the larger Reptoids allegedly act as the PHYSICAL overlords and thus are of a higher ranking than the Greys. The Greys are logic-based and operate on base animal survival or predatory instincts and in most cases are emotionally insensitive to humans, and like other reptilian entities they feed off of human and animal vital fluids by rubbing a liquid protein formula on their bodies, which is then absorbed through the skin. Like typical reptiles which shed their skins the waste is excreted back through the skin. The Greys range from 3 1/2 to 4 1/2 ft. tall on the average, with skin colors ranging from gray-white to grey-brown to gray-green to grey-blue. Aside from feeding off of human and animal proteins and fluids, they also allegedly feed off the life energy, the vital essence or soul energy of humans as do other reptilian species. This is why those humans seen working with the Greys (implanted and programmed drones, whether willingly or unwillingly) have appeared lifeless and emotionless to the witnesses who observed them. The Greys are reportedly EXTREMELY deceitful and although they act on logic, to them it is logical to use extremely complex forms of deception to bring about their goals. They are the most commonly observed alien entities encountered during UFO events. Their basic program is service to self. They are using this planet as a supply depot, for biological materials (people and cattle mutilations.) They are very telepathic in nature. Our world is not the only world they have tried to conquer. The Grays from Zeta Reticuli have the ability to magnify their mental field in order to maintain control over humans. These different species of Grays are members of a network which is a type of loose alliance to which all have common purposes and aims. The Grays from Rigel (click image right) were the ones that made the secret deal with the US Government. They are impregnating human females on a massive scale, and later extracting the fetuses. Most of their biological materials comes from the cattle mutilation. However it s a known fact that at times they have done human mutilations. These materials have been found on their crashed UFO crafts. There are some books on the market saying that they are our friends, and that we agreed to these abductions. We are here to tell you not to believe it for a second. These beings are very disturbed beings and are here to take over this planet for their own selfish purposes. They look at us in a similar way that the unconscious mass of our society looks at animals. The Zeta Reticulans appear to be divided into two different groups. There is one group that appears to be a little more tolerant towards human beings. The other group is interested in colonization and conquest of planet Earth. The Grays have one base near the Aleutian Islands. The Grays seem to have influence over the Reticulans and the Beeletrax species of Grays. These Grays have no stomach and digest their food by absorption through the skin or under their tongue. They have been cloning themselves instead of the practice of reproduction we use on Earth. Each time they reclone, however, the genetic copy becomes weaker, which is part of their problem. Their attitude towards humans is tolerance towards inferiors. They are technologically superior, however, spiritually and socially backwards.

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101 Conspiracy Theory

Gray Aliens Bad - Hitler


The Gray Aliens desire to control humanity led to Hitlers corruption and rise to power Doyle 96 (Sir Arthur Canon, Path to the Source, The Gray Alien Alliance with Adolf Hitler and the Nazis,
10/22/96, http://www.geohanover.com/docs/961022ed.htm, accessed 6/25/11, CW) The information that I need to impart is that in the year 1930 the gray aliens approached Adolph Hitler and made the proposal promising him world control, offering him technological advances, offering him supremacy. 'Tis obvious that an alien technology, an alien culture, particularly one as alien as the gray beings would be most impressive. Their technological displays, far in advance of anything humanity possesses then or now, was most seductive. Hitler had a charisma and initially a sense of caring for the plight of the German people who had been unfairly treated after the debacle of the first world war; the war to end all wars. This abuse of the general population of the German people opened the door for the gray aliens. They saw it as an opportunity to achieve their goal of establishing a legitimate presence on earth. They knew that the regulators, the keepers of the peace, would stop them from invading or subjugating humanity. But the loophole that they sought consisted of creating a form superior to the human form but being a part of themselves so that they could stake a claim of legitimacy to the planet Earth. Mr. Hitler was most impressed by their technologies and was led to believe that he would have free access to this technology. Being a brilliant, if not unstable individual, he recognized the potential. This spurred him to establish his network. Convincing people with power to follow him was a relatively simple task when he displayed proof of the aliens and their technology. For the tough sell cases direct meetings took place with the gray aliens present; obviously a very impactful presentation. His isolated mountain chalet was the meeting site for contact with these gray aliens. This was the beginning of his rise to power. And utilizing the individuals in key positions that were impressed by the technology and the mere existence of the gray race was how he managed to achieve power and ultimately a dictatorship over the German people. The down trodden German people were too willing to follow anyone who offered to feed them, which they were starving, and regain their pride, in which the Germanic population is a very proud people. There would not have been the seeds of the second world war planted if the dignity of the German people had been respected. Believing that he had full support, full access to the technology and even a promise of direct intervention if necessary, Mr. Hitler proceeded with his plans to eliminate the obstacles to becoming ruler of the world. This belief of omnipotence inspired by the gray aliens infused the German people. The animation, the power, the charisma that was a part of this brilliant but unstable personality was spurred to even greater heights by the gray's omnisentience. When he spoke to the German people he spoke with conviction. He spoke with the belief that the German people, with the alliance, with gray aliens, were invincible. Mr. Hitler chose as associates, people who had no scruples. He needed people that would do whatever was necessary to eliminate the obstacles in his path to supreme rule. This of course necessitated the murder of thousands of individuals, thousands of his own people, which was done systematically and efficiently. So much so that the world did not realize what was occurring. Even the German people had no conception that many of the key thinking people of their country were disappearing or dying under mysterious circumstances.

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102 Conspiracy Theory

Gray Aliens Bad - Nazis


Bases under the South Pole house the Aryan race created by the Greys Violet Earth Academy, Ascension classes and workshops including DNA activations, life coaching, alchemy, clearings, and readings. no date
(From A to Z of Alien Species Active in Earths Evolution Biblioteca Pleyades, http://www.bibliotecapleyades.net/vida_alien/esp_vida_alien_19a.htm, accessed: 6/28/11, SL) ANTARCTICAN This is allegedly a secret area of operations for both human and reptilian beings . It is said by some that Aryan-Nazi scientists actually developed disk-shaped aircraft capable of very advanced aerial performance, and that swastikas have been seen on a few aerial disks. They may be piloted by a purebred blond, blue-eyed Aryan race. There appears to be more than one Blond human society involved in the UFO scenarios, and especially subterranean human societies may have developed blond hair due to lack of sunlight. There does not seem to be anything more than a peripheral connection between the Antarcticans, the Telosian and the
Pleiadean blondes (i.e. we will refer to the Antarcticans as the Aryans; the Telosians as the Blondes; and the Pleiadeans as the Nordics in order to discourage confusion). The Antarcticans may consist largely of batch consigned purebred blue-eyed, blond Aryans who became victims of Hitlers obsession to create a super race, and as suggested by Harbinson and others most of these may be controlled through mind manipulation and implants,

being human drones who are used to keep this hidden society functioning. A massive joint humanoidreptiloid underground system called the "New Berlin" is said to lie below the mountains of Neu Schwabenland, Antarctica. It is said by some sources that this joint human-alien force has spread terror through this sector of the galaxy, conquering and committing untold atrocities against the peaceful inhabitants of other worlds. The famous abductee Barney Hill who along with his wife Betty was abducted by "Zeta Reticulan
Greys" in 1961, stated under regressive hypnosis that he had encountered an evil-eyed "German Nazi" working with the Greys on board the craft. It is claimed that the original "treaty" with the Greys was established by the Bavarian Thule and

Illuminati societies as early as 1933, and this collaboration was brought into America via the CIA, which was established with the help of American Nazi fifth column agents as well as European Nazis who were brought into America through Project Paperclip and other operations.

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103 Conspiracy Theory

Gray Aliens Bad - Nazis


The Gray Aliens and the Nazis aspiration for the super being led to the exploitation and brutal murder of innocent Jewish people Doyle 96 (Sir Arthur Canon, Path to the Source, The Gray Alien Alliance with Adolf Hitler and the Nazis,
10/22/96, http://www.geohanover.com/docs/961022ed.htm, accessed 6/25/11, CW) The German population who had suffered since 1919, were not forgiving, which is understandable when you're starving. They did not mind seeing the Jewish people disposed of their property. They did not mind seeing the people, who led the good life and ate more than enough, taken away out of their midst. The German people never conceptualized the true purpose for the Jewish population being targeted. When this occurred a classification system was devised that divided the Jewish prisoners into various categories. The ones that had specific talents that the Nazis could exploit were exploited in that way. The ones that, based on a Nazi evaluation, served no useful purpose, were relegated to the concentration camps for the purpose of experimentation. The nature of this experimentation was crude and quite inhumane. The physical bodies were subjected to every form of abomination that could be devised. This was strictly utilized as a learning tool. The gray aliens needed to know the nature of the human body, how it functioned, what it did, how it reacted. Disassembly was part of that learning process. Unfortunately it was mainly conscious disassembly. A great deal of the torture was specifically designed to evaluate the nature of the vehicle; the human body. The starvation that was imposed upon many of the victims was designed to establish the durability of the body. Those that tolerated the deprivation well were then utilized for further, more extensive and destructive experimentation. Being ignorant of the nature of the genetic code the gray aliens and the humans assisting them had no conception of what they were doing. The gray aliens were simply destroying humans simply to determine the strength and endurance of the bodies. It was the humans' idea, that were assisting, to attempt genetic alteration using chemicals. The German people have always excelled in the fields of engineering, be it mechanical or chemical. The logical choice was to find chemicals that would enhance or create a super being that Mr. Hitler had been led to believe could be created. This did not work.

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104 Conspiracy Theory

Arcturus - Protectors
Arcturus, working with the Ascended Masters, protects the human race from warlike extraterrestrials with their advanced weapondry tech Violet Earth Academy, Ascension classes and workshops including DNA activations, life coaching, alchemy, clearings, and readings. no date
(From A to Z of Alien Species Active in Earths Evolution Biblioteca Pleyades, http://www.bibliotecapleyades.net/vida_alien/esp_vida_alien_19a.htm, accessed: 6/28/11, SL) ARCTURIANS Arcturus is one of the most advanced extraterrestrial civilizations in our galaxy . It is a fifth dimensional civilization which, in reality, is like a prototype for Earths future. Its energy works with humanity as an emotional mental and spiritual healer. It is also an energy gateway through which humans pass during death and rebirth. It functions as a way station for nonphysical consciousness to become accustomed to physicality. The book, "The Keys of Enoch" has described it as the mid-way station or programming
center used by the physical brotherhoods in our local universe, to govern the many rounds of experiments with physicals on our end of the galaxy. Their total focus in every aspect of their society to the path of God realization. The Arcturians teach that the most fundamental ingredient for living in the fifth dimension is love . They teach that negativity, fear and guilt must be overcome and be exchanged for love and light. Arcturus is the brightest star in the Bootes constellation (click image right), which is approximately 36 light years from earth. The Arcturians

work in very close connection with the Ascended Masters whom they refer to as the brotherhood of the all. They also work very closely with what they refer to as The Galactic Command. The Arcturians travel the universe in their starships, which are some of the most advanced in the entire universe . One of the reasons that Earth has not been attacked by more warlike negative extraterrestrials has been these civilizations fear of these advanced starships of the Arcturians . These ships are the cutting edge state of the art technology. One of the starships circling the earth is called the Starship Athena, named after one of the Greek Gods. The Arcturian society is governed by what they call the elders. These beings are revered by the people of Arcturus
for the advanced knowledge, wisdom, and extremely high vibrational frequencies. The higher the vibrational frequency, the closer one is to light, or spirit or God. The Arcturians are very short in physical stature, about three to four feet tall. They are also very slender. They also all look very much alike in appearance. The Arcturians pride themselves in this because this erases the pettiness of comparison of looks which is so predominant in our society.The Arcturians are the most loving and non-judgmental beings you

can possibly imagine. Their skin is a greenish color. They have very large almond shaped eyes. They only have three fingers. They have the ability to move objects with their minds, and are totally telepathic. The source of food is an effervescent type of liquid that is highly vitalizing to their entire being. Their eyes are a dark brown or black color. Their main source of seeing is actually through their telepathic nature, not their physical eyes. Their sense of hearing even transcends their telepathic nature. They also have an ability to sense with the back of their heads. The average life span is from 350 to 400 of our earth years. Their highly developed spiritual nature has allowed them to never age, since they have the ability to transcend time and space. They terminate the life when the contract that has been arranged for their existence is up. There is also no sickness on
Arcturus, it was eliminated centuries ago.

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105 Conspiracy Theory

Procyonians Allies to Ashtar


The Procyonians protect the human race from the Greys and Reptilians they also serve the Law of One, making them allies with the Ashtar Command Center Violet Earth Academy, Ascension classes and workshops including DNA activations, life coaching, alchemy, clearings, and readings. no date
(From A to Z of Alien Species Active in Earths Evolution Biblioteca Pleyades, http://www.bibliotecapleyades.net/vida_alien/esp_vida_alien_19a.htm, accessed: 6/28/11, SL) PROCYONIANS One of the more positive extraterrestrial groups are from a solar system that revolves around Procyon. Procyon (click image right) is a binary yellowish/white star that rises before Sirius in Canis Minoris, about 11.4 light years from Earth. They have been nicknamed the Swedes. They are humanoid in nature with blond hair. They have a very strong positive spiritual attitude towards the humanity of Earth. The United States government was not interested in negotiating with the Procyons because they would not give them new weapons systems. The Procyonians have apparently cross bred with us at many stages in our evolutionary development. This was done for a much more noble purpose than the Greys. The Procyonians have a philosophy of service to others rather than service of self. They have been involved in trying to protect us from the evil activities of the Greys and Reptilians. They are able to travel in time and between dimensions of reality. They frequently use mechanical vehicles for this, but are not dependent on them. The term Procyon translates into English as "The home of those who travel through time." The Procyonians serve the Law of One. They are here to help us help ourselves, totally respecting our free choice.

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106 Conspiracy Theory

Ra-ans Past Allies


The Ra-ans helped the ancient Egyptian and Mayan civilizations increasing their tech and medicinal practices. They also follow the Law of One Violet Earth Academy, Ascension classes and workshops including DNA activations, life coaching, alchemy, clearings, and readings. no date
(From A to Z of Alien Species Active in Earths Evolution Biblioteca Pleyades, http://www.bibliotecapleyades.net/vida_alien/esp_vida_alien_19a.htm, accessed: 6/28/11, SL) RA-ANS They landed on earth approximately 110,000 years ago in an extraterrestrial mission to help Earthlings with their mental and spiritual evolution. Their main focus geographically, was in Egypt and the Mayan civilization. The Ra refer to themselves as a sixth density social memory complex. They no longer have physical bodies,. They are Light beings, however they are able to materialize bodies as they need to. They came to Egypt in bell shaped UFO air craft. They refer to themselves as humble messengers of the Law of One. They no longer operate in linear time as we do on Earth. They refer to themselves as a social memory complex, although still do have individual identities within this understanding. They attempted to help in technical ways, in terms of the healing of mind/body/spirit, through the use of crystals. They were also involved in the building of the Great Pyramid of Giza. They made some contact in the Holy Land, also. The Pharaoh they contacted was Akhenaton, in the Eighteenth Dynasty. The Pharaoh accepted the teachings of the Law of One, however his priests only gave this teaching lip service. The pyramids they helped create were used for spiritual initiation, and
in this current day and age they refer to the great pyramid as a piano out of tune. They apparently originally had some connection with the planet Venus, however, no longer do now. In their physical manifestation on Earth the physical bodies had a golden luster because of their high vibration. They did not apparently stay too long in Egypt, once they realized that what they taught was being distorted. They stayed a little bit longer in South America, where they had a little more success.

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107 Conspiracy Theory

Draconians - Aggressive
The Draconians are bidding their time for a planetary takeover as the human race transitions to an interstellar presence in the universe Violet Earth Academy, Ascension classes and workshops including DNA activations, life coaching, alchemy, clearings, and readings. no date
(From A to Z of Alien Species Active in Earths Evolution Biblioteca Pleyades, http://www.bibliotecapleyades.net/vida_alien/esp_vida_alien_19a.htm, accessed: 6/28/11, SL)
ALPHA-DRACONIANS Reptilian beings who are said to have established colonies in Alpha Draconis (Thuban) - click image right. Like all reptilians, these claim to have originated on Terra thousands of years ago, a fact that they use to justify their attempt to re-take the earth for their own. They are apparently

a major part of a planned invasion which is eventually turning from covert infiltration mode to overt invasion mode as the "window of opportunity " (the time span before International human society becomes an interplanetary and interstellar power) slowly begins to close. They are attempting to keep the "window" open by suppressing advanced technology from the masses, which would lead to eventual Terran colonization of other planets by Earth and an eventual solution to the population, pollution, food and other environmental problems. Being that Terrans have an inbred "warrior" instinct the Draconians DO NOT want them/us to attain interstellar capabilities and therefore become a threat to their imperialistic agendas (Draconian).

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Mercury

108 Conspiracy Theory

Sirius Past Allies


The Sirius came to build tunnels, pyramids, and pathways to Inner Earth wont help humanity again until we stop being exploitive and manipulative Violet Earth Academy, Ascension classes and workshops including DNA activations, life coaching, alchemy, clearings, and readings. no date
(From A to Z of Alien Species Active in Earths Evolution Biblioteca Pleyades, http://www.bibliotecapleyades.net/vida_alien/esp_vida_alien_19a.htm, accessed: 6/28/11, SL)
"During

many of the Egyptian dynasties it was quite common to have a visitation from a Sirian in the disguise of one of their Gods ... Sirius was one of the first areas to be colonized by beings from the Lyran Star group and is more advanced in a metaphysical sense." Djwhal Khul says Sirius is one of the more advanced training centers or universities to which the Ascended Masters may travel. The path to Sirius is one of the seven paths to higher
evolution that each soul must choose upon achieving the sixth initiation and/or their ascension. The star Sirius is known as the Dog Star, and is a member of the constellation of Canis Major. It lies approximately 8.7 light years from Earth. It is one of the most brilliant stars that is observable in the night sky. In thinking of Sirius, then we must think of them in terms of being a group consciousness of both physical and non physicality. The third dimensional Sirians visited both the Egyptian and Mayan civilizations in times past. The Sirians gave the Egyptians much advanced astronomical and medical

information. The Mayans and the Inca also had a very personal relationship with the Syrians. Much information was shared, and it is interesting that the Mayan race seemed to just vanish off the face of the Earth at a certain point in their history. The Sirians left behind time capsules for our future generations to discover, one of which was supposedly the crystal skull. At this time they are working with us primarily without direct intervention. They were instrumental in helping us at the time of Atlantis during that cataclysmic period. They also, at that time, mixed with us genetically. Their views currently on Earth is that they will not consider a more active partnership again, until we outgrow the tendency as a people, to be exploitive, judgmental and manipulative. The guides also refer to Sirius as a star system where the residents are seldom
permanent residents. It is a meeting place for those who have mastered their own planetary systems and are preparing there for further duties and missions. They talk about it as an important way station for Earthlings who wish to continue

their spiritual development. The beings from Sirius who are visiting Earth are very good at the practical application of very advanced theoretical ideas that are being brought forth from other very advanced extraterrestrial civilizations. They are here to ground and make usable these advanced ideas and technologies. Sirius helped to build the great pyramids and temples of Egypt. They also helped in the building of many of the tunnels and pathways to the Inner Earth. They will be very involved in the future in
establishing the Golden Age on this planet.

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Mercury

109 Conspiracy Theory

Chameleons
The Chameleon race function as mercenaries to the silent take-over of human society Violet Earth Academy, Ascension classes and workshops including DNA activations, life coaching, alchemy, clearings, and readings. no date
(From A to Z of Alien Species Active in Earths Evolution Biblioteca Pleyades, http://www.bibliotecapleyades.net/vida_alien/esp_vida_alien_19a.htm, accessed: 6/28/11, SL) CHAMELEON Reptilians genetically bred to enable themselves to appear human. Also lesshumanoid appearing Reptiloids who use a form of technosis, molecular shape-shifting and/or laser holograms to produce an outward "human" appearance. Reports of these have surface from underground jointoperational facilities near: Dulce, New Mexico Dougway, Utah Groom Lake, Nevada Deep Springs, California Fort Lewis, Washington and elsewhere They are reportedly involved in some type of infiltration agenda. These infiltrators can appear remarkably human outwardly , however at the same time retaining reptilian or neo-saurian internal organs. Often described as appearing bulge-eyed with scaly, hairless skin behind their disguise. One report alleged that the Chameleons may utilize artificial lenses to conceal "slit-pupiled iris". Some claim they are genetically bred mercenaries who are part of an advanced guard of a planned silent invasion-takeover of human society.

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110 Conspiracy Theory

Martians Original Greys


The Martians are the original Grey aliens who reside in the two hollow moons orbiting Mars this is where people who have been abducted go to be dissected and mutilated Violet Earth Academy, Ascension classes and workshops including DNA activations, life coaching, alchemy, clearings, and readings. no date
(From A to Z of Alien Species Active in Earths Evolution Biblioteca Pleyades, http://www.bibliotecapleyades.net/vida_alien/esp_vida_alien_19a.htm, accessed: 6/28/11, SL) MARTIANS Inhabitants of the planet Mars, both human and non-human, including the alleged inhabitants of the two Martian moons (which many believe to be artificially-hollowed asteroids, one of which Phobos - is said to be under the control of the "original" Greys, or self-reproducing Greys which are the "hosts" for the Grey "clones" which operate from various space stations that are disguised as planetoids. (It is from these "carrier" ships that the abduction, implantation, programming, mutilation, infiltration and other projects are carried out against planet earth ). It has also been suggested that thousands of years ago the surface of LUNA and MARS were much more habitable, that the surfaces of these bodies may have been decimated after passing through the asteroid belt or an asteroid storm (consisting of debris which may have been torn from a planet which apparently existed between Mars and Jupiter at one time -- possibly destroyed by a close encounter with another planetary body in the tradition of Velikovskys theories). It is believed that ancient ruins, possibly thousands of years old, have been seen on both planets and that these attest to such a cataclysm.

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111 Conspiracy Theory

Intergalactic War Headed to Earth


The Orion open cluster has been a stage to a war between the Ashtar Command Center and the Draconion Empire this war is moving towards the Solar system and many extraterrestrials have already established underground bases on Earth to continue the fight Violet Earth Academy, Ascension classes and workshops including DNA activations, life coaching, alchemy, clearings, and readings. no date
(From A to Z of Alien Species Active in Earths Evolution Biblioteca Pleyades, http://www.bibliotecapleyades.net/vida_alien/esp_vida_alien_19a.htm, accessed: 6/28/11, SL) Sirius is the apparent epicenter of the ASHTAR or ASTARTE collective, where humanoids of various types, Sasquatch, Reptiloids, Greys, Insectoids and Reptilian-Insectoid hybrid species as well as cybernetic "MIB" entities have collaborated in the past. The Sirians have waged war in the past with the Orion Empire or the "Unholy Six" reptilian star systems in the Orion open cluster. The ancient dispute involves just who will serve as the "landlords" of a sector of space containing 21 star systems including the most strategic star system, SOL and particularly planet Earth, Terra or Shan -- which is a virtual cosmic "oasis" of water, mineral, plant, animal and genetic resources in incredible variety compared with most other worlds. This dispute between the Sirians and Orion Reptiloids dates back to the ancient invasion of Orion by the Draconian EMPIRE, as a result of which many "Nordic" type humanoids escaped to Procyon, Sol, Sirius and elsewhere. In recent times a RIFT or SPLIT has occurred in the Ashtar collective following the discovery of massive infiltration into the collective by agents of the Unholy Six and Draconian EMPIRES, with many humanoids taking sides with the FEDERATION - which has a major earth-base under Furnace Creek, California (see map left); and many of the Reptiloids taking sides with the Orion-Draconian EMPIRE - which has a major earthbase below Dulce, New Mexico. A Collaboration of sorts (via the electronic collective mind which links humanoid and reptiloid intelligences into a master mainframe via psionic implants) still exists however, a collective-collaboration which maintains bases under Paradox, Nevada; Dougway, Utah and near the Denver International Airport in Colorado. This war in Sirius-B is gravitating towards the Sol System, in that the opposing agendas for this system is one of the major issues of dispute between the two [or three] warring factions.

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Aliens - Benevolent
Aliens are everywhere and theyre watching-Bulgarian scientists and the Vatican claim The Telegraph, 09
[The Telegraph, Aliens already exist on Earth Bulgarian Scientists Claim 11/26/09 http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/europe/bulgaria/6650677/Aliens-already-exist-on-earth-Bulgarianscientists-claim.html, accessed 6/21/11, HK] Work on deciphering a complex set of symbols sent to them is underway, scientists from the country's Space Research Institute said. They claim aliens are currently answering 30 questions posed to them . Lachezar Filipov, deputy director of the Space Research Institute of the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, confirmed the research. He said the centre's researchers were analysing 150 crop circles from around the world, which they believe answer the questions. "Aliens are currently all around us, and are watching us all the time ," Mr Filipov told Bulgarian media. "They are not hostile towards us, rather, they want to help us but we have not grown enough in order to establish direct contact with them." Mr Filipov said that even the seat of the Catholic church, the Vatican, had agreed that aliens existed. He said humans were not going to be able to establish contact with the extraterrestrials through radio waves but through the power of thought. "The human race was certainly going to have direct contact with the aliens in the next 10 to 15 years," he said. "Extraterrestrials are critical of the people's amoral behavior referring to the humans' interference in nature's processes." The publication of the BAS researchers report
concerning communicating with aliens comes in the midst of a controversy over the role, feasibility, and reform of the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences. Last week it lead to a heated debate between Bulgaria's Finance Minister, Simeon Djankov, and President Georgi Parvanov.

Not all aliens are evil Webre, co-architect of the Space Preservation Treaty and the Space Preservation Act, 11
(Alfred Lambremont, 6/5, Whistleblower: WWIII, a war between hostile ETs and humanity, has started, http://www.examiner.com/exopolitics-in-seattle/whistleblower-wwiii-a-war-between-hostile-ets-and-humanity-hasstarted#ixzz1PTKi1cXf Mr. Prince states that the U.S. government knows of the existence of at least 118 extraterrestrial races that are involved with the affairs of Earth. He states, There have also been Human/ET treaties with these compassionate races, and their motivations and actions in these areas seem to prove their intentions. Mr. Prince writes, This situation is so bizarre and gets even more so as we go deeper into highly classified areas. I have been told by my NSA contact, X3, there are at least 118 different extra-terrestrial races, that the NSA knows about, involved in the affairs of this planet. The NSA refers to this ET grouping under such titles as The Link and others. There are the benevolent ETs visiting this planet from star sectors such as the Pleiades, Andromeda, Lyra, Tau Ceti, Sirius A, and Ummo, which have been referred to by contactees and secret service personnel as The Galactic Confederation of Worlds. Here we are going into complicated Star Warstype Exo-politics. However, there are benevolent factions of Orion Greys and Draco Reptilians and evil factions of Pleiadians, for example. This is obvious, as in any race there are good and evil elements. I wanted to just make this distinction clear because in the so-called New Age movement, there is almost a religious type of obsession with New Age advocates claiming all reptilians are negative and all Pleiadians are here to save us from them. There have also been Human/ET treaties with these compassionate races, and their motivations and actions in these areas seem to prove their intentions

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Aliens Here Historical Proofs


Aliens exist-they built the pyramids Mayes, Thekeyboard.com, 04
(Keith, author of Science the universe and god, TheKeyboard.com, who built the pyramids? 1/19/04 http://www.thekeyboard.org.uk/Who%20built%20the%20pyramids.htm, accessed 6/21/11,hk) I can remember standing in the desert near Cairo and gazing across the Sphinx to the Great Pyramid of Giza, one of the most impressive structures on Earth, and counting myself extremely fortunate to be there. The pyramid carries some impressive statistics. It stands 450 feet tall (137mtrs) and consists of two million blocks of stone , weighing from the most common at 2.5 tons up to 50 tons. The weight of the pyramid is six million tons. The four corners are almost perfect right angles and align almost exactly to the four points of the compass. The sides slope at a
perfect 52 degrees, or would do had not the smoothly polished limestone finishing blocks been removed and used in building works in Cairo. It is one one of the original Seven Wonders of the World. Impressive though the statistics are, they do not reveal the true magnificence of this wonderful construction. I have to admit that upon entering the pyramid and climbing up the narrow cramped access shaft to the upper burial chamber, which was surprisingly cool, I experienced an eerie feeling of stepping back into history, and a strong feeling of trespassing. To have seen this pyramid when perfectly smooth and dazzlingly white in the desert sun must have been an incredible sight. So impressive are the pyramids that it has caused many to wonder how they could possibly have been built some 4500 years ago. Some even go as far as to suggest that it is not possible for these structures to have been made by the labours of men, but were instead made by aliens. Who built the pyramids, aliens or men? The case for the Aliens: The pyramids are so accurately aligned with the points of the compass that only aliens

could have achieved this all those thousands of years ago. The angle of the slope of the sides is so precise only aliens could achieve this. The blocks are so heavy and the pyramid so tall only aliens could achieve this. In the period 2500 BC man did not have the tools or knowledge necessary to build the pyramids, so only aliens could have done it. How the aliens built the pyramids is not known, but they would have employed the use of advanced construction equipment.

Aliens have been here for thousands of years History.com, 11


[History.com, Ancient Alien Theory 2011, http://www.travelblog.org/South-America/Peru/Ica/Nazca/blog459201.html, accessed 6/22/11, HK] According to ancient alien theorists, extraterrestrials with superior knowledge of science and engineering landed on Earth thousands of years ago, sharing their expertise with early civilizations and forever changing the course of human history. But how did this concept develop, and is there any evidence to support it? Ancient alien theory grew out of the centuries-old idea that life exists on other planets, and that humans and extraterrestrials have crossed paths before. The theme of human-alien interaction was thrust into the spotlight in the 1960s, driven by a wave of UFO sightings and popular films like 2001: A Space Odyssey. The space program played no small part in this as well: If mankind could travel to other planets, why couldnt extraterrestrials visit Earth? In 1968, the Swiss author Erich von Dniken published Chariots of the Gods?, which became an immediate bestseller. In it, he put forth his hypothesis that, thousands of years ago, space travelers from other planets visited Earth, where they taught humans about technology and influenced ancient religions. He is regarded by many as the father of ancient alien theory, also known as the ancient astronaut theory. Most ancient alien theorists, including von Dniken, point to two types of evidence to support their ideas. The first is ancient religious texts in which humans witness and interact with gods or other heavenly beings who descend from the skysometimes in vehicles resembling spaceshipsand possess spectacular powers. The second is physical specimens such as artwork depicting alien-like figures and ancient architectural marvels like Stonehenge and the pyramids of Egypt. If aliens visited Earth in the past, could they make an appearance in the future? For ancient alien theorists, the answer is a resounding yes. They believe that, by sharing their views with the world, they can help prepare future generations for the inevitable encounter that awaits them.

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Aliens Here - Abductions Prove


Aliens exist-abductions Booth, UFO Casebook researcher, 8
[B J, UFO Casebook The Betty and Barney Hill Abduction, Part 1, date acquired from page created data, http://www.ufocasebook.com/Hill.html,accessed 6/22/11, HK] When I was but a young boy, the only time anyone talked about flying saucers was after watching a movie about them, or seeing an episode of Twilight Zone, or Science Fiction Theater.Then one morning, I was scanning over our local newspaper, and noticed about three pages deep this heading, "New Hampshire Couple Encounters UFO." Well, needless to say, I was intrigued. In our small town paper, you just didn't see things on this type of subject. As I began to read the article, I was astounded to see that these two people claimed to have been abducted by aliens, and taken inside the ship! Well, that was enough for me to think, "What is this, some kind of joke?" I thought I had heard the last of it, but I had not. Soon, this story became an international one, and even today, is still considered one of the most believable, and certainly most researched UFO cases, except for maybe the Roswell incident. One thing about this whole subject that seems odd to me, is that it is considered within the realm of possibility that someone could see a UFO, but for someone to be taken aboard one, NO WAY. In 1961, Barney Hill was a 39-year-old black man who worked for the US Postal Service. His wife Betty was a 41-year-old white woman, who owned a Master's Degree, and was the supervisor for the child welfare department. The fact that the Hills were an interracial couple has been given weight by some who state that Barney was suffering stress in dealing with some public ridicule about the black and white union, which was not nearly as readily accepted in the early 1960s as it is today. dincredible story. What ensued after the couple went public with their story was much more stressful to him than any anti-racial remarks he may have encountered. The story of Betty and Barney Hill begins in September 1961, in the state of New Hampshire. Barney had recently developed an ulcer, and he and his wife Betty decided to take a short vacation to Canada. The couple had visited Niagara Falls, and Montreal, and on the 19th of the month, they began their journey back home to Portsmouth. The night was clear, with a crescent moon shining on the heavily wooded landscape that surrounded US Route 3 in the central part of New Hampshire. At about a quarter past 10:00 PM, three miles south of the city of Lancaster, Barney noticed what appeared to be a bright star, or planet, which seemed to move erratically. Barney pointed this out to Betty, and they both began to keep track of the object. The couple began to believe that they were watching a plane appear and disappear, as the movement of their vehicle caused the trees to come and go in obstructing their view. Later, Barney would state that he tried to convince himself that the object was a plane, but that Betty thought it to be something else - an unidentified craft of some kind. As the two continued to the Flume, just north of North Woodstock, the object appeared to move in an odd way. As they reached Indian Head, Barney actually stopped the car to have a look at the object with his binoculars. He saw multi-colored lights, and rows of windows on a flat-shaped object, which now seemed to be moving toward him. As the object moved to within a hundred feet of him, he could see occupants inside. Frightened, he ran back to his car where Betty waited. They climbed inside and sped away. Soon, two hours of their lives would vanish into oblivion. After resuming their journey home, they were not able to see the strange craft anymore. Oddly though, they heard a beeping sound. They then heard the beeping a second time, noticing that they were suddenly thirty-five miles farther down the road than a minute or two ago. They were now in Ashla. The mood in the car was quiet as they proceeded home and went to bed. They both slept until the next afternoon. When Betty got up, she called her sister Janet, and told her what had happened. Janet told her to call nearby Pease Air Force Base, and report what she had seen. Betty reported the incident, speaking to Major Paul W. Henderson, who told Betty; "The UFO was also confirmed by our radar." It is important to note at this point that Barney was against calling the sighting in to the base, hoping to keep it quiet. At this time, neither Betty nor Barney recalled any abduction. Soon, however, Betty began having nightmarish dreams of her and her husband being taken aboard a craft of some kind, against their will. In a matter of weeks, two writers got wind of the story, and after interviewing the Hills, made an intensive log of the events of the night. They discovered that there were two hours of unaccounted time in the Hill's story, even allowing for stops for the Hills, and breaks for their dog, who also had made the trip with them.

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Aliens Here - UFOs Prove


UFOs Exist-multiple sightings in Russia prove Joslin, writer for Universally Aware, 11
[Linda, writer for Unviersally Aware, Universally Aware, 6/22/11, http://universallyaware.ning.com/forum/topics/ufo-650-diameter-seenin?page=1&commentId=6049518%3AComment%3A61503&x=1#6049518Comment61503, accessed 6/22/11, HK ] Russian Television recently released a report of an attack to huge UFO of at least 656 feet of diameter upon Kahbarovsk. An important UFO event has taken place yet again in Russia , receiving massive media attention in that nation while being blacked out by the international UFO cover-up in the West. Residents of the village Lesopilniy in the region of Khabarovsk noticed a huge revolving object descend on the settlement. The alien spacecraft was described as glowing and two lights were seen on its body. Dozens of stunned locals, young and old, gathered on the streets as the object silently hovered just above the rooftops. The object was picked up by military radar and soon flares and shots were fired at the UFO from a nearby military base. The object changed direction at this point and eventually shot off into the sky. The event lasted over two hours. A number of residents
filmed the event on their mobile phone cameras, however the object was not visible when they replayed their clips. It is now believed international talks, behind closed-doors, will commence and an investigation as to why the military fired on a peaceful alien craft far more capable of doing damage than any human contraption. Political leaders will be hoping that this action will not

jeopardise Humanity's galactic standing, and will be put down to our primitive nature.

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Aliens Here Physical Proofs


The Nazca Lines History.com, 11
[History.com, Ancient Alien Theory 2011, http://www.travelblog.org/South-America/Peru/Ica/Nazca/blog459201.html, accessed 6/22/11, HK] Called "Riddles in the Sand" (Discover 1982) they are the famous Nazca lines and giant ground drawings etched across 30 miles of gravel-covered desert near Peru's southern coast. The huge sketch-pad came to public prominence in Erich von Dniken's Chariots of the Gods?-- a book that consistently underestimates the abilities of ancient "primitive" peoples and assigns many of their works to visiting extraterrestrials. Von Dniken (1970) argues that the Nazca lines and figures could have been "built according to instructions from aircraft." He adds:"Classical archeology does not admit that the preInca peoples could have had a perfect surveying technique. And the theory that aircraft could have existed in antiquity is sheer humbug to them."

Crop circles were made my aliens Jamieson, reporter for Sunday Telegraph 09
[Alastair, reporter for Sunday telegraph, The Telegraph, UFO alert police officer sees aliens at crop circle 10/20/09 http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/newstopics/howaboutthat/ufo/6394256/UFO-alert-police-officer-seesaliens-at-crop-circle.html, accessed 6/22/11, HK] The sergeant, who has not been named, was off-duty when he saw the figures standing in a field near Silbury Hill, and stopped his car to investigate. However, as he approached the 'men' all over 6ft tall with blond hair he heard "the sound of static electricity" and the trio ran away ''faster than any man he had ever seen''. The officer returned to his home in Marlborough, Wiltshire, and contacted paranormal experts and told them he had spotted a UFO. Wiltshire Police has refused to comment on the incident, saying it is a ''personal matter'' for the officer involved. Crop circle researcher Andrew Russell, who is investigating the bizarre sighting on behalf of the officer, described the moment his sighting was made. He said: ''At first he thought they were forensic officers as they were dressed in white coveralls. He stopped his car and approached the field. ''The figures were all over 6ft and had blond hair. They seemed to be inspecting the crop. When he got to the edge of the field he heard what he believed to be a sound not dissimilar to static electricity. ''This crackling noise seemed to be running through the field and the crop was moving gently, close to where the noise was. ''He shouted to the figures who, at first, ignored him, not glancing at him. When he tried to enter the field they looked up and began running. ''He said; 'They ran faster than any man I have ever seen. I'm no slouch but they were moving so fast. I looked away for a second and when I looked back they were gone. ''I then got scared. The noise was still around but I got an uneasy feeling and headed for the car. For the rest of the day I had a pounding headache I couldn't shift.'' The bizarre incident occurred on the morning of July 6 this year as the police officer was driving. The officer claims the three figures were examining a crop circle, which had appeared several days earlier, when he stopped his car and began walking towards them. However, the mysterious beings disappeared when he ''looked away for a second'' and he contacted UFO experts after witnessing other paranormal activity. A spokesman for Wiltshire Police said: ''The police officer was apparently off duty when this happened so we have no comment to make because it is a personal not a police matter.'' Crop circle expert Colin Andrews, who investigated the incident alongside Andrew Russell, said he is ''convinced'' by the police officer's story. He said: ''I am quite convinced the officer had an experience that day and one that we have not fully explored. ''I think with the unusual movement of the being and the poltergeist experiences there is too much additional information to say that is something in nothing.''

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***No Aliens***

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No Aliens on Earth
Nearest galaxy is 2 million years away Deem, Researcher/Specialist at Cedars-Sinai Medical Center. 6 (Rich, Aug 25, UFO's and
Extraterrestrial Aliens: Why Earth Has Never Been Visited, http://www.godandscience.org/apologetics/ufo.html) Have we been visited by extraterrestrial beings from elsewhere in the universe? First, I would like to eliminate the idea that we have been visited by beings located outside our own galaxy. Andromeda, the nearest galaxy to the Milky Way is 2 million light years distant. This means that if there were aliens in Andromeda, it would take them longer than 2 million years to come to earth.1 Another problem is why they would want to visit our galaxy. The Andromeda galaxy is considerably larger than our galaxy. If life were common in the universe, there should be many times more of it in Andromeda, than in our wimpy galaxy. Why would they even want to visit us? A third problem for potential aliens is detecting us. We have been sending radio waves for less than 100 years. It will be another 2 million years before those signals reach our closest neighboring galaxy. The light (and other electromagnetic signals) that they now see represent the way the earth looked 2 million years ago. Beings in other galaxies would have no way of knowing that advanced life forms existed in our galaxy.

No physical evidence Deem, Researcher/Specialist at Cedars-Sinai Medical Center. 6 (Rich, Aug 25, UFO's and
Extraterrestrial Aliens: Why Earth Has Never Been Visited, http://www.godandscience.org/apologetics/ufo.html UFO believers would ask about Roswell, UFO sightings and alien abductions. The problem I have with the whole Roswell/government conspiracy thing is that there is not one piece of physical evidence. The government has never been able to keep any kinds of secrets - much less over a period of 40 years. Regarding abductions, none of the people involved have been shown to have any signs of tampering, which would be readily apparent by MRI.

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No Aliens
Probability is virtually zero Deem, Researcher/Specialist at Cedars-Sinai Medical Center. 6 (Rich, Aug 25, UFO's and
Extraterrestrial Aliens: Why Earth Has Never Been Visited, http://www.godandscience.org/apologetics/ufo.html This paper has shown that the probability of aliens visiting the earth is virtually zero. Potential aliens in other galaxies are too far away to detect our presence (since radio signals will not reach them for millions of years) and the travel times make intergalactic travel impractical. Recent scientific studies demonstrate that the universe is much less hospitable to life than it would seem from our unique Solar System and planet. A large proportion of our galaxy is uninhabitable. Parts of it would not even be expected to produce rocky planets. The highly unlikely collision that produced our large moon prevented the earth from being a waterworld.5 It also ejected the majority of our primordial atmosphere, which prevented the earth from going through a runaway greenhouse effect similar to what happened to Venus, our sister planet. Finally, our Solar System is unique in that it has large gas giants located only in the outer regions. Other systems discovered have gas giants located either near their star or in both inner and outer regions of their planetary system. The presence of gas giants near the star would eject any rocky planets from orbit. The presence of gas giants in the outer region of planetary systems is absolutely necessary for the survival of advanced life forms. Without Jupiter, the number of catastrophic collisions that the earth would experience would be at least 10,000 times greater. So instead of suffering massive species extinction events every 100 million years, the earth would experience these events every 10,000 years.6 Only bacteria and other simple life forms would be able to survive this kind of bombardment - no advanced life could ever form in the vast majority of planetary systems. These problems indicate that there would be no more than 150 advanced civilizations within our galaxy - and, more likely, we are completely alone in our galaxy. Interstellar space travel is much more difficult than indicated in movies and television series, such as Star Trek and Star Wars and the like. First, it is not possible to travel at speeds greater than the speed of light - the physics of the universe prevent it. Second, traveling near the speed of light is impractical for biological organisms. Collisions with particles even the size of a grain of sand would be catastrophic. An even worse problem is that the light from ordinary stars would be blue-shifted all the way to the gamma end of the spectrum when traveling near the speed of light. These gamma rays would destroy all biological life - even if it were in suspended animation (if that were possible). In essence, these problems would restrict the speed of travel to well below the speed of light. The most optimistic estimate for the presence of extraterrestrial civilizations would put them 2000 light years apart. With no intermediate habitable stopping points, space travel over this distance would be impractical. So, even if we are not alone in this galaxy, it would be highly unlikely that any extraterrestrial civilization could have visited us. What about all the "evidence" for extraterrestrials and UFOs? See the links below for more information.

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No Area 51 Aliens
Area 51 employees break silence no aliens or UFOs Lacitis, Seattle Times staff reporter, 10 (Erik, March 27, Area 51 vets break silence: Sorry, but no space
aliens or UFOs < http://seattletimes.nwsource.com/html/localnews/2011461015_area51vets28m.html) The secrets, some of them, have been declassified. Noce, 72, and his fellow Area 51 veterans around the country now are free to talk about doing contract work for the CIA in the 1960s and '70s at the arid, isolated Southern Nevada government testing site. Their stories shed some light on a site shrouded in mystery; classified projects still are going on there. It's not a big leap from warding off the curious 40 or 50 years ago, to warding off the curious who now make the drive to Area 51. The veterans' stories provide a glimpse of real-life government covert operations, with their everyday routines and moments of excitement. Noce didn't seek out publicity. But when contacted, he was glad to tell what it was like. "I was sworn to secrecy for 47 years. I couldn't talk about it," he says. In the 1960s, Area 51 was the test site for the A-12 and its successor, the SR-71 Blackbird, a secret spy plane that broke records at documented speeds that still have been unmatched. The CIA says it reached Mach 3.29 (about 2,200 mph) at 90,000 feet. But after September 2007, when the CIA displayed an A-12 in front of its Langley, Va., headquarters as part of the agency's 60th birthday, much of the secrecy of those days at Area 51 fell away. Advance warning to UFOlogists: Sorry, although Noce and other Area 51 vets say they saw plenty of secret stuff, none make claims about aliens.

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AT: Abductions Prove


Alien Abductions are explained by sleep paralysis and waking hallucinations Shermer, Adjunct Professor at Claremont Graduate University, 05
(Michael Shermer, February, Abducted!, Scientific American;, Vol. 292 Issue 2, p34, EBSCOhost 6-23-11 BLG) The most likely explanation for alien abductions is sleep paralysis and hypnopompic (on awakening) hallucinations. Temporary paralysis is often accompanied by visual and auditory hallucinations and sexual fantasies, all of which are interpreted within the context of pop culture's fascination with UFOs and aliens. McNally found that abductees "were much more prone to exhibit false recall and false recognition in the lab than were control subjects," and they scored significantly higher than normal on a questionnaire measuring "absorption," a trait related to fantasy proneness that also predicts false recall. My abduction experience was triggered by sleep deprivation and physical exhaustion. I had just ridden a bicycle 83 straight hours and 1,259 miles in the opening days of the 3,100-mile nonstop transcontinental Race Across America. I was sleepily weaving down the road when my support motor home flashed its high beams and pulled alongside, and my crew entreated me to take a sleep break. At that moment a distant memory of the 1960s television series The Invaders was inculcated into my waking dream. In the series, alien beings were taking over the earth by replicating actual people but, inexplicably, retained a stiff little finger. Suddenly the members of my support team were transmogrified into aliens. I stared intensely at their fingers and grilled them on both technical and personal matters.

Alien Abduction victims are lying- either for money or psychological reasons Holden and French University of London, UK 02
(Katharine J, Christopher C. Cognitive Neuropsychiatry 2002, 7 (3) 163-178 Alien Abduction Experiences: Some Clues from Neuropsychology and Neuropsychiatry EBSCOhost 6-23-11 BLG) Uninformed sceptics often assert that alleged alien abductees are simply lying about their experiences. The assumed motivations are financial, in that claimants may make money from books and film rights. They are also psychosocial, in that the abductee may become a celebrated case, appear at conferences and on talk shows, and generally have opportunities that would otherwise not be available to them. However, as Appelle (1996) points out, in the vast majority of cases abductees do not go public and although some cases may indeed be deliberate hoaxes, most informed sceptics generally accept that the majority of claimants are sincere in their beliefs. If abductees are not deliberately deceiving other people, is it possible that they really were abducted by aliens? This seems highly unlikely, as the evidence presented in support of alien visitation is far weaker than uncritical and sensationalist media coverage typically implies. Even such celebrated cases as the alleged crash of a flying saucer and recovery of alien bodies near Roswell, New Mexico, in 1947 are in fact based on incredibly weak evidence (see, e.g., Klass, 1997; Korff, 1997). Assuming that abductees are not deliberately deceiving others about their experiences and also assuming that they are almost certainly wrong in thinking that they really have had a close encounter with an alien, the question arises of how one is to account for their claims. A review of the literature reveals that a number of different approaches to answering this question have been adopted. One approach involves focusing on the personalities of abductee claimants and exploring factors such as levels of fantasy proneness (e.g., Bartholomew, Basterfield, & Howard, 1991; Bartholomew & Howard, 1998; Newman & Baumeister, 1996; Ring & Rosing, 1990; Rodeghier, Goodpaster, & Blatter- bauer, 1991; Spanos, Cross, Dickson, & DuBreuil, 1993), boundary-deficit personality (e.g., Parnell & Sprinkle, 1990; Ring & Rosing, 1990), escapefrom- self and masochistic fantasies (e.g., Newman & Baumeister, 1996), and the psychically sensitive personality (e.g., Johnson, 1994). Others have viewed alien abduction experiences as the product of biased investigators (e.g., Klass, 1988; 166 HOLDEN AND FRENCH Matheson, 1998). Finally, some researchers have considered the claims of alien abductees in terms of possible clues from the fields of neuropsychology and neuropsychiatry. The focus of this paper is on the latter.

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Alien Threat is Coverup for NWO


The creation of the alien threat is a plot to usher in the New World Order Cooper, First Class Petty Officer QM1, E-6 with a Top Secret, Q, SI, security clearance, 1997
(William, Majesty Twelve Hourofthetime.com, http://www.hourofthetime.com/majestyt.htm, accessed: 6/25/, SL) The plan for the creation of a socialist world government is protected by an artificial extraterrestrial threat from space. The entire UFO phenomenon and the uFOOLogy movement has been created to further the protection and activation of the plan. Within MAJESTYTWELVE is Operation Majority justifying the plan by presenting an extraterrestrial threat as the reason for the necessity for world government ala "Who speaks for planet Earth... Argentina?" Exactly the manner in which Stanton T. Friedman ends his UFOs Are Real lectures. Operation Majority is named after the original Bolshevik party which sparked the Russian Revolution. Bolshevik means the majority. The plan claims that if the American people are ever told of this extraterrestrial presence aliens will destroy the United States. All who have access to the plan or who inadvertently discover the plan are silenced by that warning. They believe in the government and thus believe the extraterrestrial lie. These dupes do not know that the Illuminati are the aliens who plan to destroy the United States of America in any event.

German WWII tech is being used to fake extraterrestrial sightings to promote alien threat con to distract from the Illuminatis real plan Cooper, First Class Petty Officer QM1, E-6 with a Top Secret, Q, SI, security clearance, 1997
(William, Majesty Twelve Hourofthetime.com, http://www.hourofthetime.com/majestyt.htm, accessed: 6/25/, SL) The plan is real. The extraterrestrial threat is artificial. The threat is presented through the use of secret technology originally developed by the Germans in their secret weapons programs during WW-II, by geniuses like Nikola Tesla, and many others. Military and government personnel who have access to this material believe it is real. None of them, however, has ever seen any evidence of the existence of any extraterrestrial creature nor any advanced technology other that that of human origin . It is not what they see that convinces them it is extraterrestrial in origin but the manner in which it is presented . It is extremely difficult, if not impossible, to believe that Top Secret government or military documentation could be lies. It is trust in government by men and women who have given their lives in its service that keeps this monumental lie a alive. All so-called leaks are intentional misinformation projects designed to promote the alien threat scenario while allowing for complete deniability on the part of government. The antics of Vicki (Cooper) Ecker (CIA), Donald Francis Ecker III (Dupe), William Moore, Jaime Shandera, Stanton T.
Friedman, Bruce Maccabee (CIA, ONI), Barry Taff PhD.(Pneuropsychiatric Institute of UCLA worked with recently deceased Dr. Louis Jollyn "Jolly" West), Whitley Strieber, Bud Hopkins (CIA), John Lear (CIA), Linda Moulton Howe Order of the Eastern Star and American Federation of Human Rights (American co-masonry), Art Bell (Freemason), Glen Campbell, George Knapp (Freemason), Colonel Philip Corso (CIA, a monumental liar now Deceased), Richard Hoagland and his Face on Mars, the so-called alien autopsy film, NASA and the Apollo Moon Missions, the so-called Mars Meteorite which was fraudulently promoted as containing fossil evidence of life on Mars, the War Of The Worlds, and many other people and events are projects of this type. Some (very few) of these People are unwitting accomplices in the charade and truly believe in the extraterrestrial threat. Most of those named, and others not named, are active, and with full knowledge, agents of illuminism/socialism. The most well known are active Fellow Travelers, communist agents of the KGB, the Central Intelligence Agency, or one of the many psychological warfare agencies founded by the Rhodes Round Table Group (The Group), the Royal Institute of International Affairs, and the Council On Foreign Relations.

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New World Order


New World Order is on the brink The Insider, 2011
[The Insider, 2011, http://www.theinsider.org/reports/new-world-order/, accessed 6/24/11, HK] The New World Order is no longer a conspiracy theory; it is an established fact. The "New World Order" has been a prominent conspiracy theory for decades[1]. Here and now, as the new millennium dawns, the New World Order has become a globally recognized political concept,[2] and as such it can no longer be regarded simply as a theory. Mankind is now literally entering a new age, the Age of Aquarius , according to the ancient zodiacal calendar which is as old as human civilization.[3] Aquarius is associated by astrologers with brotherhood, or fraternity , which is the cornerstone of Freemasonry. The previous zodiacal age was that of Pisces. The zodiacal symbol of Pisces, the fish, is also an important Christian symbol, and it is noteworthy that the age of Pisces coincided with the age of Christianity. During the previous age dates were written with the suffix "A.D." which stands for "Anno Domini" or "Year of Our
Lord" denoting the era of Christ. Alternatively, dates were denoted "B.C." - "Before Christ". In 2002 AD, as the Age of Pisces was giving way to the new age of Aquarius, the decision was officially taken to replace the BC/AD date referencing system with the new CE/BCE references which stand for "Common Era" and "Before the Common Era".[4] What better way for the New Secular Order to proclaim the beginning of its reign than to secularize the way in which dates are recorded, replacing the Christian dating system of the old Order with a new, secular system for the for the Aquarian age? Consider the official Great Seal of the Unites States of America[5], which is most commonly seen on the back of the one the dollar bill[6] probably the world's most familiar banknote. On the US Great Seal, beneath the ancient Pyramid, is the Latin

inscription: "Novus Ordo Seclorum". The official translation of this motto is "A New Order of the Ages". The Latin word "Novus" means "New", and "Ordo" means "Order". The Latin word "Seclorum" and its English equivalent
"Secular" both share the same three alternative definitions: (1) "Secular" - without religion; (2) "Worldly" - of this world; and (3) "From century to century" - or from age to age. Thus, the motto "Novus Ordo Seclorum" has three different but equally valid translations:

The different meanings of Novus Ordo Seclorum are not mutually exclusive; in fact, they are synergistic. The alternative translations are all as pertinent today as they were "at the beginning of the new American era in 1776."
Let this be a testament the wisdom of the men who chose these words, for they demonstrate the esoteric power of language and the written Word. If secret societies are able to display such esoteric and Masonic symbolism so prominently for us all to see, then perhaps this is indeed the age of Freemasonry. Amen. Amen-Ra.

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***Impact/Advantage Answers***

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All Impacts
The aff can never solve for any human caused impacts, like war, because all of those impacts are caused by reptilian mind control as long as reptilians exist in the world humans will never have full control of their own thoughts and action Lewis, professor at Montclair State University and Kahn, professor at Antioch University 5
(Tyson and Richard, The Reptoid Hypothesis: Utopian and Dystopian Representational Motifs in David Ickes Alien Conspiracy Theory, Utopian Societies, volume: 16 no. 1, 2005, p. 10-11, 6/27/11 CW) Mirroring a number of claims made by the political far-right, Icke asserts a standard conspiracy-culture line that the pure Aryan bloodline has ruled the planet throughout history, though he is unique in developing it in an exocultural direction. In Ickes mind, Aryan lizards have been Sumerian kings, Egyptian pharaohs, and, in more recent history, American presidents and British prime ministers. According to Icke, 43 American presidents, including George Washington and George W. Bush, are direct reptoid-lineage descendants, and the Queen Mother herself was seriously reptilian (Children 79). In fact, it is at this point that much of Ickes work has its most enduring interest, by providing historical critique that is at once trenchant political analysis mixed with what reads like an over-the-top satire in the tradition of Jonathan Swift. 7 In this respect, Ickes work includes any number of accountings of how world leaders and other famous personalities, in order to satiate their reptilian bloodlust, take part in ritualistic sacrifices and pedophilic activities that include kidnapping, hedonistic drug parties, and brutal murder. Icke himself theorizes that such obscene acts as these typify the difference between alien-kind and humanity and that they are necessary else the Aryan-reptilians lose their temporary human form and revert to their original reptoid physiognomy. Again following the prevailing exocultural explanation, Icke claims that in order to maintain their position of world domination down through the centuries, the Aryan lizards have created a secret society known as the Freemasons or Illuminati. The Illuminati are the grand historical puppet masters, presiding over all human activities through indirect channels of control and manipulation. From the innermost secretive Round Table, a handful of reptilian masterminds directs the course of human events via a network of international organizations such as the Council on Foreign Relations, The Trilateral - 1111Commission, The Bilderberg Group, the IMF, World Bank, and the United Nations (Children 339). The plan is quite simply to complete their financial control of the human race (Children 345). In order to maintain their anonymity and deflect attention away from their ubiquitous presence in international finance and politics, Icke believes that the Illuminati are very interested in mind control. The media and the Internet are two powerful tools that they have developed to achieve mind control over the general populace. In Ickes conspiratorial schema, The media, in turn, get their news and information overwhelmingly from official sources, which, like the media itself, are owned by the reptilian bloodline (Children 260). Commenting on the Internet conspiracy, Icke writes, The Internet is an Illuminati creation and only exists because of military technology. . . . It allows for the easiest possible surveillance of personal communications through e-mails, and the websites visited by individuals give the authorities the opportunity to build a personality and knowledge profile of everyone. Its about control (Children 415). The Internet, then, is just another step towards perfect surveillance of the human race. The most important goal of the Illuminati is, according to Icke, a micro-chipped population (Children 368). Once a microchip is inserted into the human body, each individual will be tracked using a global positioning satellite. Thus in the 21st century the reptoids have gone digital, inventing and deploying new information technologies that will further suppress the truth, expand the scope of surveillance, and restrict individual freedoms.

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AT: Russia, China, Terrorism Impacts


Russia, China, terrorism, etc impacts are all just coverup for planetary defense initiatives by the shadow government de Gourdon, Editorial Board of the World Affairs Journal, 9 (Come Carpentier, The Global Crisis
and the Ultimate Secret of the Empire, Exopolitics Journal 3:2, July,p. 68-9, http://exopoliticsjournal.com/vol3/vol-3-2-Carpentier.pdf)sbl 3. Some researchers , especially Michael Salla and his colleagues in the realm of Exopolitics, Paola Harris, Alfred Lambremont Webre, Stephen Bassett, NASA astronaut Edgar Mitchell, Greer, Victor Viggiani and others, (supported at least in part by many whistle blowers and by various high level government officials such as the former Defence Minister Paul Hellyer from Canada, Admiral Lord Hill Norton, former Chief of the British Defence Staff, French Defence Minister Robert Galley and General Bernard Norlain, once Hill Norton's counterpart in the French Air Force, the late Colonel Philip Corso from the USA, Dr. Jacques Patenet, Director of GEIPAN at the CNES (the French NASA), Prof. Jean-Claude Ribes, associate director of the National Institute for Astronomy and Geophysics, France and Nick Pope who headed the UFO Desk at the UK's Ministry of Defence) have concluded that certain government agencies, especially the military-industrial administration symbolized by the Pentagon, linked with the Intelligence complex led by the CIA and NSA, have accumulated substantial information on the alien presence and activity. Paul Hellyer said as much in his address to the 2006 Exopolitics Conference in Hawaii: It appears that real government has passed from elected accountable representatives of the people to an unelected, unaccountable elite group of senior government officials and industrial leaders . This is the covert state that Senator Daniel K Inouye of Hawaii described as a shadowy government with its own Air Force, Navy and fundraising mechanismfree from the law itself ... which Lewis Laphan called the permanent government as opposed to the visible elected one. In this regard, the statement made to Clark McClelland, Mission Operations Monitor for NASA on 16 July 1969 at Kennedy Space Center during the launch of Apollo 11 by Senator Barry Goldwater, a long-standing member of the select committee on Intelligence, is conclusive: The UFO situation is at the highest level of national security. Much higher than the H Bomb. The implication is that the aforesaid agencies, known or unknown to the public, have used this information - and possible access - to further their goals of global domination, justified by the imperative of planning for planetary defence against any and all invaders from space , camouflaged as national security preparations against a foreign enemy, formerly defined as the USSR and now as China, Russia and accessorily the international Islamic threat, embodied either by an amorphous terrorist network such as Al Qaida or by a regional power like Iran. This broadly was the initial conclusion reached by M W Cooper in his brochure The Secret Government - the origins, identity and purpose of MJ12.2

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AT: Nuclear War


Aliens will prevent nuclear war from causing extinction because it threatens them too Salla, recently at American University, Center for Global Peace, 6
(Michael, August 12, , Divine Strake vs. Divine Strike Did Extraterrestrials Deter the Pentagon from a Preemptive Nuclear War Against Iran?, Exopolitics Research Study #11, http://www.exopolitics.org/Study-Paper11.htm) In an article analyzing Velascos correlation of UFOs and nuclear weapons, French UFO researcher, Eric Julien speculates that the use of nuclear weapons affects the time/space continuum in ways that disrupt UFO/extraterrestrial navigation and propulsion systems.[20] He argues that there is a correlation between UFO behavior around nuclear tests and 74 alleged UFO crashes documented in Ryan Wood's book, Majic Eyes Only (2006). This is used to support Juliens thesis that nuclear testing negatively affects UFOs by impacting the space-time continuum they use to navigate to Earth. In his book, The Science of Extraterrestrials, Julien argues that atomic explosions directly impact on the space-time continuum that they occupy.[21] This suggests that use of nuclear weapons threaten the civilizations of extraterrestrials who use space-time to travel and to establish bases of operation on or near the vicinity of the earth. Based on historical precedents described by Salas and Dedrickson, it appears that extraterrestrials have the capacity to deactivate nuclear weapons while either in storage or in flight, and to destroy nuclear weapons while in flight. Consequently, extraterrestrials could give warnings through their communications with individuals and military officials of impending action to prevent the possible use of nuclear weapons. If these warnings went unheeded then extraterrestrials could take a range of defensive measures based on their influence over key policy makers and institutions, and their ability to impact on the capacities of nations to use nuclear weapons. Such measures could culminate in a coordinated set of extraterrestrial responses, a Divine Strike, to prevent the Bush administration launching a preemptive nuclear war against Iran. These responses may have been communicated and/or displayed, and actively deterred the US military from pursuing a preemptive nuclear attack against Iran.

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AT: Nuclear War


We will be saved from nuclear war in 2012 by aliens Subramanium, Executive Director of Saksoft, 2004 (N.K., Saksoft is a leading provider of Information
Management Solutions , Remote viewing Tibetan monks see Extra Terrestrial powers saving the World from destroying itself in 2012 India Daily, http://www.indiadaily.com/editorial/12-26-04.asp, Accessed: 6/22/11, SL) In 2012, the world will start plunging into a total destructive nuclear war. And at that time something remarkable will happen, says, Buddhist monk of Tibet. Supernatural divine powers will intervene. The destiny of the world is not to self-destruct at this time. Scientific interpretation of the monks statements makes it evident that the Extra Terrestrial powers are watching us every step of the way. They will intervene in 2012 and save the world from self-destruction. When asked about recent UFO sightings in India and China, the monks smiled and said the divine powers are watching us all. Mankind cannot and will not be allowed to alter the future to that great extent. Every human being though their current acts in life called Karma can alter the future lives to some extent, but changing the destiny in that large extent will not be allowed to that great an extent. Monks also mentioned that beyond 2012 our current civilization would understand that the final frontier of science and technology is in area of spirituality and not material physics and chemistry. Beyond 2012, out technologies will take a different direction. People will learn the essence of spirituality, the relation between body and the soul, the reincarnation and the fact we are connected with each other are all part of God . In India and China UFO sightings have increased in many folds. Many say the Chinese and Indian Governments are being contacted by the Extra Terrestrials. In recent days most UFO activities have been seen in those countries who have indigenously developed Nuke capabilities. When asked if these extra-terrestrials will show up in reality in 2012, the answers remote viewers are giving is: they will reveal themselves in such a way that none of us scared. They will reveal themselves only if they have to. As our science and technology progresses, we are destined to see them and interact with them any way . According to the remote viewers, our earth is blessed and is being saved continuously from all kinds of hazards all the time that we are not even aware of. As our technologies progress we will realize how external forces saved us.

Aliens will shut down the nuclear weapons Bloxham, assistant news editor for the Daily Telegraph 10 (Allen, Sept. 27, Aliens have deactivated
British and US nuclear missiles, say US military pilots, http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/newstopics/howaboutthat/ufo/8026971/Aliens-have-deactivated-British-and-USnuclear-missiles-say-US-military-pilots.html) One of the men, Capt Robert Salas, said: "The US Air Force is lying about the national security implications of unidentified aerial objects at nuclear bases and we can prove it." He said said he witnessed such an event first-hand on March 16, 1967, at Malmstrom Air Force Base in Montana which housed Minuteman nuclear missiles. Capt Salas continued: "I was on duty when an object came over and hovered directly over the site. "The missiles shut down - 10 Minuteman missiles. And the same thing happened at another site a week later. There's a strong interest in our missiles by these objects, wherever they come from. I personally think they're not from planet Earth." Others claim to have seen similar activity in the UK. Col Charles Halt said he saw a UFO at the former military base RAF Bentwaters, near Ipswich, 30 years ago, during which he saw beams of light fired into the base then heard on the military radio that aliens had landed inside the nuclear storage area.

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129 Conspiracy Theory

AT: Extinction Impacts


Aliens will help us during the tribulation Daust and Santorossa, psychics, 2000 (Danielle owner of Global Psychics- and Bob, The Intervention: a
time of tribulation before ascension or transmigration Global Psychics Inc., http://globalpsychics.com/enlighteningyou/prophecy/aliens-tribulation.shtml, Accessed: 6/22/11, SL) Benevolent Aliens - Help Waiting in the Wings The benevolent aliens will help us clean up the damage done to the earth (they have awesome technologies for this), this will happen from year 2 to year 8, after the year 0 which is the beginning of the tribulation period (years 0-2). They will be summoned by divine messengers sent to Earth during this time .during the above years, some will seek to dominate Earth, or what's left, but will be unsuccessful, largely because of what follows...during this period, religions will still be around but humanity will note many spiritual exchanges with the divine and will wonder what is happening to them; but the exchanges will be pleasant, much will be spoken about this phenomenon and this is when the divine messengers and the spiritual hierarchies on earth explain what is to become of Earth and humanity. This is when humanity will compare "notes" with these other benevolent entities (there is more than one group here) and see that they were not alone, not only in creation, but, not alone in appreciation of Creator and the divine hierarchies, which humanity will begin to explore in this time period. These entities will show humanity how to do this and they will participate in the years five to eight of the transformation period, so that this awareness may occur in humanity . As explained, humanity will feel an awakening, they will receive assistance from other benevolent entities . (Humanity will) begin to see these entities, there will be no fear, for there will be trust, for they will feel and see the great works of these entities. They are beginning to come, culminating in the years five to eight, the coming
transformation of mother earth.Exchanges will occur, humanity will feel they are about technology, instead, they will be exchanges of the spirit. Humanity will learn from these entities what is to come in the spiritual revolution. Then they will be told about these entities history, Earth's history as they know it, and the revolution which occurred

to the entities and which must transpire on earth. Humanity will be made aware of how nature evolved. These benevolent entities, will contact earth, for they are of great wisdom, great love, great spirituality, so that earth will not fear. They will create a reality which will warm the conversion of spirituality in humanity and total
rehabilitation of earth. These entities will glow with the energy of Creator to show humanity all that is possible.

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AT: Global Warming


Global Warming is completely fabricated-no risk of species or human extinction Robinson and Robinson, chemists at Oregon Institute of Science and Medicine, 97
[Arthur B. and Zachary W, Wall Street Journal, Science Has Spoken: Global Warming Is a Myth 1997, http://stephenschneider.stanford.edu/Publications/PDF_Papers/RobinsonAndRobinson.pdf, accessed 6/25/11, HK] The global-warming hypothesis, however, is no longer tenable. Scientists have been able to test it carefully, and it does not hold up. During the past 50 years, as atmospheric carbon dioxide levels have risen, scientists have made precise measurements of atmospheric temperature . These measurements have definitively shown that major atmospheric greenhouse warming of the atmosphere is not occurring and is unlikely ever to occur. The temperature of the atmosphere fluctuates over a wide range, the result of solar activity and other influences. During the past 3,000 years, there have been five extended periods when it was distinctly warmer than today. One of the two coldest periods, known as the Little Ice Age, occurred 300 years ago. Atmospheric temperatures have been rising from that low for the past 300 years, but remain below the 3,000-year average. Why are temperatures rising?
The first chart nearby shows temperatures during the past 250 years, relative to the mean temperature for 1951-70. The same chart shows the length of the solar magnetic cycle during the same period. Close correlation between these two parameters--the shorter the solar cycle (and hence the more active the sun), the higher the temperature--demonstrates, as do other studies, that the gradual warming since the Little Ice Age and the large fluctuations during that warming have been caused by changes in solar activity. The highest temperatures during this period occurred in about 1940. During the past 20 years, atmospheric temperatures have actually tended to go down, as shown in the second chart, based on very reliable satellite data, which have been confirmed by measurements from weather balloons. Consider what this means for the globalwarming hypothesis. This hypothesis predicts that global temperatures will rise significantly, indeed catastrophically, if atmospheric carbon dioxide rises. Most of the increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide has occurred during the past 50 years, and the increase has continued during the past 20 years. Yet there has been no significant increase in atmospheric temperature during those 50 years, and during the 20 years with the highest carbon dioxide levels, temperatures have decreased. In science, the ultimate test is the process of experiment. If a hypothesis fails the experimental test, it must be discarded. Therefore, the scientific method requires that the global warming hypothesis be rejected. So we needn't worry about human use of hydrocarbons warming the Earth. We also needn't worry about environmental calamities, even if the current, natural warming trend continues: After all the Earth has been much

warmer during the past 3,000 years without ill effects.

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AT: Global Warming


Global Warming is scientifically impossible-government conspiracy The Brussels Journal, 2/12/2007
[The Brussels Journal, Global Warming is a Myth, 2/12/2007, http://www.brusselsjournal.com/node/1899, accessed 6/25/11, HK] Global warming is a myth and every serious person and scientist says so. It is not fair to refer to the U.N. panel. IPCC is not a scientific institution: its a political body, a sort of non-government organization of green flavor. Its neither a forum of neutral scientists nor a balanced group of scientists. These people are politicized scientists who arrive there with a one-sided opinion and a one-sided assignment. Also, its an undignified slapstick that
people dont wait for the full report in May 2007 but instead respond, in such a serious way, to the summary for policymakers where all the buts are scratched, removed, and replaced by oversimplified theses. This is clearly such an incredible failure of so many people, from journalists to politicians. If the European Commission is instantly going to buy such a trick, we have another very good reason to think that the countries themselves, not the Commission, should be deciding about similar issues. [...]

Other top-level politicians do not express their global warming doubts because a whip of political correctness strangles their voice. [...] Environmentalism as a metaphysical ideology and as a worldview has absolutely nothing to do with natural sciences or with the climate. Sadly, it has nothing to do with social
sciences either. Still, it is becoming fashionable and this fact scares me. [...] Indeed, I never measure the thickness of ice in Antarctica. I really don't know how to do it and dont plan to learn it. However, as a scientifically oriented person, I know how to read science reports about these questions, for example about ice in Antarctica. I dont have to be a climate scientist myself to read them. And inside the papers I have read, the conclusions we may see in the media simply dont appear. But let me promise you something: this topic troubles me which is why I started to write an article about it last Christmas. The article expanded and became a book. In a couple of months, it will be published. One chapter out of seven will organize my opinions about the climate change. [...] It is not quite exactly divided to the left-wingers and right-wingers. Nevertheless its obvious that environmentalism is a new incarnation of modern leftism. [...] [W]e know that there exists a huge correlation between the care we give to the environment on one side and the wealth and technological prowess on the other side. Its clear that the poorer the society is, the more brutally it

behaves with respect to Nature, and vice versa. Its also true that there exist social systems that are damaging Nature - by eliminating private ownership and similar things - much more than the freer societies. These tendencies become important in the long run. They unambiguously imply that today, on February 8th, 2007, Nature is protected uncomparably more than on February 8th ten years ago or fifty years ago or one hundred years ago

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SETI not on right setting


Life does not exist in the same density as humans thats why SETI hasnt found any results Lord Ashtar, 2004 (August 19, 2004, Our Fleets Are In Position, Ready Yourselves Brother Veritus,
http://www.luisprada.com/Protected/ashtar_command_mission.htm, accessed 6/27/11, SL) That Earth scientists have not found physical life in the remaining worlds of our Solar system is due to Earth being the only planet where life unfolds in such dense levels. Other worlds do have life, but in finer and subtler bodies, which impedes the perception and visibility at the level of the apparatuses and technological systems with which you count on. Also, dimensions of a higher level to the ones of this planet cannot be contacted with the eyes of the flesh. Life there passes unnoticed to you and, when you try to know this with your scientific apparatuses, it is as if you want to photograph smoke. (The worlds
you see in the Third Dimension are like the "shells" left by worlds already opened to levels of superior life.)

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***Authors Debate***

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Peer Review Good


Peer Review key to science Scott, visiting fellow at Separations Process Research Unit 07
(Allister Scott, January 29 2007 Science Direct Peer Review and the relevance of science http://bscwapp1.ethz.ch/pub/bscw.cgi/d448195/Scott2007_peer_review_Futures.pdf 6/25/11 BLG) Peer review is not only a routine component of the scientific role, but it is also fundamental to the institution of science, defended as symbol and guarantor of the autonomy of science . Thus peer review is built so deeply into the brickwork of science that many refuse to examine and improve it, fearing that any significant change would weaken the entire edifice. In some minds, to question peer review is to question science itselfSince this thought from Chubin and Hackettand possibly for the reasons they identifywe do not seem
to have made much progress in studying the practice of peer review. My investigations of the procurement of relevant science have led me inexorably to the topic of peer review, and to some critical perspectives on how peer review, as usually practised, influences the priorities and decision-making processes of researchers and research organisations. The question of how science can be made more relevant to the needs of society is increasingly central in science-policy debate. Yet many of these discussions approach the question from the outside, as it were, preferring to leave the workings of science itself untouched; the focus is on the role of technology transfer, intermediaries and dissemination. In this article, I want to explore the inner workings of science by investigating its central decisionmaking tool: peer review. Peer review plays a significant role in many of the key moments in science, as it is the main form of decisionmaking around: who receives money to do what science; who gets to publish in the scientific literature; and which individual scientists are selected and promoted within research institutions. Peer review is also the core tool used in various methods aimed at evaluating scientific institutions themselves :

Peer Review achieves validity. Cicchetti, Yale University Child Study Center 98
(Domenic V. Cicchetti 1998, Vol. 20, No. 3, pp. 428-431 Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology Good Science and Good Peer Reviewing: Are They Related? 6/25/11 BLG) Validity, in the specific context of the peer re- view process, has both internal, as well as exter- nal components. As we shall see further, an edi- tor has some control over the internal compo- nent, but little or none over the external
compo- nent. Each of these will be discussed in turn. Finally, it needs to be stressed that these two concepts apply equally well to the peer review of any scientific document (manuscript review, grant proposal review, review of papers submit- ted for presentation at scientific societies). As noted in Cicchetti (1991a, 1991b), there is wide consensus among scientists that the peer

review of any given scientific document, in or- der to be internally valid, must receive what might best be referred to as adequate cover- age, in terms of the level of expertise of the independent reviewers. This often translates, in the usual context of two independent reviews of a given scientific document, into adequate con- tent and methodologic / biostatistical coverage for any given manuscript, grant, or other scien- tific document. As noted recently by Kraemer (1991), this is an important activity for an editor to undertake, for the following reason. To the extent that editors are knowledgeable in their field, it is entirely possible to select reviewers who will agree highly with each other, but nei- ther of whom has a broad understanding of the content area being evaluated.

80% of most papers are rejected by peers. Moffat, Urologist, 03


(Leslie E.F, June 2003 UroOncology Vol. 3 (2), pp. 8183 On Publication in Peer Reviewed Journals EBSCOhost BLG) Most serious journals are rejecting about 80% of papers that are submitted. Rejection letters vary from curt to kind. The reason for an article being rejected out of hand may be entirely appropriate. We have at this Journal on two occasions had basic papers submitted to UroOncology, where the authors had a paper on the oncological aspects of neurology ! This would have been perfectly reasonable if the
original cancers had been of the genito-urinary tract, but this was not the case and clearly, the papers had been sent, by an inattentive secretary or researcher, to the wrong place. The author has used his experience of the submissions in the last year, to document his impressions regarding the rejection of papers. It would appear self evident that a writer should write about what he or she knows about.

Generally this is true and is extremely good advice. Occasionally people write on subjects they know little or nothing about and this becomes apparent when the text is read.

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Internet Science Research Bad


Internet research is tricky-Scientific research goes through a complicated peer-reviewed process to become valid- non fallsifiable conspiracy theories are the type of research we should be taught to reject because of their lack of evidentiary support Wiley et al. Professor of Psychology at the University of Illinois at Chicago, 9
(Jennifer Wiley, Susan R Goldman is a Professor of Psychology and Education University of Illinois at Chicago, Arthur C Graesser is presently a full professor in the Department of Psychology, an adjunct professor in Computer Science, and co-director of the Institute for Intelligent Systems at the University of Memphis, Christopher A Sanchez Assistant Professor Cognitive Science & Engineering Program Arizona State University, Source Evaluation, Comprehension, and Learning in Internet Science Inquiry Tasks American Educational Research Journal. Washington: Dec 2009. Vol. 46, Iss. 4; pg. 1060, 47 pgs accessed: 6/22/11 proquest) TJL

Students are increasingly turning to the Internet to conduct their research projects, regardless of whether the assignments are intended as Internet research projects or not (Jones, 2002). Internet searches are problematic in that they return multiple sources and sites that may or may not be relevant or reliable. The use of the Internet for research purposes increases the need for students to critically evaluate information sources for their reliability, credibility, and trustworthiness (Britt & Aglinskas, 2002; Rouet, 2006; Wallace, Kupperman, Krajcik, & Soloway, 2000). Understanding how students engage in the processes of search, selection, evaluation, comparison, and integration of ideas from multiple sources of information is becoming an increasingly important area of research in discourse processing and comprehension (Brem, Russell, & Weems, 2001; Graesser et al., 2007; Rouet, 2006; Stadtler & Bromme, 2007) and in the learning sciences more generally (Linn, Davis, & Bell, 2004; Wallace et al., 2000).In both history and science, experts routinely engage in selection, analysis, and synthesis within and across multiple sources of evidence (Chinn & Malhotra, 2002; Wineburg, 1991). For example, when scientists read scholarly publications, they rely on information about the scientists, the journals in which the publications appear, and the reputations of the institutions or research groups with which the scientists are affiliated (Bazerman, 1985; Berkencotter & Huckin, 1995). When scientists read research reports within their field, they evaluate the strength of the argumentation and the answers to such questions as, Does the evidence support the claims? Is the evidence reliable? and Does the claim sufficiently explain existing as well as new evidence? (Chinn & Malhotra, 2002; Duschl, Schweingruber, & Shouse, 2007; Goldman, Duschl, Ellenbogen, Williams, & Tzou, 2003). Finally, new results and new explanatory models are framed against the extant literature (Yore, Bisanz, & Hand, 2003). Evaluation, explanation, integration, and corroboration of information across sources are all central processes in the disciplinary expertise of practicing scientists. Thus, from both a general discourse processing and comprehension perspective, as well as from a disciplinary perspective, it is important to understand how learners engage with multiple sources of information.

Researching science on the internet risks failures in critical analysis Wiley et al. Professor of Psychology at the University of Illinois at Chicago 2009
(Jennifer Wiley, Susan R Goldman is a Professor of Psychology and Education University of Illinois at Chicago, Arthur C Graesser is presently a full professor in the Department of Psychology, an adjunct professor in Computer Science, and co-director of the Institute for Intelligent Systems at the University of Memphis, Christopher A Sanchez Assistant Professor Cognitive Science & Engineering Program Arizona State University, Source Evaluation, Comprehension, and Learning in Internet Science Inquiry Tasks American Educational Research Journal. Washington: Dec 2009. Vol. 46, Iss. 4; pg. 1060, 47 pgs accessed: 6/22/11 proquest) TJL

The elements of the intertext model are what are generally missing in the representation process of novice readers (Britt & Aglinskas, 2002; Rouet et al, 1997; Voss & Wiley, 2006; Wineburg, 1991). They also seem to be critical features for the comprehension of multiple sources during Internetbased science inquiry tasks, although this has not yet been tested. Because much of this information is on a metalevel, requiring reflection, evaluation, and monitoring on the part of the student, comprehension from multiple Internet sources may be even more reliant on effective metacognition than comprehension of single texts (Quintana et al., 2005; Stadtler & Bromme, 2007). Thus, these processes may need particular support during Internet inquiry tasks.

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Internet Science Research Bad


Due to Internet science queries complexity- it makes sense for students to accept unreliable evidence such as conspiracy theories as fact, however we should still reject bad evidence Wiley et al. Professor of Psychology at the University of Illinois at Chicago 2009
(Jennifer Wiley, Susan R Goldman is a Professor of Psychology and Education University of Illinois at Chicago, Arthur C Graesser is presently a full professor in the Department of Psychology, an adjunct professor in Computer Science, and co-director of the Institute for Intelligent Systems at the University of Memphis, Christopher A Sanchez Assistant Professor Cognitive Science & Engineering Program Arizona State University, Source Evaluation, Comprehension, and Learning in Internet Science Inquiry Tasks American Educational Research Journal. Washington: Dec 2009. Vol. 46, Iss. 4; pg. 1060, 47 pgs accessed: 6/22/11 proquest) TJL

Given the potential complexity of successful scientific inquiry, it should not be surprising that adolescents and college students frequently struggle with inquiry tasks, especially when these tasks involve learning through research articles (Lanick-Buckner, 1997; Yarden, Brill, & Falk, 2001). Particularly germane to Internet-based science inquiry tasks are the skills and processes associated with searching, evaluating, and understanding information sources. Research indicates that high school and college students have difficulty differentiating claims from evidence, and evidence from conclusions, and tend to pay relatively little attention to source information (Azevedo & Cromley, 2004; Brem et al, 2001; Chinn & Malhotra, 2002; Korpan, Bisanz, Bisanz, & Henderson, 1997; Norris, Phillips, & Korpan, 2003; Stadtler & Bromme, 2007). This is problematic because of the centrality of understanding the claim-plus-evidence structure of scientific arguments and explanations of natural phenomena (Duschl et al., 2007). Thus, many Internet-based inquiry learning environments have found it necessary to include supports for inquiry learning through prompts and questions designed to help students focus on specific information, make critical contrasts and connections, distinguish claims from evidence, evaluate arguments, and monitor their own learning and understanding (Sandoval & Reiser, 2004; Slotta & Linn, 2000; White & Frederiksen, 2005).

They destroy education by failing to do proper research- their inaccurate judgments are caused by an inadequacy of metacognition Wiley et al. Professor of Psychology at the University of Illinois at Chicago 2009
(Jennifer Wiley, Susan R Goldman is a Professor of Psychology and Education University of Illinois at Chicago, Arthur C Graesser is presently a full professor in the Department of Psychology, an adjunct professor in Computer Science, and co-director of the Institute for Intelligent Systems at the University of Memphis, Christopher A Sanchez Assistant Professor Cognitive Science & Engineering Program Arizona State University, Source Evaluation, Comprehension, and Learning in Internet Science Inquiry Tasks American Educational Research Journal. Washington: Dec 2009. Vol. 46, Iss. 4; pg. 1060, 47 pgs accessed: 6/22/11 proquest) TJL

Effective metacognition also plays a role in the processes and outcomes of comprehension. Successful comprehenders better monitor the adequacy of their text representation and use a range of strategies in response to failures to understand what they are reading (Duke & Pearson, 2002; Garner, 1987; Griffin, Wiley, & Thiede, 2008; Hacker et al., 1998; McNamara, 2004; Palincsar & Brown, 1984; Pressley, 2002; Thiede, Griffin, Wiley, & Redford, in press). When students fail to monitor their understanding accurately, such as by making inaccurate judgments of learning, information quality, and the relevance of information to goals, they make poor study decisions and fail to reread misunderstood information (Thiede, Anderson, & Therriault, 2003). The result is little or no improvements in comprehension and ultimately poor overall learning outcomes (Wiley et al., 2005; Winne, 2001).

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A2: Our authors are more qualified


There is no objective way to measure who is qualified or not Jaschik, Founder & Editor Inside Higher Ed, 9
(Scott, March 4, 2009, The 'Black Box' of Peer Review, http://www.insidehighered.com/news/2009/03/04/peerreview, JSkoog) Note: Mchele Lamont is a sociology professor at Harvard As for excellence, that quality that peer review theoretically promotes, Lamont isnt so sure it exists. It may be invoked all the time, she said in an interview, but her examination of the process suggests no way to measure it. "I think excellence means nothing, she said, suggesting that panels be honest about the criteria they use. I think you have to give the criteria. Typically it's originality, feasibility, and also the social and intellectual significance. There is nothing wrong with those definitions per se, she said, but people shouldn't pretend they equate with some scientific measure of excellence, as other criteria could be used as well. The most common flaw she documents is a pattern of professors applying very personal interests to evaluating the work before them. People define what is exciting as what speaks to their own personal interest, and their own research, she said. Even if her book doesnt change peer review, Lamont writes that she wants to open the Black Box of peer review so the scholars being evaluated have a better understanding of what happens to the applications in which they have invested so much time and hope. But she does have hope for those on the panels too. I also want the older, established scholars -- the gate keepers -- to think hard and think again about the limits of what they are doing, particularly when they define what is exciting as what most looks like me (or my work).

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AT: Peer Review


Academic communities only evaluate things that they deem to be interesting, thus forcing alternative views of science out of the spectrum of academia Moore, professor tenure of microbiology and immunology, 6 (John, AIDS Researcher working at Cornell, 2006, Perspective: Does peer review mean the same to the public as it
does to scientists? http://www.nature.com/nature/peerreview/debate/op5.html, JSkoog) It's been peer reviewed, so it must be right, right? Wrong! Not everything in the peer-reviewed literature is correct. Indeed, some of it is downright bad science. Professional scientists usually know how to rate papers within their own fields of expertise (all too often very narrow ones nowadays). We realize that some journals are more stringent than others in what they will accept, and that peer-review standards can unfortunately be too flexible. A lust for profit has arguably led to the appearance of too many journals, and so it can be all too easy to find somewhere that will publish poor-quality work. The public doesn't understand this, how could it? But the term 'peer review' is often equated with 'gold standard'. Hence, the politically motivated, lazy or unscrupulous can use the peer-reviewed literature selectively, to make arguments that are seriously flawed, or even damaging to public policy. Chris Mooney, in The Republican War on Science (Basic Books, 2005), provides several examples of how this operates in the political world. Professional scientists can see through this tactic. We know that scientific truth evolves on the basis of a mounting consensus, not through an isolated paper that adopts a maverick position, even if it has been 'peer reviewed'. In contrast, politicians all too often cherry-pick the 'facts' they find most convenient to their party's agenda. And politicians are not alone. In my own field of AIDS research, a small clique of scientists and scientifically ignorant laymen promotes the bizarre view that HIV does not cause AIDS, or, in a particularly dubious variant of the genre, that HIV does not actually exist. These AIDS denialists are experts at selectively using the peer-reviewed literature to superficially bolster their positions. I think they lack the training or if trained, the integrity to appreciate two things that are understood by professional scientists. First, that peer-reviewed literature develops over time, so that what was legitimately uncertain 20 years ago is fully understood today. This means that citing decade-old papers and ignoring more recent ones is an unscrupulous tactic. Second, that ignoring every paper bar the one that most conveniently suits a preconceived position could be considered scientific misconduct. Similar practices can be found in other science-related areas. For example, advertisements claiming that vitamin pills can cure cancer and infectious diseases selectively cite the peer-reviewed literature.

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AT: Your Authors are Crazy


Crazy is only used for the marginalized and disrespected in intellectual communities, use of the word furthers ableist sentiments AbbyJean, blogger for disabledfeminists.com, 10 (AbbyJean, blogger for disabledfeminists.com, May 28,2010, Ableist Word Profile: Crazy (to describe political viewpoints or positions, http://disabledfeminists.com/2010/05/28/ableist-word-profilecrazy-to-describe-political-viewpoints-or-positions/, JSkoog) What I conclude from that is that the media doesnt consistently use crazy and other ableist terms to refer to absurd policies or those that lack rational support, but instead reserves those terms for people outside of mainstream politics. Which in turn implies that the term is used primarily to further marginalize and dismiss people who dont fit expectations of what a politician is or what are common or popular political arguments. To me, this is even more evidence that the implicit subtext of terming a person or policy crazy is shut up and go away, or start blending in better. Which, again, is exactly the message leveled at people with mental illness when theyre called crazy or loony or unhinged or any number of synonyms. This selective usage is even more reason the term crazy shouldnt be used in the political context partly because its a lazy out for commentators who refuse to engage with the actual policy issues or political ideas being proposed on a substantive level, and partly because it fiercely underlines and reinforces marginalization and dismissal of people with mental illness. It reminds me that when people call me crazy, what they really mean is stop existing in my consciousness either disappear or become normal. To see progressive writers and organizations rely on the marginalization of people with mental illness to score easy points against unpopular politicians is upsetting not only because of their perpetuation of ableism, but also because it puts me in the extremely uncomfortable position of defending people like Palin and Paul against this kind of criticism.

Ableism is like racism and sexism and oppresses and marginalizes those who we label as disabled Overboe, Professor at Wildfrid Laurier, 2007
(James, Professor at Wildfrid Laurier, Chapter 2 Vitalism: Subjectivity Exceeding Racism, Sexism, and (Psychiatric) Ableism, http://appweb.cortland.edu/ojs/index.php/Wagadu/article/viewFile/324/611, JSkoog) In a previous life, I found myself working as a social worker at a drop-in-centre for people who were undergoing or had undergone psychiatric treatment. My orientation for the position, in part, consisted of being informed that there were clients with difficult psychiatric problems. This was my initial introduction to Donna (a pseudonym), an aboriginal woman who undergoes psychiatric intervention. My colleagues informed me that they were attempting to separate the ongoing negative effects of oppression experienced through colonization and patriarchy from the real psychiatric disorder. This approach is problematic for me because, as some one who experiences cerebral, I contend that ableism, like racism and sexism, oppresses people by labeling them as having either a physical, psychiatric, cognitive, developmental, and sensory disability. Moreover, people can be read as having a combination of disabilities. For example, my experience of cerebral palsy has been read by others as having both physical and cognitive disabilities. Yet, for the most part, anti-oppression movements and liberal discourses continue to pathologise people who are disabled, especially those who have been psychiatrized. Donna experienced oppression as a woman, as an aboriginal, and through being psychiatrized. Historically, gender (see Smith, 1990; Groneman, 1995) and race have been conflated with mental inferiority. In this way, they have been socially constructed to represent medical pathology. Antioppression movements may have lessened the medical pathology based on racialization or gender. However the experience of being psychiatrized continues to be pathologised as a condition requiring a cure.

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Ablism Impacts
Ableist rhetoric is akin to other racist and bigoted language and is purely used for exclusionary purposes James, feminist blogger, 10
(Rachel McCarthy, feminist blogger for Deepylproblematic.com, Guest Post from RMJ: Ableist Word Profile: Crazy, May 17, 2010, http://disabledfeminists.com/2010/05/17/guest-post-from-rmj-ableist-word-profile-crazy/ Like every ism, ableism is absorbed through the culture on a more subconscious level, embedding itself in our language like a guerrilla force. Crazy is one of the most versatile and frequently used slurs, a word used sometimes directly against persons with mental disabilities (PWMD), sometimes indirectly against persons with able privilege, sometimes descriptive and value-neutral, and sometimes in a superficially positive light. As a direct slur against PWMD: Crazy as a word is directly and strongly tied to mental disability. Its used as a slur directly against PWMD both to discredit and to marginalize. If a person with a history of mental illness wants to do something, for good or bad, that challenges something, that persons thoughts, arguments, and rhetoric are dismissed because that person is crazy. If a PWMD is going through pain because of something unrelated to their mental state, culpability for the pain is placed solely on their being crazy. Even if their suffering is related to their disability, it is, in a catch-22, dismissed due to their craziness; the PWMD is expected to pull themselves up by their bootstraps if they want to be viewed as a valid human being. Examples: I cant believe Britney shaved her head. Crazy bitch. Not only is Dworkin cissexist, shes fucking crazy! As a way to discredit neurotypical people: Crazy is also often used to describe a neurotypical person that the speaker disagrees with. Its used to discredit able-privileged persons by saying that they are actually mentally disabled and what could be worse than that? Examples: Tom Cruise is fucking crazy. Seriously, hes batshit insane about Prozac, yelling at Matt Lauer and shit. Did you hear that Shirley broke up with Jim? She thought he was cheating on her. Yeah, shes crazy, Jims a great guy. Crazy is often used even, still, by me and other feminists to negatively describe ideas, writing, or other nouns that the speaker finds disagreeable. Conservatives are crazy, acts of oppression are crazy making , this winters snow is craziness. This usage makes a direct connection between mental disability and bad qualities of all stripes, turning disability itself into a negative descriptor. Whether it means bad or evil or outlandish or illogical or unthinkable, its turning the condition of having a disability into an all-purpose negative descriptor. When using crazy as a synonym for violent, disturbing, or wrong, its saying that PWMD are violent, disturbing, wrong. Its using disability as a rhetorical weapon. Examples: They took the public option out of the health care plan? Thats fucking crazy! Yeah, Loretta went crazy on Jeanie last night. Gave her a black eye and everything. Crazy as a positive amplifier: On the flip side, crazy is often used as a positive amplifier. Folks say that they are crazy about something or someone they love or like. But just because its positive doesnt mean its a good thing. Crazy as a positive adjective still mean overly or too much. Its meant to admit a slight lack of foresight or sense on the part of the speaker. Furthermore, a slur is a slur is a slur, no matter the context. Crazy is mostly, and overtly, used to mean bad, silly, not worth paying attention to, too much. Persons with mental illnesses are none of these things as a group. The positive use is not that positive, and it doesnt absolve the mountains of bad usage. Examples: Ive been crazy busy lately, sorry I havent been around much. Im just crazy about ice cream! Crazy a destructive word, used to hurt people with mental disabilities. Its used to discredit, to marginalize, to make sure that we feel shame for our disability and discourage self-care, to make sure that those of us brave enough to publicly identify as having mental disabilities are continually discredited. Editors Note: It can take longer than usual for com

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AT: Ableism
Even if ableist discourses are stopped, there is still stigma attached to disability - their K doesnt solve anything Kiriamaya, Blogger 11
(Kiriamaya, Blogger on Tumblr, Perpetually Myself: It's not enough to call out ableist language, Tumblr, May 12, 2011, http://kiriamaya.tumblr.com/post/5433850854/perpetually-myself-its-not-enough-to-call-out-ableist, JSkoog) Language is important, but more important still are the underlying assumptions which shape our society. Assumptions about who is valuable and who isnt, about what the proper way to behave is, about what counts as contributing to to society/the economy/whateverthe list goes on and on. Widespread use of crazy and lame (etc.) are but symptoms of the larger problemsociety is full of ableist assumptions, some of which are very obvious and some of which may be more subtlebut ableist nonetheless. The elimination of ableist words is but a small part of what needs to be done, and it frustrates and disappointments me that so much social justice work has stopped at languagewhich is in many ways the easiest part. Take stigma against people with intellectual disabilities. I am glad that its no longer acceptable to use the r-word in many circles, and that other words are making some headway. (I struggle with idiot and crazy and a lot of others myself in everyday speech.) But I dont think this has actually done all that much to promote the equality and worth of people with intellectual disabilities. There is still the assumption that it is better to be intelligent (whatever that means), that mental illness (however you define that) is something to be pitied, and that, in short, its better to be non-disabled than not. The end result is a very shallow sort of social justice discourse that keeps all of the underlying problematic assumptions in place while giving lip service to equality. Its very troubling. Truly examining ones ableism does not mean renaming the tags on your blog so that lame and crazy no longer appear. It is not being the fifth person on a thread to self-righteously proclaim that idiot is ableist, and then simply stopping at that. That is superficial, and oftentimes little more than a way for neurotypical and/or able-bodied people to publicly demonstrate their Good Ally status and pat themselves on the back. Examining ones ableism means constantly questioning and re-formulating basic assumptions which are oftentimes so deeply ingrained that its hard even to see them, let alone disavow them. Take the assumption that intelligence is valuable, for instance. Its so ingrained in our society, so hard to root outIll not pretend to be perfect on this scoreand yet doing so is vital if we are to create a world in which people with intellectual disabilities are equalsnot simply people-seen-as-lesser whom are condescended to.

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***Conspiracy Theory Analysis***

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Conspiracy Analysis Shell


Only engaging in conspiracy agnosticism creates productive criticism and exposes cracks in the edifice of governmentality Wendt, Minnesota Professor of International Relations and Duvall, Ohio State Professor of International Relations, 8
(Alexander and Raymond, Sovereignty and the UFO, August 2008, Political Theory Volume 36 Number 4, http://ovnis-usa.com/DIVERS/Wendt_Duvall_PoliticalTheory.pdf,JSkoog) We have called ours a critical theory, in that it rests on a normative assumption that the limits of modern rule should be exposed. In the present context this means that human beings should try to know the UFO .
Although we believe the case for this presumption is over-determined and overwhelming, it is not a case we can make here. Nevertheless, it seems incumbent upon us to follow through on the practical logic of our theory, so taking its desirability as given, in conclusion we address the question of resistance to the UFO taboo. The structuralism of our argument might suggest that resistance is futile. However, the structure of the UFO taboo also has aporias and fissures that make itand the anthropocentric structure of rule that it sustainspotentially unstable. One is the UFO itself, which in its persistent recurrence generates an ongoing need for its normalization . Modern rule might not recognize the UFO, but in the face of continuing anomalies maintaining such nonrecognition requires work. In that respect the UFO is part of

the constitutive, unnormalized outside of modern sovereignty, which can be included in authoritative discourse only through its exclusion. Within the structure of modern rule there are also at least two fissures that complicate maintaining UFO ignorance. One is the different knowledge interests of science and the state. While the two are aligned in authoritative UFO discourse, the state is ultimately interested in maintaining a certain regime of truth (particularly in the face of metaphysical insecurity), whereas science recognizes that its truths can only be tentative . Theory may be stubborn, but the presumption in science is that reality has the last word, which creates the possibility of scientific knowledge countering the states dogma. The
other fissure is within liberalism, the constitutive core of modern governmentality. Even as it produces normalized subjects who know that belief in UFOs is absurd, liberal governmentality justifies itself as a discourse that produces free-thinking subjects who might doubt it.72 It is in this context that we would place the recent disclosure by the French government (and at press time the British too) of its long-secret UFO files (1,600 reports), including its investigations of selected cases, of which the French acknowledge 25 percent as unexplained.73 Given that secrecy is only a contingent feature of the UFO taboo, and that even the French are still far from seeking systematic knowledge of UFOs, this disclosure is not in itself a serious challenge to our argument. However, the French action does illustrate a potential within liberalism to break with authoritative common sense,74 even at the risk of exposing the foundations of modern sovereignty to insecurity. The kind of resistance that can best exploit these fissures might be called

militant agnosticism. Resistance must be agnostic because by the realist standards of modernity, regarding the UFO/ET question neither atheism nor belief is epistemically justified; we simply do not know. Concretely, agnosticism means seeing rather than ignoring the UFO, taking it seriously as a truly unidentified object. Since it is precisely such seeing that the UFO taboo forbids, in this context seeing is resistance. However, resistance must also be militant, by which we mean public and strategic, or else it
will Wendt, Duvall / Sovereignty and the UFO 627 indeed be futile. The reproduction of UFO ignorance depends crucially on those in positions of epistemic authority observing the UFO taboo. Thus, private agnosticismof the kind moderns might have about God, for exampleis itself part of the problem. Only breaking the taboo in public constitutes genuine resistance. Even that is not enough, however, as attested by the long history of unsuccessful resistance to the UFO taboo to date.75 The problem is that agnosticism alone does not produce knowledge, and thus reduce the ignorance upon which modern sovereignty depends. For a critical theory of anthropocentric rule, therefore, a science of UFOs ironically is required, and not just a science of individual cases after the fact, which can tell us only that some UFOs lack apparent conventional explanations. Rather, in this domain what is needed is paradoxically a systematic science, in which observations are actively sought in order to analyze patterns from which an intelligent presence might be inferred.76 That would require money, infrastructure, and a long-term commitment of the kind that to date has been possible only for epistemic authorities, or precisely those actors most resistant to taking UFOs seriously. Still, given the

potential disjunction of interest between science and the state, it is possible here for science to play a key role for critical theory. Whether such a science would actually overcome UFO ignorance is unknowable today, but it is only through it that We might move beyond the essentially theological discourse of belief and denial to a truly critical posture. Modern rule and its metaphysics are extraordinarily resilient, so the difficulties of such resistance cannot
be overstated. Those who attempt it will have difficulty funding and publishing their work, and their reputations will suffer. UFO resistance might not be futile but it is certainly dangerous, because it is resistance to modern sovereignty itself. In this respect militant

UFO agnosticism is akin to other forms of resistance to governmentality; however, whereas sovereignty has found ways of dealing with them, the UFO may reveal an Achilles heel. Like Achilles, the modern sovereign is a warrior whose function is to protectin this case, from threats to the norm.

***Continued***

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Conspiracy Analysis Shell


***Continued***
Unlike conventional threats, however, the UFO threatens humans capacity to decide those threats, and so cannot be acknowledged without calling modern sovereignty itself into question. To what extent that would be desirable is a large normative question which we have bracketed here.77 But taking UFOs seriously would certainly embody the spirit of self-criticism that infuses liberal governmentality and academia in particular, and it would, thereby, foster critical theory. And indeed, if academics first responsibility is to tell the truth, then the truth is that after sixty years of modern UFOs, 628 Political Theory human beings still have no idea what they are, and are not even trying to find out. That should surprise and disturb us all, and
cast doubt on the structure of rule that requires and sustains it.

Governmentality and totalizing control over regimes of truth forms the basis of oppressive state power Marshall, University of Auckland - Emeritus Professor School of Education, 95
(James D, Foucault And Neo-Liberalism: Biopower And Busno-power, http://www.ed.uiuc.edu/EPS/PESYearbook/95_docs/marshall.html) Foucault also develops the notion of governmentality as the art of government or, as it is sometimes referred to, the "reason of state." This notion "refers to the state, to its nature and to its own rationality." He sees the technologies of domination and the self as being the techniques used "to make of the individual a significant element for the state." By "government" Foucault should be understood as meaning something close to "the conduct of conduct." This is a form of activity which attempts or aims at the conduct of persons; it is the attempt to shape, to guide, or to affect not only the conduct of people but, also, the attempt to constitute people in such ways that they can be governed. In Foucault's work this activity of governance could cover the relations of self to self, self to others, relations between institutions and social communities, and the exercise of political sovereignty. Governmentality is obtained not by a totalizing deterministic or oppressive form of power, but by bio-power directed in a totalizing manner at whole populations and, at one and the same time, at individuals so that they are both individualized and normalized. Here one locates the human sciences and their "truths," and the institutions or disciplinary blocks (including education) in which these truths have been developed, played, and continue to play, a crucially important role.

Unchallenged sovereign power makes extinction possible Rabinow, Professor of Anthropology, Berkeley, 84
(Paul, The Foucault Reader, p. 260) It is as managers of life and survival, of bodies and the race, that so many regimes have been able to wage so many wars, causing so many men to be killed. And through a turn that closes the circle, as the technology of wars has caused them to tend increasingly toward all-out destruction, the decision that initiates them and the one that terminates them are in fact increasingly informed by the naked question of survival. The atomic situation is now at the end point of this process: the power to expose a whole population to death is the underside of the power to guarantee an individual's continued existence. The principle underlying the tactics of battle-that one has to be capable of killing in order to go on living-has become the principle that defines the strategy of states. But the existence in question is no longer the juridical existence of sovereignty; at stake is the biological existence of a population. If genocide is indeed the dream of modem powers, this is not because of a recent return of the ancient right to kill; it is because power is situated and exercised at the level of life, the species, the race, and the large-scale phenomena of population.

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Challenges Space Imperialism


UFO discourse challenges US space imperialism Dean, Hobart and William Smith Colleges - Professor of Political Science, 98
(Jodi, Aliens in America pg. 19-20) The American articulation of outerspace together with technology and democracy incorporates an uneasy mix of colonialist, nationalist, and globalist ideals. Until the space program, the United States rarely presented itself explicitly as a colonial power, although expansionism has been integral to its selfunderstanding.51 By reiterating the expansive fantasy of the wild, lawless West, the metaphor of a "frontier" tapped into earlier notions of American exceptionalism. 52 Indeed, this very exceptionalism, the success of America's democratic experiment, was to be revealed and proven by breaking the laws of gravity, escaping the confines of Earth, conquering space itself. As America reached out into this "new frontier," the rhetoric of outposts, settlements, colonies, and colonization became part of the public language of outerspace. This language is fitting in that "space technology and communications," as Elayne Rapping points out, "make possible new extensions of American imperialism, both cultural and military."53 Once linked to a growing critique of the excesses of the military-industrial complex, to increased attention to the histories and situations of Native Americans, and to continued struggle in former colonies throughout Africa and Asia, such colonial rhetoric disrupts the space program's smooth presentation of democratic freedom. The UFO discourse resists official "space frontier" rhetoric. NASA redeployed American frontier myths of a wild, open West, one vacant, empty, and ready to be settled. Ufology challenges the assumed vacancy of outerspace and thereby intervenes critically in narratives of national identity.54 It demands that NASA, the government, the military, and the authorities who act in America's name, allow for the possibility that, in space, we are the aliens.

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Challenges Power Structures


The unorthodox way that conspiracy theories present themselves allows them to engage in critical argumentation to challenge existing powers Horn, Instructor at University of Tennessee Martin, 10
(Chara Von Kay, Instructor at University of Tennessee Martin and Ph.D candidate, The Paranoid Style in an Age of Suspicion: Conspiracy Thinking and Official Rhetoric in Contemporary America, 12-12-2010, From Digital Archive at Georgia State University, pg. 17-20, http://digitalarchive.gsu.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1025&context=communication_diss&seiredir=1#search=%22Paranoid%20Style%20an%20Age%20Suspicion%3A%20Conspiracy%20Thinking%20Official%20Rhetoric%20Contempor ary%20America%22 JSkoog)

Conspiracy theories are plausible because of their ability to tap into the traditional values and beliefs of their audiences, and they are able to stay popular within the public sphere over long periods of time because of their ability to adapt to, and reflect, temporal and cultural conditions. 78 Conspiracy narratives allow for no ambiguities, no discrepancies, no coincidences; 18 everything within the conspiracy narrative has a purpose. 79 Indeed, the stories woven by conspiracists maintain an internal coherence so masterful, that, according to Darsey, traditional modes of evaluation, although helpful, are not accessible enough for the lay person to use to evaluate conspiracy claims. Rather, a more helpful and public way to evaluate conspiracy theories rests on a question of motive because, as Walter Fisher argued, even a lay public has the access and acuity to determine if the motives of the villain make sense. 80 While narrative may be the vessel through which conspiracy theories gain their legitimization, equally important are the argumentative techniques used within conspiracy narratives. Perhaps the single most seductive element of the conspiracy argument is what David Zarefsky terms as its self-sealing nature. 81 Successful conspiracy arguments, according to Zarefsky, shift the burden of proof onto opponents while minimizing its own burdens. 82 Frequently, shifting the burden of proof onto those countering conspiracy claims includes using argument from absence. When a conspiracy charge is made, and a respondent counters by asserting that there is no conspiracy, then the response actually becomes proof that there is a conspiracy. Even if there is no response, the absence of a response becomes evidence that a vast and sinister conspiracy is brewing. As Brian Keeley notes, conspiracy arguments are the only theories for which evidence against them is actually constructed as evidence in favor of them. 83 Darsey affirms: Under normal circumstances, appearance demands presumption. One who claims that things are not as they appear to be assumes the burden of proof; a strong prima facie case is required before appearances need be seriously interrogated. Conspiracy argument exploits and reverses this normative presumption, making the lack of evidence into evidence transmogrifying surfaces from their pedestrian status as the most visible 19 outward manifestation of reality into veils and masks. 84 Thus, the ability of conspiracy theories to use the absence of evidence as evidence allows for virtually anything to be subsumed into the conspiracy narrative. The rhetorical hallmarks of conspiracy theories provide insight into the power such theories wield. However, rhetorical scholars have generally focused on, and analyzed, a singular conspiracy theory located within the public sphere in order to uncover the argumentative and narrative strategies conspiracists use in persuading their audiences. Such studies have tended to uncover the situational and contextual elements that make conspiracy theories more believable and then map out their inherent logical and narrative problems. I am more interested in the intersection that exists between conspiracy arguments and official discourse and what this intersection has to offer to our insight. Darsey alludes to an examination of this nexus when he calls for a restoration of public science. 85 The secrecy under which institutional agencies operate is often ascribed to a malign purpose. Sissela Bok argues secrecy, by its very nature, breeds distrust: it is an intentional concealment that sets apart the secret from the non-secret, and of keepers of a secret from those excluded. 86 In our increasingly secret world (be it related to political, scientific, or trade realms), there is a tendency to believe the worst rather than the best about what these secretive agencies are doing.

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147 Conspiracy Theory

Challenges Power Structures


Conspiracy theories force powers structures to explain and defend actions Horn, Instructor at University of Tennessee Martin, 10
(Chara Von Kay, Instructor at University of Tennessee Martin and Ph.D candidate, The Paranoid Style in an Age of Suspicion: Conspiracy Thinking and Official Rhetoric in Contemporary America, 12-12-2010, From Digital Archive at Georgia State University, pg. 17-20, http://digitalarchive.gsu.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1025&context=communication_diss&seiredir=1#search=%22Paranoid%20Style%20an%20Age%20Suspicion%3A%20Conspiracy%20Thinking%20Official%20Rhetoric%20Contempor ary%20America%22 JSkoog)

Conspiracy theories, which claim to know the truth, are not so different from official discourse. Indeed, like official discourse, conspiracy theories pose their adherence to facticity, causality, coherence, and rationality. What sets contemporary conspiracy theories apart from official discourse, according to Jodi Dean, is suspicion. Conspiracy narratives emphasize that something has been withheld, that all the facts arent known, that what we see isnt all there is. Conspiracy theory demands more information. Too humble to offer a totalizing account, [the] accumulated assertions [of conspiracy narratives] remind us that we dont know. 104 The multiplicity of competing information casts suspicion onto more legitimate forms of knowledge. Knight explains, Conspiracy theories are a form of pop sociology cobbled together on the fly as people try to gain a handle on the complexities of social and economic causation in an era of rapid globalization. With the increasing overload of information from mutually competing sources, none of which seem entirely trustworthy, a hermeneutic of suspicion has 25 become a routine operating procedure. 105 Belief in conspiracy becomes an almost necessary response to the multiplicity of information, especially with the lack of a suitable explanation. Even when an explanation is provided, enough questions are asked, enough evidence is brought to light, so as to cast doubt and suspicion onto the explanation. Any official discourse that comes into being after doubt and suspicion have been leveled against legitimate explanations has to at least attempt to assuage any existing doubts, which inherently alters the substance and form of official discourse. 106 The leveling of the discursive playing field precipitated by the loss of central authority and the indeterminacy of information provides an opening for conspiracy theories to find increasing prominence and belief. Conspiracy theories challenge and question authority and capitalize on the strength of their own narratives, the inconsistencies of official accounts, and the proliferation of conflicting information. Conspiracy theories are a mode of constructing meaning in a rapidly changing and complex world. It is no longer automatically discrediting to label something a conspiracy theory; authorities must prove their positions, write compelling and believable accounts of events, and, ultimately, must get back in touch with their audiences if they want the support of the people. Yet the ability for officials to connect with the people is problematic because officials are no longer able to forward an affirmative argument simply providing the causes or reasons behind an event. Officials are forced into a defensive position brought on by claims of conspiracy existing prior to the crafting of an official response. For this reason it is necessary to examine the power of conspiracy beliefs through the lens of official discourse. If recent authoritative texts are any indication, then there is a real danger that conspiracy beliefs will usurp official explanations and become the preferred way of thinking

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148 Conspiracy Theory

Challenges Sovereignty
Exopolitical engagement is key to challenging sovereign authority Acimovic, lecturer in Further Education, 11
(Natasha, and currently teaches Adult Literacy and Academic Study Skills at a British college,Transcending the Hall of Mirrors: The Simultaneity of Discourse, the Third Space and Adopting Multiple Ways of Viewing the Construction of Human-Alien Identities, Exopolitics Journal, June, http://www.exopoliticsjournal.com/vol-3/vol-34-Acimovic.pdf, JSkoog)
What are the implications then for Exopolitics? Certainly, there are some obvious differences between the postcolonial and experiencer spheres but while the ramifications of the former can be more effectively established the latter presents us with a paradox since we are dealing with impact of an unfamiliar, extraterrestrial paradigm. Furthermore, this is complicated by the denial of the ETH as a part of consensus reality. A similar concern is explored by Professors Alexander Wendt and Raymond Duvall. They examine how the UFO

as an authoritative taboo is actively produced via the mechanism of sovereign rule. This political necessity propagated by the union of science and the state, even if this pact forms a somewhat uneasy one, ensures the stability of it. They contend that since the UFO issue includes the possibility of extraterrestrials as a plausible hypothesis then modern sovereignty is faced with a physical and ontological threat to its rule. I would suggest that if this is true of the UFO subject then this is even more so in regards to the issue of inter-dimensional and (or) off planetary intelligences interacting with the Earths human citizens. Accordingly, the UFO issue represents a sort of double entrapment since to disclose the former would lead to a questioning of the latter, and it is this site in particular that poses ontological threats to identity or social being. 29
Subsequently, if the psychosocial dynamics of experiencers narratives shares similarities with those identified by postcolonial theorists then it is a political imperative for Exopolitics to explore this further for a number of significant reasons. Firstly, aside from the psychological framework utilised by John Mack and others to account for the validity of the abduction and contactee phenomenon, we

have a comparative psychosocial framework that lends further weight to the issue by showing that the impact of the alien presence constructs states of being that are representative of how multiple human cultures intersect. Secondly, it is ethically imperative for Exopolitics to do so. When left to the skeptics and scientific authorities
to examine such an area, and in this particular point I am referring to how Wendt and Duvall situate the sceptic and science as sources of authority, then we are presented with the type of analysis that is representative of Dr Mark Newbrooks treatment of the experiencer, as a sort of interplanetary hoaxer or dissident determined to confound the application of authoritative, scientific linguistic modes via their use of alien languages. 30 Needless to say, if Exopolitics as a discipline does not venture further into the

territory of academia to reappropriate sites which are critical to a deeper understanding the ETH then those who speak with sovereign authority will be able to maintain the epistemology of [UFO] ignorance. 31 In the process the modern state is able to uphold its public discourse that, using Mark Newbrook words, the balance of probability regarding the ETH does not warrant further focused attention. 32 Thirdly, the ethical imperative is that it is experiencers themselves who are left to deal with the psychological fallout from the machine of sovereignty, and what is it Exopolitics if not a site of resistance and a counter cultural discourse?

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149 Conspiracy Theory

Challenges Sovereignty
The uncertainty created by the UFO directly threatens the epistemology of the science that the sovereign relies on to maintain power Wendt, Minnesota Professor of International Relations and Duvall, Ohio State Professor of International Relations, 8
(Alexander and Raymond, Sovereignty and the UFO, August 2008, Political Theory Volume 36 Number 4, http://ovnis-usa.com/DIVERS/Wendt_Duvall_PoliticalTheory.pdf,JSkoog) As unidentified object the UFO poses a threat of unknowability to science, upon which modern sovereignty depends. Of course, there are many things science does not know , like the cure for cancer, but its authority rests on the assumption that nothing in Nature is in principle unknowable. UFOs challenge modern science in two ways: (1) they appear random and unsystematic, making them difficult to grasp objectively; and (2) some appear to violate the laws of physics (like the 40g turns in the Belgian F-16 case). This does not mean that UFOs are in fact humanly unknowable, but they might be, and in that respect they haunt modern sovereignty with the possibility of epistemic failure. To see how this might be uniquely threatening it is useful to compare the UFO to
three other cases of what might be seen as unknowability. One is the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle in quantum theory, which acknowledges inherent limits on the ability to know sub-atomic reality. Since the Uncertainty Principle has not stopped physicists from doing physics, this might seem to undermine our claim that potential unknowability precludes a decision on the UFO as object. Yet, there are known unknowns and unknown unknowns, and here the two cases differ. Quantum mechanics emerged in a highly structured context of extant theory and established experimental results, and is a systematic body of knowledge that enables physicists to manipulate reality with extraordinary precision. With quantum theory we know exactly what we cannot know, enabling it to be safely incorporated into modern science. The UFO, in contrast, emerges in a context free of extant theory and empirical

research, and raises fundamental questions about the place of human beings in the universe. That we might never know what we cannot know about UFOs makes their potential objectivity more problematic for the modern project.

The sovereigns attempts to discredit and ignore the UFO creates self censorship among the population that seeks to remove knowledge Wendt, Minnesota Professor of International Relations and Duvall, Ohio State Professor of International Relations, 8
(Alexander and Raymond, Sovereignty and the UFO, August 2008, Political Theory Volume 36 Number 4, http://ovnis-usa.com/DIVERS/Wendt_Duvall_PoliticalTheory.pdf,JSkoog) One might distinguish at least four such techniques: (1) authoritative representations, like the U.S. Air Forces claim that UFOs are not a national security threat,67 the portrayal of ufology as pseudoscience, and the science fictionalization of UFOs in the media; (2) official inquiries, like the 1969 Condon Report, which have the appearance of being scientific but are essentially show trials systematically deformed by a priori rejection of the ETH;68 (3) official secrecy, which removes knowledge from the system;69 and finally (4) discipline in the Foucauldian sense, ranging from formal attacks on the paranoid style of UFO believers as a threat to modern rationality,70 to everyday dismissal of those who express public interest in UFOs, which generates a spiral of silence in which individuals engage in self-censorship instead.71 Much could be said from a governmentality perspective about these techniques, which are amply documented in the ufological literature, but we lack the space to do so here. Instead, we have focused on explaining why all this anti-UFO work is necessary in the first place, which goes to the fundamental puzzle with which we began our argument: given the many reasons to study UFOs, why arent they taken seriously? To answer this question the specific techniques by which the UFO is normalized can be a distraction, since ignorance is multiply realizable at the micro-level Notwithstanding the importance of governmentality to a critical theory of anthropocentric rule, it is to the performative insecurity of modern sovereignty that one must look first.

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150 Conspiracy Theory

Challenges Governmentality
Foucauldian concepts of the state intervening in sciences epistemology Wendt, Minnesota Professor of International Relations and Duvall, Ohio State Professor of International Relations, 8
(Alexander and Raymond, Sovereignty and the UFO, August 2008, Political Theory Volume 36 Number 4, http://ovnis-usa.com/DIVERS/Wendt_Duvall_PoliticalTheory.pdf,JSkoog) In thinking about the problem of rule, political scientists have traditionally focused on either individual agents or institutional structures, in both cases treating government as a given object. In contrast, Foucaults concept of governmentality is focused on the art of governing, understood as the biopolitical conduct of conduct for a population of subjects.45 Thus, governmentality concerns the specific regime of practices through which the population is constituted and (self-)regularized. Modern governmentality marks a shift in discourses of rule away from the states sovereign power its ability to take life and/or render it bareand toward its fostering and regularizing of life in biopolitics. The object of government is no longer simply obedience to the king, but regulating the conditions of life for subjects. To this end biopolitics requires that the conditions of life of the population be made visible and assayed, and practical knowledge be made available to improve them. As a result, with modern governmentality we see the emergence of both panoptic surveillance and numerous specialized discoursesof education, political economy, demography, health, morality, and othersthe effect of which is to make populations knowable and subject to the regularization that will make for the happy life. A constitutive feature of modern governmentality is that its discourses are scientific, which means that science and the state are today deeply intermeshed. Through science the state makes its subjects and objects known, lending them a facticity that facilitates their regularization, and through the state science acquires institutional support and prestige. Despite this symbiosis, however, there is also an important epistemological difference between the two. Science seeks, but knows it can never fully achieve, the truth, defined as an apolitical, objective representation of the world. To this end it relies on norms and practices that produce an evolving, always potentially contested body of knowledge. The state, in contrast, seeks a regime of truth to which its population will reliably adhere. Standards for knowledge in that context privilege stability and normalization over the uncertain path of scientific truth. Although science and the state are allied in the modern UFO regime, we suggest in conclusion that this difference opens space for critical theory and resistance.

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151 Conspiracy Theory

Key to Citizen Participation


Conspiracy theories allow for the most basic right of a citizen in a democratic society: the pursuit of gathering information Dean, Hobart and William Smith Colleges - Professor of Political Theory, 97
(Jodi, John Hopkins University Press The Familiarity of Strangeness: Aliens, Citizens, and Abduction , Theory & Event 1:2, Project MUSE, JSkoog)
Conspiracy thinking is a method for thinking critically when caught within the governing assumptions of a public sphere. So the problem with conspiracy thinking is not its failure to comply with public reason but its very compliance, a compliance that reiterates some of these assumptions even as it contests others, a compliance that demonstrates all too clearly the paranoia, surveillance, and compulsive will to know within the ideal of publicity. Thus, conspiracy theory rejects the myth of a transparent

public sphere, a sphere where others can be trusted (and, importantly, conspiracy theory doesn't claim with certainty that no one can be trusted; it claims an uncertainty as to whether anyone can be trusted), although it continues to rely on revelation. In so doing, it demonstrates the constitutive antagonism between transparency
and revelation, the antagonism of a notion of the public that ultimately depends on secrecy: if everything and everyone were transparent, there would be nothing to reveal. We might say that, by reiterating the compulsions of publicity, conspiracy's attempts to

uncover the secret assemble information regarding the contexts, terms, and conditions of surveillance, discovery, and visibility in a culture where democracy is conceived within a hegemonic notion of the public sphere. When publicity feeds the mediated networks of the information age, conspiracy theory challenges the presumption that what we see on the screens, what is made visible in traditional networks and by traditional authorities, is not itself invested in specific lines of authorization and subjection. Make links, search for truth: within these injunctions one is forced to be free insofar as one is forced to gather information. More powerful, more persuasive, than market and consumerist conceptions of freedom, freedom as information gathering confirms a conception of democratic engagement long part of the ideal of the public sphere: the public has a right to know . Citizens are free, in other words, so long as nothing is hidden from them. Thus, they must watch, surveill, expose, and reveal. Conspiracy theory or the version of democracy that supports the information age? I can't tell the difference. I
guess I'll have to look on the Internet.

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152 Conspiracy Theory

Key to Dissent
Conspiracy theories should be understood as questioning the gatekeeping of official media and information, opening space for dissent beyond the mainstream Alvarez, staff writer Rutgers Today, 2008 (Ashanti M., Panic over the unknown: New book examines
the collective anxiety surrounding conspiracy theories Rutgers Today, April 23, http://news.rutgers.edu/focus/issue.2008-04-09.1171885477/article.2008-04-23.8077404311, SL)
A cultural studies scholar who takes a critical look at popular culture (one of his recent areas of study is reality television), Bratich

says that recent conspiracy theories are born out of the investigative vacuum created by institutional failure and filled by grassroots access to technology. A lot of my undergrads really light up when I start talking about secret societies," Bratich said. "They are feeling the alienation and skepticism that young people have had for many generations, and now its taking this other shape, too, through social network media. Indeed, ideas surrounding conspiracy theories have invaded the consciousness of millions, especially young people, through the popularization of alternative media websites and particularly through video embedding and sharing. The documentary Loose Change, which promulgates the notion that the U.S. government was involved in the 9/11 attacks, spread like wildfire across the internet and prompted an equally well-known debunking by Popular Mechanics magazine. That a failed film school student from upstate New York and a magazine dedicated to automotive technology and used cars engaged in a debate about what happened that day points to a larger failing by government commissions and the mainstream media to answer the publics many questions about the tragedy. Where are the investigative bodies that we can turn to to trust and do these investigations and research? Bratich asks. Investigative journalism has been gutted over the last 15 or 20 years. Government-appointed bodies ... their work is not just full of holes but has all these closed door meetings. Now we are faced with how to reorient
ourselves around this new version of investigative research, he says. When he arrived at Rutgers from the University of New Hampshire in 2003, Bratich settled in Princeton. I was accustomed to college towns, he said. But a year later he decided to move to New Yorks Lower East Side, just across the lower tip of Manhattan from Ground Zero. That actually changed a lot of my work, moving to New York City, Bratich said. The last chapter, which deals with the 9/11 attacks, came from Bratichs experience at 9/11 truth movement meetings taking place in lower Manhattan. I wanted to see how they were trying to organize politically. Being on the Lower East Side plugged me into a set of activists and activist organizations, which made me think about how to analyze the truth movement in as far as how it links up to the left. Conspiracy theories are neither exclusive to the left nor right side of the political opinion spectrum. Instead, certain types of skepticism have become attached to extremism of either wing, rendering the askers of questions marginal. In Conspiracy Panics, Bratich is

mostly concerned with mainstream left media outlets that act as gatekeepers in an attempt to regulate discourse surrounding conspiracy theories and retain legitimacy. He puts forth the idea of a sphere of legitimate dissensus. Its about what kinds of claims and knowledges can appear on the range of possible opinions, Bratich said.

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153 Conspiracy Theory

AT: Irrational
As technology blurs the lines of reality and rationality, only conspiracy theory offers a way for individuals to reclaim meaning Dean, Hobart and William Smith Colleges - Professor of Political Science, 98
(Jodi, Aliens in America, pg. 9-10,) Such dismissals, handed out ever more frequently as science increasingly impacts on our lives, contribute to the mistrust that pervades contemporary democracy. Those in positions of power deploy terms like "reasonable" and "rational." Previously, the victims of this deployment, the "unreasonable" and "irrational," remained isolated. They had difficulty getting attention and fighting back. Now, thanks to widespread developments in communication networks, the "irrational" can get their message out. They can find and connect with those myriad others also dismissed by science. They can network and offer alternatives to official deployments or reason. They can reclaim their rationality on their own terms. What happens when there is so much suspicion of terms like "reasonable" and "rational" that one can no longer tell what an informed decision on a matter like, say, partial-birth abortion or nuclear waste storage might look like? This is where America is today. We face a situation of profound blurring, of complex interconnection, that has profoundly altered the conditions we use to establish the intelligibility of an issue or judgment. We have permanent media. Although not yet seamless, as proponents of push technologies which, like TV, deliver messages without the user having to search for them advocate, the experience of media in millennial America smears lines between ad and information, product and producer, ad and product, entertainment and all of the above. 23 The new communication technologies make possible connections between persons and information that were once unimaginable. These include temporal and spatial connections: I can see images from Mars now, in real time. They include conceptual and visual connections, "special effects" no longer limited to Industrial Light and Magic but available from Photoshop for the splicer on a budget. How can we tell whether a person in a photo was inserted or really there? Access to media and technology affects the practices of democracy. More opinions, more contestations are possible than before simply because of the ease of connection. Dismissing others' opinions is more likely to provoke outrage, to get some kind of response, even if only a few thousand people on the Internet are watching. The lines of thinking, the networks of discursive authority that had remained separate, are now more likely to blur as more people know more about what happens. Yet, they still may not know what it means or even if it really happened. How can I know which statement on partial abortion reflects "facts" the pro-life movement wants to disseminate? How can I know whether this is an issue on which I might change my mind or compromise? UFOs, aliens, and abduction provide ideal vehicles for accessing the effects of these changes on American society. America has a long history of contestations, fringe groups, and conspiracy theorists. Now, though, any contest, any group, any theory has more opportunity to acquire an audience, to link into a network where it won't be obscured by those parts of our culture with claims to public or political status. Because of the pervasiveness of UFO belief and the ubiquity of alien imagery, ufology is an especially revealing window into current American paranoia and distrust. We might say that it's "of the fringe" though no longer "on the fringe."

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154 Conspiracy Theory

AT: Irrational
Scientists act as gatekeeprs of knowledge - they try to label those who believe as irrational Dean, Hobart and William Smith Colleges - Professor of Political Science, 98
(Jodi, Aliens in America pg. 8-9) We have moved from consensus reality to virtual reality. Politics itself must now be theorized from within the widespread dispersion of paranoia that has supplanted focused targets such as "Jim Crow" laws, Richard Nixon, and the Vietnam War. Insofar as its practioners can link together varieties of disparate phenomena to find patterns of denial, occlusion, and manipulation, conspiracy theory, far from a label dismissively attached to the lunatic fringe, may well be an appropriate vehicle for political contestation.20 Some government agencies, as well as some researchers and journalists, have already been thinking and acting in ways that might have been dismissed as "conspiratorial" under traditional politics. As Grant Kester explains in his compelling analysis of federal information policies during the Reagan administration: With the growing use of computer networks the government is faced with the problem of an information blizzard a lascivious and potentially threatening intermingling in which memos, affidavits, invoices, receipts, bank statements, and other documents combine and recombine themselves to produce dangerous new constellations of meaning. In this scenario the threat doesn't lie with a single piece of damaging information that "leaks out" and exposes government malfeasance, but with the possible interconnections that might be made among dozens of different bits of information; bits that might mean little or nothing by themselves, but that, when assembled by the researcher into a particular narrative form, could prove extremely damaging.21 To reiterate, my claim is not that people who think they have been abducted by aliens threaten to destroy democracy. It is not that UFO believers are irrational.22 Rather, being unable to judge their rationality points to the lack of widespread criteria for judgments about what is reasonable and what is not: ufological discourse upholds the very criteria for scientific rationality that mainstream science uses to dismiss it. "Scientists" are the ones who have problems with the "rationality" of those in the UFO community. "Scientists" are the ones who feel a need to explain why some people believe in flying saucers, or who dismiss those who do so as "distorted" or "prejudiced" or "ignorant."

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155 Conspiracy Theory

AT: Paranoia
The mainstreams attempts at silencing conspiracy theories construct an Other between those in power and those who question power Goshorn, Professor of American politics and cultural history, 2000
(Keith, Professor of American politics and cultural history, Strategies of Deterrence and Frames Of Containment: On Critical Paranoia And Anti-Conspiracy Discourse, 2000, Project Muse, http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/theory_and_event/v004/4.3r_goshorn.html, JSkoog) 12. The idea that misguided souls are being duped by conspiracy theories issues from a long history of upper class leaders and elitist intellectuals who have always feared that "...the masses are still captive to ignorance and superstition," whereas those who had the means to lead and control society occupied the seat of logic and rationality. Yet when the lower classes have expressed suspicions of ruling class conspiracies to manipulate and dominate them, such narratives typically have been publicly ridiculed as mere paranoid fantasies in order to diminish their credibility. One of the most influential American academic theorists of propaganda, Harold Lasswell, could thus use this belief as the justification for the necessary "...development of a whole new technique of control, largely through propaganda" which was "...the one means of mass mobilization which is cheaper than violence, bribery, or other possible control techniques."[7] And finally, as most of the recent writers discussed here are beginning to acknowledge, not only is it inaccurate to say that all those who "believe in" conspiracy theories are simply paranoid, but also to persecute those Others for believing in the wrong set of truth-claims resonates with a long series of earlier religious campaigns against heresies and ideological campaigns driven by a characteristically American counter-subversive impulse. Such persecution further re-enacts a familiar ritual of masculinist logic attempting to "feminize" its opponents.

It is essential that we criticize the common goings on of public policy-empirics prove Goshorn, Professor of American politics and cultural history, 2000
(Keith, Professor of American politics and cultural history, Strategies of Deterrence and Frames Of Containment: On Critical Paranoia And Anti-Conspiracy Discourse, 2000, Project Muse, http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/theory_and_event/v004/4.3r_goshorn.html, JSkoog) Each year new evidence has appeared (helpless though it may be alone) which suggests that, at least since the late 1940's, there has been every reason to retain a hermeneutics of political suspicion and a healthy paranoia within reason regarding all official versions, and to remain open-minded toward nearly any alternative thesis of political cover-up, no matter how implausible it may at first appear. Such an attitude has been more than justified while observing an accelerating curve where deeds, programs, and policies, at first emphatically denied and officially disproven by numerous experts, subsequently take less and less time to arrive from the realm of the conspiratorial absurd, to the plausible, to the possible, to the probable, to the positively confirmable. Sometimes this process arrives through declassified or "liberated" documents from the deep archives of the official version, or occasionally by voluntary or forced admissions by representatives of government or corporate power which have reversed the status of what was long held at bay in the realm of "irresponsible" conspiracy theory into confirmable elements of the continually revised historical record. Needless to say, these developments have not alleviated the illusions of a mainstream consensus culture, nor have they yet altered the empty spectacle of electoral politics, but they have at least rekindled a semblance of popular, at times almost non-partisan opposition against the polyarchal rule of business as usual. Researching these dimensions of the relevant historical phenomena, especially the ever more complex problems of proof and evidence, is a far more valuable enterprise for academic researchers to pursue than the continual flogging of the easy target of popular conspiratorial delusions and paranoid suspicions.

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156 Conspiracy Theory

Abduction Narratives
Alien abduction narratives are representative of the disruption in the global system Dean , Professor of Political Theory at Hobart and William Smith Colleges 97
(Jodi, John Hopkins University Press The Familiarity of Strangeness: Aliens, Citizens, and Abduction Project MUSE, June 21, 2011, BLG) Slavoj Zizek's discussion of the "theft of enjoyment" can help us understand not just the thematization of passivity in the alien abduction narrative but also the way the program as a whole disrupts the fantasy of global citizenship.65 In his analysis of nationalism, Zizek suggests that we impute to the other an "excessive enjoyment," always suspecting the other of attempting to steal ours. He writes: "What we conceal by imputing to the Other the theft of enjoyment is the traumatic fact that we never possessed what was allegedly stolen from us: the lack ('castration') is original."66 In abduction, the alien takes away our agency, and the sense of security and certainty upon which our agency was predicated. This theft of agency is manifest not just in the power of the alien to paralyze us and abduct us at will but also in its technological superiority and pernicious breeding project. Because of its expertise, it takes away our pride in technological achievement. Because of its genetic investigations, it abducts our children, our ability to determine, or at least influence, our future. Zizek's formulation reminds us that the abduction narrative functions to conceal the fact that our agency was an illusion, just like our security and certainty. The technology has been controlling us, developing, spreading, replicating with its own momentum, a momentum no one of us can comprehend. We might have thought that our genes are all we have, but since we can't really be said to own or possess them (they constitute us, or so we are told), their theft by aliens marks our contradictory and ambiguous relationship to our own bio-chemistry.

Alien Abductions narrate the experience of strangeness. Dean , Professor of Political Theory at Hobart and William Smith Colleges 97
(Jodi, John Hopkins University Press The Familiarity of Strangeness: Aliens, Citizens, and Abduction Project MUSE, June 21, 2011, BLG) Despite or perhaps because of the excesses of privatization, the pervasive sense of the millennial US is that nothing is "ours," nothing is safe, secure, protected. Violence, abuse, poverty, and neglect disrupt familiar images of home. Some respond with vigorous interest in "Home Improvement" or Martha Stewart's complicated domestic projects, both explicit in their stress on the need to build and repair homes. Technology promised to save us time, to give us access to information. Like Hopkins' abductees, many of us today are missing time. Since what happens happens now, by the time we have assessed now it is then. We have too much data, but not enough to make any decisions because we are uncertain about the contexts and networks into which we might integrate this information. Our neighbors are aliens. Assimilation has been discredited as an ideal and multiculturalism hasn't become much more than a marketing strategy. Peaceful coexistence demands mental changes, accommodation, tolerance. Better to forget the neighbors, go inside, and enjoy cyber-citizenship on the World Wide Web. What happens to me alone, isolated, vulnerable is of global significance. Alien abduction narrates the predominant experience of the familiarity of strangeness in the techno-global information age. Unlike metaphors of colonization that presuppose borders to be penetrated and resources to be exploited, abduction operates with an understanding of the world, of reality, as amorphous and permeable. Colonization, moreover, brings with it the possibility of anticolonial struggle, or resistance and independence. Abduction tells us there is nothing we can do. Colonial notions connote history. Abduction warps space and time. Whereas colonization implies an ongoing process with systemic limitations, abduction involves the sense that things are happening behind our backs, things have been done to us that we don't remember and probably couldn't bear if we did. To fight colonization, we take control. We don't fight abduction; we simply try to recover our memories, all the while aware that they could be false, that in our very recovery we participate in an alien plan.

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***Conspiracy Theory Bad***

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Reject Conspiracy Theories


Conspiracy theories should be discounted Hawkins, professional blogger who runs Right Wing News, 3
(John, May 30, The Questions Conspiracy Theorists Need To Ask Themselves, http://www.rightwingnews.com/john/conspire.php)
Now if these ridiculous beliefs were relegated to the fringes of society I probably wouldn't bother with writing an editorial to shoot down the thinking behind these theories. However, this sort of bizarre paranoia has crept into "mainstream thinking" . Things like the "Jewish Conservatives manipulating the President", "The Republicans rigged the 2002 elections", & "Bush knew (about 9/11)" have been tossed around by people many see as more credible than the average fruit loop writing for these conspiracy websites. That's why I thought it would be worth tossing out a few questions that anyone who starts to buy into these sorts of theories should consider. To begin with

How many people know about this conspiracy?: It's very difficult to keep any sort of newsworthy conspiracy that hundreds or thousands of people are supposedly involved in out of the mainstream press. Keep in mind that we live in a world where the President can't even get a BJ from an intern without it becoming public knowledge. Even things as sensitive as battle plans for upcoming invasions get into the papers. That's why you should certainly be skeptical of any sort of vast conspiracy that requires people keeping quiet about it indefinitely . How reliable is your source?: As the ongoing saga with the New York Times has illustrated, the mainstream media is not
always completely reliable. However, they're infinitely more trustworthy than people who post anonymously on the net. I'm often surprised to see that people who don't trust one thing that Fox News or the New York Times says will blindly lap up whatever some conspiracy website or moonbat radio talk show host like Art Bell has to say. Yet, even though these sources burn them again and again, their readers still buy into what they have to say. It makes no sense. Do you have ready answers for the obvious questions?: Let's look at a conspiracy that was floating around after 9/11 -- that the Pentagon was hit by a truck bomb, not a plane. Well in that case, what happened to the plane that was hijacked? How could it be that various people WATCHED the plane flying towards the Pentagon? Is it possible that the hundreds of firefighters and military personnel who must have known the truth were somehow silenced? Why would anyone go through such an elaborate charade? If you can't convincingly answer the most basic questions about a conspiracy, then it's tough for the theory you're supporting to hold any water. Are you acting as if commonly held beliefs are unique?: This is one question that a lot of the more "mainstream" conspiracy theorists should ask themselves more often. For example, over the last year and a half we've constantly heard people asserting that beliefs held by a large majority of Republicans are really unique to a handful of Conservative Jews who somehow manipulated Bush into going to war to help Israel. Who the conspiracy theories pick out of the bunch and try to assign sinister motives to in situations like that usually says more about the conspiracy theorist than the person or group they target .

Are you relying too much on a handful of contrary facts?: Rarely do you ever see a story where every fact, "falls into place". By that I mean people's memories are faulty, perceptions differ, politicians spin issues, press biases creep
in, things are taken out of context, & typos and factual errors come into play as well. When these things inevitably happen, conspiracy theorists tend to seize a handful of inconsistencies and try to prove that there's a cover-up or conspiracy happening. But, this is just how life works. If you don't believe me, leave a couple of kids alone in a room full of breakables with a football, come back a few minutes after you hear something break, and then separate the kids and ask what happened.

Are you being too cynical about the government?: There's only one thing worse than believing that your government always tells the truth and that's believing that they always lie. If you're willing to buy into
any sort of claptrap because you won't put anything past your government, then you're apt to be proven wrong over and over again.

Shouldn't you be a little more skeptical about those conspiracy theories?: I've heard some variation of the following from conspiracy theorists, "How can you just dismiss this conspiracy theory out of hand? There have been conspiracies that have turned to be true before so this one could be true as well!" Yes, there have been conspiracy theories that panned out, but very, very, few of them. In fact, if you simply blew off every conspiracy theory that came down the pike you'd rarely ever be wrong. Because of that, conspiracy theories merit a lot of skepticism. Before you buy into a conspiracy theory, ask yourself these questions and generally -- actually, in almost every case -- you'll find that it doesn't hold water.

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Conspiracy Theories Non-falsifiable


Conspiracy theories question knowledge production and reduce highly complex phenomena to non-fallsifiable explanations Barkun, professor emeritus of political science at the Maxwell School of Citizenship and Public Affairs and FBI consultant, 03
(Michael, A Culture of Conspiracy: Apocalyptic Visions in Contemporary America, pg. 7, SL) Conspiracy theories resist traditional canons of proof because they reduce highly complex phenomena to simple causes. This is ordinarily a characteristic much admired in scientific theories, where it is referred to as parsimony. Conspiracy theoriesparticularly the systemic theories and the superconspiracy theories discussed above are nothing if not parsimonious, for they attribute all of the world's evil to the activities of a single plot, or set of plots. Precisely because the claims are so sweeping, however, they ultimately defeat any attempt at testing. Conspiracists' reasoning runs in the following way. Because the conspiracy is so powerful, it controls virtually all of the channels through which information is disseminateduniversities, media, and so forth. Further, the conspiracy desires at all costs to conceal its activities , so it will use its control over knowledge production and dissemination to mislead those who seek to expose it. Hence information that appears to put a conspiracy theory in doubt must have been planted by the conspirators themselves in order to mislead. The result is a closed system of ideas about a plot that is believed not only to be responsible for creating a wide range of evils but also to be so clever at covering its tracks that it can manufacture the evidence ad- duced by skeptics. In the end, the theory becomes nonfalsifiable, be- cause every attempt at falsification is
dismissed as a ruse.

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Any understanding created is episodic not systematic Barkun, professor emeritus of political science at the Maxwell School of Citizenship and Public Affairs and FBI consultant, 03
(Michael, A Culture of Conspiracy: Apocalyptic Visions in Contemporary America,, pg. 182, SL) These fringe beliefs, and the resulting pariah status of the believers, have stimulated the growth of an alternative communications system by which stigmatized ideas can be spread. This alternative system is necessary even though mainstreaming has opened popular culture to some traditionally stigmatized beliefs. Although this access has promoted both recruitment and enhanced legitimacy, it has significant limits. First, it almost always occurs within the context of fictional representations of the world, such as films and television programs. It does not purport to offer an accurate picture of reality, even though the factfiction reversals discussed earlier lead believers to regard it as truthful. Second, it is fragmentary and episodic rather than systematic. That is, the stigmatized material usually takes the form of an individual motif incorporated into the story, as in the reference to the power of FEMA in the film The XFiles. It does not take the form of a comprehensive and logically developed presentation of an alternative view of reality.

Conspiracy theory discourse makes political discourse impossible Barkun, professor emeritus of political science at the Maxwell School of Citizenship and Public Affairs and FBI consultant, 03
(Michael, A Culture of Conspiracy: Apocalyptic Visions in Contemporary America, pg. 189, SL) As New World Order ideas and attendant elements of the improvisational milieu break out of their traditional confinement, a new and disconcerting array of possibilities opens up, because those who espouse such ideas represent dissent of a particularly radical sort, rooted in divergent ideas about reality and knowing. While The X-Files motto, Trust no one, may appear innocuous in an escapist drama, its literal application implies a culture war far more extreme than anything seen previously. If no one can be trusted (except, presumably, others in the truthseeking cadre), a society becomes divided between believers in received ideas about what counts as knowledge and a no-longer-hidden minority of challengers. The likely outcome of such a polarization is not pleasant to contemplate, for the challengers do not believe their opponents are merely misguided. Rather, the supporters of the status quo are thought to be at best the conspirators' dupes and at worst their accomplices. Hence the alternative reality sees itself as a fighting faith that must obliterate its adversaries. This is, to be sure, a worst-case scenario, and most worst-case scenarios melt
away with time. One hopes that will be the case here. But the fact that the beliefs described in the preceding chapters are bizarre ought not to imply that they are necessarily innocuous or unworthy of careful scrutiny. Bizarre beliefs have broken into the open before. Indeed, new orthodoxies can emerge out of just such ideological undergrowth, sometimes with devastating effects.

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Conspiratorial views of politics fail to interrogate the system Domhoff, Professor of Sociology at UC-Santa Cruz, 5 (G. William,There are no Conspiracies, March,
http://sociology.ucsc.edu/whorulesamerica/theory/conspiracy.html, JSkoog) There are several problems with a conspiratorial view that don't fit with what we know about power structures. First, it assumes that a small handful of wealthy and highly educated people somehow develop an extreme psychological desire for power that leads them to do things that don't fit with the roles they seem to have. For example, that rich capitalists are no longer out to make a profit, but to create a one-world government. Or that elected officials are trying to get the constitution suspended so they can assume dictatorial powers. These kinds of claims go back many decades now, and it is always said that it is really going to happen this time, but it never does. Since these claims have proved wrong dozens of times by now, it makes more sense to assume that leaders act for their usual reasons, such as profitseeking motives and institutionalized roles as elected officials. Of course they want to make as much money as they can, and be elected by huge margins every time, and that can lead them to do many unsavory things, but nothing in the ballpark of creating a one-world government or suspending the constitution. Second, the conspiratorial view assumes that the behind-the-scenes leaders are extremely clever and knowledgeable, whereas social science and historical research shows that leaders often make shortsighted or mistaken decisions due to the limits placed on their thinking by their social backgrounds and institutional roles. When these limits are exposed through stupid mistakes, such as the failure of the CIA at the Bay of Pigs during the Kennedy Administration, then conspiratorial theorists assert that the leaders failed on purpose to fool ordinary people. Third, the conspiratorial view places power in the hands of only a few dozen or so people, often guided by one strong leader, whereas sociologists who study power say that there is a leadership group of many thousands for a set of wealth-owning families that numbers several million. Furthermore, the sociological view shows that the groups or classes below the highest levels buy into the system in various ways and support it. For example, highly trained professionals in medicine, law, and academia have considerable control over their own lives, make a good living, and usually enjoy their work, so they go along with the system even though they do not have much political power. Fourth, the conspiratorial view often assumes that clever experts ("pointy-headed intellectuals") with bizarre and grandiose ideas have manipulated the thinking of their hapless bosses. But studies of policy-making suggest that experts work within the context of the values and goals set out by the leaders, and that they are ignored or replaced if they step outside the consensus (which is signaled by saying they have become overly abstract, idealistic, or even, frankly, "pinko"). Finally, the conspiratorial view assumes that illegal plans to change the government or assassinate people can be kept secret for long periods of time, but all evidence shows that secret groups or plans in the United States are uncovered by civil liberties groups, infiltrated by reporters or government officials, and written about in the press. Even secrets about wars and CIA operations -- Vietnam, the Contras, the rationales for Bush's invasion of Iraq in 2003 -- are soon exposed for everyone to see. As for assassinations and assassination attempts in the United States, from McKinley to Franklin D. Roosevelt to John F. Kennedy to Martin Luther King, Jr., to Robert F. Kennedy to Reagan, they have been the acts of individuals with no connections to any power groups. Because all their underlying assumptions are discredited by historical events and media exposures, no conspiracy theory is credible on any issue. If there is corporate domination, it is through leaders in visible positions within the corporate community, the policy planning network, and the government. If there is class domination, it is through the same mundane processes that social scientists have shown to be operating for other levels of the socioeconomic system. |

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AT: Conspiracy analysis is productive politics


Conspiracy theory replaces political engagement with endless, circular analysis Fenster, University of Florida - Professor of Law, 09
(Mark, Conspiracy Theories: Secrecy and Power in American Culture, Pg. 93-96, Ebrary, JSkoog) But Clinton's statement also demonstrates the profound trouble that mainstream politicians and established political institutions have when confronted by the politics, interpretive practices, and narrative constructions of conspiracy theory. In particular, the statement "I just really don't believe there is anything more to know" makes no sense within the hermeneutics of conspiracy . By assuming there are limits to interpretation, the statement ignores the fact that conspiracy theory respects no interpretive limits when it investigates the secret treachery of true political power. Conspiracy theory demands continual interpretation. There is always something more to know about an alleged conspiracy, the evidence of which is subjected to an investigative machine that depends on the perpetual motion of signification. Further, the very attempt to shut interpretation down is itself a suspicious act that requires interpretation. Clinton's declaration of a limit to interpretation thus signifies excessively. For a conspiracy theorist, when a suspect political leader says that there is nothing more to know, he simultaneously circulates a profound error (there is always something more to know) and presents another statement, linked to previous ones that he and his associates have made, that demonstrates the devious and conspiratorial nature of his power (we know that he knows more). Conspiracy theory trapped Clinton in a
circular, endless game in which every declaration of his innocence and every piece of evidence he put forward to exonerate himself served as further proof of his guilt. At still another level, however, Clinton s statement does speak for the conspiracy theorist. There

really is nothing more to know, as each detail or sign links with another in an endless chain of details within a singular narrative frame. One can and must continually collect and interpret evidence , but the explanation of that evidence is always already formed. Interpretation may be endless, but the conspiracy tightly limits its range of conclusions. For a conspiracy theorist focused on the Clinton presidency during the 1990s, numerous scandals and
nefarious plots awaited disclosure, composed of various sorts ol details that were already known, or were coming to light, or were still to be unearthed: the larger explanation behind these individual scandals. A popular oneand the basis for the militia movements dread of Clinton's presidency declared that Clinton was an agent of a "New World Order" seeking to impose a totalitarian regime. This theory merely required further proof of Clinton's inherent insidiousness. The linkage between an event like Foster's suicide to larger claims of conspiracy was contingent: competing theories utilized the same detail in different ways, while even the same theory could move in alternate directions as it developed. There may be more to learnnew details, even new developments as the Clinton conspiracy spread more widelybut there would be nothing more to know. This chapter concerns these intensely active interpretive practices of conspiracy theory. Conspiracy theory works as a form of hyperactive semiosis in which history and politics

serve as reservoirs of signs that demand (over)interpretation, and that signify, for the interpreter, far more than their conventional meaning. Again, Hofstadter's powerful notion of the "paranoid style" of conspiracy theory is
superficially attractive as a framework for analysis. As I explained in part I, Hofstadter did not assert that conspiracy theorists were necessarily paranoid but that their way of interpreting the world was like that of the paranoid. His most important claim in this respect was that conspiracy theorists view current and historical events as a series of plots to undermine a

rightful order by an enemy on whom they project their own anxieties and desires.' Although understanding conspiracy theory as a paranoid form of interpretation provides some insight, it displaces the cultural and specifically semiotic challenge posed by conspiracy theory's interpretive practices onto a relatively simplistic notion of pathology. Therefore, Hofstadter s work can itself best be used
analogically. The paradoxes of paranoia, for example, provide a useful way of thinking through conspiracy theory's role as an interpretive framework.-* As with clinical paranoia, the interpretive practices of conspiracy theory are in many instances delusional but are structured in a manner that is internally consistent and logical . They engage in a logic that is at once tautological and Procrustean by associating disparate individual events and figures, drawing firm conclusions based on scant or nonexistent evidence, and asserting either too simplistic or too complicated explanations to account for historical or present-day events. As a kind of residual or regressive practice within a presumably "postmodern" era that marks the end of master narratives, conspiracy theorists posit highly and imaginatively integrative analyses of individual pieces of evidence into an all-encompassing framework that can describe the breadth of modern (and, in some theories, pre-modern and ancient) history and politics.4 It manifests a popular desire to reconstruct the master

narrative as a mode of expression, thus serving as an excessively integrative interpretive practice that moves beyond the norms of inference. These interpretive practices are not per se pathological, however, and an approach
that labels them as such limits itself both politically and analytically because it cannot explain and respond to the specifically hermeneutical aspects of conspiracy theory.' This chapter proposes two alternative ways of conceiving of this interpretive practice, as desire and as production. Both concepts allows us to see conspiracy* theory as an active, endless process that continually seeks, but can never fully arrive at, a final interpretation. They take conspiracy theory's marginality and hyperactivity as

starting points to examine its explanatory power and attraction in contemporary popular politics.

***continued***

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***Continued***
They thus enable a cultural analysis of, first, conspiracy theory's ideological, circular, and endless desire for a totalizing method of mapping and understanding a social and political order where power seems always elsewhere; and, second, conspiracy theory's practice of producing meaningful and intense effects and an incessant chain of interpretation. As an interpretive practice, conspiracy theory represents an impossible, almost Utopian drive to seize and fetishize individual signs in order to place them within vast interpretive structures that unsuccessfully attempt to stop the signs' unlimited meaning production. This chapter and the next together assert that conspiracy theory displaces the citizen's desire for political significance onto a signifying regime in which interpretation and a narrative of conspiracy, and an obsessive desire for information, replace political engagement. In order to ground what will at times
become a rather abstract description and analysis of conspiracy theory's interpretive practices, this chapter utilizes some of the conspiracies concerning Bill Clinton as examples. Accordingly, 1 begin with some details about two sets of conspiratorial allegations that arose during Clinton's two terms as president in order to use these allegations as illustrative examples of how conspiracy theory's interpretive practices work.

Search for truth becomes endless and repetitive Fenster, University of Florida- Professor of Law, 9
(Mark, Conspiracy Theories: Secrecy and Power in American Culture, 2009, Pg. 100, Ebrary, JSkoog) Conspiracy theories prodigiously commit to learn and know the presumed secrets of power and domination. In their endless striving for more information, conspiracy theorists clearly want something specifically the "truth," as they would understand it, which entails a truly transparent state of relations with others as well as with the greater Other of power. This desire constitutes neither a basic human need nor a clear political demand. Although some who search for evidence of a conspiracy are impoverished, their search does not promise the fulfillment of their basic needs, and although some conspiracy theorists actively make political demands individually and collectively, their search seems only tangential))' related to the fulfillment ol specific demands concerning government programs and laws."' Rather, it constitutes a desire. The practice of interpreting conspiracy is repetitive, endless, and faces continual frustration. As a result, conspiracy theory's relationship to its seeming object of desirethe structure, order, and solution represented by conspiracyis a complex one.

Represents an endless desire to master the political order Fenster, University of Florida - Professor of Law, 9
(Mark, Conspiracy Theories: Secrecy and Power in American Culture, Pg. 107-108, Ebrary, JSkoog) "Conspiracy" transcends everything in this interpretive process. It has produced the past and present, and it will produce the likely future, ll produced the details under interpretation. It even produced the interpretive act itselfthe conspiracy theorist's will to interpret follows the discovery of the conspiracy and organizes the conspiracy theorists narrative of history.w What began as a textual effect, the way in which a single detail's significance was understood, has become a transcendent organizing principle; what began as that which is presumptively searched for, the traces of conspiracy, has become that transcendent thing which drives the search itself. Interpretation may be endless, but it is organized indeed, controlledby the very particular logic of conspiracy. Interpretive Desire's Ideology The endless, circular search (the connections) and the thing that never arrives (the final order that is never revealed) represent a desire to find, understand, and represent the totality of social relations. Conspiracy theory clearly wants something: it is a never-ending practice that combs the past and the present for evidence of some transcendent, all-explanatory thing. Denying the ambiguities of the past, and the complexities and contingencies of the present, conspiracy theory wants to enjoy the pleasure of control, of finding the correct answer to the riddle of power, of mastering its desire of political order.'5 If the subject does not know what it wants, is this because of some ideological misrecognition by the conspiracy theorist, or is it the result of some top-down manipulation by a state apparatus? If conspiracy theory is a symptom of an ideological desire, then how is this conception of "desire" any different from Hostadter's notion of paranoia?

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Conspiracy theory fails when applied to science and logic. Reville, public awareness of science officer at UCC, 9 (William, assistant prof. of biochem at UCC, public awareness of science officer, Dec. 1, 2009, Lexis Nexis, When is a theory not a theory?, p. 19, 6.27.11 JSkoog)
THE TERM conspiracy theory commonly means a fringe theory that explains an event as the secret machinations of powerful Machiavellian conspirators. The modern popularity of such theories dates from the conspiracy theory that arose in the 1960s around the assassination of JFK. Enhanced Coverage LinkingJFK. -Search using: Biographies Plus News News, Most Recent 60 Days Mainstream opinion looks on conspiracy theories with a jaundiced eye and often ridicules them. Of course genuine conspiracies do exist, for example Abraham Lincoln died as a result of a conspiracy. And George Bernard Shaw said, All professions are conspiracies against the laity . The word theory in conspiracy theory is used in a different sense to its use in science. A scientific theory is the agreed best explanation of a phenomenon, arrived at after long years of examining evidence and testing hypotheses by experiment. In everyday usage theory refers to a hypothesis an informed (and sometimes not-informed) guess as to the explanation of a phenomenon. Scientific theories are falsifiable and modifiable in the light of new evidence. Conspiracy theories, eg a secret branch of government is covering-up evidence of alien visits, are often unfalsifiable. Proponents of conspiracy theories are also very resistant to contrary evidence. Conspiracy theories are common and have grown up around well-known incidents such as: JFK Enhanced Coverage LinkingJFK -Search using: Biographies Plus News News, Most Recent 60 Days s assassination; the death of Princess Diana; the 9/11 terrorist attack; the ApolloMoon landing; the Roswell UFO incident, and so on. The theme features regularly in films, books television programmes. The two most infamous conspiracy theories of the 20th century were devised by Hitler and Stalin. Psychology attempts to explain conspiracy theories in various ways such as attempts to provide reassurance that disturbing events are not random but are the product of human intelligence and are, therefore, potentially controllable. The projection of undesirable characteristics of the self onto the conspirators is also suggested as another impulse behind conspiracy theories. Some conspiracy theories are obviously ridiculous, for example, the claim by former television presenter David Icke that humanity is controlled by alien reptiles who assume our appearance by drinking human blood. Other such theories seize on perceived weak points in the official explanation of an event, such as why were the hijacked 9/11 aircraft not shot down? Most conspiracy theories, in my opinion, do not withstand critical analysis. Most fail the test of Occam s Razor, a logical principle devised by medieval philosopher William of Occam which states, One should not increase beyond what is necessary, the number of entities required to explain anything . This principle of parsimony has proved itself most useful in science. Many conspiracy theories are convoluted explanations of mainstream evidence. Finally, let me tell you my own little story of a conspiracy theory. A taxi-driver recently told me that immigrants are entitled to receive dole plus a weekly socialising allowance of EUR 70, and that immigrants are entitled to a grant of EUR 17,000 to buy a taxi. He said all taxi drivers knew this and Irish people are not entitled to these benefits. The Department of Family and Social Affairs press office assured me that the taxi-driver s claims are incorrect. In order to qualify for dole, everybody must first satisfy the Habitual Residence Condition, ie that their centre of interest is Ireland. Social welfare does not pay a socialising allowance and everybody, Irish and non-Irish, must be treated the same. The socialising allowance idea probably refers to asylum seekers. Asylum seekers are not entitled to the dole. They are housed and fed by the government while their applications for asylum are processed. In addition they are given a weekly allocation of about EUR 40 to buy small necessary items that cannot be foreseen in detail. Finally the notion of the EUR 17,000 taxi grant to immigrants is a distortion of the Back to Work Enterprise Allowance scheme. This scheme is open to all who are eligible for the dole. If you can convince officials of the Department that you have a viable business idea that will get you out of the ranks of the unemployed, you may be awarded a small grant to get the enterprise started. But, buying a taxi in the present recession, with taxis already in over-supply, would hardly qualify as a viable business idea . William Reville is UCC s associate professor of biochemistry and public awareness of science officer

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AT: Conspiracy analysis challenges power


Conspiracy theories actually prop up and legitimate the power of the current political system Sternheimer, Professor of Sociology University of Southern California, 7
(Karen, Ph.D in Sociology and Professor at USC, The Sociology of Conspiracy, September 26, 2007, http://nortonbooks.typepad.com/everydaysociology/2007/09/the-sociology-o.html, 6/26/11 JSkoog) Sociologists refer to conspiracy theories as a form of collective behavior, something that we engage in together that gains traction as it appeals to many people. Similar to urban legends, rumors, and panics, sociologists seek to understand how and why groups create meaning through claiming that conspiracies have taken place. The creation of the Internet has definitely helped grease the wheels of collective behavior. One of the most fascinating things about collective behavior is that it often starts from the grassroots level, from everyday people rather from those in positions of power. In fact, the very distance from the centers of power fuels conspiracy theories. Lets think about some other conspiracy theories: some people claim that the Holocaust never happened; perhaps the most famous conspiracy theory is based on the premise that President John F. Kennedys assassination was the work of insiders. The publics willingness to entertain such theories differs tremendously. For most people, even questioning the reality that millions of civilians were murdered during World War II is incredibly offensive. But theres something about Kennedys assassination that makes millions question the findings of the Warren Commission Report. Why does one conspiracy theory seem outlandish while another one seems plausible? The imbalance of power is a key ingredient. It is not hard to believe that a powerful regime or dictator could slaughter a group of people with little or no social power, as sadly has happened over and over again in human history. But the opposite is much harder to believe: an individual or group with little power harming someone with significantly more power and status doesnt make sense. It challenges what we think we know about the social order. So the Kennedy assassination--apparently the work of a lone gunman who by all reports was, to put it kindly, unsuccessful in his other ventures--seems hard to believe. That a charismatic, larger-than-life leader of the free world could be brought down by a nobody has fueled conspiracy theorists for over forty years. Although solid evidence refutes the idea of a conspiracy, I admit to entertaining this notion myself. I now see that I fell into the power imbalance trap too. In my defense, I also grew up during the 1970s, when network television routinely featured programs about the Bermuda Triangle, Bigfoot, the Loch Ness monster, and other supernatural secrets. The Kennedy assassination was also a big topic during the decade that featured the Watergate cover-up and made many Americans question how much the government could be trusted. In the early 1970s, Skylab, a precursor to todays international space station, actually fell to earth (which is terrifying if youre a kid!) and faith in the government fell as well. Flash forward more than 25 years, and you can see why people still might have trouble believing the government. The president's approval ratings have declined in recent years as the war in Iraq has become increasingly unpopular. Conspiracy claims make sense during a time when mistrust and anger toward the government run high. And most of all, it is hard to accept that our powerful military could not protect us that September day. For some, it is easier to believe that our government is all-powerful (even if that power is abused) than it is to believe that the government is flawed. Our Cold War military build-up made us feel almost invincible, and September 11th challenged that assumption. In a strange way, conspiracy theories help prop up the belief in an all-powerful America. Perhaps clinging to this idea is less upsetting than facing what transpired that day.

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AT: Jodi Dean


Deans argument overreaches and ignores history and fails as a foundation for productive criticism Luckhurst, Department of English and Humanities, University of London, 98
(Roger , Nov, BOOKS IN REVIEW, Science Fiction Studies, #76, Volume 25, Part 3 http://www.depauw.edu/sfs/birs/bir76.htm) As a narrative of cultural responses to technological change, this is a plausible account. This is the historical framework explored in chapters two and three of the book, but Deans interest does not really lie here. In fact, she launches the book by using the pervasive presence of abduction narratives to exemplify her case about a radical relativizing of any claims to rationality or truth in American society. This is where Dean succumbs to a rather alarming chain of logic. "UFO belief is widespread enough to conflict with the concept of a unitary public reason," she asserts (11), having claimed that abduction accounts are symptomatic of "the lack of widespread criteria for judgments about what is reasonable and what is not" (9). From uncertainties of judgment, the argument escalates rapidly to allege that we "can no longer presume a reality based on consensus" (15), and hence have reached a "collapse" of the political sphere and the rise of conspiracy culture. This ultimately means that scientists or cultural commentators cannot contest the claims of abductees because, as Dean concludes, "there is no overarching conception of reality" on which to adjudicate competing claims (170). And what is the cause of this wreck of reason? Technology, in a series of dispiriting, clichd guises. "We are all connected in a world wide web, a borderless information economy" (168) where "one site, one link, is as plausible as any other" (132), so that UFOlogists can "reclaim their rationality on their own terms" (9). Abductees also appear on television, and, Dean claims, "their televisual presence...links them with the real, with that which happens" (103), because the measure of the "real"like History itselfis now televisual. Apparently, an abductee on Jerry Springer is rendered equivalent to a news report, or else Dean presumes the audience too foolish to tell the difference. At least abductee accounts about the strange life of domestic technologies, of VCRs, microwaves and telephones, of secret messages embedded in popular sf films and TV series, are more inventive than this. It is not the technological determinism or the familiar postmodernist rhetoric of "crisis" and "collapse" that is worrying here; it is the poorly premised relativism of the argument. Leaving aside the constant leaps from epistemological uncertainty to claims of ontological collapse, is it really the case that abduction discourse, because it is relatively organized on the Net, and because it mimics the methodologies of science, marks a crisis of reason? Apparently so: "heretofore reasonable procedures take an alien form. As the criteria for legitimacy are themselves abducted, the mainstream, the serious, the conventional, and the real become suspect" (58). Carl Sagan is held as being "nostalgic, even naive" compared with Budd Hopkins, "because he, Sagan, works within a world view that he doesnt question" (170). Such absurd statements might benefit from historical perspective. In one footnote, Dean hopes "to investigate more thoroughly in the future" the world of nineteenth century Spiritualism (221). She should do so: the Spiritualists were highly organized at the local and national levels, had three newspapers in London in the 1870s and thousands of supporters. Spiritualists were linked to both radical politics and the heart of the political establishment; they ceaselessly appropriated both the language and methods of science and the newest technologies as "vehicles" for belief. A number of eminent men of science became Spiritualists, and offered scientific rationales for communication with the dead. There was no crisis of reason, no collapse of the Real (whatever that means); Spiritualism at its height remained a definitively marginal science. Jodi Dean sets off on the wrong foot in making abduction narratives evidence of the relativizing of any possibility of truth; it means she ends up losing any possibility of critique, which requires, after all, some kind of ground on which to argue a case.

Gonzaga Debate Institute 2011


Mercury

167 Conspiracy Theory

Clinical Paranoia
The clinical paranoia and political paranoia are not mutually exclusive Barkun, professor emeritus of political science at the Maxwell School of Citizenship and Public Affairs and FBI consultant, 03
(Michael, A Culture of Conspiracy: Apocalyptic Visions in Contemporary America, pg. 16, SL) Unlike Hofstadter, some have argued that the clinical and the political may overlap. Robert Robins and Jerrold Post assert that the domain of political paranoia encompasses a range of exemplars , including such clinical paranoids as James Forrestal and Joseph Stalin; borderline paranoids whose delusion is likely to involve exaggeration and distortion of genuine events and rational beliefs rather than pure psychotic invention; and cultures in which, at least temporarily, conspiracy beliefs be- come a culturally defined norm. In this view, conspiracy beliefs become neither determinative of paranoia nor divorced from it . Instead, conspiracism straddles a blurred and shifting boundary between pathology and normalcy . 7

Gonzaga Debate Institute 2011


Mercury

168 Conspiracy Theory

AT: Biopower Impacts


Biopower is neither inherently good, nor bad. Our specific context is more important than their sweeping generalization. Dickinson, UC Berkeley - Associate Professor History, 4
(Edward Ross, Biopolitics, Fascism, Democracy: Some Reflections on Our Discourse About Modernity, Central European History, vol. 37, no. 1, 148)
This notion is not at all at odds with the core of Foucauldian (and Peukertian) theory. Democratic welfare states are regimes of power/knowledge no less than early twentieth-century totalitarian states; these systems are not opposites, in the sense that they are two alternative ways of organizing the same thing. But they are two very different ways of organizing it. The concept power

should not be read as a universal stifling night of oppression, manipulation, and entrapment, in which all political and social orders are grey, are essentially or effectively the same. Power is a set of social relations, in which individuals and groups have varying degrees of autonomy and effective subjectivity. And discourse is, as Foucault argued, tactically polyvalent. Discursive elements (like the various elements of biopolitics) can be combined in different ways to form parts of quite different strategies (like totalitarianism or the democratic welfare state); they cannot be assigned to one place in a structure, but rather circulate. The varying possible constellations of power in modern societies create multiple modernities, modern societies with quite radically differing potentials.91

Biopower is not genocidal when it is deployed by a government which also respects rights. Dickinson, UC Berkeley - Associate Professor History, 4
(Edward Ross, Biopolitics, Fascism, Democracy: Some Reflections on Our Discourse About Modernity, Central European History, vol. 37, no. 1, 148) At its simplest, this view of the politics of expertise and professionalization is certainly plausible. Historically speaking, however, the further conjecture that this micropolitical dynamic creates authoritarian, totalitarian, or homicidal potentials at the level of the state does not seem very tenable. Historically, it appears that the greatest advocates of political democracy in Germany left liberals and Social Democrats have been also the greatest advocates of every kind of biopolitical social engineering, from public health and welfare programs through social insurance to city planning and, yes, even eugenics. 102 The state they built has intervened in social relations to an (until recently) ever-growing degree; professionalization has run ever more rampant in Western societies;
the production of scientistic and technocratic expert knowledge has proceeded at an ever more frenetic pace. And yet, from the perspective of the first years of the millennium, the second half of the twentieth century appears to be the great

age of democracy in precisely those societies where these processes have been most in evidence. What is more, the interventionist state has steadily expanded both the rights and the resources of virtually every citizen including those who were stigmatized and persecuted as biologically defective under National Socialism. Perhaps these processes have created an ever more restrictive iron cage of rationality in European societies. But if so, it seems clear that there is no necessary correlation between rationalization and authoritarian politics; the opposite seems in fact to be at least equally true.

Biopower is inevitable Wright, Fellow at the Centre for Global Political Economy 2008
(Nathan, Camp as Paradigm: Bio-Politics and State Racism in Foucault and Agamben, http://ccjournal.cgu.edu/past_issues/nathan_wright.html)
Perhaps the one failure of Foucaults that, unresolved, rings as most ominous is his failure to further examine the problem of biopolitical state racism that he first raises in his lecture series, Society Must Be Defended. At the end of the last lecture,

Foucault suggests that bio-power is here to stay as a fixture of modernity. Perhaps given its focus on the preservation of the population of the nation it which it is practiced, bio-power itself is something that Foucault accepts as here to stay. Yet his analysis of bio-politics and bio-power leads inevitably to state-sanctioned
racism, be the government democratic, socialist, or fascist. As a result, he ends the lecture series with the question, How can one both make a bio-power function and exercise the rights of war, the rights of murder and the function of death, without becoming racist? That was the problem, and that, I think, is still the problem. It was a problem to which he never returned. However, in the space opened by Foucaults failure to solve the problem of state racism and to elaborate a unitary theory of power (Agamben 1998, 5) steps Agamben in an attempt to complete an analysis of Foucauldian bio-politics and to, while not solve the problem of state racism, at least give direction for further inquiry and hope of a politics that escapes the problem of this racism .