Está en la página 1de 57

Chuyn mch Burst quang OBS

LI NI U
Hin nay, truyn thng quang ang pht trin ngy cng mnh m v tng lai s vn ln chim v tr hng u trong cc cng ngh truyn thng c dy. Tuy vy, hin nay truyn thng quang vn ch yu c ng dng cc mng li, mng ng trc l chnh. Hin nay trong truyn thng quang, c ba phng php chuyn mch ang c ng dng, l chuyn mch knh quang (Optical circuit switch), chuyn mch gi quang (Optical packet switch) v chuyn mch burst quang (Optical burst switch). Ba phng php ny u c im mnh v im yu ring, trong chuyn mch burst quang hin nay ang c nghin cu nhiu bi v n rt thch hp trin khai trong iu kin truyn thng quang hin nay, khc phc c nhng im yu ca hai phng php chuyn mch cn li. OBS cho php ta tn dng c tc truyn ti nhanh ca mng truyn ti quang m khng chim dng nhiu ti nguyn nh chuyn mch knh quang ng thi cng hn ch nhng vn gp phi v b m hay chuyn mch gp phi trong chuyn mch gi quang. Vi nhng u im k trn ca OBS cng nh xu hng nghin cu OBS trn th gii, nhm sinh vin D08VT1 quyt nh chn ti Nghin cu v chuyn mch burst quang OBS thc hin nghin cu trong mn chuyn v chuyn mch. Mc ch ca ti ny l nhm c c ci nhn tng qut v cng ngh OBS, v mt s c im ca n.Tuy nhin thi gian cng nh kh nng c hn, nn chng em ch chn mt s vn v OBS nghin cu. Ni dung chuyn gm cc phn nh sau: Chng I : Gii thiu v OBS Chng II: K thut v kin trc OBS Chng III: Sp xp cc gi tin vo burst trong OBS Chng IV: K thut bo hiu trong OBS Chng em xin chn thnh cm n Ths Hong Trng Minh tn tnh gip chng ti trong qu trnh hc tp cng nh lm chuyn ny.

Chuyn mch Burst quang OBS

Mc Lc
LI NI U ...........................................................................................................1 Mc Lc .....................................................................................................................2 Danh mc hnh v ......................................................................................................4 T vit tt v thut ng ..............................................................................................5 Chng I: Gii thiu ..................................................................................................7
1.1. 1.2. 1.3. Chuyn mch knh quang ................................................................................................ 9 Chuyn mch gi quang ................................................................................................. 10 Chuyn mch burst quang .............................................................................................. 12

Chng II: K thut v kin trc .............................................................................15


2.1 Kin trc mng chuyn mch burst quang .......................................................................... 15 2.2 Cng ngh lin quan ............................................................................................................ 19 2.2.1 Cng ngh chuyn mch quang .................................................................................... 19 2.2.2 Burst mode receiver ...................................................................................................... 20 2.2.3 Chuyn i bc sng .................................................................................................. 21 2.3 Vn tng vt l................................................................................................................ 21 2.3.1 Suy hao ......................................................................................................................... 22 2.3.2 Tn sc .......................................................................................................................... 22 2.3.3 Hiu ng phi tuyn ....................................................................................................... 23

Chng III: Sp xp Burst .......................................................................................25


3.1 Qu trnh la chn nh thi v ngng ............................................................................. 26 3.2 Tc ng ca nhm burst theo c tnh lu lng .............................................................. 28 3.3 K thut c lng nhm burst da trn ngng ............................................................... 29 3.3.1 K thut nhm burst da trn ngng .......................................................................... 29 3.3.2 Cc kt qu m phng .................................................................................................. 31

Chng IV Bo hiu trong OBS ..............................................................................38


4.1 Phn loi cc phng thc bo hiu.................................................................................... 38

Chuyn mch Burst quang OBS


4.1.1 Mt chiu, hai chiu hoc lai ghp ............................................................................... 38 4.1.2 Ginh trc ti nguyn khi to t ngun, khi to t ch, hoc khi to t node trung gian ............................................................................................................................... 40 4.1.3 Kin tr hoc khng kin tr .......................................................................................... 41 4.1.4 Ginh trc ti nguyn ngay tc thi hoc ginh trc c tr ..................................... 41 4.1.5 Gii phng r rng hoc gii phng khng r rng ...................................................... 42 4.1.6 Tp trung hoc phn tn ............................................................................................... 42 4.2 K thut Just-Enough-Time (JET) ....................................................................................... 43 4.3 K thut Tell-and-Wait (TAW) ........................................................................................... 45 4.4 Bo hiu khi to t node trung gian (INI) ......................................................................... 46 4.4.1 K thut bo hiu khi to t node trung gian (INI) ..................................................... 47 4.4.2 K thut bo hiu khi to t node trung gian phn bit .............................................. 50 4.5 M hnh phn tch tr .......................................................................................................... 51 4.6 Kt qu c th ...................................................................................................................... 53

Kt Lun .................................................................................................................56 Ti liu tham kho .................................................................................................57

Chuyn mch Burst quang OBS

Danh mc hnh v
Hnh 1.1 Cc phng php truyn dn quang .................................................................... 7 Hnh 1.2 Kin trc ca mt chuyn mch gi quang ....................................................... 10 Hnh 1.3 S dng thi gian chnh lch trong OBS .......................................................... 12 Hnh 2.4 Kin trc mng chuyn burst quang .................................................................. 15 Hnh 2.5 S chc nng OBS........................................................................................ 16 Hnh 2.6 Kin trc router li ........................................................................................... 17 Hnh 2.7 Kin trc router bin .......................................................................................... 18 Hnh 2.8 chuyn mch MEMS ......................................................................................... 19 Hnh 2.9 chuyn mch SOA ............................................................................................. 20 Hnh 3. 10 nh hng ca ti trng da trn nh thi v da trn ngng trong cc cng ngh nhm................................................................................................................. 27 Hnh 3.11 Mng NSF vi 12 node (km) ........................................................................... 31 Hnh 3.12 th DP v SDP vi ngng v khng c u tin burst trong mng ...... 32 Hnh 3.13 th SDP n ngng v hai u tin burst trong mng. T l mt gi trn ti vi nhng gi tr ngng khc nhau ............................................................................. 34 Hnh 3.14 th SDP vi mt ngng v hai u tin burst trong mng. T l mt gi i vi ngng cho c hai lp gi tin ti 0,5 Erlang. ........................................................... 35 Hnh 3.15 th SDP vi hai ngng v khng c u tin burst trong mng. T l mt gi trn c hai gi tr ngng khc nhau cho c hai u tin ......................................... 36 Hnh 3.16 th SDP vi hai ngng v hai u tin burst trong mng. T l mt gi so vi cc gi tr ngng khc nhau vi hai u tin..................................................... 37 Hnh 4.17 Phn loi k thut bo hiu ............................................................................... 39 Hnh 4.18 C ch ginh trc v gii phng trong OBS .................................................. 41 Hnh 4.19 K thut bo hiu Just-Enough-Time (JET) ..................................................... 44 Hnh 4.20 So snh gia k thut bo hiu JET (a) v JIT (b) ............................................ 45 Hnh 4.21 K thut bo hiu Tell-and-Wait (TAW) ......................................................... 45 Hnh 4.22 K thut bo hiu khi to t node trung gian (INI) ......................................... 48 Hnh 4.23 Topo mng ng trc gm 14 im (khong cch tnh bng km) ................. 50 Hnh 4.24 (a) T l mt gi so vi ti ................................................................................ 54 Hnh 4.25 (a) T l mt gi so vi ti ............................................................................... 55

Chuyn mch Burst quang OBS

T vit tt v thut ng
Vit tt
BHP DIR DLE DP FDL FWM INI ISI JET JIT MEMS OBS OSPF OT OXC RWA

Ch gii Ting Anh


Burst Packet Header Destination Initiated Reservation Dynamic Lightpath Establishment Drop Policy Fiber Delay Lines Four Wave Mixing Intermediate Node Initiated Intersymbol Interference Just Enough Time Just In Time Micro Electro Mechanical System Optical Burst Switching Open Shortest Path First Offset Time Optical Cross Connection Routing and Wavelength Assignment Stimulated Brillouin Scattering Switch Control Unit Segmentation and Drop Policy
5

Ch gii Ting Vit


Gi mo u burst Gii phng khi to t ch Khi to tuyn quang ng Chnh sch loi b Dy quang tr Hiu ng trn 4 sng K thut bo hiu khi to t node trung gian Nhiu lin k t K thut bo hiu va-thi-gian K thut bo hiu vang-lc H thng vi in c kh Chuyn mch burst quang nh tuyn theo ng ngn nht trc Thi gian chnh lch Kt ni cho quang nh tuyn v phn b bc sng Hiu ng tn x kch thch Brillouin n v iu khin chuyn mch Chnh sch phn mnh v loi b

SBS SCU SDP

Chuyn mch Burst quang OBS


SIR SLE SOA TAG TAW WADM WDM Source Initiated Reservation Static Initiated Reservation Semiconductor Optical Amplifier Tell And Go Tell And Wait Wavelength AddDrop Multiplexer Wavelength Division Multiplexing Wavelength Routing Optical Burst Switching Gii phng khi to t ngun Khi to tuyn quang tnh Khuych i quang s dng bn dn K thut bo hiu gi-vi K thut bo hiu gi-vi B ghp knh thm bt bc sng Ghp knh phn chia theo bc sng Chuyn mch burst quang nh tuyn theo bc sng

WR-OBS

Chuyn mch Burst quang OBS

Chng I: Gii thiu


Trong thp nin va qua, lnh vc networking c s pht trin tc rt cao. S ph cp mnh m ca internet v yu cu ngy cng tng v thng tin a phng tin kim chng mt cch nghim ngt gii hn ca my tnh hin nay cng nh mng vin thng. C mt nhu cu tc th cho s pht trin ca mng mi c dung lng cao c kh nng h tr nhng yu cu v tng trng bng thng. gpnhng nhu cu tng trng , h thng quang WDM c trin khai trong nhiu mng vin thng ng trc. Trong h thng WDM, mi cp mang nhiu knh truyn thng, mi knh hot ng trn mt bc sng khc nhau. H thng truyn ti quang nh vt c kh nng cung cp trn 50 Tb/s trn 1 cp n.

Hnh 1.1 Cc phng php truyn dn quang Hnh 1.1 ch ra s pht trin ca nhng phng php truyn ti quang khc nhau.Th h kin trc mng quang u tin gm c nhng lin kt im-im WDM. Mt mng nh vy bao gm mt vi lin kt im-im m lu lng n node b b, chuyn i t quang sang in, x l tn hiu in, v chuyn t in sang quang trc khi ri node. Vic thm v b lu lng ti mi node
7

Chuyn mch Burst quang OBS


trong mng phi chu nhng thit hi nghim trng- s phc tp ca chuyn mch v ci gi phi tr ca x l tn hiu in, c bit nu a phn lu lng trong mng l lu lng i thng qua. gim thiu gi ca mng, nhng thit b ton quang c th c s dng. Kin trc mng th h th hai da trn WADM (ghp knh thm- bt theo bc sng), khim lu lng c th c thm vo hoc bt i ti cc a im WADM. WADM c th cho php nhng knh bc sng c chn trn cp b chn, trong khi nhng bc sng khc li c i qua hon ton. Ni chung, lng lu lng i qua trong mng ln hn nhiu so vi lng lu lng b drop ti mt node no ; do , nh s dng WADM, ta c th gim gi tng ca ton mng, iu ny k vng s c trin khai ti th trng mng th. xy dng mng li gm nhiu kt ni quang a bc sng, thit b kt ni cp l rt cn thit.Kin trc mng quang th h th 3 da trn nhng thit b kt ni ton quang. Nhng thit b ny ri vo 3 loi: coupler sao b ng (passive star), router b ng (passive router) v switch ch ng (active switch). Passive star l thit b qung b.Mt tn hiu n trn mt bc sng cho trc trn cng cp u vo ca coupler hnh sao, cng sut ca n s c chia u ra cc port u ra ca coupler sao.Mt passive router c th nh tuyn ring bit mt vi bc sng n trn mt cpu vo n cng bc sng cp u ra.Passive router l thit b tnh; v th cu hnh nh tuyn l c nh. Mt active switch cng nh tuyn bc sng t cp u vo n cp u ra v c th h tr kt ni ln lt. Khng ging nh passive router, active switch c th ti cu hnh thay i dng kt ni ca bc sng n v bc sng i. Trng nhng mng quang th h 3 ny, d liu c cho php qua nhng node trung gian m khng cn chuyn i sang in, v vy gim c gi ca vic cung cp chc nng chuyn mch in c dung lng cao v kh nng nh tuyn ti mi node. H thng mi ton quang c hi vng s cung cp kt ni chuyn mch knh, hoc tuyn quang, gia cc router bin qua mt mng quang li; tuy nhin, do nhng kt ni chuyn mch knh l tnh, chng khng c kh nng iu tit dung lng qu ln, bng n ca mng internet. Mt cch l tng, cung cp s vn hnh tt nht c th trong li quang, cc node cn cung cp chuyn mch gi ti mc quang. Chuyn mch gi ton quang nh vt dng nh khng kh thi trong tng lai gn do nhng gii hn v cng ngh. Mt s thay th tng t cho chuyn mch knh ton quang v chuyn mch gi ton quang l chuyn mch burst quang. Trong chuyn mch burst
8

Chuyn mch Burst quang OBS


quang, cc gi tin tip ni nhau vo trong cc n v giao vn c gi l cc burst. Cc burst sau c chuyn mch qua mng quang li theo ci cch ca ton quang. Mng chuyn mch burst quang cho php mt mc cao hn ca ghp knh thng k v ph hp cho vic x l lu lng bng n hn so vi chuyn mch knh quang. Cng lc , mng chuyn mch burst quang khng c nhiu hn ch nh mng chuyn mch gi ton quang. ch r im khc bit gia chuyn mch knh quang, chuyn mch gi quang v chuyn mch burst quang, chng ta s bn k v mi vn sau. 1.1. Chuyn mch knh quang

Mng nh tuyn bc sng quang s dng chuyn mch knh quang, m cc tuyn quang c khi to gia cp cc node. S khi to ca ng i nh sng km theo mt vi cng vic. Nhng cng vic ny bao gm topology v khm ph ti nguyn, nh tuyn bc sng, v bo hiu v chim gi ti nguyn. Topology v khm ph ti nguyn s c km theo thng tin trng thi phn phi v bo tr ca mng. Thng thng, thng tin ny s km theo thng tin trn topo mng vt l v trng thi ca lin kt trong mng. Trong mng nh tuyn bc sng WDM, thng tin ny c th km theo ri ca bc sng trn mt lin kt cho trc trong mng. Mt giao thc chung cho duy tr thng tin trng thi lin kt trng mng l giao thc OSPF. Vn tm tuyn ng v phn b bc sng cho tuyn quang tng ng vi vic nh tuyn v phn b bc sng (vit tt l RWA).Thng thng, yu cu kt ni c 2 loi tnh v ng.Trong khi to tuyn quang tnh (SLE), ton b cc kt ni u c bit trc, vn l to tuyn quang cho nhng kt ni ny trong khi ti thiu ha ti nguyn mng nh s bc sng, s cp ca mng.Vi khi to tuyn quang ng (DLE) mt tuyn quang c to ra cho mi yu cu kt ni khi yu cu n, v tuyn quang c ngt sau mt khong thi gian no .Vn trong trng hp lu lng ng l to tuyn quang v phn b bc sng trong khi ti thiu ha lng kt ni b chn hoc ti a s lng kt ni c khi to trong mng ti bt c thi im no.C rt nhiu nghin cu gii quyt cc vn ca RLE v DLE. Kt ni tuyn quang c nh tuyn bc sng l kh tnh v khng th ph hp vi lu lng internet bin i v bng n nh ngy nay.Rt r tng rng nu lu lng rt bin ng, th gi lu lng quang tuyn quang tnh s

Chuyn mch Burst quang OBS


gy ra s khng hiu qu v bng thng. Mt khc nu ta tip cn to ra tuyn quang theo cch ng, th thng tin v trng thi ca mng thay i lin tc, lm cho vic giu thng tin trng thi mng tr nn kh khn. V vy khi lu lng tr nn ngy cng ng v bng n, mt cch tip cn thay th l cn thit truyn d liu qua mng. 1.2. Chuyn mch gi quang

Khi cng ngh chuyn mch quang c nng cao, chng ta cui cng thy c s xut hin ca mng chuyn mch gi quang m trong cc gi c chuyn mch v nh tuyn c lp qua mng, hon ton trong min quang m khng cn chuyn i tr li sang in ti mi node. Mt mng nh vy cho php mc cao hn ca ghp knh tnh trn cp quang v ph hp hn x l lu lng bng n so vi chuyn mch knh quang. Mt v d ca kin trc chuyn mch gi quang c bn c biu din trong hnh 1.2. Mt node cha c cu chuyn mch quang c kh nng cu hnh l da trn nn tng tng gi mt.C cu chuyn mch c cu hnh li da trn thng tin cha trong tiu ca mi gi tin. Tiu t n c x l in, v c th c mng in-band vi packet, c mng trn mt tn s sng mang con ; hoc c mang i out-of-band trn mt knh hon ton khc. V mt mt khong thi gian tiu c x l v cho chuyn mch c cu hnh li, gi tin c th b lm tr nh gi n quan mt ng tr quang.

Hnh 1.2 Kin trc ca mt chuyn mch gi quang chuyn mch gi quang c thc t, thi gian chuyn mch nhanh l cn thit. Thng thng, thi gian chuyn mch cho MEM-based switch c yu cu t 1 n 10 ms, trong khi chuyn mch da trn khuch i quang bn dn c thi gian chuyn mch di 1ns. Nhc im ca chuyn mch khuch
10

Chuyn mch Burst quang OBS


i bn dn quang l chng c gi t v kin trc chuyn mch yu cu tn hiu phi i qua b coupler- iu ny lm gim cng sut. Trong khi tc chuyn mch c k vng s tng trong thi gian gn, cng ngh hin ti cha trng thnh h tr chuyn mch gi quang. Mt thch thc na trong chuyn mch gi quang l vn ng b.Trong mng chuyn mch gi quang vi cc gi c di khng i, ng b gi ti u vo switch thng c ti thiu xung t. D ng b thng kh t c, mt vi k thut ng b c nghin cu ti nhiu vin khoa hc. V ti nguyn mng khng c t trc trong chuyn mch gi quang, gi c th b xung t. Xung t xy ra khi 2 hay nhiu gi c xu hng ra cng cng u ra ti cng thi im. Thng thng, xung t trong mng chuyn mch gi in truyn thng c x l nh b m; tuy nhin trong min quang, rt kh vn hnh b m, do khng c thit b quang tng c vi RAM. Thay vo , b m quang c th c c nh dng b ng cp tr. Nh c ng tr ny, ta c th gi gi tin tr i trng mt khong thi gian. Ch rng trong mi kin trc b m quang, kch c b m l c gii hn, khng ch l do vn cht lng tn hiu, cn l do gii hn v khng gian vt l. lm tr mt gi tin trong 5 micro giy i hi phi c 1 km cp. V gii hn kch c ca b m, mt node c th khng kh nng x l lng lu lng ln nh iu kin mng hin nay. Mt cch tip cn khc gii quyt xung t l nh tuyn gi tin b xung t n cng u ra khc vi cng u ra d nh ban u. Cch tip cn ny c hiu nh chuyn hng nh tuyn hay nh tuyn hot-potato. Trong khi nh tuyn chuyn hng thng khng c a dng trong mng chuyn mch gi in do nguy c lp vng v chuyn gi out-of-sequence. Dng chuyn hng quang s l cn thit trong mng chuyn mch gi quang- ni m dung lng b m l gii hn v duy tr c mc mt gi hp l. Tuy nhin, trc khi trin khai n, nhng nghin cu s cn phi i trc tm ra nhng phng n vt qua gii hn ca chuyn hng quang.

11

Chuyn mch Burst quang OBS


1.3. Chuyn mch burst quang

Hnh 1.3 S dng thi gian chnh lch trong OBS Chuyn mch burst quang c s dng t c s cn bng gia chuyn mch gi quang v chuyn mch knh quang. Trong mng chuyn mch burst quang, mt burst d liu cha nhiu gi tin IP c chuyn mch qua mng ton quang. Mt gi tin iu khin c truyn i trc burst cu hnh cc switch trn tuyn ng ca burst. Thi gian chnh lch (hnh v) cho php gi tin iu khin c x l v switch c ci t trc khi burst n node trung gian; v th, khng cn b m in hay quang no ti cc node trung gian trong khi gi tin iu khin c x l. Gi tin iu khin c th ch r khong thi gian ca burst cho node bit khi no n cn cu hnh li switch ca n cho burst n tip theo. Bng 1.1 So snh gia cc cng ngh ton-quang khc nhau

12

Chuyn mch Burst quang OBS


Bng cch t trc ti nguyn cho mt khong thi gian nht nh hn l t trc ti nguyn cho mt khong thi gian khng xc nh, ti nguyn c th c phn b mt cch hiu qu v mc ghp knh cao hn c th t c. V th, chuyn mch burst quang c kh nng vt qua mt s gii hn ca phn b bng thng tnh trong chuyn mch knh quang. Hn na, v d liu c truyn trong cc burst ln, chuyn mch burst quang lm gim cng ngh yu cu cho chuyn mch quang nhanh- iu ny cn thit cho chuyn mch gi quang. Hnh trn tng kt s khc bit trong mng chuyn mch ton quang ca 3 cng ngh. T hnh v, ta c th d dng nhn thy, chuyn mch burst quang c u im ca c chuyn mch gi quang v chuyn mch knh quang trong khi trnh c nhng thiu st ca chng. Mc d chuyn mch burst quang xut hin cung cp nhng u im hn chuynmch gi quang v chuyn mch knh quang, mt vi vn vn phi xem xt trc khi chuyn mch burst quang c th trin khai trong mng. C th, nhng vn ny bao gm lp rp burst, k hoch bo hiu, gii quyt xung t, lp lch burst v cht lng dch v. Lp rp burst c yu cu quyt nh xem bao nhiu gi tin c rp rp vo cc burst. Vn km theo l khi no lp rp vo mt burst,bao nhiu gi tin cn lp trong 1 burst, loi gi tin no c km theo trong burst. Lp rp burst s nh hng n di burst cng nh khong thi gian m mt gi tin phi i trc khi c truyn i. M hnh bo hiu l cn thit cho vic t trc ti nguyn v cu hnh switch cho burst n. M hnh bo hiu thng thng t trc ti nguyn trong OBS l tell-and-go (TAG), tell-and-wait (TAW) v just-enough-time (JET). Trong m hnh TAG, node ngun gi mt bn tin iu khin ti ch thch vi cc node dowstream l burst sp n. Tip , node ngun lp tc gi burst d liu theo sau bn tin iu khin m khng cn i c bo nhn (ACK). c thi gian x l bn tin iu khin cng nh cu hnh switch ti cc node, burst c th cnc qua b m ti mi node. Trong m hnh TAW,pha ngun gi mt bn tin iu khin t trc ti nguyn cho burst trn ton tuyn ng. Tip , pha ngun i bo nhn (ACK) rng qu trnh t trc ti nguyn thnh cng. Sau khi nhn ack ny, pha ngun s gi burst. Nu khng, node ngun s phi tip cn li lm li qu trnh t trc ti nguyn ny. Trong JET, c mt tr gia truyn gi tin iu khin v
13

Chuyn mch Burst quang OBS


truyn burst d liu. tr ny c th c t ln hn tng thi gian x l gi tin iu khin trn c tuyn ng. Do , khi burst n mi node trung gian, gi tin iu khin c x l v knh trn cng u ra cng c phn phi. V vy, khng cn b m burst ti mi node. iu ny l c im rt quan trng trong m hnh JET. Trong m hnh TAG v JET, pha ngun khng cn phi i xc nhn trc khi truyn burst. V vy, rt c th vic t trc ti nguyn khng thnh cng ti mt node no trn tuyn. Trong trng hp ny, mt burst ang truyn s b xung t. Xung t xy ra khi c hn mt burst tranh ginh cng mt ti nguyn ti cng mt thi im. Xung t c th gii quyt bng rt nhiu cch. Mt trong nhng cch l lu tr mt trong s cc burst n khi ti nguyn thch hp ri. Mt cch khc l chuyn hng mt trong cc burst n cng u ra khc. Mt cch khc na l chuyn mt trong cc burst sang bc sng khc trn cp u ra. Khi cc k thut gii quyt xung t khng thnh cng, burst s b hy b. Khi chuyn i bc sng c s dng, vn quyt nh bc sng no ph hp cho mt burst trn lin kt u ra c gi l lp lch knh.

14

Chuyn mch Burst quang OBS

Chng II: K thut v kin trc


S pht trin ca chuyn mch burst quang da vo s pht trin thnh cng ca mt vi cng ngh ct li, bao gmchuyn mch ton quang,thit b nhn mode burst, chuyn i bc sng quang. Trong khi s pht trin trong nhng lnh vc ny c nhng s pht trin trong vi nm va qua, cng cn thm mt s i hi khc trc khi nhng cng ngh ny c th sn sng cho h thng thc t. D loi cng ngh no s c s dng, th ngi thit k mng vn phi quan tm n nhng hn ch tng vt l i vi cc thit b v thnh phn cng ngh ny. Chng ny s gii thiu mt ci nhn chung nht v kin trc ca node chuyn mch burst quang, tp trung vo cc thnh phn chnh cn thit cho chuyn mch burst quang. Tip , s gii thiu mt vi cng ngh h tr kin trc chuyn mch burst quang v bn v cc vn tng vt l c th nh hng n hiu nng ca mng chuyn mch burst quang. 2.1 Kin trc mng chuyn mch burst quang Mt mng chuyn mch burst quang bao gm cc node c kt ni vi nhau qua cc cp. Mi cp c kh nng phc v nhiu knh bc sng s dng ghp knh phn chia theo bc sng WDM. Cc node trong mng OBS c th l node bin hay node li nh trong hnh 2.4. Node bin c trch nhim lp rp cc gi tin vo cc burst, v lp lch cho burst truyn trn knh bc sng. Node li c chc nng chnh l chuyn mch burst t cng u vo ti cng u ra da trn gi tin tiu burst v x l xung t burst.

Hnh 2.4 Kin trc mng chuyn burst quang


15

Chuyn mch Burst quang OBS


Node bin u vo lp rp cc gi tin n t u cui khch hng vo trong burst. Burst c lp rp xong c truyn i (ton quang) qua cc router li m khng cn lu tr ti cc node trung gian. Node bin u ra sau khi nhn c burst, s tch cc burst thnh cc gi tin v chuyn chng ti u cui ngi dng ch. Trong hnh 2.5, m t nhng chc nng khc nhau trong mng chuyn mch burst quang. Node bin u vo c trch nhim lp rp burst, nh tuyn, phn b bc sng v lp lch cho burst ti bin. Node li c trch nhim bo hiu, lp lch burst ti cc lin kt li v gii quyt xung t. Node bin u ra c trch nhim tho cc burst v chuyn gi tin ti tng mng cao hn

Hnh 2.5 S chc nng OBS Trong kin trc mng, c th gi nh rng mi node c th h tr c lu lng vo cng nh lu lng i qua ton quang. V vy mi node gm c router li v router bin nh trong hnh 2.6 v 2.7. Router li (hnh 2.6) gm c cc OXC( kt ni cho quang) v SCU (n v iu khin chuyn mch). SCU to ra v duy tr mt bng chuyn tip (forwarding table) v c trch nhim cu hnh OXC. Khi SCU nhn mt gi tin tiu burst, n nhn dng cng u ra d tnh ca gi tin. Nu cng u ra d tnh ban u ny ri khi burst d liu n, SCU cu hnh OXC cho burstd liu i qua. Nu cngu ra bn,vic OXC s c cu hnh nh th no da hon ton vo chnh sach gii quyt xung t p dng cho mng. Ni chung, SCU c chc nng gii thch tiu ( bin dch), lp lch, pht hin xung t v gii quyt n, tra bng chuyn tip (forwarding table), iu khin ma trn

16

Chuyn mch Burst quang OBS


chuyn mch, vit li tiu ,v iu khin chuyn i bc sng. Trong trng hp burst d liu vo OXC trc gi tin iu khin ca n, burst s b hy b. Router bin (hnh 2.7) c chc nng tin phn loi gi tin, b m gi tin, ghp ni gi tin vo burst, v tho ri gi tin ra khi burst. Nhng chnh sch ghp burst khc nhau, nh chnh sch ngng hoc c ch nh thi c th c s dng tp hp cc gi tin d liu ln vo mt burst quang v gi cc burst quang vo mng. Kin trc ca router bin gm c module nh tuyn, mt b sp xp burst, mt b lp lch. Module nh tuyn chn cng u ra ph hp vi mi gi tin v gi mi gi tin n module lp rp tng ng. Mi module lp rp burst gm c cc gi tin c hng n router bin u ra c th. Trong module lp rp burst, c nhiu loi hng i gi tin khc nhau cho mi mc lu lng. B lp lch to ra mt burst da trn k thut lp rp burst v truyn burst qua cng u ra. Ti router u ra,mt module tho ri burst thnh cc gi tin v gi gi tin n tng mng pha trn.

Hnh 2.6 Kin trc router li Mt vi nh khoa hc xut mt kin trc OBS tp trung hn :WROBS (chuyn mch burst quang nh tuyn bc sng). Mt mng WR-OBS kt hp nhng chc nng ca OBS vi chuyn mch knh nhanh bng cch phn b

17

Chuyn mch Burst quang OBS


ng v gii phng tuyn quang c nh tuyn bc song qua mt li quang khng c m.

Hnh 2.7 Kin trc router bin u im ca kin trc ny so snh vi OBS thng thng l c QoS r rng c tnh d phng. So vi mng nh tuyn bc sng quang tnh, th WROBS c u im thch ng nhanh vi lu lng bng n, lin tc thay i trn mng quang v vn hnh hiu qu hn trn mi knh bc sng. Trong mng WR-OBS, mi request server tp trung ha c trch nhim ginh trc ti nguyn cho cc yu cukt ni trn ton mng.Mi node u vo gi yu cu kt ni ca chng ti request server, ni m cc yu cu c xp hng da vo node u ra ch v mc QoS.Server c tp trung ha c kh nng phn b ti nguyn da vo nhng kin thc ton cc ca n v trng thi ca mi bc sng trn mi lin kt trong ton mng. Request server tp trung ha c trch nhim x l mi yu cu kt ni n l, tnh ton tuyn ng t ngun ti ch tng ng v t trc request number ca bc sng trn mi lin kt trn ton tuyn kt ni. Router bin u vo bt u truyn d liu ch sau khi n nhn c mt bn tin xc nhn t request server. WR-OBS c th nng cao throughput ca mng, nhng chnh bn cht tp trung ha ca n rt kh c th m rng c.

18

Chuyn mch Burst quang OBS


2.2 Cng ngh lin quan cung cp chuyn mch burst quang c bn nh ni phn trc cn mt vi thit b cng ngh. Trong node li v bin, OXC phi hot ng s dng c cu chuyn mch quang nhanh. Ti node bin phi s dng thit b nhn mode burst nhanh c th thu c tn hiu ca burst n mt cch nhanh chng. Mi node cng nn s dng chuyn i bc sng gim xung t trn lin kt u ra. 2.2.1 Cng ngh chuyn mch quang Trong khi OBS khng i hi thi gian chuyn mch nhanh nh chuyn mch gi quang, thi gian chuyn mch nhanh d sao cng l rt tt. Gn y, mt vi cng ngh vn hnh chuyn mch ton quang. Mt trong nhng cng ngh cho vn hnh chuyn mch ton quang l cng ngh MEMS (micro-electromechanical system). Trong chuyn mch MEMS, nhng gng siu nh c kh nng di chuyn c iu chnh hng tia sng t mt u vo ti port u ra nh. Hnh 2.5 cho thy v d v chuyn mch MEMS c thit k ra sao. Trong thit k ny, tia sng t mt cp u vo cho trcchiu thng n mt gng trong mng gng u vo. Gng c iu chnh phn chiu nh sng n mt gng pha mng gng u ra, tip tia sng c chiu n cp u ra thch hp. V MEMS da trn c ch iu chnh gng phn chiu nh sng, thi gian chuyn mch do vy l chm. Thi gian chuyn mch thc t cho chuyn mch MEMS l khong 50ms.

Hnh 2.8 Chuyn mch MEMS


19

Chuyn mch Burst quang OBS


Mt cng ngh chuyn mch cung cp thi gian chuyn mch nhanh l chuyn mch cng SOA (SOA- khuch i quang bn dn). Lc ca mt chuyn mch SOA c bn c ch r trong hnh 2.6. Tia sng n mt u vo chotrc c broadcast(qung b) ti nhiu SOA s dng coupler quang. SOA hot ng nh mt cng m c th bt hoc tt i. Nu SOA c bt ln, tn hiu n c chuyn tip, cho qua n u ra, nu khng tn hiu b chn li. u im ca chuyn mch SOA bao gm thi gian chuyn mch nhanh khong 1ns, v kh nng multicasting mt tn hiu ti nhiu u ra. Mt nhc im ca chuyn mch da trn SOA l coupler gy ra s gim v cng sut tn hiu, dn n gim khong cch truyn dn ti a ca tn hiu. ng thi SOA cng c gi kh t v c nhy phn cc cao.

Hnh 2.9 Chuyn mch SOA 2.2.2 Burst mode receiver Thit b thu truyn thng s dng trong h thng truyn dn quang nh SONET thng khng ph hp vi chuyn mch burst quang. Mt thit b thu nh vy mc nh pha v cng sut khng i cho tn hiu n v cng mc nh rng tn hiu lun lun hin hu trn ng truyn. Trong mng OBS,cc burst n mt thit b thu cho trcc th c pha v cng sut khc nhau,v burst c th n t nhiu ngun khc nhau v c th i qua nhiu tuyn trong mng. Hn na, do bn cht ca burst, mt tn hiu ch hin din trn ng truyn trong khong thi gian ca mt burst. Burst mode receiver l thit b thu c thit k thch ng vi pha v cng sut bin thin ca burst n. Mt c tnh khc ca Burst mode receiver l thi gian t xung ng h nhanh. Burst mode receiver c kh nng phc hi xung ng h ca tn hiu 2 GB/s trong 24ns.

20

Chuyn mch Burst quang OBS


2.2.3 Chuyn i bc sng Trong mng chuyn mch burst quang vn hnh WDM, rt l tng khi c th c kh nng chuyn i bc sng ti mi node gim xung t. C mt cch quen thuc nht chuyn i tn hiu t mt bc sng ti bc sng khc l chuyn i tn hiu quang thnh tn hiu in v s dng tn hiu in iu ch tn hiu quang trn bc sng u ra mong mun. Phng php ny kh n gin v c th chuyn i tn hiuvn hnh tc ln ti 10 Gb/s; tuy nhin, cch tip cn ny l khng trong sut v i hi tn hiu quang c nh dng iu ch nht nh v mt tc nht nh. Mt cch tip cn vi vn hnh chuyn i bc sng ton quang l iu ch cross-gain. Trong iu ch cross-gain, d liu c gi qua mt SOAcng vi mt tn hiu sng bm lin tc (CW- continuous wave) trn mt bc sng khc. Khi tn hiu d liu cao, sng mang trong vng tng ca soa tr tnn cn kit, v SOA tr nn bo ha. Kt qu l, s khuch i ca CW gim. Khi tn hiu d liu thp, tn hiu CW nhn c ton b s khuch i. V th, mt bn sao chp ngc ca d liu s c t vo tn hiu u ra. K thut ny c kh nng chuyn tn hiu hot ng tc 10 Gb/s. Gii hn ca chuyn i da trn iu ch cross-gian l nhng k thut ny i hi cng sut u ra cao cho tn hiu d liu, v tn hiu u ra c t l extinction thp (t l cng sut cho mt bit khng chia cho cng sut cho mt bit 1). iu ny l do k c khi SOA bo ha, tn hiu CW vn nhn mt vi s khuch i. Mt phng php khc cung cp chuyn i bc sngquang l s dng trn bn sng. Trn bn sng l hiu ng phi tuyn m khi c tn hiu c tn s f1 v f2 tng tc to ra nhng thnh phn tn s mi 2f1-f2 v 2f2-f1. Nu tn hiu d liu hot ng tn s f1 v tn hiu bm CW hot ng tn s f2, khi d liu s b p t lm vic ti tn s 2f1-f2 v 2f2-f1. Tn hiu mi c to ra c cng sut nh hn tn hiu u vo, v th kh nng chuyn i ca k thut ny l khng tht hiu qu. Hn na hiu qu cn b gim do s sai khc gia bc sng bm v tn hiu bc sng u ra tng. 2.3 Vn tng vt l Khi thit k mt mng chuyn mch burst quang, nhng hn ch vt l l rt ng quang tm. C th nh suy hao, tn sc, hiu ng phi tuyn. Trong nhng vn ny, nhiu ci xut hin trong mng quang thng thng, mt vi ci khc xut hin nh mt vn c bit trong chuyn mch burst quang.

21

Chuyn mch Burst quang OBS


2.3.1 Suy hao Khi tn hiu quang i trn cp, cng sut tn hiu suy gim do suy hao. Suy hao l do s hp th v tn x rayleigh. Hp th l do nh sng b hp th trn cc phn t silica hoc tp cht. hu ht cc cp, lng hp th cho khong bc sng hu ch(0.8-1.6 micromet) l khng ng k. Tn x rayleigh l do bin thin nh ca chit sut ca cp lm tn x nh sng. Trong mng chuyn mch burst quang, suy hao lm gim khong cch ti a m burst c th i c. Trong hu ht cc trng hp, khuch i quang c th s dng khc phc iu ny; tuy nhin khuch i quang cng c th gy ra nhiu. 2.3.2 Tn sc Nu tn hiu quang gm c hiu thnh phn bc sng, th s khc bit gia cc thnh phn ca tn hiu s i vi vn tc khc nhau gy ra s tri rng ca tn hiu trong min thi gian. Hiu ng ny l tn sc. Cc dng ca tn sc bao gm c tn sc mode v tn sc chromatic. Tn sc mode l do nhiu mode ca cng mt tn hiu lan truyn ti nhng vn tc khc nhau trn cp. Tn sc mode c th kh bng cch ta s dng cp n mode. Cp n mode c ng knh li nh, ch c th mang i duy nht mt mode ca tn hiu truyn lan. Tn sc chromatic l do vn tc nh sng l mt hm ca bc sng. V th nu tn hiu gm nhiu hn mt thnh phn bc sng, dn n thnh phn ny lan truyn nhanh hn thnh phn kia, gy ra s tri rng trn min thi gian ca tn hiu. Loi tn sc chromatic ny bao gm tn sc vt liu- m chit sut ca si bin i nh mt hm ca bc sng (chit sut si vi cc thnh phn tia sng khc nhau l khc nhau) v tn sc ng dn sng-chit sut cho mt bc sng nht nh da vo phn cng sut i trong li v phn cng sut i ngoi v ca si. Trong trng hp m tn hiugm mt xung biu din mt bit n l, tn sc gy ra dn xung khi n lan truyn qua si. Khi xung b dn ra, n c th dn ra nhiu gy ra nhiu vi xung bn cnh, gy ra ISI. Suy hao s lm gii hn khng gian bit v tc truyn dn trong knh quang. Ti bc sng 1300nm, tn sc vt liu trong cp n mode thng thng gn nh bng khng. Rt may mn l y cng chnh l mt ca s suy hao thp trong quang. Qua nhng k thut nng cao nh dch tn sc, c th to ra si vi
22

Chuyn mch Burst quang OBS


tn sc bng 0 ti mt bc sng no t 1300nm ti 1700nm. Trong si dch tn sc, li v v c thit k sao cho tn sc ng dn sng l m, v th khi cng vi tn sc vt liu s cho tn sc tng v khng. Tuy nhin, tn sc ch bng khng cho mt bc sng n. Cng vi vn v ISI, suy hao cng c th gy ra vn v ng b trong mng chuyn mch burst quang. Trong mt mng chuyn mch burst quang, tiu burst thng c gi n bc sng khc vi bc sng ca burst. Mi bc sng trong cc bc sng s tri qua cc mc tn sc khc nhau, gy ra hin tng burst v tiu c th tri li gn hay ra xa nhau hn trong min thi gian. Nu khong cch vt l ca mi lin kt v suy hao ca cp l bit trc, c th b li tn sc bng cch iu chnh cho ph hp offset ca node ngun. 2.3.3 Hiu ng phi tuyn Hiu ng phi tuyn trong cp thng c nh hng n: tc truyn dn, s knh, khong cch knh, cng sut tn hiu. Mt vi v d v hiu ng phi tuyn: trn 4 sng, t iu ch pha, iu ch pha cho, tn x kch thch raman, tn x kch thch brillouin. Trn bn sng (FWM) xy ra khi 2 bc sng hot ng ti 2 tn s f1, f2 s trng vo nhau to ra tn hiu 2f1-f2 v 2f2-f1. Nhng tn hiu to ra sau ny gi l sideband, c th gy nhiu nu chng trng vi tn s s dng truyn d liu. Cng nh vy, trn c th xy ra gia s kt hp ca 3 hay nhiu hn cc bc sng.Hiu ng trn 4 sng trong WDM c th c lm gim nh s dng knh c khong cch khng u. T iu ch pha l do thay i v cng ca tn hiu, gy ra s thay i v pha ca tn hiu.S bin i tc thi v pha ca tn hiu c th to ra thnh phn tn s ph thm trong tn hiu. Nhng thnh phn tn s ny kt hp vi hiu ng ca tn sc, s gy ra s tri rng hoc nnli ca xung trong min thi gian. iu ch pha cho l s dch v pha ca 1 tn hiu gy ra do s thay i cng ca 1 tn hiu lan truyn ti bc sng khc. Gn vi t iu ch pha, s dch v pha c th to ra thnh phn tn s vi, gy ra tng tn sc. Mc d iu ch pha cho c th gii hn hiu nng ca h thngquang, n cng c nhng ng dng tch cc ca n. S dng iu ch pha cho, mt tn hiu mt

23

Chuyn mch Burst quang OBS


bc sng cho trc c th c s dng iu ch mt tn hiu bm trn mt bc sng khc. K thut nh vy dng trong thit b chuyn i bc sng. Tn x kch thch raman l do s tng tc ca nh sng vi s dao ng ca cc phn t. nh sng ti phn t to ra nh sng b tn x bc sng di hn bc sng ti. Mt phn ca nh sng truyn i mitn s trong si raman-ch ng c dch xung vng tn s thp. nh sng to ra tn s thp gi l sng Stoke. Khong tn s m sng Stoke chim c quyt nh bi ph tng ch Raman khong tm 40THz di tn s ca sng nh sng vo. Trong si silica, sng Stoke c tng ti a ti tn s 13.2THz t hn tn hiu vo. Phn cng sut c chuyn sang sng Stoke tng nhanh chng khi cng sut ca tn hiu vo tng. Di mt u vo c cng sut rt ln, SRS s gy ra hin tng gn nh ton b cng sut ca tn hiu vo s b chuyn sang sng Stoke. Trong h thng a bc sng,knh bc sng ngn hn s mt cng sut n cc knh bc sng di hn trong min ph tng raman. gim lng hao ht, cng sut ti mi knh s phi thp hn mt mc no . Tn x kch thch Brillouin (SBS) tng t vi SRS, ch khc l dch tn s gy ra do photon m hc cn SRS lin quan n photon quang. Trong SBS, nh sng b dch lan truyn trong si theo hng ngc li vi tn hiu ti. Cng ca nh sng b tn x ln hn trong trng hp SRS nhiu, nhng khong tn s SBS khong 10 GHz li t hn SRS. Cng vi , bng thng ca SBS ch khong 100MHz. chng li nh hng ca SBS, phi chc rng cng sut tn hiu vo di mt ngng no . Trong h thng a bc sng, SBS c th gy ra xuyn m gia cc knh.

24

Chuyn mch Burst quang OBS

Chng III: Sp xp Burst


Nhm burst l qu trnh tp hp d liu n t lp cao vo trong burst ti li vo node bin ca mng OBS. Khi cc gi tin n t lp cao hn, chng c lu trong cc b nh in ty thuc vo lp v ch ca chng. Khi c ch nhm burst phi thay th nhng gi tin ny da trn mt vi chnh sch nhm. Thng s kha trong nhm burst l tiu chun ban u c tnh quyt nh khi to ra mt burst v gi burst vo mng. Tiu chun ban u cho vic to thnh mt burst l rt quan trng, n iu khin cc c tnh ca burst i vo trong mng li OBS. C mt vi nhm burst c thng qua trong cc ti liu OBS hin nay. im chung ca hu ht cc cng ngh nhm burst l da trn nh thi (timer-based) v da trn ngng (threshold-based). Trong phng php tip cn da trn nh thi, mt burst c to ra v gi vo mng quang ti khong thi gian nh k. Sp xp da trn nh thi c s dng cung cp khong thi gian chun gia cc burst lin tip t cng ng vo ca node n mng li. y, di ca burst cng thay i ty theo s thay i ca ti. Trong phng php tip cn da trn ngng trong nhm burst, mt gii hn c t l gi tr ln nht ca s gi c cha trong mi burst. V th, cc burst kch c c nh s c to ra ti bin ca mng. Cch tip cn v ngng trong nhm burst s to ra cc burst khng c thi gian theo nh k. Cch tip cn v nh thi v ngng l tng ng, ti mt tc n c nh, mt gi tr ngng c th c nh x n mt gi tr timeout v ngc li, nguyn nhn l cc burst c di tng t nhau cho mi trng hp. Cc tham s chnh ca nhm burst c xem xt l gi tr nh thi, T, di burst b nht, Bmin, v di burst ln nht, Bmax, Bmin c th c tnh ton da trn thi gian x l tiu burst ti mi node v t l ca cc knh iu khin so vi s knh d liu trong si quang.

25

Chuyn mch Burst quang OBS


3.1 Qu trnh la chn nh thi v ngng Mt vn trong nhm burst l cch chn gi tr nh thi v ngng nh th no ph hp trong vic to ra mt burst c xc sut li gi tin l b nht trong mng OBS. Qu trnh la chn mt gi tr ngng (nh thi) ti u l mt vn m. Nu ngng qu thp, khi burst s phi ngn, dn n gia tng s lng burst trong mng. S lng burst ln ko theo xung t ln, nhng s gi tin trung bnh mt trn xung t thp hn. Hn na, n s lm gia tng sc p cho mt bng iu khin x l cc gi tin iu khin ca mi d liu burst trong vic ng x nhanh v hiu qu. Nu switch c cu hnh li thi gian ng k khi cc burst ngn hn s lm cho hiu nng mng thp i do thi gian chuyn mch phn overhead (tiu ) cho mi switch burst. Trong cch x l khc, nu ngng qu cao, khi cc burst s di, s lm gim tng s burst a vo mng. Do , s xung t trong mng gim xung so vi trng hp c burst ngn, nhng trung bnh gi tin mt trn xung t s tng. Do vy, hiu nng ca mng OBS c th c ci thin nu cc gi tin n c tp hp vo cc burst c di ti u. Cc l lun l ng trong mt c ch nhm da trn nh thi. Hnh 3.10 ch ra nh hng ca s thay i tc gi tin n theo da trn nh thi v da trn ngng ca cc cng ngh tp hp khc nhau. Vi trng hp gi tin c QoS hn ch, chng hn nh hn ch tr, r rng gii php l thc thi mt k hoch da trn nh thi. K hoch da trn nh thi nhm burst c xem xt cho mt mng kt ni c hng nh tuyn quang theo bc sng chuyn mch burst. Gi tr nh thi c la chn da trn yu cu v tr u cui-n-u cui ca cc gi. Trong mt x l khc, nu khng c tr ngi v tr, k hoch da trn ngng c th c nhiu thun li hn, khi c cc burst kch thc c nh trong mng s gim mt gi do tranh chp burst trong mng. Vic s dng c ngng v nh thi cng nhau cung cp tt nht cho c 2 k hoch, v vic to ra burst l linh ng hn so vi ch p dng 1. Bng vic tnh ton gi tr ngng ti u, tnh ton di burst nh nht, v s dng gi tr timeout da trn tr gi chp nhn c, chng ta c th m bo rng mt gi l nh nht trong khi vn tha mn tr yu cu. Trong [5], nghin cu nh hng ca cc k hoch nhm khc nhau n lu lng TCP. Bng vic m phng hon thnh mt nhm TCP c bn c kh nng thch nghi, da trn tc gi n ca lung TCP,thc hin tt hn

26

Chuyn mch Burst quang OBS


cc k hoch nhm burst c nh truyn thng v mt thng lng hu ch v t l mt gi.

Hnh 3.10nh hng ca ti trng da trn nh thi v da trn ngng trong cc cng ngh nhm Cng ngh burst quang p dng ti node bin c mt tc ng trong vic thc thi k thut bo hiu trong ti li. Hu ht cc k thut bo hiu cn bit c di ca burst, thi gian n ca burst, hoc c 2 dnh trc hiu qu ti nguyn. V d, trong JET[6], k hoch bo hiu cn bit c thi gian n v di ca burst trong ci tin (in advance). Trong khi JIT[7,10], khng c thng tin v burst l cn thit, v ti nguyn mng li c dnh ring trong mt cch x s tham lam (in a greedy manner), dn n lng ph bng thng chi ph l d xy ra. Mt trong nhng nhc im chnh ca k thut nhm burst truyn thng l bo hiu cho cc ngun lc trong mng li c th ch c bt u sau khi ton b burst c tp hp li. Trong [9], mt k thut nhm da trn d on c a ra, trong gi tr ngng (hoc gi tr nh thi) ca burst k tip c d on trc da

27

Chuyn mch Burst quang OBS


trn tc lu lng n. S dng cc d on chiu di burst, BHP c th c gi vo mng li trc khi to ra burst thc t, dnh ring ngun lc trong mng li OBS; do , tit kim c tr nhm burst. Gi tr d on c th c s dng thit lp t ng gi tr ngng (hoc gi tr nh thi) cho burst tip theo. Cc hc gi a ra mt m hnh d on tuyn tnh d on di burst tip theo da trn s tng quan ca lu lng. Li th ca nhm da trn d on l tn hiu bo hiu v nhm c th c thc hin song song, do hn ch c tr nhm. 3.2 Tc ng ca nhm burst theo c tnh lu lng Trong khi nhm burst, cc gi tin n t lp cao c lu trong hng i da theo a ch ch ca chng v lp QoS. Sau khi cc tiu ch ca vic to cc burst c tha mn, burst tng ng c to ra v gi vo mng li. Do , chng ta c th thy rng cc c im ca gi tin n v vic phn b di gi tin nh hng mnh m n cc c im ca gi tin n tng ng v vic phn b di burst. c nhiu tranh lun v tc ng ca nhm burst vo burstiness ca lu lng gi n. Ngi ta tin rng nhm burst lm gim mc t tng ng ca lu lng gi vo (hiu ng lm mn). Lu rng lu lng c xem xt c xem l t tng ng nu qu trnh n l bursty ti bt k quy m thi gian cho trc.Lu lng Poisson truyn thng cho thy burstiness ch quy m thi gian nh hn, nhng cch tip cn tc n l c nh khi xem xt vi quy m thi gian rt di hoc l v cng. Ni chung, rt d dng x l lu lng mt cch tri chy hn (Poisson) so vi lu lng bursty (t tng ng). Phn [10-12] khng nh rng nhm burst ch thay i phm vi ngn ty thuc vo lu lng gi tin n, nhng cc c tnh phm vi di trong lu lng gi vn khng thay i. Kt qu ny mu thun vi kt qu c ch ra trc trong [13], y ngi ta khm ph phng php tip cn da trn nh thi cho nhm burst di dng t tng ng ca gi tin mu i n v ch ra rng c ch nhm burst lm gim cc c tnh t tng ng ca lu lng trn mng ng trc quang. Trong [10-12], ngi ta khng nh rng, cho mt k hoch nhm da trn nh thi vi mt s phn b burst n c nh (t), s phn b di burst l Gausian. Ngoi ra, khi cho mt k hoch nhm da trn ngng vi mt s phn b di burst c nh th s phn b burst n cng l Gaussian. Tuy nhin, ngi ta cng cp rng mc d s ph thuc phm vi ngn c tc dng lm mt, cc cng ngh tp hp burst da trn nh thi v ngng khng th gim s ph thuc phm vi ln trong mt lung lu lng. Thng qua m

28

Chuyn mch Burst quang OBS


phng, [10,11] ch ra rng s tng quan kin trc mng ln quy m thi gian v hn vn khng thay i. 3.3 K thut c lng nhm burst da trn ngng Nghin cu trong phn [14] l k thut nhm burst da trn ngng v nh hng ca chng trong vn mt gi trong mt mng chuyn mch burst quang (OBS). N cng nghin cu nh hng ca nhm burst trong vic cung cp h tr QoS trong mt mng OBS. Trong nghin cu ny, cc gi c nhm li vo trong cc burst da trn a ch ch ca chng v lp QoS, v mi loi burst c nhm s dng mt gi tr ngng duy nht. Cc gi n c th thuc mt lp c bit, th hin yu cu v QoS ca cc gi tin. Nu khng mt tnh tng qut, chng ta gi s rng c 2 lp lu lng i vo, vi tn l Class 0 v Class 1, y lu lng Class 0 c u tin cao hn Class 1. Mc tiu l tm c khong ngng ti u ti thiu ha mt mt gi ca Class 0 cho mt mng di ti nht nh. Ngoi ra, ta cng c php gi nh rng cc burst c gi tin Class 0 c phn b mt u tin burst 0, v cc burst c gi tin Class 1 c phn b gi tr u tin burst 1. Mt mng OBS s dng k thut bo hiu JET vi phn mnh burst c xem xt. Cc burst c th nhn c s i x khc nhau trong mng li OBS da trn u tin burst. Mt mng khng th cung cp cc ng tr quang. Trong chng ny, chng ta xem xt nhiu k thut nhm burst da trn ngng v ch ra nh hng ca cc cng ngh trong trong vic mt gi. 3.3.1 K thut nhm burst da trn ngng nhm burst, mt ngng c s dng nh mt tham s hn ch xc nh khi no to ra mt burst v gi burst vo mng li quang. Ngng xc nh r s gi c nhm vo trong burst. Cho n khi iu kin v ngng c p ng, cc gi tin n s c lu trong cc hng i gi u tin ti cc node truy nhp. Mt khi t n ngng, mt burst c to ra v s c gi vo mng quang. Do chnh sch ngng, tt c cc burst s c cng s gi tin khi i vo trong mng; tuy vy, khi mt burst i qua mng li, di ca burst c th thay i ty theo cc chnh sch gii quyt xung t, chng hn nh vic phn mnh burst, ty thuc mng li. Nh c tho lun phn 3.1, c mt s nh i gia s lng tranh chp v s trung bnh cc gi tin mt trn xung t, v k vng rng c mt khong ti u ca gi tr ngng s ti thiu ha xc sut mt gi. Mc tiu

29

Chuyn mch Burst quang OBS


chnh ca chng ta l tm c khong ngng ti u vi mt ti cho trc trong mng. Vi trng hp c nhiu lp gi tin, mt gi tr ngng n c th c p dng cho tt c cc gi tin khng ph thuc vo lp, cc ngng khc nhau c th c p dng mi lp gi tin.C nhiu ngng c th l cn thit tha mn tr QoS v m bo mt gi ca mi lp.Trong trng hp ny, mc tiu l tm ra ngng ti u cho mi lp gi tin yu cu v QoS c p ng. Trong mng li quang c ththm phn khc nhau gia cc burst c cha cc lp gi tin khc nhau bng vic phn b u tin cho mi burst v p dng cc chnh sch u tin gii quyt tranh chp. Bng cch kt hp cc ngng da trn lp v nhiu gi tr u tin, chng ta c th c mc ln hn ca s khc bit cho mi lp khc nhau ca lu lng. Vic thc hin cc k hoch ngng khc nhau c so snh di chun v chnh sch loi b (DP) v chnh sch phn mnh (SDP) cho vic gii quyt tranh chp. Trong chun DP, cc burst n tr hn b loi b nu n xung t vi burst khc. Trong chnh sch SDP, cc on chng cho ca burst n sm hn b loi b khi cc burst n chm hn xung t vi n. Chng ta bt u bng vic xem xt mt lp ca lu lng d liu, v sau m rng cho 2 lp, ch ra QoS c cung cp trong mi trng hp nh th no: - Ngng n m khng c u tin burst: Trong chnh sch ny, mt ngng n c s dng cho tt c d liu burst. Chng ta theo di xc sut mt gi v tng s xung t c phn tch cho nhiu ti v ngng. Chng ta hi vng s hin din ca gi tr ngng ti u vi mt phm vi ti cho trc vi mng nht nh, m xc sut mt gi s cc tiu. - Ngng n vi 2 u tin burst: Trong chnh sch ny, chng ta gi s rng mng c 2 lp lu lng khc nhau v chng ta c mt ngng vi di burst duy nht cho tt c lu lng. Chng ta nh gi xc sut mt gi v s xung t cho nhiu ti v ngng. Hai u tin burst l 0 v 1. Gi tr 0 c u tin cao hn. - Hai ngng m khng c u tin burst: Trong chnh sch ny, chng ta gi s rng mng c mt lp lu lng. Chng ta c 2 ngng khc nhau trong mng, nh gi nh hng ca 2 ngng c di burst khc nhau vo xc sut mt gi v s lng xung t.

30

Chuyn mch Burst quang OBS


- Hai ngng vi 2 u tin burst: Trong chnh sch ny, chng ta gi s rng mng c 2 lp lu lng v chng ta c mt ngng vi di burst duy nht cho mi lp lu lng. Chng ta nh gi xc sut mt gi v s xung t cho nhiu ti v ngng. C 2 u tin burst l 0 v 1. Gi tr 0 l c u tin cao hn.

Hnh 3.11Mng NSF vi 12 node (km) 3.3.2 Cc kt qu m phng nh gi hiu nng ca k thut nhm burst, chng ti pht trin mt m hnh m phng. Sau y l cc gi nh c c kt qu: Gi tin n l phn b Poisson vi tc di gi tin l c nh 1250 byte Truyn tc 10 Gb/s Thi gian chuyn mch 10 s Lu lng vo phn b u qua tt c cp nhn-gi nh tuyn ng ngn nht c s dng tm ng gia 2 node

Hnh 3.2 cho thy 14 node mng NSF m chng trnh m phng thc thi. Chng ti kim tra cc k hoch ngng khc nhau m t vi mng NSF trn. Kt qu m phng chy cho n khi mt s hu hn cc gi c nhn ti cc ch. Ngng n m khng u tin burst Trong trng hp mt lp n cc gi tin v mt mc u tin burst n

31

Chuyn mch Burst quang OBS


th mt ngng n c s dng. Xc sut mt gi v tng s xung t c phn tch vi nhiu gi tr ti v ngng. T kt qu ca ngng n, chng ti theo di mt gi tr ngng ti u vi mt mng vi ti cho trc, cho xc sut mt gi l nh nht. Hnh 3.3(a) v (b) cho thy kh nng mt gi vi DP v SDP nh l chnh sch gi quyt tranh chp ti li.

Hnh 3.12 th DP v SDP vi ngng v khng c u tin burst trong mng (b) (a) T l mt gi so vi ti T l mt gi so v gi tr ngng

32

Chuyn mch Burst quang OBS


Hnh 3.3(a) cho thy tng xc sut mt gi so vi ti ca cc gi tr ngng l 100, 400 v 600 gi tin cho c DP v SDP. Chng ta quan st thy ngng 400 gi hot ng tt hn 2 ngng kia l 100 v 600. V th n l cn thit tm mt khong ngng ti u sao cho mt gi l nh nht.S cn thit ca ngng ti u c th c hiu tt hn bng vic phn tch hnh 3.3(b). y chng ta thy rng vic mt gi bt u gim, khi chm n gi tr nh nht n li bt u tng. Mt gi l nh nht khi gi tr ngng nm trong khong 280430 gi tin. Vic mt gi ban u cao c th l do cc gi mt trong khi cu hnh li mt switch trong vic gii quyt xung t. dc ca vic mt gi t l thun vi thi gian chuyn mch. Khi thi gian chuyn mch l khng ng k vi i vi kch thc burst, vic mt gi vn duy tr n nh trong khong 300-450 gi tin. Khi hn 450 gi, mt gi tng.Chng ta chn 400 gi l gi tr ngng ti u cho mng NFS di ti l 0 n 1 Erlang. Ngng ti u c th khc nhau ty theo cp node ca mng, tc burst n, v khong ti ca mng. Ngng n vi u tin burst Vi trng hp 2 u tin burst v mt ngng n, chng ta nh gi xc sut mt gi v s xung t cho cc bin i v ti v ngng. Hai u tin burst l 0 v 1. Gi tr 0 c u tin cao hn.Chng ta s dng gi tr ngng ti u c c t hnh 3.3(b) nh gi tr ngng, khi n c mt gi l nh nht. Hnh 3.4 v 3.5, cho thy hiu nng cho SDP nh mt chnh sch gii quyt xung t trong mng li OBS. Chng ta gi nh rng t l d liu u vo ca 2 lp gi tin l nh nhau. Hnh 3.4 cho thy xc sut mt gi so vi ti cho cc ngng 100, 400 v 600 gi tin cho c hai u tin burst. Chng ti quan st thy mt gi lp gi tin cao hn l nh hn khng ng k so vi mt gi lp thp hn. Quan st thy rng, thm ch vi s ln xung t l ln, chng ta vn c c mt gi thp hn l cc gi lp cao hn do s phn mnh. Vic kt hp cc hnh v ca xc sut mt gi cho c cc burst cos u tin 0 v 1 c ch ra i lp vi nhiu gi tr ngng chot rong hnh 3.5. chng ta thy rng vic mt gi cc gi lp cao hn l nh hn so vi cc gi lp thp hn. Ngoi ra, chng ta c th thy rng mt gi tng ln khi gi tr ngng vt qu 400 gi.

33

Chuyn mch Burst quang OBS


Chng ta quan st thy cc burst c u tin 0 th c mt mt gi l cc tiu ti cc gi tr ngng 400 v 600 gi tin, trong khi cc burst c u tin 1 c mt gi cc tiu ti ngng 400 gi tin.

Hnh 3.13 th SDP n ngng v hai u tin burst trong mng. T l mt gi trn ti vi nhng gi tr ngng khc nhau Trong phn sau, chng ta s nhn thy rng cc gi tr ngng n l khc nhau cho kt qu mi u tin burst trong khi hot ng tt hn cho c 2 lp gi tin.
34

Chuyn mch Burst quang OBS


Hai ngng m khng u tin burst Trong trng hp ny c 2 gi tr ngng m khng c u tin trong cc burst, chng ta nh gi xc sut mt gi v s xung t cho nhiu ngng khc nhau. Kt qu c ch ra trong hnh 3.6 SDP c gi nh l c p dng trong mng li, v v ta ca mng l 0.5 Erlang.Tc gi n cho mi lp lu lng l ging ht nhau. Trong hnh 3.6 chng ta quan st thy rng xc sut mt gi cho cc gi tr ngng khc nhau. Khi khng c u tin burst no trong mng, khi xung t, di gi tin hot ng nh u tin; do cc burst di c mt gi thp hn burst ngn. Chng ta quan st thy vic mt gi ca cc burst ngn lun lun ln hn mt gi ca cc burst di hn. V vy, c 2 mt bng trong hnh 3.6 khi c hai ngng cn bng. Khi u tin khng c kt hp vo mng, vic mt gi l i xng cho burst ca c hai gi tr ngng.

Hnh 3.14 th SDP vi mt ngng v hai u tin burst trong mng. T l mt gi i vi ngng cho c hai lp gi tin ti 0,5 Erlang.

35

Chuyn mch Burst quang OBS


Hai ngng vi u tin burst Hnh 3.7 cho thy hiu nng mng vi hai u tin burst v hai gi tr ngng, v vi SDP nh l chnh sch gii quyets xung t trong mng li OBS. Chng ta gi s tc d liu u vo ca c hai lp lu lng l nh nhau. V quan st s khc bit dch v gia hai lp gi tin khc nhau. Hnh 3.7 ch cho ta thy xc sut mt gi vi nhiu gi tr ngng cho hai u tin, vi ti l 0.5 Erlang. Chng ta quan st thy vic mt gi ca lp gi tin cao duy tr khng i vi cc gi tr khc nhau ca ngng 1. Mt gi ca lp gi tin thp gim khi kch thc burst tng do xung t t hn vi cc burst u tin cao hn. Khi ngng tng, mt gi tng do s gia tng ca s lng trung bnh gi mt trn xung t.

Hnh 3.15 th SDP vi hai ngng v khng c u tin burst trong mng. T l mt gi trn c hai gi tr ngng khc nhau cho c hai u tin

36

Chuyn mch Burst quang OBS


Trong trng hp tng qut, ta thy rng xc sut mt gi trung bnh trong mng bt u tng khi tng di ngng burst, v t n cc tiu ti gi tr ngng ti u. Khi khi n c gi tr ngng ti u, xc sut mt gi trung bnh bt u tng nh vi s tng ca di ngng burst. Bng vic m phng, chng ta quan st thy rng khi m phng cho 10 t gi tin c kch thc c nh, xc sut mt gi trung bnh vn bng phng sau khi t n gi tr ngng ti u. Do , tt c burst ln hn hoc bng vi gi tr ngng s c mt gi l cc tiu. Mc d tng di ngng burst, chng ta vn gim c ti trn mt bng iu khin OBS, chng ta cng phi xem xt n tc ng ca s gia tng di burst trong tr gi tin u cui-n-u cui.

Hnh 3.16 th SDP vi hai ngng v hai u tin burst trong mng. T l mt gi so vi cc gi tr ngng khc nhau vi hai u tin

37

Chuyn mch Burst quang OBS

Chng IV Bo hiu trong OBS


Khi mt burst truyn dn trn mt li quang, mt phng thc bo hiu cn phi c thc hin phn b ti nguyn v cu hnh cc chuyn mch quang cho burst trn mi node quang. Gin bo hiu trong mng chuyn mch burst quang s dng cc gi mo u burst truyn ngoi di. Trong mt phng thc bo hiu ngoi di, cc mo u c lin kt vi mt burst c truyn trn mt bc sng khc so vi burst . Cc gi mo u ngoi di truyn dc theo cng tuyn ng nh burst , bo cho mi node dc theo tuyn cu hnh kt ni quang cho ca node thch ng vi burst ang truyn ti thi im thch hp. Trong phn ny, chng ta s nghin cu cc thng s c trng cho cc giao thc bo hiu OBS khc nhau. Ta s m t c th mt s giao thc bo hiu OBS nghin cu. 4.1 Phn loi cc phng thc bo hiu Mt s s thay i ca cc giao thc bo hiu trong chuyn mch burst c th xy ra, ph thuc vo ti nguyn dc mt tuyn c ginh trc cho mt burst bng cch no v vo lc no. c bit, mt phng thc chuyn mch c th c c trng bi nhng tnh cht sau: Ginh trc ti nguyn mt chiu, hai chiu hoc theo phng thc lai; Ginh trc ti nguyn khi to t ngun, khi to t ch, hoc khi to t node trung gian; Ginh trc ti nguyn bn vng hoc khng bn vng; Ginh trc ti nguyn ngay lp tc hay c thi gian tr; Gii phng ti nguyn r rng hoc tim n; Bo hiu tp trung hoc phn tn. Cc tnh cht ny c m t c th hn trong cc phn sau y. 4.1.1 Mt chiu, hai chiu hoc lai ghp Mt phng thc bo hiu c th hot ng bng cch s dng vic dnh trc ti nguyn theo mt hng, hai hng hoc ginh trc theo kiu lai ghp. Trong mt phng thc bo hiu theo kiu ginh trc mt chiu, node ngun s gi i mt gi tin iu khin yu cu mi node trn tuyn phn b ti nguyn cn thit cho burst d liu v theo cu hnh cc kt ni cho. Node ngun sau
38

Chuyn mch Burst quang OBS


gi i burst d liu ngay m khng ch i phn hi t cc node trung gian cng nh l node ch xem qu trnh ginh trc ti nguyn mi node thnh cng hay tht bi.Khi m vic ginh trc ti nguyn khng c phn hi(mt chiu), c th rng qu trnh ny khng thnh cng v burst s b loi b. Mt khc, v khng cn ch i xc nhn burst d liu c th c gi i nhanh hn, theo gim c tr truyn d liu u-cui.

Hnh 4.17 Phn loi k thut bo hiu Cc k thut bo hiu vi vic ginh trc ti nguyn hai chiu da trn vic nhn xc nhn. Khi mo u ca burst c gi i t ngun n ch ginh trc ti nguyn cho mt burst, mt bn tin phn hi xc nhn rng ti nguyn yu cu c cp pht c gi tr li t ch v ngun. Burst d liu s ch c truyn sau khi nhn c phn hi. Nu bt k mt node trung gian trn tuyn m yu cu b t chi, node s gi mt xc nhn t chi n ngun, ch ra vic ginh trc ti nguyn tht bi.Node ny cng s thc hin cc hnh ng thch hp gii phng tt c cc qu trnh ginh trc ti nguyn ca cc lin kt trc trn tuyn. Ngun c th chn la gia vic c gng yu cu li bng cch gi mt mo u burst mi, hoc n gin l loi b yu cu. Phng thc bo hiu qu trnh ginh trc ti nguyn c xc nhn (hai chiu) c th loi b vic mt cc burst trong li OBS, tuy nhin cng dn n tr truyn u-cui gia tng.

39

Chuyn mch Burst quang OBS


Mt k thut bo hiu lai ghp to ra mt s tha hip gia hai phng thc ginh trc ti nguyn mt chiu v hai chiu l mt k thut mang n vic xc nhn tng phn i vi qu trnh ginh trc ti nguyn. Trong phng thc bo hiu lai ghp, qu trnh ginh trc ti nguyn t ngun n mt vi node trung gian trn tuyn c xc nhn thng qua cc bn tin phn hi, trong khi qu trnh ny t node trung gian n ch cha c xc nhn. V tr no ca node khi to s quyt nh s mt mt v tr cho mt burst. Nu node trung gian gn vi ngun, hiu nng tng t nh vic ginh trc ti nguyn khng c xc nhn, v nu node trung gian gn vi ngun, hiu nng s gn nh l phng thc ginh trc c xc nhn. 4.1.2 Ginh trc ti nguyn khi to t ngun, khi to t ch, hoc khi to t node trung gian Mt k thut bo hiu c th khi to qu trnh ginh trci vi cc ti nguyen yu cu ngun, ch, hoc mt im trung gian. Trong k thut ginh trc khi to t ngun (SIR), ngun ti nguyn dnh cho burst c ng k trn ng truyn khi mo u burst truyn t ngun n ch. Node ngun, khi nhn c xc nhn v ngun ti nguyn, s truyn i burst vo mng li nhng thi im d kin ( c ln lch). Trong k thut bo hiu ginh trc khi to t ch (DIR), ngun s pht i mt bn tin yu cu v ti nguyn n node ch, bn tin yu cu ny thu thp thng tin v cc bc sng kh dng trn tt c cc lin kt dc theo tuyn. Da trn nhng thng tin thu thp c, ch s chn mt bc sng kh dng (nu n tn ti) cho cc khong thi gian ph hp v gui i mt bn tin yu cu ginh trc li cho pha ngun. Bn tin ny s i qua cc node trung gian, ng k cc bc sng c chn cho nhng chu k thch hp. Nguyn nhn chnh gy nn tc nghn (hoc mt mt d liu) trong SIR l do thiu ngun ti nguyn ri, trong khi vi DIR, s mt mt xy ra do thng tin qu c hoc qu chm. Trong k thut ginh trc ti nguyn khi to t node trung gian (INI), ti nguyn thng c ginh trc tng t kiu DIR t ngun n mt s node trung gian, v tng t kiu SIR t node trung gian n ch. Ni chung, gim mt mt theo yu cu ti cc node theo hng gi i, SIR da trn k thut c th ginh trc nhiu hn mt (hoc tt c nu c th) cc bc sng cho n im ch, v gii phng nhng ti nguyn ginh trc khng cn thit hng ngc li. Cch tip cn ny c th dn n hiu nng km bi hin tng nghn hng truyn i v thiu ti nguyn. Mt khc, DIR da trn k thut ch thu thp nhng thng tin trng thi c th v tt c cc node trung gian v da trn cc thng tin , chn ra mt bc sng. V th, nu

40

Chuyn mch Burst quang OBS


thng tin trng thi n l khng c cp nht, bc sng c chn c th s b chim dng bi cc yu cu khc trong khong thi gian t lc m trng thi c thu thp n lc m tin nhn ginh trc chuyn n node , cn c gi l khong thi gian d tn thng (Vulnerable period). V th, DIR chu mt mt do thng tin khng c cp nht trong khong thi gian d tn thng. 4.1.3 Kin tr hoc khng kin tr Mt trong nhng quyt nh quan trng m mi k thut bo hiu phi quyt nh l hoc ch i ngun ti nguyn ang c s dng(cho n khi n c gii phng) hoc ngay lp tc ch ra rng c xung t v khi to cc c ch khi kt ni b ngt nh l truyn li, lch hng, hoc k thut m. Trong cch tip cn theo kiu kin tr, ch i cc ngun ti nguyn ang c s dng v gn cc bc sng dn n vic gim c mt mt, gi s rng cc b m thch hp c chun b sn cc node (mng bin v mng li), do c th lu tr c cc burst ang n. Vi cch tip cn khng kin tr, mc tiu l c mt gii hn trong tr (ti thiu ha tr vng); do node tuyn b yu cu b t chi nu ti nguyn khng c sn ngay thi im , v thc hin cc k thut gii quyt xung t thch hp. 4.1.4 Ginh trc ti nguyn ngay tc thi hoc ginh trc c tr Da trn khong thi gian ca qu trnh ginh trc ti nguyn trn knh, cc k thut bo hiu c th phn loi thnh ginh trc ti nguyn tc thi hoc ginh trc ti nguyn c tr.Trong k thut ginh trc ti nguyn tc thi, knh s c ginh trc ngay lp tc khi m tin nhn setup (BHP) n c node. Theo cch khc, trong mt k thut ginh trc c tr, knh s c ginh trc khi m burst d liu thc s c chuyn n node (hoc kt ni). Theo cc yu cu ca k thut ginh trc c tr, tin nhn BHP phi mang theo khong thi gian chnh lch gia bn thn n v burst d kiu tng ng vi n.

Hnh 4.18 C ch ginh trc v gii phng trong OBS V d, k thut bo hiu just-in-time (JIT) s dng k thut ginh trc ngay lp tc, trong khi just-enough-time (JET) hot ng theo nguyn tc ginh trc c tr.Thng thng, ginh trc ngay lp tc n gin thc hin, nhng chu nghn nhiu hn do phn b ti nguyn khng hiu qu. Mt khc,

41

Chuyn mch Burst quang OBS


qu trnh hot ng ca ginh trc c tr tin b hn, nhng dn n vic dng nhiu bng thng hn. K thut ginh trc c tr cng dn n nhng khong ngh gia cc burst c lp lch truyn trn knh d liu. Thut ton lp lch s dng trong qu trnh ginh ti nguyn s cn lu tr ti thng tin b sung v cc khong ngh. Da trn thng tin , b lp lch phi gn mt bc sng cho yu cu ginh ti nguyn.Qu trnh ginh ti nguyn c tr v ginh ti nguyn tc thi c th cng hot ng trong bt c k thut bo hiu, nu node di duy tr cc thng tin c lin quan. 4.1.5 Gii phng r rng hoc gii phng khng r rng Mt qu trnh ginh trc ti nguyn c th c gii phng theo 2 cch, hoc r rng hoc khng r rng. Trong mt k thut gii phng r tng, mt tin nhn iu khin ring bit c gi theo burst d liu, t ngun n ch, nhm gii phng hoc hy mt yu cu ginh trc. Theo mt cch khc, trong k thut gii phng khng r rng, tin nhn iu khin (BHP) phi mang theo thng tin b sung nh l di burst v lch thi gian. Chng ta c th thy k thut gii phng khng r rng t c hiu nng v mt mt tt hn, do khng c tr gia thi im cui ca burst v thi im n ca tin nhn gii phng mi node. Trong khi , k thut gii phng r rng dn n vic s dng bang thng vi hiu sut thp hn v lm tng phc tp ca bn tin. Da trn cc c ch ginh trc v gii phng (hnh 4.2), cc k thut bo hiu c th phn ra lm 4 loi, Ginh trc tc thi v gii phng r rng, Ginh trc tc thi v gii phng khng r rng, Ginh trc c tr v gii phng r rng, Ginh trc c tr v gii phng khng r rng. Ginh trc ngay tc thi v gii phng r rng ch ra rng tin nhn iu khin r rng c gi i thc hin cc chc nng ng theo d nh, nh l ginh trc mt knh hoc gii phng kt ni. Trong ginh trc c tr, mt tin nhn ngoi bang cn mang theo thi gian thi gian chnh lch, v trong trng hp gii phng khng r rng, l c chu k ca burst d liu (c thm c thi gian chnh lch). Chng ta c th d dng thy k thut ginh trc c tr v gii phng khng r rng dn n vic hiu qu s dng bng thng cao hn, trong khi cc k thut thc hin kiu ginh trc ngay tc thi v gii phng r rng c hat ng n gin nhng hiu qu s dng bng thng thp. 4.1.6 Tp trung hoc phn tn Trong k thut bo hiu tp trung, mt server tp trung cc yu cu nhm ci t cc tuyn ng v gn bc sng trn mi tuyn cho tt c cc burst d liu cho tt c cc cp im u-im cui trn mng. K thut tp trung c th thc hin hiu qu cc mng nh v lu lng khng qu ln. Mt khc, trong
42

Chuyn mch Burst quang OBS


k thut bo hiu kiu phn tn, mi node c mt b lp lch cho cc burst lm nhim v gn knh u ra cho mi bn tin BHP n theo cch phn tn. Kiu phn tn thch hp cho cc mng quang c ln v c lung lu lng ln. Mc tiu ca vic c mt khung bo hiu tng qut l chng ta c th phn loi mi k thut bo hiu da trn cc thng s c chn, v hiu nng tng ng ca k thut c th suy ra c t . Hai k thut ng ch dnh cho mng OBS khng c b m l Tell-andWait (TAW) v Just-Enough-Time (JET). Trong c hai k thut, mt bn tin NHP c gi i trc burst d liu cu hnh cho cc chuyn mch dc theo ng i ca burst. Chng ta s i vo c th v hai k thut ny sau y. 4.2 K thut Just-Enough-Time (JET) Hnh 4.3 minh ha cho k thut JET. Nh c ch ra, mt node ngun u tin gi mt gi mo u ca burst (BHP) trn mt knh iu khin n node ch. Bn tin BHP ny s c x l ti mi node tip theo thit lp mt ng dnh cho d liu ton quang tng ng vi burst . Nu qu trnh ginh trc thnh cng, chuyn mch s c cu hnh u tin cho vic chuyn burst. Trong lc , burst ch ngun trong min in. Sau khong thi gian chnh lch c nh trc, burst s c gi theo ng quang trn mt bc sng c chn. Thi gian chnh lch c tnh da trn s hop t ngun n ch, v thi gian chuyn mch node mng li. Thi gian chnh lch c tnh theo cng thc OT = h. +ST, vi h l s hop gia ngun v ch, trong khi l thi gian x l mo u burst trn mi hop, v STl thi gian chuyn mch cu hnh li. Nu bt c node trung gian no, qu trnh ginh trc khng thnh cng, burst s b loi b. Tnh cht phn bit JET vi cc c ch bo hiu 1 chiu khc l ginh trc c tr v gii phng khng r rng. Thng tin cn thit duy tr mi knh ca mi cng u ra tt c cc chuyn mch hot ng theo kiu JET bao gm s ln bt u v kt thc ca tt c cc burst c ln lch, iu ny lm cho h thng tr nn phc tp hn. Mt khc, JET c kh nng pht hin cctnh hung khi khng c xung t trong truyn dn, mc d thi gian bt u ca mt burst mi c th sm hn thi gian kt thc ca mt burst c chp nhn, v d mt burst c th c truyn i giua hai burst ginh trc c ti nguyn. Do , cc burst c th c kh nng chp nhn cao hn trong phng php JET ny. C nhng k thut bo hiu khc lin quan gn hn n cc k thut bo hiu theo kiu 1 chiu nh Tell-and-Go (TAG) v Just-in-Time (JIT). Trong kiu TAG, burst d liu c th phi b tr mi node to thi gian cho mo u burst c x l v chuyn mch c cu hnh, thay v xc nh khong thi
43

Chuyn mch Burst quang OBS


gian ny ngun v thm thi gian tr vo khong thi gian chnh lch. Qu trnh tr ny yu cu s dng si quang tr FDL (Fiber delay line), bao gm cc vng si quang. Tr truyn dn FDL bng tng thi gian m burst d liu s b tr.

Hnh 4.19 K thut bo hiu Just-Enough-Time (JET) JIT tng t nh JET tr vic JIT hot ng theo kiu ginh trc ngay lp tc v gii phng r rng thay v ginh trc c tr v gii phng khng r rng. Hnh 4.4(a) v (b) so snh mt s bo hiu tng t s dng ring JET v JIT. Li ch chnh ca vic s dng cc k thut theo kiu mt chiu l gim thiu tr u cui trong truyn dn d liu trn mng ng trc quang.

44

Chuyn mch Burst quang OBS


Vi ci gi phi tr l t l mt gi cao do xung t gia cc burst d liu v ti nguyn trong mng li khng c b m.

Hnh 4.20So snh gia k thut bo hiu JET (a) v JIT (b) 4.3 K thut Tell-and-Wait (TAW)

Hnh 4.21K thut bo hiu Tell-and-Wait (TAW)

45

Chuyn mch Burst quang OBS


Hnh 4.5 minh ha cho k thut bo hiu TAW. Trong TAW, bn tin SETUP c gi dc theo tuyn truyn ca burst thu thp thng tin tnh kh dng ca knh tt c cc node trn ng truyn. pha ch, mt thut ton gn cho knh c thc hin, v thi gian ginh trc mi kt ni c xc nh da trn thi gian sm nht knh kh dng i vi tt c cc node trung gian. Mt bn tin xc nhn CONFIRM c gi theo hng ngc li (t ch v ngun), tin nhn ny ng k knh truyn trong khong thi gian yu cu cho mi node trung gian. bt k node no dc theo tuyn truyn, nu knh yu cu b chim dng, mt bn tin gii phng RELEASE c gi t ch gii phng cc ngun ti nguyn c t trc. Nu gi CONFIRM n c ngun thnh cng, th burst s c gi vo mng li. Bn cnh , do TAW tng t nh mng nh tuyn da trn bc sng, knh c th c ng k theo hng i nh l qu trnh ginh trc khi to t ngun (SIR) hoc theo hng ngc li t ch tr li ngung nh trong qu trnh ginh trc khi to t ch (DIR). TAW trong OBS khc vi mng nh tuyn theo bc sng WDM v trong TAW, ti nguyn ch c ginh trc bt c mt node trong thi gian truyn burst .Mt khc, nu chu k ca burst kt thc trong lc ng k, mt c ch gii phng khng r rng s hot ng ti a hiu nng bang thng. Tt c cc giao thc c tho lun pha trn u l k thut bo hiu mt chiu ngoi tr TAW, mt k thut bo hiu hai chiu. Nu chng ta so snh TAW v JET, im bt li ca TAW l thi gian ci t vng, v d nh l thi gian cn ci t cho knh, tuy nhin mt mt d liu TAW l cc k thp. Th nn TAW ph hp vi lu lng nhy cm vi mt mt.Mt khc, trong JET, t l mt gi cao, tuy nhin tr u cui thp hn so vi TAW. Trong TAW, cn n 3 ln tr truyn dn t ngun ti ch cho burst c th n c ch, trong khi vi JET, thi gian tr ch l tng ca tr truyn dn mt chiu v thi gian chnh lch. Khng c k thut bo hiu no cho php s linh hot tr v t l mt gi. 4.4 Bo hiu khi to t node trung gian (INI) Nhiu k thut bo hiu c a ra truyn d liu hon ton theo kiu quang trn mng OBS. ph hp vi cc yu cu ginh trc ti nguyn ng truyn d liu, u tin k thut bo hiu phi tm mt tuyn ng t ngun n ch, sau lp lch cho burst trn mt bc sng ring bit mi node trung gian. K thut bo hiu phn tn c nghin cu nhiu nht l Tell-and-wait (TAW) v Just-enough-time (JET). TAW l mt k thut bo hiu hai chiu, da
46

Chuyn mch Burst quang OBS


trn vic c phn hi, s dng thit lp r rng v tin nhn iu khin gii phng kt ni. JET l k thut bo hiu mt chiu khng cn phn hi s dng thit lp kiu c lng v gii phng mo u burst. nhm trnh s chuyn i sang min in li, tt c cc k thut bo hiu u c mt thi gian chnh lch gia bn tin mo u burst v d liu tng ng. Bn tin BHP cng c th xc nh khong thi gian ca burst cho php mt node bit khi no n cn cu hnh li chuyn mch ca n cho burst tip theo, thm vo l cha ng c thi gian chnh lch. Thi gian chnh lch cho php BHP c x l o mi node trun gian trc khi burst n cc node trung gian. Trong mt mng IP trn nn OBS, chng ta mong mun cung cp s h tr QoS cho cc ng dng vi cc yu cu QoS ring bit, nh l cho VoIP, Video theo yu cu VoD, v hi ngh video. Nhiu gii php c a ra h tr QoS trong mng li OBS. Tuy vy khng c mt k thut n l no c th cho php s linh hot h tr c lung lu lng nhy cm vi tr cng nh lu lng nhy cm vi mt mt trong cng mt mng OBS. Cng c cc c ch dnh cho QoS, nh l JET vi thi gian chnh lch b sung cho cc lp khc nhau ca lu lng, tuy nhin n c t l tc nghn cao. Bn cnh , node ngun cn phi tnh ton thi gian chnh lch nhiu ln h tr cho cc yu cu khc nhau ca cc gi tin cc lp khc nhau. Trong mc ny, chng ta s xem xt mt k thut bo hiu lai ghp gi l bo hiu khi to t node trung gian (INI), v mt s m rng ca k thut bo hiu INI cung cp s bo hiu khc nhau da trn cc yu cu ca ng dng qua k thut bo hiu khi to t node trung gian phn bit (DINI). K thut DINI mang n s khc nhau m khng cn phi b sung thm thi gian chnh lch. 4.4.1 K thut bo hiu khi to t node trung gian (INI) c th vt qua c cc gii hn ca TAW v JET, cc tc gi to nn k thut bo hiu khi to t node trung gian.Trong k thut bo hiu INI, mt node gia ngun v ch trn tuyn c la chn nh l node khi to. Mt node khi to l mt node trung gian gia ngun v ch m mt thuth ton ginh trc knh hot ng xc nh thi im sm nht burst c th c gi t ngun v cc thi im sm nht tng ng m lc cc node gia ngun v node khi to c th ln lch nhn burst. node khi to, qu trnh ginh trc thc s ca knh bt u trn c hai hng, t node khi to n ngun v t node khi to n ch.S la chn node khi to l quyt nh trong k thut bo hiu INI.

47

Chuyn mch Burst quang OBS


Hnh 4.6 minh ha cho k thut bo hiu INI. Khi mt burst c to ra node bin, mt bn tin SETUP c gi n ch. Bn tin ny s thu thp chi tit v cc knh tt c cc node dc theo tuyn truyn cho n khi n n c node khi to. Mt bn tin CONFIRM sau s c gi n node ngun, bn tin ny ng k trc cc knh dc theo tuyn truyn t node khi to n ngun. Nu mt knh ang bn bt c node no, mt bn tin RELEASE c gi li cho node khi to gii phng cc ti nguyn c ginh trc t trc .Nu gi tin CONFIRM n c ngun, burst s c gi i thi gian c sp lch trc.Node trung gian cng ng thi gi i mt bn tin SETUP v pha ch, ng k cc knh truyn gia node trung gian v ch. Nu bt k mt node no gia node khi to v node ch, bn tin ny khng th ng k trc c mt knh no, th burst s b loi b ti node .

Hnh 4.22 K thut bo hiu khi to t node trung gian (INI)

48

Chuyn mch Burst quang OBS


Trong TAW, c mt bn tin xc nhn t ch trc khi burst c gi i t ngun, v vi JET, khng cn c xc nhn no c. Trong INI, c mt xc nhn t node khi to, qua lm gim kh nng tc nghn nu so snh vi JET. Cng v burst ch i ngun trong khong thi gian t hn so vi thi gian tr truyn dn t ngun n ch, INI gim c tr u cui khi so snh vi TAW. Trong k thut bo hiu INI, nu node khi to l node ngun, th k thut bo hiu ny s nh l k thut JET, cn nu node khi to l node ch th n s l k thut TAW. Trong k thut INI, TAW v JET rt khc nhau, nn bng cch chn node khi to thch hp, chng ta cn th cho c TAW v JET hot ng bng cc s dng INI. Vi INI, ta c th s dng c qu trnh ginh trc thng thng v ginh trc c tr.Vi ginh trc c tr, hiu nng ca k thut bo hiu s c nng cao. Trong cc m phng di y, chng ta lm theo k thut ginh trc c tr. Bng 1 tng kt li ba k thut bo hiu, so snh chng vi cc tiu ch v t l mt gi v tr truyn dn u cui. Bng 4.1 Tng kt v cc k thut bo hiu OBS

Minh ha: Xem xt cc ng ni cc node 2-4-5-7 trong hnh 4.7, vi node 2 l ngun v node 7 l ch. Chng ta c 4 node khi to c th c bao gm c node ngun v node ch.Nu ta chn ngun, y l node 2 l node khi to, th k thut bo hiu INI s tr thnh JET. Nu ta chn ch l node 7 lm node khi to, th k thut INI s tr thnh TAW. Cc kh nng khc l node 4 v node 5. Chng ta s coi node 5 l node khi to v theo di qu trnh hot ng ca INI. Node 2 gi mo u burst BHP n node tip theo, node 4, cng vi thng tin v kh dng ca knh chuyn trn kt ni gia node 2-4. Node 4 thm vo thng tin v kh dng ca kt ni 4-5 v gi BHP n node tip theo, node 5. Khi khi to Node 5 nhn c BHP, n chy mt thut ton ginh trc knh xc nh cc thi im sm nht m ti burst yu cu c th n cc node trung gian gia ngun v node khi to, bao gm c node ngun v node khi to. Mt gi tin phn hi ng k knh truyn cc node trung gian cc thi im c xc nh trc c gi i t node khi to n ngun. Bn tin BHP gi t node khi to s 5 n ch node 7 v cu hnh cho

49

Chuyn mch Burst quang OBS


node 7 nhn burst ang n thi im tng ng. Bn tin BHP gi t node khi to ch t trc cc knh truyn c th c v ch thc hin hng i t node khi to n ch.

Hnh 4.23 Topo mng ng trc gm 14 im (khong cch tnh bng km) 4.4.2 K thut bo hiu khi to t node trung gian phn bit K thut bo hiu INI c th c m rng cung cp QoS lp quang. C th thc hin nhiu k thut bo hiu trong cng mt mng cung cp cc dch v phn bit, cho php h tr c cc lung lu lng nhy cm vi mt mt cng nh vi tr, v d ta c th dng TAW cho lu lng nhy cm vi mt mt, v JET cho lu lng nhy cm vi tr. Gii php vi mng li c hai k thut bo hiu khc bit ch c th cung cp s bo m QoS mc thp. cung cp cc cp tt hn vi s khc bit v QoS, chng ta cn thay i m hnh INI. S dng INI, ta c th bo m c yu cu v t l mt gi v tr ca mi ng dng ring bit bng cch chn mt cch cn thn node khi to. Ni chung, vi cc ng dng yu cu cao v tr ta thng chn node khi to gn vi node ngun, nh th tr truyn dn u cui s nh hn so vi yu cu ca ng dng. Vi cc ng dng c yu cu v mt mt, chng ta chn node khi to gn vi node ch, chc chn rng trn hu ht tuyn truyn u c s xc nhn 2 chiu. Gi s, chng ta phi h tr ba lp lu lng khc nhau, gi l P0, P1 v P2, vi P0 nhy cm vi tr, P1 nhy cm vi c tr ln mt mt, v P2 nhy cm vi mt mt. Chng ta c th s dng node ngun lm node khi to cho P0, node gia lm node khi to cho P1, v node ch lm node khi to cho P2, qua cung cp cc dch v khc bit trm cng mt mng OBS.

50

Chuyn mch Burst quang OBS


4.5 M hnh phn tch tr Trong mc ny, chng ta s tho lun v mt m hnh phn tch cho php c lng c tnh tr ca mi k thut bo hiu OBS. Chng ta gi thit rng tuyn c nh ngn nht, Rsd, c tnh ton vi mi cp ngun-ch ring; khng c b m quang hay b chuyn i bc sng cc node mng li. Khng mt tnh tng qut, ta xem xt mt mng quang vi mt bc sng trn mi si quang. M hnh ny c th c m rng bng cch tng s bc sng trn mt si quang. Do khng c b chuyn i bc sng, nhiu sng mang trn mi mt si quang c th coi nh l nhiu lp ca mng, vi mt lp cho mi bc sng. Chng ta cn phi so snh tr u cui ca cc k thut bo hiu, l JET. TAW v INI.Chng ta bt u bng cch nh ngha cc gi tr sau: tbhp : tr x l gi mo u burst mi node OBS. Chng ta gi s rng tr truyn dn ca cc bn tin bo hiu khc nhau, nh l SETUP, RELEASE, v CONFIRM, tt c cc node u c xc nh. tsw: thi gian chuyn mch yu cu ti cu hnh cc kt ni cho quang mi node OBS. tagg : tr tp hp burst, do k thut sp xp hot ng node OBS u vo. tb : thi gian truyn dn burst d liu. tot: thi gian chnh lch, thi gian khi to c nh gia tin nhn mo u burst ngoi bang v burst d liu node u vo. tijp: thi gian tr truyn dn trn si quang gia node i v node j. Gi tr c th ca t ijpl 5 s/km, tbhp c gi tr vi trm ns, v tsw vo khong vi s. u tin chng ta tnh tontr gi trung bnh u cui, TSIG, to ra bi mi k thut bo hiu. TSIG l khong thi gian t lc gi tin u tin n node u vo cho n lc burst n c ch thnh cng. Xem xt mt tuyn truyn vi n hop n ch. (a) Just-Enough-Time (JET) hoc Just-In-Time (JIT): Trong k thut Just-Enough-Time (JET) hoc Just-In-Time (JIT), tr u cui c tnh bng tng ca thi gian tp hp burst, thi gian chnh lch, thi gian truyn dn burst, v thi gian lan truyn burst d liu. TJET = TJIT = tagg+ tot + tb + Vi, tot = n tbhp + tsw Nu ta xem xt n k thut Tell-and-Go (TAG), c mt s khc bit thng s tr, thi gian chnh lch, tot = 0, v thi gian tr b b sung mi hop
51

l ijRsd

ij tp

Chuyn mch Burst quang OBS


FDL, tfdl tng ng vi tbhp + tsw, c to ra bi cc FDL u vo tt c cc knh d liu mi node, b cho tr x l mo u iu khin v thi gian tr chuyn mch. TTAG = tagg + ntfdl + tb +

l ijRsd

ij tp

(b)Tell-and-Wait (TAW): Trong Tell-and-Wait (TAW), tr u cui c tnh bng tng thi gian tp hp burst, thi gian thit lp kt ni trn vng, thi gian truyn dn burst, v thi gian lan truyn burst. Thi gin chnh lch b sung l cn thit, nu tng ca thi gian x l mo u burst trn mi hop tt c cc node trung gian cng them thi gian cu hnh li cho chuyn mch ln hn so vi thi gian thit lp kt ni vng. V th, TTAW = tagg + 3 V, tot = 0nu2
l ij Rsd l ij Rsd

ij tp + tb+ tot

ij tp (n + 2) tbhp+ tsw

(c) Bo hiu khi to t node trung gian (INI): Trong INI, tr u cui c tnh bng s kt hp thi gian tr c tnh hai phng php TAW v JET. Tr u cui trong INI cng ph thuc vo v tr ca node khi to, k, thi gian tp hp burst, thi gian truyn dn burst, v thi gian lan truyn burst d liu. t l l s cc hop gia ngun v node khi to, v m l s hop gia node khi to v node ch. TINI= tagg + 2 Trong , tot = 0 nu v

l ijRsk

ij p

l ij Rsd

ij tp

+ tb+ tot

2sumlnijR t ij mtbhp tsw p


sk

52

Chuyn mch Burst quang OBS


Nu l = n, th tr s bng vi TAW, v nu l = 0 hoc m = n, th tr s bng vi JET (hoc JIT). V th, ta c :

4.6 Kt qu c th nh gi hiu nng ca k thut bo hiu INI, mt m hnh m phng c pht trin. Burst n mng l hm kiu Poisson, vi di burst phn phi thep hm m, v di gi trung bnh vo khong 0,1 ms. Tc truyn dn ca kt ni l 10 Gb/s. Mi gi c di 1250 byte. Thi gian chuyn mch ti cu hnh l khong 0,01 ms. Khng c b m quang hay b chuyn i bc sng cc node. Khng xt n truyn li cc burst b mt. Hnh 4.7 ch ra 14 node NSFNET m qu trnh m phng c thc hin. Hnh 4.8(a) v 4.8(b) ch ra t l mt burst v tr trung bnh u cui so vi ti khi m cc node khi to c chn ln lt l ngun (SRC), hop u tin (Hop-1), hop th hai (Hop-2), hop th ba (Hop-3) v ch (DST) ring bit. Trong hnh 4.8(a) v 4.8(b) ch cc tuyn c nhiu hn hoc bng 3 hop c xem xt ch ra nh hng ca k thut bo hiu INI. Chng ta s kho st t l mt mt gim khi node khi to c chn xa ngun. Nu node khi to c chn gn ngun, mt phn ln hn ca tuyn ng s khng c phn hi xc nhn, iu ny dn n t l mt d liu cao hn.Trong khi , nu node khi to c chn gn ch, phn ln tuyn truyn s c xc nhn dn n gim t l mt d liu. Chng ta cng kho st tr tng t l vi s gia tng ca khong cch gi node khi to v ngun, v khi qung ng t ngun n node khi to c xc nhn, s dn n tr vng cao hn. Mt khc, gi tr ca mt mt v tr khi node khi to c chn ngun v ch ging vi JET v TAW. Hnh 4.9(a) v 4.9(b) ch ra t l mt burst v tr trung bnh u cui trn ti cho ba burst lu lng c u tin. Ta c th thy c P2 chu mt mt t nht, trong khi vi P0 tr t nht, v P1 c c tr v mt d liu vi gi tr nm gia P0 v P2. Vi cc gi tr ca thi gian chnh lch c th so snh c, ta c th thy rng INI c hiu sut hn hn so vi cc h thng bo m QoS da trn thi gian chnh lch truyn thng. Trong s da vo thi gian chnh lch, ngun phi tnh ton thi gian chnh lch b sung cung cp cc dch v khc nhau, trong khi vi INI, node khi to c thng tin v kh dng ca tt c cc node gia bn thn n v ngun.

53

Chuyn mch Burst quang OBS


Burst d liu s khng truyn trn mng cho n khi ti nguyn gia node ngun v node khi to c ng k xong.

Hnh 4.24 (a) T l mt gi so vi ti (b) Tr trung bnh u cui so vi ti (trong node khi to l ngun,node u tin, node th hai, node th ba v ch) K thut bo hiu INI mang n s linh hot cho vic ginh trc knh truyn da trn loi d liu c truyn.T l mt gi ca INI thp hn so vi
54

Chuyn mch Burst quang OBS


JET v tr u cui thp hn so vi TAW. Nh vy, k thut lai INI l mt gii php linh hot cho php gii quyt nhiu yu cu khc nhau v lu lng trong mng quang th h tip theo.

Hnh 4.25 (a) T l mt gi so vi ti (c) Tr trung bnh u cui so vi ti (trong node khi to l ngun, node trung gian v ch trong cng mt mng cung cp s khc bit qua bo hiu)

55

Chuyn mch Burst quang OBS

Kt Lun
Qua bo co chuyn ny, chng ta c th thy c mt cch tng qut v cng ngh chuyn mch gi quang OBS. Ta c th thy c s u vit ca cng ngh OBS trong truyn thng quang hin nay so vi cng ngh chuyn mch gi quang (OPS) v chuyn mch knh quang. Cng ngh chuyn mch gi quang gp vn v kh nng x l tiu in hin nay cha p ng kp tc truyn dn ca ng quang, ng thi cc cng ngh b m trong min quang cng cn kh trin khai, nn kh nng trin khai OPS cha phi l ti u. Trong khi cng ngh chuyn mch knh quang th vn mc phi nhc im c hu ca chuyn mch knh l khng s dng hiu qu ti nguyn. l l do cng ngh OBS c quan tm nghin cu nhiu. Trong chuyn ny, nhm chng em ch cp n mt s kha cnh ca OBS. Chng th nht gii thiu mt cch tng qut nht v OBS trong khi chng th hai trnh by v k thut v kin trc ca OBS. Chng th ba ni v qu trnh sp xp gi tin vo burst quang da trn nh thi v da trn ngng. Chng th t nu ln cc gii php bo hiu trong OBS vi mt s cc cng ngh tiu biu nh Just-Enough-Time (JET), Tell-And-Wait (TAW) hay Intermediate-Node-Inititation (INI). Do thi gian cng nh hiu bit c hn, c kh nhiu vn cha c a vo bo co chuyn ny nh vn gii quyt xung t, lp lch cho burst hay vn v QoS. Hi vng chng em c th tm hiu thm v nhng vn ny trong thi gian ti. Mt ln na chng em xin chn thnh cm n thy Hong Trng Minh hng dn chng em hon thnh bo co chuyn ny.

Nhm sinh vin D08VT1

56

Chuyn mch Burst quang OBS

Ti liu tham kho


[1] JASON P. JUE, VINOD M. VOKKARANE OPTICAL BURST SWITCHED NETWORKS, 2005 [2] Internet

57