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LI NI U
Ngy nay vi nn cng ngh thng tin pht trin mnh m v rng khp mi ni trn ton th gii. Vi nhu cu tm kim v trao i thng tin lm mng internet pht trin nhanh chng c v quy m ln cht lng cc cng ngh truyn dn. a ch IPv4 c thit k c chiu di 32 bit v c th cung cp khong 4 t a ch cho hot ng mng ton cu. a ch IPv4 ng hnh vi vic pht trin nh v bo ca hot ng Internet trong hn hai thp k qua. Song ngun ti nguyn IPv4 cn kit trc tc tiu th qu nhanh ca ton cu vi a ch IP c nh. Bn cnh s thiu ht ngun IPv4, xu hng hi nhp mng vin thng v Internet vi khi nim mng th h mi Next Generation Network khin IPv4 bc l mt s hn ch trong cu trc thit k, khin nhng nh nghin cu, nhng t chc tiu chun ha chu trch nhim v hot ng mng ton cu nhn thy cn c s pht trin ln mt tm cao hn ca giao thc Internet. IPv6 ( Internet Protocol version 6 ) l phin bn a ch Internet mi, c thit k thay th cho phin bn IPv4, vi hai mc ch c bn:
- To ra mt s lng ln a ch IP hot ng internet pht trin

mnh m hn m bo nhu cu ca con ngi trn ton th gii.Thay th cho ngun IPv4 cn kit. - Khc phc cc nhc im trong thit k ca a ch IPv4.
- Trong khun kh n tt nghip, em nghin cu v: c im, cu

trc IPv6 v cc u im ca n. Do thi gian v kin thc c hn nn n khng trnh khi nhng thiu st, em knh mong nhn c s ng gp kin v gip ca thy c v cc bn. Em xin chn thnh cm n! GVHD: Th.s Dng Th Hng SVTH : Nguyn Xun Cnh

CHNG 1 TNG QUAN V IP V TCP/IP


1.1 Giao thc TCP/IP TCP/IP ( Transmission Control Protocol/ Internet Protocol ), l mt b cc giao thc truyn thng ci t chng giao thc, giao thc m internet v hu ht cc mng my tnh thng mi ang chy trn . TCP/IP dung cho qua trinh truyn va sa li i vi cac d liu. B giao thc ny c t tn theo hai giao thc chnh ca n l TCP ( Giao thc iu khin Giao vn ) v IP ( Internet Protocol ). TCP/IP c xem l gin lc ca m hnh tham chiu OSI vi bn tng nh hnh 1:1.

Tng truy cp mng (Network Access Layer) Tng Internet Tng giao vn Tng ng dng (Internet Layer) (Host-to-Host Transport Layer) (Application Layer)

OSI
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TCP/IP
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Hnh 1. 1: M hnh TCP/IP v OSI

Nh nhiu b giao thc khc, b giao thc TCP/IP c th c coi l mt tp hp cc tng, mi tng gii quyt mt tp cc vn c lin quan n vic truyn d liu, v cung cp cho cc giao thc tng cp trn mt dch v c nh ngha r rng da trn vic s dng cc dch v ca cc tng thp hn. V mt logic, cc tng trn gn vi ngi dng hn v lm vic vi d liu tru tng hn, chng da vo cc giao thc tng cp di bin i d liu thnh cc dng m cui cng c th c truyn i mt cch vt l.

Hnh 1. 2: TCP/IP v cc giao thc tng ng Tng truy cp mng: Tng truy cp mng l tng thp nht trong m hnh TCP/IP. N cng c gi l lp Host-to-Network. Bao gm cc lin kt vt l nh cc thit b

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Card v chng trnh cung cp cc thng tin cn thit c th hot ng, truy nhp ng truyn vt l qua cc thit b card mng . Tng Internet: Tng Internet ( cn gi l tng mng ) x l qu trnh truyn gi tin trn mng t ngun n c ch. Giao thc ca tng ny bao gm: IP( Internet Protocol ), ICMP ( Internet Control Message Protocol ), IGMP( Internet Group Message Protocol). Tng giao vn: Tng giao vn iu khin lung gia hai trm thc hin cc ng dng ca tng trn. Tng ny c hai giao thc chnh: TCP( Transmission Control Protocol ) v UDP ( User Datagram Protocol ). TCP cung cp mt lung d liu tin cy gia hai trm, n s dng cc c ch nh chia nh cc gi tin ca tng trn thnh cc gi tin c kch thc thch hp cho tng mng bn di, bo nhn gi tin, t hn ch thi gian time-out m bo bn nhn bit c cc gi tin gi i. Do tng ny m bo tnh tin cy nn tng trn s khng quan tm n na. UDP cung cp mt dch v n gin hn cho tng ng dng. N ch gi cc gi d liu t trm ny ti trm kia m khng m bo cc gi tin n c ti ch. Cc c ch m bo tin cy cn c thc hin bi tng trn. Tng ng dng: Tng ng dng l tng trn cng ca m hnh TCP/IP bao gm cc tin trnh v cc ng dng cung cp cho ngi s dng truy cp mng. C rt nhiu ng dng c cung cp trong tng ny, m ph bin l: Telnet; S dng trong vic truy cp mng t xa, FTP( File Transfer Protocol ): Dch v truyn tp, Email: dch v th in t, WWW ( World Wide Web ). Cng tng t nh trong m hnh OSI, khi truyn d liu, qu trnh tin hnh t trn xung di, qua mi tng d liu c thm vo mt thng tin GVHD: Th.s Dng Th Hng SVTH : Nguyn Xun Cnh

iu khin c gi l phn header. Khi nhn d liu th qu trnh xy ra ngc li, d liu c truyn t tng di ln v qua mi tng th phn header tng ng c ly i khi n tng trn cng th d liu khng cn phn header nh hnh 1:3.

A pplication

Data

transport

TCP Header

Data

Internet

IP Header

TCP Header TCP Header

Data

Network Interface

Ethernet Header

IP Header

Data net

Ether

Hnh 1. 3: ng gi d liu trong TCP/IP Trong hnh v ny ta thy ti cc tng khc nhau d liu c mang cc thut ng khc nhau: Trong tng ng dng d liu l cc lung d liu c gi l Stream Trong tng giao vn, n v d liu m TCP gi xung tng di gi l TCP segment. Trong tng mng, d liu m IP gi ti tng di c gi l IP datagram. Trong tng truy cp mng, d liu c truyn i gi l frame. 1.2 Giao thc lin mng IP Giao thc IP l mt giao thc hng d liu c s dng bi cc my ch ngun v ch truyn d liu trong mt lin mng chuyn mch gi. GVHD: Th.s Dng Th Hng SVTH : Nguyn Xun Cnh

D liu trong mt lin mng IP c gi theo cc khi c gi l cc gi. C th, IP khng cn thit lp cc ng truyn trc khi mt my ch gi cc gi tin cho mt my khc m trc n cha tng lin lc vi. Giao thc IP cung cp mt dch v gi d liu khng m bo ( cn gi l c gng cao nht ), ngha l n hu nh khng m bo g v gi d liu. Gi d liu c th n ni m khng cn nguyn vn, n c th n khng theo th t ( so vi cc gi khc c gi gia hai my ngun v ch ), n c th b trng lp hoc b mt hon ton. Nu mt phn mm ng dng cn c bo m, n c th c cung cp t ni khc, thng t cc giao thc giao vn nm pha trn IP. Cc thit b nh tuyn lin mng chuyn tip cc gi tin IP qua cc mng tng lin kt d liu c kt ni vi nhau. Vic khng c m bo v gi d liu c ngha rng cc chuyn mch gi c thit k n gin hn. ( Lu rng nu mng b gi tin, lm i th t hoc lm hng nhiu gi tin, ngi dng s thy hot ng mng tr nn km i. Hu ht cc thnh phn ca mng u c gng trnh xy ra tnh trng . l l do giao thc ny cn c gi l c gng cao nht. Tuy nhin, khi li xy ra khng thng xuyn s khng c hiu qu xu n mc ngi dng nhn thy c. ) Giao thc IP rt thng dng trong mng internet cng cng ngy nay. Giao thc tng mng thng dng nht ngy nay l IPv4; y l giao thc IP phin bn 4. IPv6 c s dng k tip IPv4 do Internet cn kit a ch IPv4. Do IPv4 s dng 32 bit nh a ch ( to c khong 4 t a ch ); IPv6 dng a ch 128 bit, cung cp ti a khong 3.41038 a ch. Cc phin bn t 0 n 3 hoc b hn ch, hoc khng c s dng. Phin bn 5 c dng lm giao thc dng th nghim. Cn c cc phin bn khc, nhng chng thng dnh l cc giao thc th nghim v khng c s dng rng ri. GVHD: Th.s Dng Th Hng SVTH : Nguyn Xun Cnh

Trn Internet th a ch IP ca mi ngi l duy nht v n s i din cho chnh ngi , a ch IP c s dng bi cc my tnh khc nhau nhn bit cc my tnh kt ni gia chng. 1.2.1 Cu trc IP ( hnh 1.4 ) 4-bit Version 8-bit Header length 16-bit Type of Service Flags 32-bit Total Length Offset Checksum

Identification Time To Live Protocol

Source Address Destination Address Options and Padding Hnh 1.4: Khun dng gi tin IP
Version ( 4 bits ): Ch phin bn hin hnh ca IP c ci t. IHL ( 4 bits ): Ch di phn header tnh theo n v t. Type of Service ( 8 bits ): c t tham s v yu cu dch v Total length ( 16 bits ): Ch di ton b IP datagram tnh theo byte.

Da vo trng ny v trng header length ta tnh c v tr bt u ca d liu trong IP datagram.


Indentification ( 16 bits ): L trng nh danh, cng cc tham s khc

nh a ch ngun ( Source address ) v a ch ch ( Destination address )

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nh danh duy nht cho mi datagram c gi i bi mt trm. Thng thng phn nh danh c tng thm mt khi mt datagram c gi i.
Flag ( 3 bits ): Cc c,s dng trong khi phn on cc datagram -

Bit 0: Reseved ( cha s dng, c gi tr 0 ). Bit 1: ( DF) =0: B phn on. Bit 2: (MF) =0: Phn on cui.

=1: Khng phn on.


-

=1: Cn phn on khc.


Fragment Offset ( 13 bits ): Ch v tr ca on phn mng trong

datagram tnh theo dn v 64 bits.


ETtl ( 8 bits ): Thit lp thi giam tn ti ca datagram trnh tnh

trng datagram b qun trn mng. TTL thng c gi tr 32 bits hoc 64 bits c gim i mt khi i qua mi router. Khi trng hp ny bng 0 datagram s b hy b v s khng bo li cho trm gi.
Protocol ( 8 bits ): Ch giao thc tng trn k tip. Header Checksum ( 16 bits ): kim sot li cho vng IP header. Source address ( 32 bits ): a ch IP trm ch. Option ( di thay i ): Khai bo cc ty chn do ngi gi yu cu,

thng l:
-

an ton v bo mt. Bng ghi tuyn m datagram i qua c ghi trn ng Time stamp: xc nh danh sch a ch IP m datagram phi qua Xc nh tuyn trong cc router m IP datagram phi c i

truyn.
-

nhng datagram khng bt buc phi truyn qua router nh trc.


-

qua.

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1.2.2 IPv4 ( Internet Protocol version 4 ) IPv4 l giao thc Internet phin bn th t trong qu trnh pht trin ca cc giao thc Internet. y l phin bn u tin ca IP c s dng rng ri. IPv4 cng vi IPv6 ( giao thc Internet phin bn 6 ) l nng ct ca giao tip internet. Hin ti, IPv4 vn l giao thc c trin khai rng ri nht trong b giao thc ca lp internet.

Net ID

Host ID

1byte

1byte

1byte

1byte `

Hnh 1.4.1 :cu trc ip v4 IPv4 l giao thc hng d liu, c s dng cho h thng chuyn mch gi. y l giao thc truyn d liu hot ng da trn nguyn tc tt nht c th, trong , n khng quan tm n th t truyn gi tin cng nh khng m bo gi tin s n ch hay vic gy ra tnh trng lp gi tin ch n. Vic x l vn ny dnh cho lp trn ca chng giao thc TCP/IP. Tuy nhin, IPv4 c c ch m bo tnh ton vn d liu thng qua s dng nhng gi kim tra. IPv4 s dng 32 bits nh a ch, theo , s a ch ti a c th s dng l 4,294,967,296 (232). Tuy nhin, do mt s c s dng cho cc mc ch khc nh: Cp cho mng c nhn ( xp x 18 triu a ch ), hoc s dng GVHD: Th.s Dng Th Hng SVTH : Nguyn Xun Cnh

lm a ch qung b (xp x 16 triu), nn s lng a ch thc t c th s dng cho mng Internet cng cng b gim xung. Vi s pht trin khng ngng ca mng Internet, nguy c thiu ht a ch c d bo, tuy nhin, nh cng ngh NAT (Network Address Translation - Chuyn dch a ch mng) to nn hai vng mng ring bit: Mng ring v Mng cng cng, a ch mng s dng mng ring c th dng li mng cng cng m khng h b xung t, qua tr hon c vn thiu ht a ch. Header ca gi tin IPv4 bao gm 13 trng, trong 12 trng l bt buc. Trng th 13 ( c t mu trong bng ) l ty chn, ng vi tn ca n:Options. Cc trng ny trong header c lu tr vi byte c ngha cao ( the most significant byte ) a ch thp ( big endian ), ni cch khc bit c ngha cao lun a ch thp. Bit quan trng nht l bit s 0, v vy trng phin bn ( version ) c lu trong 4 bit u tin ca byte u tin. Bit offset 0 32 64 96 128 160 160 or192+

0-3

4-7

8-15 Diferentiated

16-18

19-31

Version Header

Total Length

length Services Identification Flas Fargment Ofset Time to Live Protocol Header Checksum Source Address Destination Address Options ( if Header Length>5 ) Data Hnh 1. 5: Header ca IPv4

Version( Phin bn ): Trng u tin trong header ca gi tin IP Header Length ( ln ca header): Trng th hai ( 4 bit ) l

chnh l trng phin bn di 4 bit. Vi IPv4, n c gi tr bng 4.


-

ln ca header cho bit s lng cc t 32-bit trong header. V mt header ca GVHD: Th.s Dng Th Hng SVTH : Nguyn Xun Cnh

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gi tin IPv4 c th cha rt nhiu ty chn, trng ny cho bit kch thc ca header. Gi tr nh nht cho trng ny l 5, do gi tin c di l 532 = 160 bit. V y l s 4 bit nn di ln nht c th c ca gi tin l 15 t ( 1532 bit ) tc l 480 bit.
-

Differentiated Services ( Phn bit dch v ): Ban u c nh

ngha l trng TOS, hin ti trng ny c nh ngha l differentiated services v trong ph hp vi IPv6. Cc cng ngh mi xut hin yu cu cc dng d liu thi gian thc ( real-time data streaming ) v do trng DS s c s dng. V d voice over IP ( VoIP ) c dng trao i d liu l ting ni. 1.3 Nhng hn ch ca IPv4 Giao thc tng mng trong b giao thc TCP/IP hin ti ang l IPv4 ( Internet- working protocol verision 4 ). IPv4 cung cp truyn thng host-tohost gia nhng h thng trn Internet. Mc d IPv4 c thit k kh tt, s thng i thng tin tin trin t lc khi u IPv4 vo nhng nm 1970, nhng IPv4 c nhng im yu khin cho n khng ng b cho s pht trin nhanh ca Internet nh sau:
- IPv4 c 2 level cu trc a ch ( netid v hostid ) phn nhm vo 5 lp

( A, B, C, D v E ). S s dng nhng a ch l khng hiu qu. V d nh khi c mt t chc c cp cho 1 a ch lp A, 16 triu a ch t a ch c phn phi duy nht cho t chc s dng. Nu 1 t chc c cp cho 1 a ch lp C, mt khc ch c 256 a ch c phn phi cho t chc, y khng phi l mt s . Cng vy, nhiu triu a ch b lng ph trong nhm D v E. Phng thc phn a ch ny dng ht nhng a ch ca IPv4, v mau chng s khng cn a ch no cn cp cho bt k mt h thng mi no mun kt ni vo Internet. Mc d sch lc subnet v supernet

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gim bt nhng vn v a ch, nhng subnet v suprnet lm cho ng truyn tr ln kh khn hn. - Internet phi thch nghi c vi s chuyn giao audio v video thi gian thc. Loi chuyn giao ny yu cu nhng sch lc tr hon t nht v s t trc ca ti nguyn khng c cung cp trong thit k. - Internet phi thch nghi c vi s m ho v s chng nhn ca d liu cho mt s ng dng. Khng mt s m ho v s chng nhn no c cung cp trong IPv4. khc phc thiu st trn IPv6 c bit n nh l IPng ( Internet working Protocol, next generation Giao thc Internet th h k tip ), v hin nay thnh mt tiu chun.

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CHNG 2 C IM V CU TRC IPV6


2.1 Cu trc a ch IPv6 2.1.1 C bn v a ch IPv6 Mt a ch gm c 16 bytes, l 128 bt di. Kiu k hiu du ( : ) trong h m 16 ( Hexadecimal Colon Notation ): lm cho nhng a ch tr nn c th c c nhiu hn, IPv6 trnh by r trong kiu k hiu du ( : ) trong h m 16. Trong kiu k hiu ny, 128 bt c chia thnh 8 phn, mi phn rng 2 byte. 2 byte trong kiu k hiu h m 16 yu cu 4 ch s trong h m 16 ny. V th cho nn a ch gm c 32 ch s trong h m 16 vi mi 4 ch s mt li c mt du :

Hnh 2. 1: V d v mt a ch IPv6 S rt gn: a ch IP ngay c khi trong nh dng h s m 16, vn rt di, nhiu ch s 0 trong mt a ch. VD: 1080:0000:0000:0000:0008:0800:200C:417A GVHD: Th.s Dng Th Hng SVTH : Nguyn Xun Cnh

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Do c ch nn a ch c dng biu din d dng hn cc loi a ch dng ny. Ta khng cn vit cc s 0 u cc nhm, nhng nhng s 0 bn trong th khng th xo. Cha rt gn 1080:0000:0000:0000:0008:0800:200C:417A rt gn 1080:0:0:0:8:800:200C:417A Hnh 2. 2: Rt gn cc s 0 u nhm Hn na ta c th s dng k hiu ::: ch mt chui cc s 0. Tuy nhin k hiu trn ch c s dng mt ln trong mt a ch. a ch IP c di c nh, ta c th tnh c s cc bit 0 m k hiu biu din. Ta c th p dng u hay cui a ch. Cch vit ny c bit c li khi biu din cc a ch multicast, loopback hay cc i ch cha ch nh Cha rt gn: 1080:0:0:0:8:800:200C:417A rt gn: 1080::8:800:200C:417A Hnh 2. 3: Rt gn cc s 0 lin tip Vic khi phc li s rt gn a ch l rt n gin: thm s 0 vo cho n khi nhn c a ch nguyn bn ( 4 ch s trong 1 phn , 32 ch s trong mt a ch ). IPv6 cho php gim ln a ch v c biu din theo k php CIDR. V d: Biu din mng con c di tin t 80 bt:

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1080:0:0:0:8::/80 Hnh 2. 4: a ch kiu CIDR 2.1.2 Khng gian a ch Khng gian a ch c di ln hn IPv4 ( 128 bt so vi 32 bt ) do cung cp khng gian a ch ln hn rt nhiu. Trong khi khng gian a ch 32 bt ca IPv4 cho php khong 4 t a ch, khng gian a ch IPv6 c th c khong 6.5x1023 a ch trn mi mt vung b mt tri t. a ch IPv6 128 bt c chia thnh cc min phn cp theo trt t trn Internet. N to ra nhiu mc phn cp v linh hot trong a ch ho v nh tuyn hin khng c trong IPv4. Khng gian a ch c nhiu mc ch khc nhau. Ngi ta thit k a ch IP chia khng gian a ch thnh hai phn, vi phn u c gi l kiu tin t. Phn gi tr tin t ny cho bit mc ch ca a ch. Nhng m s c thit k sao cho khng c m s no ging phn u ca bt k m s no khc. Do khng c s c khi mt a ch c trao kiu tin t c th d dng xc nh c. Hnh 2.5 sau cho chng ta thy dng ca a ch IPv6: 128 bit

Bin

Bin

Kiu tin t

Phn cn li ca a ch

Hnh 2.5: Cu trc n gin ca a ch

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Khng gian IPv6 c chia trn c s cc bt u trong a ch. Trng c di thay i bao gm cc bt u tin trong a ch gi l Tin t nh dng ( Format Prefix FP ). C ch phn b a ch nh bng 2.1 sau: Phn b dng D phng D phng D phng cho a ch NSAP D phng cho a ch IPX Cha cp pht Cha cp pht Cha cp pht a ch da trn v tr a l (*) Cha cp pht Cha cp pht Cha cp pht Cha cp pht Cha cp pht Cha cp pht Cha cp pht a ch lin kt cc b a ch site cc b a ch multicast Tin t nh T l trong khng gian a ch 0000 0000 1/256 0000 0001 1/256 0000 001 1/128 0000 010 1/128 0000 011 1/128 0000 1 1/32 0001 1/16 001 1/8 101 1/8 110 1/8 1110 1/16 1111 0 1/32 1111 10 1/64 1111 110 1/128 1111 1110 0 1/512 1111 1110 10 1/1024 1111 1110 11 1/1024 1111 1111 1/256

Bng 2.1: Phn b a ch IPv6 * Ghi ch: Hin loi b. 2.1.3 Cp pht a ch IPv6 2.1.3.1 a ch trn c s ngi cung cp a ch trn c s ngi cung cp c s dng chung bi mt host bnh thng nh mt a ch unicast. nh dng a ch c din t nh sau:

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128 bit 010Type ID

Provider ID

Subscriber ID Subnet ID

Node ID

Hnh 2.6: a ch Unicast trn c s ngi cung cp Nhng trng cho a ch ngi dng trn c s cung cp nh sau :
-

Chng thc kiu ( Type indentifier ): Trng 3 bt ny nh ngha Chng thc ng k ( Registry indentifier ): Trng 5 bt ny trnh

nhng a ch nh l 1 a ch trn c s ngi cung cp.


-

by chi nhnh ng k a ch. Hin thi th c 3 trung tm a ch c nh ngha: RIPE- NCC ( m 01000 ): Ti Chu u. INTERNIC ( m 11000 ): Ti Bc M. APNIC ( m 10100 ): Ti Chu - Thi Bnh Dng.
-

Chng thc ( Provider indentifier ): Trng di tu bin ny xc

nhn nh cung cp ( provider ) cho truy cp internet 16 bit di l khuyn co i vi trng ny.
-

Chng thc thu bao ( Subscriber indentifier ): Khi mt t chc t

mua Internet di hn thng qua 1 nh cung cp, n c cp pht mt th nhn dng ngi t mua ( Subscriber indentification ), 24 bt di l khuyn co i vi trng ny.
-

Chng thc Subnet ( Subnet indentifier ): Mi subscriber c th c

nhiu subnetwork khc nhau, v mi network c th c nhiu chng thc. Chng thc subnet nh ngha mt network c th di khu vc ca subscriber. 32 bt di l khuyn co i vi trng ny.
-

Chng thc None ( None indentifier ): Trng cui cng nh ngha

nhn dng giao im kt ni ti subnet. di 8 bt l khuyn co vi trng ny lm n thch hp vi a ch link 48 bt ( vt l ) c s dng bi Ethernet. Trong tng lai a ch link ny c l s ging a ch vt l node. GVHD: Th.s Dng Th Hng SVTH : Nguyn Xun Cnh

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Chng ta c th ngh v mt i ch cung cp trung tm nh mt ng cp chng thc c mt s tin t. Nh nhng g thy hnh 2.6, mi tin t nh ngha mt cp bc ca h thng. Kiu tin t nh ngha kiu, tin t nh nghi mt cch duy nht v nh cung cp bc ng k, tin t nh cung cp nh ngha mt cch duy nht v nh cung cp, tin t subnet nh ngha mt cch duy nht v subscriber, v tin t subnet nh ngha mt cch duy nht v subnet. subnet

subscriber

provider

Provider Indentifier

Subscriber Subnet Indentifier Indentifier

Node Indentifier

Hnh 2.7: H thng a ch 2.1.3.2 a ch d tr (Reserved Address)


- a ch khng xc nh ( Unspecified Address ): y l mt a ch m

phn khng phi tin t ch cha ch s 0. Ni mt cch khc phn cn li ca a ch gm ton zero. a ch ny c s dng khi host khng hiu c a ch ca chnh n v gi mt cu hi thm tm a ch ca n. Tuy nhin trong cu hi thm phi nh ngha mt a ch ngun. a ch khng xc nh

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c th c s dng cho mc ch ny. Ch l a ch khng th c s dng lm a ch ch. a ch ny c trnh by trong hnh 2.8: 8 bit 00000000 120 bit Tt c ton bit 0

Hnh 2.8: a ch khng xc nh


- a ch vng ngc ( Loopback Address ): y l mt a ch c s

dng bi mt host kim tra n m khng cn vo mng. Trong trng hp ny mt thng ip c to ra tng ng dng n gi ti tng chuyn ti v i qua tng mng. Tuy nhin thay v i n mng vt l n tr li tng chuyn ti v i qua tng ng dng. a ch ny rt hu dng cho vic kim tra nhng gi phn mm chc nng trong tng ny trc khi thm ch c vic kt ni my tnh vo mng. a ch c m t trong hnh 2.9 di y gm c tin t 0000 0000 v theo sau l 119 bit 0 v 1 bit 1. 8 bt 00000000 120 bt 00000000000000....0000000000000001

Hnh 2. 9: a ch vng ngc


- a ch IPv4: Nhng g chng ta thy c trong sut qu trnh chuyn

i t a ch IPv4 v IPv6, host c th s dng a ch IPv4 ca n c nhng vo a ch IPv6. C hai nh dng a ch c thit k cho mc ch ny: Thch ng ( compatible ) v ho ( mapped ).
-

a ch thc ng ( Compatile Address ): L mt a ch ca 96 bit 0 theo

sau 32 bit ca a ch IPv4. a ch ny c s dng khi mt my tnh s GVHD: Th.s Dng Th Hng SVTH : Nguyn Xun Cnh

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dng IPv6 mun gi mt thng ip sang mt my tnh s dng IPv6. Tuy nhin gi tin phi i qua mt min m mng vn s dng IPv4. Ngi gi s dng a ch thch ng IPv4 lm cho thun tin vic chuyn gi tin qua min s dng IPv4. Th d: a ch IPv4 l 2.13.17.14 (nh dng du . trong h m 10) c chuyn thnh 0::020D:110E (nh dng du : trong h m 16). a ch IPv4 c thm 96 bt 0 to ra a ch IPv6 128 bt.
- a ch ho ( Mapped Address ): Gm 80 bt 0 theo sau l 16 bt 1

sau na l 32 bt ca a ch IPv4. a ch ny c s dng khi mt my tnh vn s dng IPv4. Gi tin du lch phn ln qua mng IPv6 nhng sau ht c chuyn ti mt host s dng IPv4. a ch IPv4 c thm 16 bt 1 v 80 bt 0 to a ch IPv6 128 bt.

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8 bit 00000000

88 bit Tt c ton bt 0

32 bit a ch IPv4

a. a ch thch ng a ch IPv6 a ch IPv4

0::020D:110E b. Chuyn i a ch Hnh 2.10: a ch thch ng 8 bt 00000000 bt 0 a ch IPv6 0::020D:110E b.Chuyn i a ch Hnh 2.11: a ch ha 72 bt Tt c ton bt 1 a.a ch ha 16 bt Tt c ton

2.13.17.14

32 bt a IPv4 a ch IPv4 2.13.17.14 ch

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Mt iu th v v a ch thch ng v a ch ho l chng c thit k bng mt cch m khi tnh ton checksum chng ta c th s dng hoc a ch nhng hoc a ch y v nhng bt 0 hoc bt 1 thm vo l bi ca 16, khng c bt k mt tc ng no ln vic tnh ton checksum. a ch ny quan trng v nu a ch ca gi tin c chuyn t IPv6 sang IPv4 bi router, vic tnh ton checksum s khng c tnh ton. 2.1.3.3 a ch cc b ( Local Address ) y l cc a ch s dng tin t ( 1111 1110 ) :
- a ch link cc b ( Link local Address): Nhng a ch ny c s

dng khi mt mng LAN mun s dng giao thc internet nhng khng kt ni Internet v l do an ninh. Kiu a ch ny s dng tin t 1111 1110 10. i ch link cc b c s dng trong mng c lp v khng c nh hng chung no. Khng ai ngoi mng c lp ny c th gi thng ip n nhng my tnh gia nhp mt mng s dng nhng a ch ny. 10 bit 1111111010 70 bit Tt c ton bit 0 48bit a ch Node

Hnh 2.12: a ch link cc b (Link Local Addres)


- a ch site cc b ( Site Local Address ): Nhng a ch ny c s

dng nu nh mt site c mt s mng s dng giao thc internet nhng khng kt ni internet v nhng l do an ninh. Kiu a ch ny s dng tin t 1111 1110 11. a ch site cc b c s dng trong mng c lp v khng c nh hng chung no. Khng ai ngoi mng c lp ny c th gi thng ip n my tnh gia nhp mng s dng nhng a ch ny.

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10 bit 111111101 0 0

38 bit

32 bit

48 bit a ch Node

Tt c ton bit a ch Subnet

Hnh 2.13: a ch Site cc b ( Site Local Address) 2.1.3.4 a ch Multicast a ch multicast c s dng nh ngha cho mt nhm cc host thay v ch mt. Tt c u s dng tin t 1111 1111 trong trng u tin. Trng th hai l c ( flag ) nh ngha mt nhm a ch hoc c nh hoc tm thi. Mt nhm a ch c nh c nh ngha bi nh cm quyn Internet v c th truy cp bt c lc no. Mt nhm a ch tm thi, ni mt cch khc c s dng mt cch tm thi. H thng tham d vo mt hi ngh t xa c th s dng mt nhm tm thi. Trng th ba nh ngha phm vi hot ng ca nhm a ch.

Hnh 2.14: a ch Multicast

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2.1.3.5 a ch Anycast Anycast Address l a ch c bit c th gn cho nhiu interface, gi tin chuyn n Anycast Address s c vn chuyn bi h thng Routing n Interface gn nht. Hin nay, a ch Anycast c s dng rt hn ch, rt t ti liu ni v cch s dng loi a ch ny. Hu nh a ch Anycast ch c dng t cho Router, khng t cho Host, l do l bi v hin nay a ch ny ch c s dng vo mc ch cn bng ti. V d : Khi mt nh cung cp dch v mng c rt nhiu khch hng mun truy cp dch v t nhiu ni khc nhau, nh cung cp mun tit kim nn ch mt Server trung tm phc v tt c, h xy dng nhiu Router kt ni khch hng vi Server trung tm, khi mi khch hng c th c nhiu con ng truy cp dch v. Nh cung cp dch v t a ch Anycast cho cc Interfaces l cc Router kt ni n Server trung tm, by gi mi khch hng ch vic ghi nh v truy cp vo mt a ch Anycast thi, t ng h s c kt ni ti Server thng qua Router gn nht. y tht s l mt cch x l n gin v hiu qu. 2.1.4 nh dng gi tin trong IPv6 Gi tin trong IPv6 c thy nh trong hnh 2.15. Mi gi tin bao gm mt vng header nn tng bt buc theo sau bi payload. Payload gm c hai phn: Nhng vng Header m rng tu chn v d liu t tng cao hn. Vng Header nn tng chim gi 40 byte, trong khi nhng vng Header m rng v d liu t tng cao hn cha n 65535 byte thng tin.

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Hnh 2.15: nh dng gi tin IPv6

Hnh 2.16: nh dng mt n v d liu IPv6

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Vng header nn tng trong hnh 2.16 trn cho ta thy n c 8 trng, nhng trng ny m t nh sau:
- Phin bn ( VER- version ): Trng 4 bt ny nh ngha s phin bn

ca IP. Vi IPv6 gi tr l 6.
- Quyn u tin ( Trafic Class ): Trng 4 bt ny nh ngha s u tin

ca nhng gi tin i vi s tc nghn giao thng.


- Nhn lu lng ( Flow lable ): Nhn lu lng l mt trng 3 byte

24 bit c thit k cung cp s iu khin c bit i vi nhng lu lng c bit ca d liu.


- di Payload ( Payload Length ): Trng di Payload 2 byte ny

c nh ngha di tng cng ca n v d liu IP tr vng Header nn tng.


- Vng Header k tip ( Next Header ): Vng Header k tip l mt

trng 8 bt nh ngha mt u mc m theo sau vng Header nn tng trong n v d liu. Vng header k tip l mt trong nhng vng m rng tu la chn c s dng bi IP hoc vng Header cho mt giao thc tng cao hn nh UDP hay TCP. Mi vng Header m rng li c cha trng ny.

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Bng 2.2 cho chng ta thy nhng gi tr ca vng Header k tip. M s 0 2 6 17 43 44 50 51 59 60 Vng Header k tip Ty chn nhy tng bc mt ICMP TCP UDP Routing ngun S phn ming Payload bo mt m ho S chng thc Trng ( Khng vng Header k tip ) Ty chn ch Bng 2.2: Gi tr ca vng Header k tip
- Gii hn nhy ( Hop Limit ): Trng gii hn nhy 8 bt ny phc v

cho mc ch tng t trng TTL trong IPv4.


- a ch ngun ( Source Address ): Trng a ch ngun l mt i ch

Internet 16 byte ( 128 bit ) m xc minh ngun bn gc ca n v d liu.


- a ch ch ( Destination Address ): Trng a ch ch l mt a ch

Internet 16 byte ( 128 bit) m thng xc minh ch cui cng ca n v d liu. Tuy nhin nu router ngun c s dng th trng ny s cha a ch ca router k tip. Trng quyn u tin ca gi tin IPv6 nh ngha quyn u tin ca tng gi tin c quan h vi nhng gi tin khc trong cng mt ngun. V d khi mt trong hai n v d liu lin tip phi b loi b i v cht chi, n v d liu c quyn u tin nh hn s b loi b. IPv6 chia giao thng ( traffic ) lm

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hai loi: iu khin tc nghn ( congestion- controlled ) v iu khin khng tc nghn ( nocongestion- controlled ). Giao thng iu khin tc nghn ( congestion- controlled traffic ): Nu mt ngun t iu chnh giao thng chm li khi c tc nghn, giao thng s gn cho giao thng iu khin tc nghn. V d nh giao thc TCP s dng giao thc ca s trt ( Sliding window protocol ), c th d dng p ng giao thng. Trong giao thng iu khin tc nghn n c hiu l nhng gi tin c th n chm hoc thm ch mt hoc c nhn ngoi yu cu. D liu iu khin tc nghn c cp pht quyn u tin t 0 n 7 c th hin bng 2.3 sau: Quyn u tin 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 M t Khng c giao thng c th D liu nn Giao thng d liu khng c quan tm D tr Giao thng d liu tham d khi ti D tr Giao thng tng giao Giao thng iu khin Bng 2.3: Quyn u tin Cc quyn u tin c m t nh sau:
- Khng c giao thng c th ( No specific traffic ): Quyn u tin 0

c cp pht cho gi tin khi tin trnh khng nh ngha mt u tin no.
- D liu nn ( Background data ): Nhm ny ( quyn u tin mt ) nh

ngha d liu thng xuyn c nhn nn. S nhn tin tc l mt v d. GVHD: Th.s Dng Th Hng SVTH : Nguyn Xun Cnh

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Nu ngi s dng ang khng i d liu s c nhn, gi tin s c quyn u tin hai. Email thuc nhm ny. Mt ngi s dng gi email cho ngi s dng khc, nhng ngi nhn khng bit email s n sm. Thm vo email thng c lu tr trc khi c gi i.
- Giao thng d liu tham d khi ln ( Attended bulk data tranffi ): Giao

thc m chuyn phn ln d liu khi ngi s dng ang i nhn d liu ( c th tr hon ) c quyn u tin bn. FTP v HTTP thuc nhm ny.
- Giao thng tng giao ( Interactive tranffic ): Giao thc dng nh

TELNET cn s tng giao vi ngi s dng cp s tng giao vi ngi s dng c cp u tin cao th 2 (6) trong nhm. - Giao thng iu khin (Control traffic): Giao thng diu khin c quyn u tin cao nht (7) trong loi ny. Giao thc routing nh OSPF v RIP v giao thc qun tr SNMP s dng quyn u tin ny. Giao thng iu khin khng tc nghn ( Noncongestion- controlled tranffic ): Kiu ny gn cho kiu giao thng m ch i mt s hon li nh nht. Loi b gi tin khng phi l tt. S chuyn giao li trong hu ht tnh hung l c th thi hnh c. Ni mt cch khc ngun khng sa li n thch nghi vi s tc nghn. Audio v video thi gian thc l nhng v d in hnh cho dng giao thng ny. Quyn u tin t 8 n 15 c cp pht cho giao thng iu khin khng tc nghn. Mc d y khng c bt k mt s cp pht chun c bit no cho loi d liu ny, quyn u tin thng c cp pht d vo s lng ca d liu nhn c th b tc ng bi vic loi b gi tin. D liu cha t s rm r ( nh audio v video cht lng thp ) c th c a mt quyn u tin cao hn ( 15 ). D liu cha nhiu s rm r ( nh video v audio cht lng cao ) c th b a 1 quyn u tin thp hn ( 8 ). GVHD: Th.s Dng Th Hng SVTH : Nguyn Xun Cnh

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Nhn lu lng ( Flow Lable ): Mt dy cc gi tin c gi t mt ngun ring n ch ring, cn s iu khin c bit t router gi l lu lng ca nhng gi tin. S kt hp ca a ch ngun v gi tr ca nhn lu lng nh ngha mt cch duy nht mt lu lng ca nhng gi tin. i vi router mt lu lng l mt dy cc gi tin chia s cng c tnh nh l vic di chuyn cng mt ng, s dng cng mt ngun, c cng kiu an ton vv Mt router m h tr s iu khin ca nhn lu lng c mt bng nhn lu lng. Bng ny c mt mc vo cho mi nhn lu lng hot ng, mi mc nh ngha mt dch v c yu cu bi nhn lu lng tng ng. Khi router nhn c mt gi tin n tra cu bng nhn lu lng ca n tm mc vo tng ng cho gi tr nhn lu lng c nh ngha trong gi tin. Sau n cung cp cho gi tin nhng dch v cp trong mc vo. Tuy nhin ch l nhn lu lng t n khng cung cp thng tin cho nhng mc vo ca bng nhn lu lng, thng tin c cung cp bi nhng th khc nh l tu chn nhy tng bc mt hay nhng giao thc khc. Trong hnh thc n gin nht ca n, mt nhn lu lng c th c s dng tng tc mt tin trnh ca mt gi tin bi mt router. Khi router nhn c gi tin thay v xem bng tm ng v i n thut ton tm ng nh ngha a ch ca bc nhy k tip, n c th d dng c nhn thy trong mt bng nhn lu lng cho bc nhy k tip. Trong hnh thc rc ri hn ca n mt nhn lu lng c th c s dng h tr qu trnh chuyn giao audio v video thi gian thc. Audio v video thi gian thc mt cch c bit trong hnh thc k thut s i hi nhng ngun nh bng thng rng, buffer ln, thi gian tin trnh di vv Mt tin trnh c th t trc ch cho nhng ngun ny trc m bo l GVHD: Th.s Dng Th Hng SVTH : Nguyn Xun Cnh

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d liu thi gian thc s khng b tm hon do thiu ngun. S s dng d liu thi gian thc v ch t trc ca nhng ngun i hi nhng giao thc khc nh l giao thc thi gian thc ( Real- Time Protocol- RTP ) hay giao thc t trc ngun ( Resource Reservation Protocol- RRP ) trong b sung ca IPv6. cho php nhng hiu qu s dng ca nhn lu lng ba iu lut c a ra :
- Nhn lu lng c cp pht cho mt gi tin bi mt host gc. Nhn

l mt s bt k t 1 n 2 24 -1. N s khng s dng li mt nhn lu lng cho mt lu lng mi khi lng ang tn ti vn hot ng.
- Nu nh mt host khng h tr nhn lu lng, n s t trng ny l

0. Nu nh mt router khng h tr nhn lu lng, n n gin s pht l i.


- Tt c nhng gi tin thuc cng mt lu lng c th c cng ngun,

cng ch, cng s u tin v cng nhng tu chn. 2.1.5 Vng Header m rng di ca vng header c b tr 40 byte. Tuy nhin, em n nhiu chc nng hn cho n v d liu IP vng header nn tng c th cho theo sau n 6 vng header m rng. Nhiu vng header ny l nhng tu chn trong IPv4. a ch ngun a ch ch

Vng Header k tip

di vng Header

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Vng Header k tip

di vng Header

. . . Vng Header k tip di vng Header

Hnh 2.17: Dnh dng vng Header m rng C su loi vng header c nh ngha. Chng l: Tu chn nhy tng bc. L trnh ngun, s phn mnh.
S chng thc. Payload . Bo mt m ho.

Tu chn ch. 2.1.5.1 Ty chn nhy tng bc ( Hop-by-hop option ) Tu chn nhy tng bc c s dng khi ngun cn chuyn thng tin qua tt c cc router c gi bi n v d liu. V d, khng nhng router b gy ra s c bi s qun tr, s g ri hay nhng chc nng iu khin no . Hay nu nh di ca n v d liu rng hn thng thng l 65,535 byte, router phi c thng tin ny. di vng header nh ngha s byte trong vng header ( bao gm c trng vng header k tip ). Phn cn li ca vng header cha nhng tu chn khc nhau. GVHD: Th.s Dng Th Hng SVTH : Nguyn Xun Cnh

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Xa hn, ch c ba tu chn c nh ngha: Pad1, PadN v Jumbo payload

Hnh 2.18: Ty chn ca vng header ty chn nhy tng bc


- Pad1: Tu chn ny di 1 byte v n c thit k cho nhng mc ch

sp nhm. Mt s tu chn cn phi bt u 1 bit ring bit trong 32 bit ( xem m t jumbo payload ). Nu mt tu chn ca s yu cu ny rt chnh xc l 1 byte, Pad1 s c thm vo lm nn s khc bit. Pad1 khng cha trng di tu chn m cn khng c cha trng d liu tu chn. N gm c duy nht trng m tu chn vi tt c cc bt c t l 0 ( hnh ng l 00, C l kiu 00000 ). Pad1 c th c chn vo bt k ch no trong vng header tu chn nhy tng bc.
- PadN: PadN ging Pad1 v tng. S khc nhau l PadN c s

dng khi 2 hay nhiu bt c cn cho vic sp nhm. Tu chn ny gm c mt byte m tu chn, mt byte di tu chn, v mt bin s nhng s 0

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lm byte m. Gi tr ca m tu chn l 1 ( hnh ng l 00, C l 0 v kiu l 00001 ). di tu chn cha s byte m. 2.1.5.2 L trnh ngun - Vng header m rng l trnh ngun kt hp vi tng ca nhng tu chn l trnh ngun chnh xc v l trnh ngun khng chnh xc ca IPv4. Vng header l trnh ngun cha mt s nh nht ca 7 trng. Hai trng u tin, vng header k tip v di vng header, l ng vi vng header m rng nhy tng bc. - Trng kiu nh ngha l trnh l chnh xc hoc khng chnh xc. Trng nhng a ch cn li ch ra s bc nhy cn ti ch. Trng mt n tuyt i/ tng i xc nh s chc chn ca l trnh. Nu mt n l tuyt i, l trnh phi theo chnh xc nhng g c ch ra bi ngun. Nu thay vo mt n tng i nhng router khc c th thm vo trong vng header.

Hnh 2. 19: L trnh ngun


- a ch ch trong l trnh ngun khng tun theo s nh ngha trc

ca chng ta ( a ch cui cng trong n v d liu ). Thay vo n thay i t router sang router.

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Th d : Host mun gi ti mt n v d liu sang host B s dng mt l trnh ring: A n R1 n R2 n R3 n B. Ch l a ch ch nm trong nhng vng header nn tng. N khng lin tip. Thay vo n thay i theo tng router. Nhng a ch trong vng header m rng cng thay i theo tng router. 2.1.5.3 S phn mng ( Fragmentation )
- tng v s phn mng nh trong IPv4. Tuy nhin ni m s phn

mng chim gi khng ging nhau. IPv4 ngun hoc router cn phn mng nu c ca n v d liu ln hn MTU ca mng vi nhm n v d liu s c a i. IPv6 ch nhng ngun nguyn thu mi c phn mng. Mt ngun phi s dng mt k thut khm ph qu o MTU ( Path MTU Discovery ) tm MTU nh nht c h tr bi bt k mt mng no trong qu o. Ngun sau phn mng s khm pht ny.
- Nu ngun khng s dng k thut khm ph qu o MTU n c th

phn ming n v d liu thnh nhng mng c 576 byte hoc nh hn. y l c nh nht MTU yu cu cho mi mng kt ni vo Internet. Hnh 2.20 di y cho ta thy nh dng ca vng header m rng s phn mng. Vng Header nn tng Vng Header k tip di vng Header S phn Mng b p 0 M

a ch th nht

Phn cn li ca Payload

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Hnh 2.20: S phn mng (Fragmentation) 2.1.5.4 S chng thc ( Authentication ) Vng header m rng s chng thc c mt mc ch kp: n lm cho thng ip gi c gi tr v m bo s nguyn vn ca d liu. u tin cn ngi nhn c th chc chn rng d liu t ngi gi d liu ch khng phi l d liu t mt ngun khc. iu cui cng cn kim tra l d liu khng b thay i trong vn chuyn bi hacker. nh dng ca vng Header m rng s chng thc c trnh by hnh 2.21. Trng ch mc tham gia s bo mt nh ngha thut ton c s dng cho s chng thc. Trng chng thc cha d liu cha nhng d liu tht c sinh ra bi thut ton.

Hnh 2.21: S chng thc Nhiu thut ton khc nhau c th c s dng cho s chng thc. Hnh 2.22 phc ho nhng phng thc tnh ton trng chng thc d liu.

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Hnh 2.22: S tnh ton ca s chng thc d liu Ngi gi i qua kho bo mt 128 bt, ton b n v d liu IP v kho bo mt 128 bt ln na n thut ton. Nhng trng ny trong n v d liu vi nhng gi tr c thay i trong qu trnh vn chuyn ( V d nh bc nhy ) s c t l 0. n v d liu qua c thut ton s cha vng header s chng thc, vi trng s chng thc d liu c t l 0. Thut ton to ra s chng thc d liu vi nhng th c a vo trong vng header m rng trc khi ti qu trnh vn chuyn n v d liu. Nhng chc nng ngi nhn trong mt phng php tng t. N nhn mang i kho bo mt v nhn ly n v d liu ( ln na vi nhng trng thay i c t l 0 ) v i qua chng n thut ton s chng thc. Nu kt qu ging s chng thc d liu, n v d liu s c gi li nu khng chng s b loi. GVHD: Th.s Dng Th Hng SVTH : Nguyn Xun Cnh

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2.1.5.5 M ha bo mt Payload ( Encrypted Secutity Payload ESP ) Payload b mt m ho l phn m rng m cung cp mt cch tn nhim v bo v chng li s nghe ln. Hnh 2.23 trnh by s nh dng. Trng ch mc tham s bo mt 32 bt nh ngha kiu m ho / khng m ho c s dng. Vng Header nn tng Ch mc tham s bo mt D liu m ha

Hnh 2.23: Payload m ha Trng khc cha nhng d liu ang m ho vi bt k nhng tham s thm no c cn bi thut ton. S m ho c th c trang b trong hai cch :
- Mode vn chuyn ( Transport Mode ): Trong mode vn chuyn mt

TCP hay n v d liu ngi s dng UDP l ci u tin c m ho v c gi vo trong mt gi IPv6. S m ho trong mode vn chuyn c s dng a s m ho d liu t host sang host.
- Mode tunnel ( Tunnel Mode ): Trong mode tunnel ton b d liu IP

vi nhng vng Header nn tng ca n v nhng vng Header m rng c m ho v gi vo trong mt gi IP mi s dng vng Header m rng Paylaod bo mt m ho. Ni cch khc chng ta c hai vng Header nn tng: mt m ho, mt cha m ho.

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2.1.5.6 Tu chn ch ( Destination Option ) Tu chn ch c s dng khi ngun ch cn chuyn thng tin n ch. Nhng router khng ngay lp tc trao quyn truy cp cho nhng thng tin ny. nh dng ca tu chn ch tng t nh tu chn nhy tng bc. Xa hn ch c Pad1 v PadN c nh ngha. 2.2 Cc u im ca IPv6 Trong IPv6 giao thc Internet c ci tin mt cch rng ln thch nghi c s pht trin khng bit trc c ca Internet. nh dng v di ca nhng a ch IP cng c thay i vi nhng gi nh dng. Nhng giao thc lin quan, nh ICMP cng c ci tin. Nhng giao thc khc trong tng mng nh ARP, RARP, IGMP hoc b xa hoc c trong giao thc ICMPv6. Nhng giao thc tm ng nh RIP, OSPF cng c ci tin kh nng thch nghi vi nhng thay i ny. Nhng chuyn gia truyn thng d on l IPv6 v nhng giao thc lin quan vi n s nhanh chng thay th phin bn IP hin thi. Th h mi ca IP hay IPv6 c nhng u im nh sau: Khng gian a ch ln IPv6 c a ch ngun v ch di 128 bt. Mc d 128 bt c th to hn 3,4*10 38 t hp, khng gian a ch ca IPv6 c thit k d phng ln cho php phn b a ch v mng con t trc xng sng internet n tng mng con trong mt t chc. Cc a ch hin ang phn b s dng ch chim mt lng nh v vn cn tha rt nhiu a ch sn sng cho s dng trong tng lai. Vi khng gian a ch ln ny, cc k thut bo tn a ch nh NAT s khng cn cn thit na. a ch phn cp, h tng nh tuyn hiu qu Cc a ch ton cc ca Ipv6 c thit k to ra mt h tng nh tuyn hiu qu, phn cp v c th tng qut ho da trn s phn cp thng GVHD: Th.s Dng Th Hng SVTH : Nguyn Xun Cnh

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thy ca cc nh cung cp dch v Internet ( ISP ) trn thc t. Trn mng Internet da trn IPv6, cc router mng xng sng ( backbone ) c s mc trong bng nh tuyn nh hn rt nhiu. Khun dng header n gin ho Header ca IPv6 c thit k gim chi ph n mc ti thiu. iu ny t c bng cch chuyn cc trng khng quan trng v cc trng la chn sang cc header m rng c t pha sau ca IPv6 header. Khun dng header mi ca IPv6 to ra s x l hiu qu hn ti cc router. T cu hnh a ch n gin cho vic cu hnh cc trm, IPv6 h tr c vic t cu hnh a ch stateful nh kh nng cu hnh server DHCP v t cu hnh a ch stateless ( khng c server DHCP ). Vi t cu hnh a ch dng stateless, cc trm trong lin kt t ng cu hnh chng vi a ch IPv6 ca lin kt ( a ch cc b lin kt ) v vi a ch rt ra t tin t c qung b bi router cc b. Thm tr nu khng c router, cc trm trn cng mt lin kt c th t cu hnh chng vi cc a ch cc b lin kt v giao tip vi nhau m khng phi thit lp cu hnh th cng. Kh nng xc thc v bo mt an ninh H tr IPSec c h tr ngay bn thn ca IPv6. Yu cu bt buc ny nh l mt tiu chun cho an ninh mng, ng thi m rng kh nng lm vic c vi nhau ca cc loi sn phm. H tr tt hn v cht lng dch v QoS Lu thng trn mng c phn thnh cc lung cho php s l mc u tin khc nhau ti cc router. Phn header ca IPv6 c a thm mt s trng mi. Trng nhn lung ( Flow Label ) IPv6 header c dng nh nhn cho cc lung d liu. T cc router c th c nhng x l khc nhau vi cc gi tin thuc cc lung d liu khc nhau. Do trng Flow Label GVHD: Th.s Dng Th Hng SVTH : Nguyn Xun Cnh

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nm trong IPv6 header nn QoS vn c m bo khi phn ti trng c m ha bi IPSec. H tr tt hn tnh nng di ng Kh nng di ng MobileIP tn dng c cc u im ca IPv6 so vi IPv4. Kh nng m rng Thit k ca IPv6 c d phng cho s pht trin trong tng lai ng thi d dng m rng khi c nhu cu.IPv6 c kh nng m rng tt bng vic s dng phn header m rng ngay sau phn IPv6 header. iu ny cho php thm vo cc chc nng mng mi. Khng ging nh IPv4, phn la chn ch c 40 byte th vi IPv6, phn m rng ch b hn ch bi kch thc ca gi tin IPv6.

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CHNG 3 TRIN KHAI IP V6 TRN NN IPV4


3.1 Vn khi chuyn i t IPv4 sang IPv6 Giao thc IPv6 p ng c nhu cu pht trin ca mng internet hin ti v trong tng lai. IPv6 ang thay th dn IPv4. Tuy nhin, khng th chuyn i ton b cc nt mng IPv4 hin nay sang IPv6 trong mt thi gian ngn. Hn na, rt nhiu ng dng mng hin ti cha h tr IPv6. Theo d bo ca t chc ISOC, IPv6 s thay th IPv4 trong khong 10 n 15 nm na. V vy, cn c mt qu trnh chuyn i gia hai giao thc trnh hin tng tng t nh s c Y2K. Cc c ch chuyn i ( Transition mechanism ) phi m bo kh nng tng tc gia cc trm, cc ng dng IPv4 hin c vi cc trm v ng dng IPv6. Ngoi ra, cc c ch cng cho php chuyn tip cc lung thng tin IPv6 trn h tng nh tuyn hin c. Trong giai on chuyn i, iu quan trng l phi m bo s hot ng bnh thng ca mng IPv4 hin ti. Yu cu i vi cc c ch chuyn i:
- Vic th nghim IPv6 khng nh hng n cc mng IPv4 hin ang

hot ng. - Kt ni v cc dch v IPv4 tip tc hoat ng bnh thng. - Hiu nng hot ng ca mng IPv4 khng b nh hng. Giao thc IPv6 ch tc ng n cc mng th nghim. - Qu trnh chuyn i din ra tng bc. Khng nht thit phi chuyn i ton b cc nt mng sang giao thc mi.

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Cc c ch chuyn i c phn thnh hai nhm vi hai chc nng khc nhau: - Kt ni cc mng v cc nt mng IPv6 qua h tng nh tuyn IPv4 hin c. Cc c ch ny bao gm: ng hm (tunnel), 6to4, 6over4. - Kt ni cc nt mng IPv4 vi cc nt mng IPv6. Cc c ch ny bao gm: SIIT, NAT- PT, ALG, DSTM, BIS, BIA, SOCK64. Mi c ch u c u, nhc im v phm vi p dng khc nhau. Ty tng thi im trong giai on chuyn i, mc s dng ca cc c ch chuyn i s khc nhau.
- Giai on u: Giao thc IPv4 chim u th. Cc mng IPv6 kt ni

vi nhau trn nn h tng IPv4 hin c thng qua cc ng hm IPv6 qua IPv4.
- Giai on gia: Giao thc IPv4 v IPv6 c trin khai v phm vi

ngang nhau trn mng. Cc mng IPv6 kt ni vi nhau qua h tng nh tuyn IPv6. Cc mng IPv4 kt ni vi cc mng IPv6 s dng cc phng php chuyn i a ch giao thc nh NAT- PT, ALG
- Giai on cui: Giao thc IPv6 chim u th. Cc mng IPv4 cn li

kt ni vi nhau trn h tng nh tuyn IPv6 thng qua cc ng hm IPv4 qua IPv6 khi chuyn hon ton sang IPv6. 3.2 Cc c ch chuyn i 3.2.1 Chng giao thc y l c ch n gin nht cho php nt mng ng thi h tr c hai giao thc IPv6 v IPv4. C c kh nng trn do mt trm Dual Stack ci t c hai giao thc, IPv4 v IPv6. Trm Dual Stack s giao tip bng giao thc IPv4 vi cc trm IPv4 v bng giao thc IPv6 vi cc trm IPv6.

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Hnh 3. 1: Chng giao thc Do hot ng vi c hai giao thc, nt mng kiu ny cn t nht mt a ch Ipv4 v mt a ch IPv6. a ch IPv4 c th c cu hnh trc tip hoc thng qua c ch DHCP. a ch IPv6 c cu hnh trc tip hoc thng qua kh nng t cu hnh a ch. Nt mng h tr cc ng dng vi c hai giao thc. Chng trnh tra cu tn min c th tra cu ng thi c cc truy vn kiu A ln kiu AAAA(A6). Nu kt qu tr v l bn ghi kiu A, ng dng s s dng giao thc IPv4. Nu kt qu tr v l bn ghi AAAA(A6), ng dng s s dng giao thc IPv6. Nu c hai kt qu tr v, chng trnh s la chn tr v cho ng dng mt trong hai kiu a ch hoc c hai. u im:
- y l c ch c bn nht nt mng c th hot ng ng thi vi

c hai giao thc do , n c h tr trn nhiu nn tng khc nhau nh FreeBSD, Linux, Windows v Solaris. - Cho php duy tr cc kt ni bng c hai giao thc IPv4 v IPv6. GVHD: Th.s Dng Th Hng SVTH : Nguyn Xun Cnh

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Nhc im: + Kh nng m rng km do vn s dng a ch IPv4. 3.2.2 Phng php ng hm (Tunnel) ng hm cho php kt ni cc nt mng IPv6 qua h tng nh tuyn IPv4 hin c. Cc trm v cc router IPv6 thc hin bng cch ng cc gi tin IPv6 bn trong gi tin IPv4. C bn cch thc hin ng hm:
- ng hm t router n router.

- ng hm t trm n router. - ng hm t trm n trm - ng hm t router n trm.

Hnh 3. 2: ng hm qua IPv4 Cc cch thc hin ng hm khc nhau v tr ca ng hm trong tuyn ng gia hai nt mng. Trong hai cch u, gi tin c nh ng hm ti mt router trung gian sau , router ny s chuyn tip gi tin n ch. Vi hai cch sau, gi tin c nh ng hm thng ti a ch ch.

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- thc hin ng hm, hai im u ng hm phi l cc nt mng h tr c hai giao thc. Khi cn chuyn tip mt gi tin IPv6, im u ng hm s ng gi gi tin trong mt gi tin IPv4 bng cc thm phn m u header IPv4 ph hp. - Khi gi tin IPv4 n im cui ng hm, gi tin IPv6 s c tch ra x l ty theo kiu ng hm. Gi tin ban u IPv6 header Gi tin ng hm IPv4 header IPv6 header Data Data

C hai loi ng hm chnh l ng hm cu hnh sn v ng hm t ng:


- ng hnh cu hnh sn: c im ca ng hm c cu hnh l a

ch im cui ng hm khng c xc nh t ng m da trn nhng thng tin cu hnh trc ti im u ng hm.


- ng hm t ng: c im ca ng hm t ng l a ch im

cui ng hm c xc nh mt cch t ng. ng hm c to ra mt cch t ng v cng t ng mt i. M hnh u tin l dng a ch IPv6 c khun dng c bit: a ch IPv6 tng thch IPv4 m ha thng tin v a ch IPv4 trong a ch IPv6. Ti im u ng hm, nt mng ng gi s tch phn a ch IPv4 lm a ch im cui ng hm ng gi gi tin. + u im: ng hm t ng n gin, cho php hai nt mng IPv6 d dng kt ni vi nhau qua kt ni IPv4 hin c m khng cn cc cu hnh c bit. GVHD: Th.s Dng Th Hng SVTH : Nguyn Xun Cnh

46 + Nhc im: Hn ch v khng gian a ch do ph thuc vo khng

gian a ch IPv4. Nguy c b tn cng ph hoi bi cc tin tc. Do a ch cui ng hm c xc nh hon ton t ng v gi tin ng hm s c gi n a ch IPv4 . Nu khng c c ch kim tra c bit, gi s c mt gi tin c gii n router ca mng (203.162.7.0) vi a ch IPv6 ch ::203.162.7.255. a ch IPv4: 203.162.7.255 l a ch broadcast ca mng do , cc gi tin ng hm s c gi ti mi trm trong mng. 3.2.3 Phng php 6over4 C ch cho php cc trm IPv6 c lp trn cc lin kt vt l khng c cc router IPv6 hot ng da trn cc gi tin multicast IPv4 nh mt lin kt cc b o. C ch ny cn gi l mng Ethernet o. h tr cc c ch Pht hin lng ging v t cu hnh a ch stateless, mt s cc a ch c phm vi qun tr c s dng. Cc nhm multicas gi lp mt tng lin kt Ethernet. Do , c ch pht hin lng ging ( ND ) gia cc trm IPv6 vi cc trm 6over4 ging nh trong tng Ethernet thng thng. Cch tip cn ny to ra lin kt IPv6 tht trn mt mng LAN o. im khc bit l cc trm 6over4 vo cng mt min IPv4 multicast thay v mt mng chia s ng truyn.

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Hnh 3. 3: Phng php 6over4 Vic nh x a ch IPv6 sang a ch tng lin kt c thc hin ging giao thc ND. Trong trng hp ny, ty chn a ch tng lin kt ngun/ch s dng IPv4 lm tng lin kt. Do , ton b mng IPv4 c coi nh mt tng lin kt chia s ng truyn thng qua vic s dng cc a ch multicast sau y:
- a ch multicast tt c cc nt mng ( 239.X.0.1 ): a ch qun tr ny

c dng n mi nt mng trong min IPv4 h tr c ch ny.


- a ch multicast tt c cc router ( 239.X.0.2 ): a ch qun tr ny

c dng n mi router trong min IPv4 h tr c ch ny.


- a ch multicast solicited-node ( 239.X.C.D ): a ch qun tr ny

c dng xc nh a ch nt lng ging ( C v D l hai byte thp trong a ch IPv4 ). GVHD: Th.s Dng Th Hng SVTH : Nguyn Xun Cnh

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Trong tt c cc a ch ny, X ch nh danh cc b lin kt ( thng bng 192 ). S dng tng IPv4 lm tng lin kt loi b cc hn ch ca tng vt l i vi k hoch chuyn i. Cc trm c th tri trn nhiu min v thm ch cch nhiu bc so vi router IPv6. Cc trm 6over4 nhn cu hnh ( a ch lin kt cc b v tin t, a ch IPv4 ca router h tr IPv6 ) s dng giao thc ND trn cc a ch multicast IPv4. Sau cc gi d liu IPv6 c gi trong cc gi d liu IPv4 vi kiu giao thc 41. Chnh cc trm s thc hin ng hm. u im: - Cc trm IPv6 khng i hi c a ch tng thch hay ng hm cu hnh. Chnh cc trm s thc hin ng hm. Kin trc c s bao gm mt router vi kt ni IPv6 v h tr 6over4, mt mng c kh nng multicast kt ni cc trm v router. Trong mi trng , cc trm 6over4 c th kt ni vi cc trm IPv6 khc. - C tnh m rng nh IPv6 trn hu ht cc phng tin truyn. Nhc im: - Suy gim MTU ca gi tin dn n gim thng lng.
- Trong qu trnh chuyn i, cc router phi qung b t nht hai tin t

IPv6, mt cho lin kt LAN thc s v mt cho min 6over4. Ngoi ra, di tin t phi l 128 phn bit hai loi tin t cng c kiu FE80::/64. 3.2.4 Phng php 6to4 6to4 v bn cht l mt c ch ng hm t ng cho php kt ni cc mng IPv6 vi nhau thng qua h tng IPv4 ngn cch. C ch ny c ci t ti cc router bin ca mng. Cc router ny phi c a ch IPv4 ton cc c th nh tuyn c trn mng Internet. a ch IPv6 s dng trong cc mng 6to4 c cu trc c bit v c cp pht ring mt lp a ch c tin t FP=001 v gi tr trng GVHD: Th.s Dng Th Hng SVTH : Nguyn Xun Cnh

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TLA=0x0002 to thnh tin t a ch 2002::/16. Mi mng s c tin t a ch mng hnh thnh bng cc kt hp 16 bit tin t chung vi 3 bit a ch IPv4 ca router tng ng. Tin t ny c ln 48 bit v c th biu din di dng 2002:V4ADDR::/48.

Hnh 3. 4: Phng php 6to4 Khi c mt gi tin IPv6 vi a ch ch c dng 2002::/16 c gi n mt router 6to4, router 6to4 tch a ch IPv4 ( a ch Ipv4 va tch c chnh l a ch IPv4 ca 6to4 router ch ), bc gi tin IPv6 trong gi tin IPv4 vi a ch ch l a ch IPv4 va tch c. Sau , cc gi tin s c chuyn tip trn h tng IPv4. Khi router 6to4 ch nhn c gi tin, gi tin IPv6 s c tch ra v chuyn n nt mng IPv6 ch. u im: - Cc nt mng khng bt buc phi dng a ch IPv6 kiu tng thch IPv4 nh ng hm t ng. - Khng cn nhiu cu hnh c bit nh ng hm c cu hnh.
- Khng b nh hng bi cc h thng tng la ca mng, ch cn

router ca mng c a ch IPv4 ton cc c th nh tuyn. GVHD: Th.s Dng Th Hng SVTH : Nguyn Xun Cnh

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Nhc im: - Ch thc hin vi mt lp a ch mng c bit. - C nguy c b tn cng theo kiu ca ng hm t ng nu phn a ch IPv4ADDR trong a ch ch ca gi tin 6to4 l a ch broadcast hay multicast. 3.2.5 Mi gii ng hm ( Tunnel Broker ) Mng IPv6 s dng rt nhiu ng hm trn h tng IPv4. Tunnel Broker c a ra gim nh chi ph cu hnh v duy tr cc ng hm ny. C ch ny s dng mt tp cc server chuyn dng gi l Tunnel Broker cu hnh v duy tr cc ng hm. Chng c th xem nh cc ISP IPv6 o cho cc ngi dng kt ni vo Internet IPv4. C ch ny ph hp cho cc trm ( hoc site ) IPv6 nh c lp mun kt ni d dng vo mng IPv6. Cu trc ca tunnel broker bao gm: - Mt server tunnel broker. - Mt DNS server. Mt s cc server ng hm hin nay:
http://www.ipv6tf.org http://tunnelbroker.ipv6.net.au http://tunnel.be.wanadoo.com http://www.hexago.com/ http://tb.6test.edu.cn/ http://tunnelbroker.ipv6.estpak.ee/ http://tb.ngnet.it http://tbroker.manis.net.my/ http://www.sixxs.net/ http://tb.ptin.euro6ix.org/ (Italia) (Malaysia) (H Lan) (Th Nh K) (c) (B) (Canada) (Trung Quc) (Estonia)

http://www.iij.ad.jp/en/IPv6/zikken-e.html (Nht Bn)

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http://tunnel-broker.singnet.com.sg/ http://www.xs26.net http://tunnelbroker.as8758.net/ http://tb.ipv6.chttl.com.tw/ http://tb.ipv6.btexact.com http://tunnelbroker.net

(Singapore) (Slovakia) (Thu S) (i Loan) (Anh) (M)

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CHNG 4: XY DNG M HNH THC NGHIM


4.1 M Hnh Thc Nghim

Hnh 4.1 M Hnh Thc Nghim 4.2 Demo Chng Trnh nh Tuyn IPV6 4.2.1 Cu Hnh Cho Cc Router: Router 1: ! version 12.3 service timestamps debug datetime msec service timestamps log datetime msec no service password-encryption ! hostname R1 ! boot-start-marker boot-end-marker ! ! no aaa new-model GVHD: Th.s Dng Th Hng SVTH : Nguyn Xun Cnh

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! resource policy ! memory-size iomem 5 ip subnet-zero ! ! ip cef no ip dhcp use vrf connected ! ! no ip ips deny-action ips-interface ! ipv6 unicast-routing no ftp-server write-enable ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! no crypto isakmp ccm ! ! ! ! interface Tunnel0 no ip address no ip redirects ipv6 address 2002:AC10:102:1::1/64 GVHD: Th.s Dng Th Hng SVTH : Nguyn Xun Cnh

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tunnel source FastEthernet0/0 tunnel mode ipv6ip 6to4 ! interface Loopback0 ip address 10.0.1.1 255.255.255.0 ipv6 address FEC0::1:1/112 ! interface FastEthernet0/0 ip address 172.16.1.2 255.255.255.0 duplex auto speed auto ! router rip version 2 network 10.0.0.0 network 172.16.0.0 no auto-summary ! ip http server no ip http secure-server ip classless ! ! ! ipv6 route 2002::/16 Tunnel0 ipv6 route FEC0::3:0/112 2002:AC10:202:1::3 ! ! ! control-plane ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! GVHD: Th.s Dng Th Hng SVTH : Nguyn Xun Cnh

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line con 0 line aux 0 line vty 0 4 login ! ! end Router 2: ! version 12.3 service timestamps debug datetime msec service timestamps log datetime msec no service password-encryption ! hostname R2 ! boot-start-marker boot-end-marker ! ! no aaa new-model ! resource policy ! memory-size iomem 5 ip subnet-zero ! ! ip cef no ip dhcp use vrf connected ! ! no ip ips deny-action ips-interface ! no ftp-server write-enable ! ! ! ! ! GVHD: Th.s Dng Th Hng SVTH : Nguyn Xun Cnh

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! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! no crypto isakmp ccm ! ! ! ! interface Loopback0 ip address 10.0.2.1 255.255.255.0 ! interface FastEthernet0/0 ip address 172.16.1.1 255.255.255.0 duplex auto speed auto ! interface FastEthernet1/0 ip address 172.16.2.1 255.255.255.0 duplex auto speed auto ! router rip version 2 network 10.0.0.0 network 172.16.0.0 no auto-summary ! ip http server no ip http secure-server ip classless ! ! GVHD: Th.s Dng Th Hng SVTH : Nguyn Xun Cnh

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! ! ! ! control-plane ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! line con 0 line aux 0 line vty 0 4 login ! ! end Router 3: ! version 12.3 service timestamps debug datetime msec service timestamps log datetime msec no service password-encryption ! hostname R3 ! boot-start-marker boot-end-marker ! ! no aaa new-model ! resource policy ! memory-size iomem 5 GVHD: Th.s Dng Th Hng SVTH : Nguyn Xun Cnh

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ip subnet-zero ! ! ip cef no ip dhcp use vrf connected ! ! no ip ips deny-action ips-interface ! ipv6 unicast-routing no ftp-server write-enable ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! no crypto isakmp ccm ! ! ! ! interface Tunnel0 no ip address no ip redirects ipv6 address 2002:AC10:202:1::3/64 tunnel source FastEthernet0/0 tunnel mode ipv6ip 6to4 ! interface Loopback0 GVHD: Th.s Dng Th Hng SVTH : Nguyn Xun Cnh

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ip address 10.0.3.1 255.255.255.0 ipv6 address FEC0::3:1/112 ! interface FastEthernet0/0 ip address 172.16.2.2 255.255.255.0 duplex auto speed auto ! router rip version 2 network 10.0.0.0 network 172.16.0.0 no auto-summary ! ip http server no ip http secure-server ip classless ! ! ! ipv6 route 2002::/16 Tunnel0 ipv6 route FEC0::1:0/112 2002:AC10:102:1::1 ! ! ! control-plane ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! line con 0 line aux 0 line vty 0 4 login End GVHD: Th.s Dng Th Hng SVTH : Nguyn Xun Cnh

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Kim Tra Kt Qu:

Hnh 4.2 Ping T R1 Sang R3

Hnh 4.3 Ping T R3 Sang R1

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KT LUN
Vi s lng a ch nhiu gn nh v tn, IPv6 cn c nhng u im vt tri so vi cc phin bn trc. l kh nng bo mt, s n gin ha trong cc header, h tr tt cho cc dch v mng, ng dng di ng. Hn th na l kh nng m rng ph hp vi nhng yu cu mi. Th gii, vo hi 6 gi 00 gi H Ni (9 gi 00 pht UCT +10) ngy 15/4/2011, T chc qun l a ch khu vc Chu Thi Bnh Dng ra thng bo Khu vc Chu Thi Bnh Dng chnh thc ht a ch IPv4 v bt u chuyn sang p dng chnh sch cp IPv4 t khi /8 cui cng. Trong khong 10 nm gn y, cc nh sn sut cng nh cung cp dch v mng rt c gng a IPv6 vo s dng. c nhiu phng php gip tng thch vi IPv4 ra i cng nh xut hin cc thit b mng s dng IPv6. n nay IPv6 thnh mt thnh phn khng th thiu ca Internet. i vi Vit Nam, ngy 29/3/2011, B trng B thng tin Truyn thng L Don Hp k Quyt nh ban hnh k hoch hnh ng Quc gia v IPv6, ng vo thi im th gii chnh thc bc vo giai on cn kit a ch IPv4. Vi mc tiu bo m trc nm 2020 ton b mng li v dch v internet Vit Nam c chuyn i hot ng mt cach an ton, tin cy vi a ch IPv6. Qua qu trnh tm hiu v lm n ny, em nm c cu trc ca IPv6 cng nh cc c im ni tri ca n so vi phin bn trc, c bit l vn cp thit ca vic chuyn i t IPv4 sang IPv6. Do thi gian chun b khng nhiu cng nh vn kin thc c hn nn n ny ca em khng trnh khi c nhiu thiu st, rt mong c thy c v cc bn gp , b xung. Em xin chn thnh cm n! Nguyn Xun Cnh SVTH : Nguyn Xun Cnh

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TI LIU THAM KHO


Ting Vit
1.

Nguyn Vit Tuyn, cng bi ging mng my tnh, ti liu http://quantrimang.com http://www.ipv6tf.vn/ http://www.vnnic.vn/ http://www.apnic.net/ Joseph Davies, Understand IPv6, Microsoft Press 2002 www.ipv6.com www.ipv6.org www.microsoft.com

lu hnh ni b khoa in t - trng i hc Cng nghip H Ni. 2. 3.


4. 5.

Ting Anh
1. 2. 3. 4.

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