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Biometric Identification

Assoc. Professor Vinod Chandran School of Engineering Systems


Speech, Audio, Image and Video Technologies

Academic staff: Prof Sridha Sridharan A/Prof. Vinod Chandran, Prof. M. Moody, A/Prof. W. Boles
Postdoctoral Researchers Dr. Michael Mason - Research Fellow Dr. Clinton Fooks Research Fellow Dr. David Cole - Research Fellow Postgraduate students: 19 PhD

Track record of Speech, Audio, Image and Video Technologies Group 1992-2004 1. Graduated 18 PhD students and 12 Masters by research students. 2. Currently supervising 19 PhD students. 3. Over 200 refereed journal and conference publications 4. Working with 15 different industries and government organisation. 5. Average external funding of $300,000/annum.

Technology Transfer and Commercialisation Codan Pty Ltd: Speech enhancement system for New Generation HF Transceiver Australia Post: Voice Controlled Parcel Sorting Telstra: Automatic Speech Quality Measurement for Mobile Communication Systems Queensland Police: Covert Speech Enhancement and Suspect Identification by Voice (Name withheld) : Intelligent Multi-Microphone Speech Enhancement System and Covert Listening Post Design.

Technology Transfer and Commercialisation Motorola Australian Research Centre: MultiMicrophone Based Speech Recognition in Cars Boeing: Digital HF radio design Harris corporation, USA: Analog Speech Encryption Systems. Genista Corporation, Japan: Perceived Audio Quality Measurement: Commercial Monitors: Automatic Audio Segmentation and Recognition for Broadcast Monitoring. Avaya (Lucent Technology): Speech quality measurement for internet telephony. Edcare: Automated English pronunciation training system.

Research areas we are working on

Speaker Recognition Language recognition Word Spotting Speech recognition in PDAs, mobile phones and wearable computers. Speech recognition for broadcast transcription Face Recognition Iris Recognition Palm Recognition Finger Print Recognition Gait Recognition Motion Detection Person tracking and human activity detection Gesture and facial expression recognition Multi-modal Recognition Hand Written Signature Recognition

Document recognition

Introduction - Biometrics
Other biometrics such as ear shape palm print, handshape, vein shape have also been used.
Our main focus is on voice and face recognition.

Voiceprint Fingerprint Handwriting

Facial Geometry

Iris & Retina scan DNA

Typing Style

Basis for secure access

What we know
Password (can forget)

What we possess
Secret key on disk, card (can be stolen)

What we are

Requirements of a good biometric

Everyone should have it

It should not be the same for two persons

It should be unchanged for reasonable period of time

It should be possible to acquire it

For real-life applications

Good performance (accuracy, speed, resource requirements) Acceptability (harmless, preferably nonintrusive, easy to work with) Circumvention (robust against impersonation attacks and fraud)


What is biometrics?
Automated processing (with digital computers usually) of biometric data for identifying or verifying the identity of living human individuals.


Potential applications
Crew/passenger verification Secure access to premises Criminal investigation Surveillance and counter terrorist measures Authenticated access to servers Authenticated electronic commerce and banking etc.





Watch List


Performance of different biometrics


Generic architecture
Tracking Segmentation Fiducial points (eg eyes) Normalization morphable models PCA (eigenspace) LDA (Fisherspace) 2D Fourier spectrum Correlation filters Gabor wavelets Bispectral integrals

Detection and preprocessing

Feature Extraction



Statistical classifiers Structural methods ANNs SVMs


Biometrics for Internet security

Encryption keys may be stored on smart card Biometric to access the keys Cancellable biometrics one reserved biometric or key, others encrypted before providing to third parties


Around 2% FR at 0.1% FA (FVC2002 2% EER best in open category) Sensors chip and optical Contact imaging no need for scale normalization Sensor cost low, around $25 Suitable for smart card implementation Susceptible to fraudulent copying need liveness tests

Fingerprint processing
Consist of ridges and burrows Ridge endings and bifurcations Minutiae are important Minutiae extracted with tuned Gabor filters and morphological opertions Minutiae points represented as a graph Graph matching after morphing for plastic deformations of the skin

Fingerprint usage
Already in use at some airports Large databases available with FBI and Police in many countries Has potential for secure internet transaction implementations (recent papers on secret keys stored in smart cards accessed with fingerprints) 5% of the population do not have legible fingerprints

Face recognition
Mature commercial implementations 10% FR for 1% FA with indoor images Within class variations pose, lighting, expression, facial hair etc. Acceptablity is quite high but standing in front of a booth is time-consuming Many algorithms and extensive benchmarking efforts

Still Face Recognition : Open Issues

Addressing the issue of recognition being too sensitive to inaccurate facial feature localization Robustness
Small and/or noisy images Images acquired years apart Outdoor acquisition:
lighting and pose

Scaling well to larger databases

optimally arbitrating and combining local and global features

Face Recognition Commercial Systems


Face Recognition usage

Natural for passport, drivers licence Easier for untrained human checking of automated result(s) Already in use at airports and other premises User cooperation not necessary can be used with surveillance Higher computational, storage and transmission requirements may be a hurdle to smart card implementation Potential for continued authentication of internet transactions such as an online examination or an online chess game with biometric verification information embedded in packets at presenatiation layer.

Face Recognition Performance Evaluations

FERET 93-97 FRVT 2000 FRVT 2002


Colorade State University Web Site

Still Face Recognition Systems

Holistic matching methods (Classification using whole face region) Principal component analysis (PCA) Eigenface* Linear discriminant analysis (LDA) Fisherface and subspace LDA (FLDA)* Feature-based (structural) matching methods (Structural classification using local features) Pure geometry methods Graph matching methods* Gabor wavelets & image graphs Hybrid methods (Using local features and whole face region) Eigenface & Eigenmodules Local & global feature methods Face region and components * Top 3 in FERET tests


3-D face recognition using depth information

Figure shows a 3-D reconstruction of a face using depth information acquired using a stereo camera system.


Basic premise for Super resolution





Reference : Super-Resolution Optical Flow, Technical Report CMU-RI-TR-99-36, Carnige Mellon University, USA


Background removal
Segment moving objects from a static background.
Person Tracking, Face detection in video Background changes with time of day

Algorithm works by clustering and modelling background pixels Simple background subtraction ineffective, need to adapt to lighting changes, object movements etc.

Comparison of methods







Face Recognition research at QUT

Use of 3D data and stereo images Face tracking using colour, depth as well Super-resolved faces from surveillance video By-passing depth estimation and extracting depth-dependent features Hybrid 2D-3D methods and fusion

Voice as a biometric Speaker verification

Can be quite accurate and reliable Text-dependent and Text-independent systems Can be low-cost (microphones, sound cards) Sensitive to audio noise, acoustic channel changes Natural for telephone based applications Could become important with multimedia 3G mobile services

Voice based systems

Most are Mel-scale cepstral coefficient and Gaussian Mixture model based NIST evaluations technology quite mature QUT systems have been placed no. 1 in small vocabulary (and language id) categories


MFCC features
Windowed overlapping frames DFT each frame Log in cepstrum converts multiplicative effects such as channel transfer function to removable additive bias Frequency scale warped (linear up to 1000 Hz, factor of 1.1 thereafter) to correspond to human perception. Called Mel-scale. DCT of log of spectral energies averaged over Mel-scale bands


Speaker Modelling and ID

Speakers are modelled using GMMs (means, covariance matrix The speaker model, k, that maximises the likelihood of the given test speech (or observation), X, is identified, i.e.,

S arg max p( X | k )
1 k S

where S is the registered # of speakers.


Feature clusters and GMMs


HOS and MFCC comparison with noisy speech


Handwritten Signatures
Behavioural biometric Pen tablet systems cost only around a hundred dollars Spatial coordinates, pen pressure and pen angles can be captured Dynamics are difficult to forge acceptability is high Reliability is poorer than iris, fingerprint, voice or face because of large intra-class variations Even with relatively low EER, savings are potentially huge with credit card fraud reduction

Potential Applications
credit card transaction verification secure access to computers secure access to databases passport and customs checks Identity checking at examinations Identity confirmation when voting


An example stroke and x,y, pressure and corresponding derivatives


Signature verification commercial products

PenOp (Peripheral Vision, New York) for access to systems Sign-On (Peripheral Vision, New York)
claims 2.5% EER, built into software instead of password

Signer Confidence (Peripheral Vision, New York)

static, used for signature verification on cheques

Cadix ID-007 (verification in 1 second) CounterMatch (AEA Technology, UK) Kappa (British Technology Group, UK) ApproveIT(Silanis Technology, Canada)


Signature Verification Benchmarks (SVC 2004) random forgeries


Signature Verification Benchmarks (SVC 2004) skilled forgeries


QUT System
On line signatures X, Y, Pressure (pen angles can be used*) overlapping frames bispectral invariant phases and other features Gaussian mixture models (with some temporal order information as in HMMs*) Language independent Handwriting sensitive *not in demo


Performance (in house data)


No need to normalize and align, warp or morph Works with any language signature Robust to intrapersonal variations, scaling Fast verification Low memory requirements uncompressed data in a few KB per model

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