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Environmental Management Project

Mining Industry In India – Environmental vs Growth perspective

Submitted By: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) Amrit Modi (10DCP-002) Anurag Tanwar (10DCP-005) Prateek Kumar (10DCP-025) Rishi Dewan (10DCP-027) Varun Arora (10DCP-044) Vijyant Dalal (10 DCP-047)

.  Preparing the site for production and excavation of deposits to remove surface material above ore deposit). Sediments. It can lead to decline of wildlife and plantation in the region. air. magnetism etc. In recent days. creating eyesores such as waste rock piles and open pits. It also leads to weakening of the surface which can cause Mine subsidence causing damage to life and property. is the basic elements of life system and if any one of them is stretched beyond tolerable limit it leads to pollution.  Land: It can cause physical disturbances to landscapes.  Water: Water pollution problems caused due to mining include acid mine drainage.  Acquiring the mining rights.Introduction: Degradation of natural ecosystem during mining activity is unavoidable.surface mining.  Designing the mine. gravity. Development of mines consists of:  Conducting a feasibility study. energy. Particulate matter is released during mining. water. cadmium. The production of large amount of waste material and particular emission has led to major environmental and health concerns with ore extraction ad concentration. Pollution In mining:  Air: Methods of mining affect air quality.  Conducting financial analysis whether to abandon or develop the property. metal contamination. space. it also leads to removal of vegetation leaving the soil loose ad exposed to weathering. This particulate matter can consists of noxious material such as arsenic.  Separation of ore from other materials: Floatation.  Extraction of Ore.  Purification. and increased sediment level in the streams. underground mining. and In situ mining. many hue and cry is made in the mining prone regions with growing awareness of environmental impact due to carelessness and unsystematic mining activities. Land.  Filling up of the Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). lead etc.

 Acid mine Drainage: AMD is a potentially severe pollution hazards that contaminate surrounding soil.  Socio. Primary sources of acid generation are sulphides which decompose in air and water. The formation of AMD is a function of geology. ground water. . hydrology and mining technology employed at the mining site. cause siltation or the smothering of stream beds which affects fisheries. Wastes and related Environmental Concerns ad issues. Fig: Mining Processes. Apart from the pollution caused to the environment it leads to the degradation of the socio economic condition of the people hence a social impact assessment is a crucial part in environment management planning. domestic water supplies etc.Economic conditions: Mining is a temporary land use hence progressive rehabilitation practices should be used to enable the land to return to productive use as soon as possible after mining. and surface water.typically from increased soil erosion. irrigation.

Out of Scope: Study/analysis of any primary data of the mining industry and any mining company. Various articles from the internet/books/journals/reports were studied and analyzed.Objectives: The primary objectives of the report can be summarized as below: i) ii) To study in detail the mining industry in India. iii) To study/analyze in detail the steps taken by the Government of India to balance the economical and ecological trade off of the industry. Methodology The main methodology for this report was the secondary research. In Scope: General study of the mining industry with the aid of secondary data only. The brief flow of the methodology can be depicted as below: Study through Secondary Sources Filtering of relevant information Analysis of the gathered information High Level interpretation of the analysis Report Compilation of the study . To analyze the pros and cons of the mining industry from an economic and ecological perspective.

Mineral Iron Ore Bauxite Coal 1970 16600 1400 73700 Thousand tones 1990 55600 5000 211600 1999 70700 6400 293600 2010 218640 16000 557000 Table: Production of minerals in India.  Mitigation of environmental degradation due to mining.  Massive investment required in exploration and up gradation of technology. Flow of foreign investment has been relatively low in the sector due the restrictions imposed. employs more than a 1 million people and a considerable share of the total exports by the country. Source: TERI . marginalisation of local communities and economic disparities in mining areas. Mineral Production in India: Mining contributes about 2% of India’s GDP. Thus the mining industry becomes very important industry in India. India is the 3rd largest producer of coal. 4th largest of iron ore and 6th largest producer of Bauxite worldwide.Results and analysis: Mining Sector in India: India has huge mineral resources. It faces several challenges.  Adaptation of environmental friendly mining.  Rehabilitation of closed and abandoned mine sites.  Tackling of social issues. Like displacement of population. It opened to foreign investment only 1990.

MINERAL RESOURCES IN INDIA FIG: Mineral Production in India: Geographical Distribution Mining vs Environment: Stake holders related to Mining: Supporters •Mining Lobbyists •Politicians •Investors •Mining Companies •Politicians Opposition •Civilians •Environmentalist •Politicians .

then making liberal use of explosives to remove a maximum of 1000 vertical feet of mountain. drastically alters the landscape. A dredge [excavator] is used to scrape the minerals off the seabed. Quarrying is a type of open-pit mine that extracts minerals for making buildings. when the mine is no longer in operation. throwing the whole thing out of balance. lectures etc  Politicians: Driven by economics and growth  Investors: Profit motive  Mine Workers: People employed under the sector who earn their livelihood. minerals are excavated with a dragline excavator.  Strip Mining: The main environmental effects unique to coal mining are the methane gasses released (causing a greenhouse effect). Environmental Impacts Unique to each Mine Type:  Open Pit Mining: It is a method of extracting rock or minerals from the earth by their removal from an open pit. Dredging is the most commonly used method in deep-sea mining.Supporters:  Companies: Involved in process for profit and growth (Self and economy)  Lobbyists: Hired by companies to lobby support by holding meetings. with a high fatality rate. and the dust produced. Opposition:  Environmentalists: People concerned for the preservation.  Civilians: People affected socially. Open pit mines have adverse environmental effect. flora and fauna.  Deep-sea Mining: This type of mining involves extraction of minerals from the seabed. Toxic elements are released from the sediments into the water. restoration and conservation of natural resources. the effects on water. Dredging can easily disturb aquatic ecosystems. In regards to safety. environment or self benefits. The removal of huge chunks of land creates craters causing ecological misbalance affecting humans.  Mountaintop Removal Mining: This type of mining procedure involves clear-cutting the target area of all forest. economically and biologically by mining. the area can no longer be used for anything else. Strip mining.  Politicians: Politicians opposing the process due to concern for the people. subsurface coal mines are known as some of the most dangerous mines to work in. Also. . most commonly used to mine coal.

 Silicosis in Rajasthan: In Rajasthan mining is second only to agriculture. many mineworkers labor in the same awful conditions as their predecessors did decades ago. Their exposure to occupational hazards such as respiratory ailments remains very high. Trenches are made which change and scar the landscape permanently Cases:  218 Coal Mines violating EIA Notification in 2006: 218 mines of coal India Ltd. 2005 %age of forest land diverted for mining 14.2 9.2 15. around Rs. and ailments such as asthma. This emits huge amount of Carbon Monoxide. a total of 1309 cases have been approved for forest diversion under various categories of mining which amounts to 100. .2 10.  Forest Land Diverted to mining: Forest Land diversion in states States Andhra Pradesh Chhattisgarh Gujarat Jharkhand Madhya Pradesh Orissa Table: Forest land diverted to mining. were operating in violation of the Environmental Impact Assessment in 2006. in 1980.  Artisanal Mining (including in situ mining): Artisanal mining is terrible for the land. These mines never applied or clearance and were operating on a renewal of lease basis. the MoEF declared that since the enactment of forest conservation act.5 10.871 hectares lost. air pollution and skin diseases.  Underground Mine Fires: Jharia in Jharkhand produces the best coking coal in India. and earn only a pitiful amount.4 In January 2010. water.which is basically a giant shovel attached to a giant crane. but the area mostly inhabited by travelers is smoldering with underground fire for decades. All that waste rock is then shoveled into adjacent valleys. and people’s health. Toxic substances such as mercury and cyanide are used to extract gold from the land. It disturbs the ecological balance of the surrounding areas. Sulphur dioxide and methane which leads to breathing problems. This type of mining has a huge impact on the land.40 daily. These were pre 1994 mines when EIA was not in place.6 16. When found out these mines applied for Environmental clearances.

and looks more like an unkempt ground than a water body. the 209-km long river is covered with shrubs and weeds. even as deforestation shrunk the river's catchment areas.  Water Pollution: Monnet Ispat’s underground coal mine has led to severe water pollution of the river Kelo disrupting the water life and causing hazards for the people.  Mining away the river: The Bharathapuzha river which used to be the lifeline of many villages is barely a trickle in the summer months. and also a critical tributary of the river Mahanadi. and one of the main causes of deaths among mineworkers in Rajasthan.The Kelo is not just the lifeline for those who live in and around Khamaria. There is still no concerted movement to regulate sand mining. And as trucks race to the middle of the riverbed to collect sand.  Death in landslides: Mining leads to weakening of the land structure of the region. Silicosis is the most fatal of these.tuberculosis and silicosis are common. . It is very important drinking water source for all of Raigarh district. a bit of the river dies every day. which once were mined for chromium and asbestos is proving a health hazard for people decade after it is closed causing TB and other diseases.7 million toxic wastes and iron scraps which were never disposed. unregulated sand mining has all but devoured the riverbed. The region still 0. 3 workers were killed supposedly due to negligence of the mining company in Cudegal. The river is already facing impacts of pollution at points closer to Raigarh city where a lot of the industrial effluent is visible  Post Closure effects: Roro Hills in Jharkhand. Its destruction has been rapid and steady. Over the past decade. In most parts.

km.82 million sq. Reserves of Iron ore and Bauxite in Australia grew 150% from 1985 to 2005.Mining: A necessity For a country like India Mining industry is a necessity. India's Share in worldwide exploration of non ferrous metals Other Countries 3% 2% 1% 4% 4% Canada Australia United States 31% Russia Mexico Peru Chile South Africa 12% 19% China Brazil India Large land mass is yet to be fully explored:  Total Land mass: 1.) mapped geo .2% over that in the previous 5% 6% 6% 7% Source: Strategic plan for Ministry of mines. employment growth in this sector has been stagnant at 3% for the last ten years. The contribution of mining and quarrying sector to GDP for the year 2010-11 is estimated at Rs.26% of GDP. Km. In contrast in India it only increased by 10-20%. Similarly. (mines.nic.278 crore which would indicate an increase of 18. the advance estimates of GDP (at current prices) for the year 2010-11 in respect of mining and quarrying sector accounted for about 2.) mapped geo physically. In terms of employment. Scope of further Growth: In India the share of Mining is GDP of the country is relatively less than many other countries in the world such as Australia. South Africa in which mining accounts for nearly 8% of the total GDP. The advance estimates of GDP (at 2004-05 prices) for the year 2010-11 in respect of mining and quarrying sector accounted for about 2. which compared poorly with 3. In addition. India. 110.4% in Chile.51% of GDP.  3% (56000 sq. a mere 0.8% in South Africa and 1.482 crore which would indicate an increase of 6. 182. The contribution of mining and quarrying sector to GDP for the year 2010-11 is estimated at Rs. Today Indian mining industry suffers from insufficient exploration of its reserves.3% of the population was engaged in the Indian mining sector.  4% (73000 sq.2% over that in the previous year.

It considers how moving activity will affect the local human population.  Article 51A: to protect and improve natural environment. EIA is generally doe when mining operations are evaluated for their impact o environment ad community.  Mineral Conservation and development Rules 1988.  Environment Impact Assessment Notification 1994.  Environmental Protection Act 1986.  Water (Prevention and control of pollution) Act 1974.Role of government in balancing the tussle between Environment vs mining: As discussed before the mining industry is an essential part of state and contributes in many ways for the economical development and growth but it is essential to balance it out with the environment regulations so as to benefit the society as a whole. National Committee on Environment Planning and Coordination (NCEPC) was formed in 1972 which later in 1985 evolved into a fully fledged Ministry of Environment and Forests (MOEF) which the apex body for protection and management of environment in the country. local and regional wildlife local land use and overall ecology. Mining ad environmental impact assessment: Environment Impact assessment (EIA) is an essential exercise to evaluate beneficial and adverse affects of mining operations of mining o the environment.  ISO 14000 family and environment standards. It has laid down several regulations in order to protect the environment and at the same time not dampen the country’s growth.  Hazardous waste (management and handling rule) 1989.  Mines and Minerals (Regulation and Development) Act 1957. Central pollution control boards (CPCBs) and State Pollution Control Boards (SPCBs) were constituted as autonomous institutes.  Air (Prevention and control of pollution) Act1981. Changes to water regimes ad lad contours. Some of the rules and acts laid down constitutionally by the government of India are as follows:  Article 48a of the constitution of India: Duty of the state to conserve the environment. the disposal of mine .  Coal conservation and development Act 1957.  Forest conservation Act 1980. Hence the Government of India has an important role to play.

It is valuable document to the mine manager as it describes the environmental features of the site. Dhanbad deals exclusively with mining and associated environmental issues.waste ad tailings together with other issues such as transport of product ad raw material have to e evaluated. Determinants of the key environmental parameters to be measured in the environmental auditing procedure during the operational life time of the mine. Ministry of Environment and Forest has identified a total of 25 centres throughout the country under its Environmental Information System network foe the collection. Provide the basis of a plan for environment management and protection (EMP). retrieval and dissemination of information on various subject specific areas of environment. The EIS should e kept o site. Contents of EIS:      Identify any environmental constraints on the mining development in the particular location. collation. TO ensure that the decision maker and the community are fully aware of the nature of development. ad updated with further baseline data as it comes to hand. The environmental studies along description of proposed mining operation form the basis of Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). Provide input to site ad operational approvals ad permits. These centres are actively involved in strengthening the environmental database and responding to national and international queries relating to their specific subject areas. Centre for Mining Environment (CME) at Indian school of mines. . its impact on environment and nature of mitigating measures proposed.

Chart: Institutional Mechanism: Mining and environment .

Efforts made in this direction during the last years have resulted in a major shift in focus of miningenvironment policy in India. a wide range of framework for environmental management is existing in the country. and regulators has to be reached. Happiness lies in greenness. However compliance has been slow and uneven. In the Mining sector. A general consensus among the stake holders. measuring up to the challenges of economic liberalization and at the same time not to pose a threat to the ecological integrity of the nation. A lot has been done but still there is a long way to go. The mining sector faces a critical challenge in the coming years. The enabling framework needs more focused strengthening to ensure that the principles of best mining and environmental management practices are adopted.Conclusion: There is a dire need of linkages with many academic departments for eco-friendly mining operations. . policy makers.

org 4) – Annual Report 2010 -11 3) 7) frontline – news articles .mapsofindia. J K Pattanayak.nic. Chandan Bhar. 2) 5) oecd. Pramod 6) www.References: 1) Management education and environmental dimensions. Niladri