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Biometric Identification

Assoc. Professor Vinod Chandran School of Engineering Systems

QUT

Speech, Audio, Image and Video Technologies


Academic staff: Prof Sridha Sridharan A/Prof. Vinod Chandran, Prof. M. Moody, A/Prof. W. Boles
Postdoctoral Researchers Dr. Michael Mason - Research Fellow Dr. Clinton Fooks Research Fellow Dr. David Cole - Research Fellow Postgraduate students: 19 PhD

Track record of Speech, Audio, Image and Video Technologies Group 1992-2004 1. Graduated 18 PhD students and 12 Masters by research students. 2. Currently supervising 19 PhD students. 3. Over 200 refereed journal and conference publications 4. Working with 15 different industries and government organisation. 5. Average external funding of $300,000/annum.
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Technology Transfer and Commercialisation Codan Pty Ltd: Speech enhancement system for New Generation HF Transceiver Australia Post: Voice Controlled Parcel Sorting Telstra: Automatic Speech Quality Measurement for Mobile Communication Systems Queensland Police: Covert Speech Enhancement and Suspect Identification by Voice (Name withheld) : Intelligent Multi-Microphone Speech Enhancement System and Covert Listening Post Design.
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Technology Transfer and Commercialisation Motorola Australian Research Centre: MultiMicrophone Based Speech Recognition in Cars Boeing: Digital HF radio design Harris corporation, USA: Analog Speech Encryption Systems. Genista Corporation, Japan: Perceived Audio Quality Measurement: Commercial Monitors: Automatic Audio Segmentation and Recognition for Broadcast Monitoring. Avaya (Lucent Technology): Speech quality measurement for internet telephony. Edcare: Automated English pronunciation training system.
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Research areas we are working on


Speaker Recognition Language recognition Word Spotting Speech recognition in PDAs, mobile phones and wearable computers. Speech recognition for broadcast transcription Face Recognition Iris Recognition Palm Recognition Finger Print Recognition Gait Recognition Motion Detection Person tracking and human activity detection Gesture and facial expression recognition Multi-modal Recognition Hand Written Signature Recognition

Document recognition
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Introduction - Biometrics
Other biometrics such as ear shape palm print, handshape, vein shape have also been used.
Our main focus is on voice and face recognition.

Voiceprint Fingerprint Handwriting

Facial Geometry

Iris & Retina scan DNA

Typing Style

Basis for secure access


What we know
Password (can forget)

What we possess
Secret key on disk, card (can be stolen)

What we are
Biometric

Requirements of a good biometric


Universality
Everyone should have it

Distinctiveness
It should not be the same for two persons

Permanence
It should be unchanged for reasonable period of time

Collectability
It should be possible to acquire it
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For real-life applications


Good performance (accuracy, speed, resource requirements) Acceptability (harmless, preferably nonintrusive, easy to work with) Circumvention (robust against impersonation attacks and fraud)

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What is biometrics?
Automated processing (with digital computers usually) of biometric data for identifying or verifying the identity of living human individuals.

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Potential applications
Crew/passenger verification Secure access to premises Criminal investigation Surveillance and counter terrorist measures Authenticated access to servers Authenticated electronic commerce and banking etc.
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Recognition

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Verification

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Watch List

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Performance of different biometrics

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Generic architecture
Acquisition
Tracking Segmentation Fiducial points (eg eyes) Normalization morphable models PCA (eigenspace) LDA (Fisherspace) 2D Fourier spectrum Correlation filters Gabor wavelets Bispectral integrals

Detection and preprocessing

Feature Extraction

Matching

Identification/Verification

Statistical classifiers Structural methods ANNs SVMs

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Biometrics for Internet security


Encryption keys may be stored on smart card Biometric to access the keys Cancellable biometrics one reserved biometric or key, others encrypted before providing to third parties

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Fingerprint
Around 2% FR at 0.1% FA (FVC2002 2% EER best in open category) Sensors chip and optical Contact imaging no need for scale normalization Sensor cost low, around $25 Suitable for smart card implementation Susceptible to fraudulent copying need liveness tests
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Fingerprint processing
Consist of ridges and burrows Ridge endings and bifurcations Minutiae are important Minutiae extracted with tuned Gabor filters and morphological opertions Minutiae points represented as a graph Graph matching after morphing for plastic deformations of the skin
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Fingerprint usage
Already in use at some airports Large databases available with FBI and Police in many countries Has potential for secure internet transaction implementations (recent papers on secret keys stored in smart cards accessed with fingerprints) 5% of the population do not have legible fingerprints
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Face recognition
Mature commercial implementations 10% FR for 1% FA with indoor images Within class variations pose, lighting, expression, facial hair etc. Acceptablity is quite high but standing in front of a booth is time-consuming Many algorithms and extensive benchmarking efforts
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Still Face Recognition : Open Issues


Addressing the issue of recognition being too sensitive to inaccurate facial feature localization Robustness
Small and/or noisy images Images acquired years apart Outdoor acquisition:
lighting and pose

Scaling well to larger databases


optimally arbitrating and combining local and global features
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Face Recognition Commercial Systems

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Face Recognition usage


Natural for passport, drivers licence Easier for untrained human checking of automated result(s) Already in use at airports and other premises User cooperation not necessary can be used with surveillance Higher computational, storage and transmission requirements may be a hurdle to smart card implementation Potential for continued authentication of internet transactions such as an online examination or an online chess game with biometric verification information embedded in packets at presenatiation layer.
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Face Recognition Performance Evaluations


FERET 93-97 FRVT 2000 FRVT 2002
http://www.frvt.org

M2VTS XM2VTS BANCA


http://www.ee.surrey.ac.uk/Research/ VSSP/xm2vtsdb

Colorade State University Web Site


http://www.cs.colostate.edu/evalfacerec
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Still Face Recognition Systems


Holistic matching methods (Classification using whole face region) Principal component analysis (PCA) Eigenface* Linear discriminant analysis (LDA) Fisherface and subspace LDA (FLDA)* Feature-based (structural) matching methods (Structural classification using local features) Pure geometry methods Graph matching methods* Gabor wavelets & image graphs Hybrid methods (Using local features and whole face region) Eigenface & Eigenmodules Local & global feature methods Face region and components * Top 3 in FERET tests

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3-D face recognition using depth information


Figure shows a 3-D reconstruction of a face using depth information acquired using a stereo camera system.

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Basic premise for Super resolution


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HR

Original

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Reference : Super-Resolution Optical Flow, Technical Report CMU-RI-TR-99-36, Carnige Mellon University, USA

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Background removal
Segment moving objects from a static background.
Person Tracking, Face detection in video Background changes with time of day

Algorithm works by clustering and modelling background pixels Simple background subtraction ineffective, need to adapt to lighting changes, object movements etc.
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Comparison of methods

Original

Truth

VAR
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GMM1

GMM2

NHD

Face Recognition research at QUT


Use of 3D data and stereo images Face tracking using colour, depth as well Super-resolved faces from surveillance video By-passing depth estimation and extracting depth-dependent features Hybrid 2D-3D methods and fusion
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Voice as a biometric Speaker verification


Can be quite accurate and reliable Text-dependent and Text-independent systems Can be low-cost (microphones, sound cards) Sensitive to audio noise, acoustic channel changes Natural for telephone based applications Could become important with multimedia 3G mobile services
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Voice based systems


Most are Mel-scale cepstral coefficient and Gaussian Mixture model based NIST evaluations technology quite mature QUT systems have been placed no. 1 in small vocabulary (and language id) categories

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MFCC features
Windowed overlapping frames DFT each frame Log in cepstrum converts multiplicative effects such as channel transfer function to removable additive bias Frequency scale warped (linear up to 1000 Hz, factor of 1.1 thereafter) to correspond to human perception. Called Mel-scale. DCT of log of spectral energies averaged over Mel-scale bands

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Speaker Modelling and ID


Speakers are modelled using GMMs (means, covariance matrix The speaker model, k, that maximises the likelihood of the given test speech (or observation), X, is identified, i.e.,

S arg max p( X | k )
1 k S

where S is the registered # of speakers.


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Feature clusters and GMMs

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HOS and MFCC comparison with noisy speech

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Handwritten Signatures
Behavioural biometric Pen tablet systems cost only around a hundred dollars Spatial coordinates, pen pressure and pen angles can be captured Dynamics are difficult to forge acceptability is high Reliability is poorer than iris, fingerprint, voice or face because of large intra-class variations Even with relatively low EER, savings are potentially huge with credit card fraud reduction
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Potential Applications
credit card transaction verification secure access to computers secure access to databases passport and customs checks Identity checking at examinations Identity confirmation when voting

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An example stroke and x,y, pressure and corresponding derivatives

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Signature verification commercial products


PenOp (Peripheral Vision, New York) for access to systems Sign-On (Peripheral Vision, New York)
claims 2.5% EER, built into software instead of password

Signer Confidence (Peripheral Vision, New York)


static, used for signature verification on cheques

Cadix ID-007 (verification in 1 second) CounterMatch (AEA Technology, UK) Kappa (British Technology Group, UK) ApproveIT(Silanis Technology, Canada)

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Signature Verification Benchmarks (SVC 2004) random forgeries

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Signature Verification Benchmarks (SVC 2004) skilled forgeries

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QUT System
On line signatures X, Y, Pressure (pen angles can be used*) overlapping frames bispectral invariant phases and other features Gaussian mixture models (with some temporal order information as in HMMs*) Language independent Handwriting sensitive *not in demo

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Performance (in house data)

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Advantages
No need to normalize and align, warp or morph Works with any language signature Robust to intrapersonal variations, scaling Fast verification Low memory requirements uncompressed data in a few KB per model
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References
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J. L. Wayman, Digital Signal Processing in biometric identification: A review, Proc. of ICIP-2002, vol. 1, pp. 22-25, Sept, 2002. K. Delac and M. Grgit, A survey of biometric recognition methods, Proc. of 46th Intl. Symposium on Electronics in marine Elmar 2004, pp. 184-193, June 2004. http://www.biometrics.org http://www.nist.gov P.J. Phillips, P. Grother, R.J. Michaels, D.M. Blackburn, E. Tabbassi and M. Bone, Face Recognition Vendor Test 2002: Overview and Summary, NIST Technical Report, March 2003. M. Yang, D.J. Kriedman and N. Ahuja, Detecting faces in images: a survey, IEEE Trans. on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, vol. 24, no. 1, pp. 34-58, Jan. 2002. R. Chellappa, C.L. Wilson and S. Sirohey, Human and Machine Recognition of Faces: A Survey, Proc. of the IEEE, vol. 83, no. 5, pp. 705-740, May 1995. K.W. Bowyer, K. Chang and P. Flynn, A survey of approaches to three-dimensional face recognition, Proc. of 17th Intl. Conf. on Pattern Recognition (ICPR), vol. 1, pp. 358-361, Aug. 2004. D. A. Reynolds and R. C. Rose, Robust Text-Independent Speaker Identification using Gaussian Mixture Speaker Models, IEEE Trans. On Speech and Audio Processing, vol. 3. no. 1, pp. 72-83, Jan. 1995. V. Chandran, D. Ning and S. Sridharan, Speaker Identification using Higher Order Spectral Phase Features and their Effectiveness vis--vis Mel -Cepstral Features, Proc. of the International Conference on Biometric Authentication (ICBA2004). G. Gupta and A. McCabe, A Review of Dynamic Handwritten Signature Verification, Technical Report, James Cook University, Australia, 1997. R. Plamondon, Looking at Handwriting Generation from a Velocity Control Perspective, Acta Psychologica, vol. 82, pp. 89101, 1993. M.S. Hwang and L.H. Li, A new remote user authentication scheme using smart cards, IEEE Trans. on Consumer Electronics, vol. 46, pp. 28-30, 2000. J.K. Lee, S.R. Ryu and K.Y. Yoo, Fingerprint based remote user authentication scheme using smart cards, IEE Electronics Letters, vol. 38, no. 12, pp. 554-555, 2002. U. Uludag and A.K. Jain, Multimedia content protection via biometrics-based encryption, Proc. of Intl. Conf. on Multimedia and Expo (ICME03), vol. 3, pp. 237-240, July 2003. B.T. Tsieh, H.T. Yeh, H.M. Sun and C.T. Lin, Cryptanalysis of a Fingerprint-based Remote User Authentication Scheme Using Smart Cards, Proc. of 37th Annual Intl. Carnahan Conf. on Security Technology, pp. 349-350, Oct. 2003.

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