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PERSUASIVENESS: Reason effectively to convince the other party. Achieve goals and alter views by demonstrating shared benefits.

Behavioral statements: 1. Showing a cooperative attitude by convincing people that the decision is necessary (rather than imposing the decision). 2. Get an idea of colleagues' counter-arguments and resistance in advance act on this in anticipation. 3. Relate the benefits of ideas or recommendations to the needs and interests of individuals and clients. 4. Present compelling arguments to support positions. Questions: As a member of a staff department how have you gone about persuading line managers in the past? Give an example. What is the best suggestion you ever made that was accepted by your boss or colleagues? How did you present it? What is the best suggestion you ever made that was rejected by your boss or colleagues? Why was it rejected? In a discussion most people are usually convinced that their ideas are right. How successful are you in getting others to accept your point of view? Can you give an example? What do you think is the best way of 'selling' an unpopular idea? How do you go usually go about this? Example? TEAM-WORK: Be active in realizing shared goals - even when you do not get a direct benefit. Behavioral statements: Dealing well with different viewpoints as part of a (multidisciplinary) team. Work co-operatively with equals or other team members to set responsibilities. Share information, ideas and suggestions to accomplish mutual goals. Support team decisions even if not in total agreement. Questions: Can you recall a situation when you completely disagreed with the way your team was working? What did you do then? Have you ever been a member of a team that broke up because it was impossible to work with one another? What was your position? Do you work together with colleagues at the moment? How do you deal

with conflicts / disagreements / misunderstandings in this group? PLANNING / ACTION: Deploy human and other resources to meet targets and standards. Do it on time. Behavioral statements: Plan work so that it gets done on time. Formulate work objectives clearly including a timetable and priorities. Getting thing done by focusing on the implementation. Anticipate and act to compensate for potential risks and problems. Questions: Have you ever had to readjust a timetable due to unforeseen circumstances? How did you go about it? Examples, please. What are your department's long and short term plans? Have they been put into writing? What were your work objectives last year? Were they achieved? Can you give an example of how your department arrives at operational plans to adjust to new situations? How did you plan your time at work over the past week? Describe a normal working day or week for me. How do you plan your daily activities? LEADERSHIP: Set challenges within own parameters. Then coach and motivate staff to realize these. Welcome and delegate responsibility. Be forceful when appropriate. Behavioral statements: Practice and stimulate open and two way communication including frank and honest feedback to co-workers. Show interest and give support and coaching when necessary. Involve subordinates in issues of company and department policy. Develop ideas to improve departmental operations and take the appropriate actions to implement change and ensure group acceptance. Questions: Have you over had a subordinate who did not perform as well as you thought he should? What did you do about it? Have you ever had to arbitrate between two staff members who were unable to work together? How did you get them to cooperate?

How often do you hold meetings with your staff? Why not more/less often? How did you prepare for the last meeting? Have you ever involved your staff in issues of company policy? How did you go about this? Have you ever lead a work group or project team whose members were not lower-placed than yourself in the organizational hierarchy? How did you manage this? Has it ever happened that targets were not met while you were in charge or had final responsibility? What did you do then? PROBLEM ANALYSIS: Identify problems; recognize significant information; gather and coordinate relevant data; diagnose possible causes. Behavioral statements: Take well planned steps to gather and organize data for diagnostic purposes. Distinguish the grade of problems and to indicate major issues. Foresee problems and to judge their relevance. Ask for questions and ensure they are answered. Questions: Describe a significant problem that you were confronted with during the past year? What steps did you take to assemble and organize data? What do you consider to be the cause of the problem? Unforeseen problems sometimes arise. Have you ever been surprised by an unexpected problem? Have you ever been confronted with a situation which turned out to be very different (and perhaps more complicated) than you had at first judged? Sometimes a problem seems to have been solved when in fact only part of a far more extensive, underlying problem has been dealt with. Have you ever experienced a situation like this? Can you describe a problem that you were unable to solve? ACHIEVEMENT ORIENTATION: Set and meet the highest standards. Be discontented with average performance. Behavioural statements: Set high standards and seek continuous improvements. Input more than the required effort to realize predetermined targets. Formulate realistic and challenging tasks for yourself and the team members.

Maintain quality and urgency towards desired results. Questions: When have you aimed for perfection? Concrete examples please. What do you demand of yourself in your work? Do you demand the same things of your staff? If you have recently had to evaluate a staff member or colleague on job performance, what for you was the difference between a good worker and a poor one? Can you remember ever demanding of others too much or too little? Have you ever worked in a team? What did you expect of the other team members? When have you been satisfied with your work? Can you give an example of a situation in which you were unable to come up to your own standards? What did you do about it?

Factors influency wage and salsry administration The wage policies of different organization vary some what. Marginal units pay the minimum necessary to attract the required number of kind of labour. Often, these units pay minimum wage rates required by labour legislation, and recruit marginal labour. At the other extreme, some units pay well about going rates in the labour market. They do so to attract and retain the highest caliber of labour force. Some managers believe in the economy of higher wages. They feel that, by paying high wages, they would attract better workers who will produce more than average worker in the industry. This greater production per employee means greater output per man hour. Hence, labour costs may turn those existing in firms using marginal labour. Some units pay high wages because of a combination of a favourable product market demand, higher ability to pay and the bargaining power of trade union. But a large number of them seek to be competitive in their wage programme, i.e., they aim at paying somewhere near the going rate in the labour they employ. Most units give greater weight to two wage criteria, viz, job requirements and the prevailing rates of wages in the labour market. Other factors, such as changes in the cost of living the supply and demand of labour, and ability to pay are accorded a secondary importance. A sound wage policy is to adopt a job evaluation programme in order to

establish fair differentials in wages based upon differences in job contents. Beside the basic factors provided by a job description and job evaluation, those that are usually taken into consideration for wage and salary administration are: The organizations ability to pay; Supply and demand of labour; The prevailing market rate; The cost of living; Living wage; Productivity; Trade unions bargaining power; Job requirements; Managerial attitudes; and Psychological and sociological factors. Levels of skills available in the market. (1) The organizations ability to pay: Wage increases should be given by those organizations which can afford them. Companies that have good sales and, therefore, high profits tend to pay higher those which running at a loss or earning low profits because of higher cost of production or low sales. In the short run, the economic influence on the ability to pay is practically nil. All employers, irrespective of their profits or losses, must pay no less than their competitors and need to pay no more if they wish to attract and keep workers. In the long run, the ability to pay is important. During the time of prosperity, pay high wages to carry on profitable operations and because of their increased ability to pay. But during the period of depression, wages are cut because the funds are not available. Marginal firms and non profit organization (like hospitals and educational institutions) pay relatively wages because of low or non profits. (2) Supply and demand of labour: The labour market conditions or supply and demand forces operate at the national, regional and local levels, and determine organizational wage structure and level. If the demand for certain skills is high and supply is low, the result is a rise in the price to be paid to these skills. When prolonged and acuter, these labour market pressures probably force most organizations to reclassify hard to fill jobs at a higher level that suggested by the job evaluation. The other alternative is to pay higher wages if the labour supply is scarce; and lower wages when it is excessive. Similarly, if there is a great demand for labour expertise, wages rise; but if the demand for manpower skill is minimal, the

wages will be relatively low. The supply and demand compensation criterion is very closely related to the prevailing pay, comparable wage and on going wage concepts since; in essence, all of these remuneration standards are determined by immediate market forces and factors. (3) Prevailing market rate: This is known as the comparable wage or going wage rate, and is the widely used criterion. An organization compensation policy generally tends to conform to the wage rate payable by the industry and the community. This is done for several reasons. First, competition demand that competitors adhere to the same relative wage level. Second, various government laws and judicial decisions make the adoption of uniform wage rates an attractive proposition. Third, trade union encourages this practice so that their members can have equal pay, equal work and geographical differences may be eliminated. Fourth, functionally related firms in the same industry requires essentially the same quality of employees, with same skill and experience. This results in a considerable uniformity in wage and salary rates. Finally, if the same or about the same general rates of wages are not paid to the employees as are paid by the organizations competitors, it will not be able to attract and maintain the sufficient quantity and quality of manpower. Some companies pay on a high side of the market in order to obtain goodwill or to insure an adequate supply of labour, while other organizations pay lower wages because economically they have to or because by lowering hiring requirements they can keep jobs adequately manned. (4) The cost of living: The cost of living pay criterion is usually regarded as an automatic minimum equity pay criterion. This criterion calls for pay adjustments based on increases or decreases in an acceptable cost of living index. In recognition of the influence of the cost of living. escalator clauses are written into labour contracts. When the cost of living increases, workers and trade unions demand adjusted wages to offset the erosion of real wages. However, when living costs are stable or decline, the management does not resort to this argument as a reason for wage reductions. (5) The living wage: Criterion means that wages paid should be adequate to enable an employee to maintain himself and his family at a reasonable level of existence. However, employers do not generally favor using the concepts of a living wage as a guide to wage determination because they prefer to base the wages of an employee on his contribution rather than on his need.

Also, they feel that the level of living prescribed in a workers budge is open to argument since it is based on subjective opinion. (6) Psychological and Social Factors:These determine in a significant measure how hard a person will work for the compensation received or what pressures he will exert to get his compensation increased. Psychologically, persons perceive the level of wages as a measure of success in life; people may feel secure; have an inferiority complex, seem inadequate or feel the reverse of all these. They may not take pride in their work, or in the wages they get. Therefore, these things should not be overlooked by the management in establishing wage rate. Sociologically and ethically, people feel that equal work should carry equal wagesthatwages should be commensurate with their efforts,thatthey are not exploited, and that no distinction is made on the basis of caste, colour, sex or religion. To satisfy the conditions of equity, fairness and justice, a management should take these factors into consideration. (7) Skill Levels Available in the Market:With the rapid growth of industries business trade, there is shortage of skilled resources. The technological development, automation has been affecting the skill levels at faster rates. Thus the wage levels of skilled employees are constantly changing and an organization has to keep its level up to suit the market needs. ADMINISTRATION OF WAGES AND SALARIES Wage and salary administration should be controlled by some proper agency. This responsibility may be entrusted to the personnel department or to some job executive. Since the problem of wages and salary is very delicate and complicated, it is usually entrusted to a Committee composed of high-ranking executives representing major line organizations. The major functions of such Committee are: a) Approval and/or recommendation to management on job evaluation methods and findings; b) Review and recommendation of basic wage and salary structure; c) Help in the formulation of wage policies from time to time; d) Co-ordination and review of relative departmental rates to ensure conformity; and e) Review of budget estimates for wage and salary adjustments and increases. This Committee should be supported by the advice of the technical staff.

Such staff committees may be for job evolution. Job description, merit rating, wage and salary surveys in an industry, and for a review of present wage rates procedure and policies. Alternatively, the over all plan is first prepared by the Personnel Manager in consultation and discussions with senior members of other departments. It is then submitted for final approval of the top executive. Once he has given his approval, for the wage and salary structure and the rules for administration, its implementation becomes a joint effort of all heads of the departments. The actual appraisal of the performance of subordinates is carried out by the various managers, who in turn submit their recommendations to higher authority and the latter, in turn, to the personnel department. The personnel department ordinarily reviews recommendations to ensure compliance with established rules of administration. In unusual cases of serious disagreement, the president makes the final decision. PRINCIPLES OF WAGES AND SALARY ADMINISTRATION The generally accepted principles governing the fixation of wages and salary are: a) There should be definite plan to ensure that differences in pay for jobs are based upon variations in job requirements, such as skill effort, responsibility or job or working conditions and mental and physical requirements. b) The general level of wages and salaries should be reasonably in line with that prevailing in the labour market. The labour market criterion is most commonly used. c) The plan should carefully distinguish between jobs and employees. A job carries a certain wage rate, and a person is assigned to fill it that rate. Exceptions sometimes occur in very high level jobs in which the job holder may make the job large or small, depending upon his ability and contributions. d) Equal pay for equal work, i.e., if two jobs have equal difficulty requirements, the pay should be the same, regardless of who fills them. e) An equitable practice should be adopted for the recognition of individual differences in ability and contribution. For some units, this may take the from of rate ranges, with in grade increases; in others, it may be a wage incentive plan; in still others, it may take the from of closely integrated sequences of job promotion. f) There should be a clearly established procedure for hearing and adjusting wage complaints. This may be integrated with the regular grievance procedure, if it exists.

g) The employees and the trade union, if there is one, should be informed about the procedure used to establish wage rates. Every employee should be informed of his own position, and of the wage and salary structure. Secrecy in wage matters should not be used as a cover up for haphazard and unreasonable wage programme. h) The wage should be sufficient to ensure for the worker and his family reasonable standard of living. Workers should receive a guaranteed minimum wage to protect them against conditions beyond their control. i) The wage and salary structure should be flexible so that changing conditions can be easily met. j) Prompt and correct payments of the dues of the employees must be ensured and arrears of payment should not accumulate. k) For revision of wages, a Wage Committee should always be preferred to the individual judgement, however unbiased, or a manager. l) The wage and salary payment must fulfill a wide variety of human needs, including the need for self-actualisation. It has been recognized that money is the only form of incentive which is wholly negotiable, appealing to the widest possible range of seekers. Monetary payment often acts as motivation and satisfies interdependently of other job factors. Desire to maintain or enhance the companys prestige has been a major factor in the wage policy of a number of firms. Desires to improve or maintain morale, to attract high caliber employees, to reduced turnover, and to provide a high living standard for employees as possible also appear to be factors in managements wage policy decisions. (10) Psychological and Social Factors:These determine in a significant measure how hard a person will work for the compensation received or what pressures he will exert to get his compensation increased. Psychologically, persons perceive the level of wages as a measure of success in life; people may feel secure; have an inferiority complex, seem inadequate or feel the reverse of all these. They may not take pride in their work, or in the wages they get. Therefore, these things should not be overlooked by the management in establishing wage rate. Sociologically and ethically, people feel that equal work should carry equal wagesthatwages should be commensurate with their efforts,thatthey are not exploited, and that no distinction is made on the basis of caste, colour, sex or religion. To satisfy the conditions of equity, fairness and justice, a management should take these factors into consideration.

(11) Skill Levels Available in the Market:With the rapid growth of industries business trade, there is shortage of skilled resources. The technological development, automation has been affecting the skill levels at a faster rate. Thus the wage levels of skilled employees are constantly changing and an organization has to keep its level up to suit the market needs.