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um dos aspectos mais importantes na elaborao de um cerveja. comum classificar o estilo de uma cerveja pelo fermento utilizado para a sua elaborao.

H essencialmente 2 tipos de fermentos: Fermento Ale que utilizado para temperaturas ptimas de fermentao entre 15,5 e os 21 Fermento Lager que utilizado para temperaturas de fermentao 3,5 a 10

The temperature at which beer ferments can have a great effect on the finished product. The topfermenting Ale yeast strains can complete their gluttonous feast in as little as three days. This quick, warm fermentation has a tendency to give the resulting beer a rich and complex aroma and flavor profile. As a direct result of the marriage of yeast type and temperature, ales tend to be fruity and estery, often full of buttery or butterscotchy notes. Estery is a word used to describe a beer that possesses aromas reminiscent of flowers or fruits. Some yeast strains generate more esters than others. Lager yeast actually developed a gradual genetic acclimation to its surround-ings over hundreds of years. But because the cool temperatures at whichLager yeast feeds result in sluggishness (lentidao), Lager yeast needs lengthier fermen-tation periods to complete its job. On the up side, however, the benefit of such long and labored fermentation is the absence (ausencia) of fruitiness and buttery character found in Ales. Lagers are therefore cleaner, smoother beers.

3 Fases da fermentao: Yeast growth phase: This is the initial phase when the yeast cells absorb the oxygen in the wort (mosto) in preparation for their feast. Fermentation: This is the main event the yeasts are devouring the sugars in the wort and producing alcohol and CO2. Dividing yeast cells double the total number of yeast cells in the wort every day. Sedimentation: This is the anticlimactic close of the fermentation cycle; with the wort now devoid of oxygen and short on fermentable sugar, the yeast begins to flocculate and settle to the bottom of the fermenter. High kraeusen ( Kraeusen is the term brewers use to describe the foam that forms on top of the wort during fermentation.) usually occurs between days three and five of fermentation, assuming that the yeast got off to a good start.

Fermentation temperature, of course, should be within the recom-mended ranges of the yeast according to species. Ale yeast works best in temperatures between 60 and 70 degrees Fahrenheit. Lager yeast performs best when temperatures are between 38 and 50 degreesFahrenheit. Fermentation temperatures that are too low slow down the fermen-tation or even stop it cold. Extreme temperatures on the high end caus an increase in fermentation activity and an increased risk of bacterial

contamination. High fermentation temperatures (above 75 degrees Fahrenheit 24 Graus) often result in off flavors and production of an alcohol other than ethyl alcohol. Proper oxygen levels in wort enable the yeast to grow. You need to properly aerate your wort prior to pitching the yeast. You can aerate by sloshing the cooled wort around in the fermenter or with an oxygenating device called a beer stone (see Chapter 27 for more information on beer stones). The amount of yeast pitched is important primarily because of lag time. Lag time is the length of time between the pitching of yeast into the wort and the time that active fermentation begins to take place (for healthy fermentations, lag time shouldnt exceed 24 hours). Lag time is affected by the pitching rate (the number of cells added to the wort). If the yeast volume is slow to multiply to desired quantities, any mutant yeast cells or bacteria present can easily take over and ruin a batch of beer. You can avoid this problem by pitching the proper amount of yeast (overpitching is always better than underpitching). I recommend 1 cup of yeast slurry (a high concentration of yeast cells in solution) per 5-gallon batch. See the section Propagating yeast in this chapter to find out more about how to increase your yeast quantities. One bacterial cell per 1,000 yeast cells constitutes a serious contamina-tion and may result in a blown batch of beer. Yeast viability is rarely a problem with fresh yeast products purchased new. Viability comes into question when you use an old, out-of-date yeast product or attempt to revive old, tired yeast from the bottom of a bottle-conditioned commercial beer (such as a well-aged Belgian Trappist Ale). The amount of available fermentable sugars has a direct effect on the quality and length of fermentation. The more food you give the yeast cells, the longer they continue to eat up to a point. At around 8 or 9 percent alcohol, fermentation becomes self-destructive to yeast. In that concentration of alcohol, most beer yeast can no longer continue fermenting; it falls into a stupor and eventually quits working. Reminds me of some people I know.