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05_Ch21: Parliament Limits the English Monarchy

FQ: What evidence is there that the Puritan and Glorious Revolutions were a response to the rising tide
of Absolutism? To what extent can this become the origin of 'American' ideals of liberty?
Timeline: 16th-17th C

Main Idea: Absolute rulers in England were overthrown, and Parliament gained power. This was the product of two revolutions
fought by people who were not happy with their absolutist form of government. They sought to abolish them through rebellion.
The birth of Nation-States places responsibilities (or obligations) upon rulers. According to Thomas Hobbes, the people
have entered in a "social contract" with their monarch and are obligated to tolerate the use of political power in return for the State's
protection, guidance, and care. When this social contract is broken and their is no method in place to address the dispute, the
results are often violent and sometimes 'revolutionary'.
Presenting alternative views were philosophers like John Locke. Regarding the rights of Men, role of government, and the
relationship between them, Locke offers his Treatises on Government (1690). He explains that nature has granted Men rights which
are beyond the control of governments. From this discourse comes the birth of a grand 'experiment' in democracy in which you now

[Note:The English Civil War is also called The Puritan Revolution]


I. Prelude to Revolution
A. Queen Elizabeth Dies
1. No heir left to inherit the throne. The 'Tudor' line of monarchs ends.
2. The cunning and tact used to keep religious & political conict from aring up is now
3. A public debt exists from Queen Elizabeth's unbalanced budget.
B. Same Old Disputes - New Participants
1. 1603- Nearest relative of Queen Elizabeth I was King James VI of Scotland (James
Stuart, a cousin). He becomes King James I of England (rules both countries
simultaneously). King James I inherits many of the political & religious problems that
challenged his predecessor.
a. Parliament and monarchy are competitors for power. (Roundheads vs.
Cavaliers, respectively)
! Parliament controls the 'purse', forcing the monarch to request funds.
! Divine Right of Rule vs. Rule by Parliamentary Consent
b. Puritan Objections
! 'Anglican Church is becoming more like the Catholic Church'
! Insulted by the new Stuart king, who states that religion is the monarch's
business, not Parliament's.
2. King James I had strong religious & political views.
a. Sponsored the writing of a new, English-language Bible. (King James Version)
b. Like Queen Elizabeth I, King James asserted his position as the 'head' of the
Anglican Church.
c. King James did not believe a monarch should have to 'bargain' with Parliament
for funding. His rst signicant conict with Parliament was over funding matters.
3. Charles I, son of King James I, becomes the second Stuart king (1625)
a. Encounters many of the difculties his father did.
b. Many of the difculties are made worse
! War against Spain (& later France, 1626 - 1627) forces the king to
request funds from Parliament- Request denied & the kingdissolves
! Charles I forces nobility to offer loans & houses troops in private homes
at the owner's expense.
! 1628, Charles I reconvenes Parliament to request funds.Though granted
funds after making concessions to Parliament, he dissolves Parliament a
05_Ch21: Parliament Limits the English Monarchy
second time. He attempts to raise funds via taxes and fees on the
! King rules for 11 years without conveneing Parliament.
! 1639- Fearing an invasion from Scotland, the king convenes Parliament
to request funds.

II. Puritan Revolution (The English Civil War)
A. Events leading to the Puritan Revolution
1. Charles I attempts to rule England without Parliament.
a. Governed alone for 11 years.
b. Financial needs lead him to recall Parliament in 1640.
2. Charles I attempts to eliminate Puritans from the English Church. Sends soldiers to
arrest members of Parliament.
3. Parliament passes laws attempting to limit king's power
4. Tensions rise between opposing sides=> Cromwell and supporters of the Puritan
Parliament (Roundheads) vs. King Charles I and the monarch's supporters (Cavaliers).
5. King claimed to rule by divine right vs Parliament's claim that ruling is based on the
consent of the citizenry.
B. Impact of the Puritan Revolution
1. Cromwell's army captures king (who later escapes) and abolished the monarchy.
New Model Army: The New Model Army became the best known of the various
Parliamentarian armies in the English Civil War. It comprised professional soldiers led by
trained generals, unlike other military forces of the era, which tended to have aristocratic
leaders with no guarantee of military training. Apart from their military successes, the New
Model Army troops also became famous for their (Puritanical) religious zeal.
2. Abolition of episcopacy (bishops who run the Church of England)
3. Establishment of a republican commonwealth
4. Political ascensionof Oliver Cromwell. Becomes "Lord Protector" of the English
Commonwealth, Scotland, & Wales for life. The government evolves into several forms
over a short period of time, but ends in a dictatorship under Cromwell.

III. The Restoration: Upon Cromwell's death, and his son's inability to maintain rule, Charles II
reestablishes monarchical rule and thus ends the Puritan political experiment. This marks The
Restoration of the monarchy.

NOTE: Puritans become a major part of English migration to the New World => Massachusetts Bay Colony (New England), after

IV. Glorious Revolution (Bloodless Revolution)
A. James II, son of Charles II, makes himself the absolute ruler of England.
B. William of Orange, husband of Mary (James's daughter), leads a revolt from exile.
C. Bloodless Revolution- William of Orange wins
1. English Bill of Rights
2. Parliament gains power. It ensures that new monarchs accept the English Bill of Rights,
thereby limiting the power of this and future monarchs.
D. Results
1. Constitutional Monarchy=> Monarch, Parliament, and Cabinet
2. Toleration of religion
The second dissolution resulted when the monarch, after signing the 'Petition of Right', grew weary of dealing with Parliament.
The Scottish crisis came to a head when Charles I's controversial Arch Bishop attempted to force Scotland's Presbyterian's to
worship in the Anglican fashion.
05_Ch21: Parliament Limits the English Monarchy

V. Summary: Why It Matters Now.
Many of the government reforms of this period contributed to the democratic tradition of the United

Materials/Sources:Refer to the course calendar for additional assignments and pertinent due dates.
! World History: Patterns of Interaction
! Assorted materials