Nama : Jumawati B NIM :10535 3702 08

AEROPLANES AND GLOBAL WARMING
by Mike Rayner

Have you ever looked out of the window of a passenger plane from 30,000 feet at the vast expanses of empty ocean and uninhabited land, and wondered how people can have any major effect on the Earth? I have. But it is now becoming pretty clear that we are causing a great deal of damage to the natural environment. And the planes which rush us in comfort to destinations around the globe, contribute to one of the biggest environmental problems that we face today – global warming. For those of us lucky enough to have money to spend, and the free time to spend it in, there are a huge number of fascinating places to explore. The cost of air transport has decreased rapidly over the years, and for many people, especially in rich countries, it is now possible to fly around the world for little more than the contents of our weekly pay packets. Unfortunately, planes produce far more carbon dioxide (CO2) than any other form of public transport, and CO2 is now known to be a greenhouse gas, a gas which traps the heat of the sun, causing the temperature of the Earth to rise. Scientists predict that in the near future the climate in Britain will resemble that of the Mediterranean, ironically a popular destination for British holidaymakers flying off to seek the sun. If global warming continues, we may also find that many tourist destinations such as The Maldives have disappeared under water because of rising sea levels. As usual, people in the developing world are having to deal with problems created mainly by those of us in developed countries. Beatrice Schell, a spokeswoman for the European Federation for Transport and Environment says that, "One person flying in an airplane for one hour is responsible for the same greenhouse gas emissions as a typical Bangladeshi in a whole year." And every year jet aircraft generate almost as much carbon dioxide as the entire African continent produces. When you are waiting impatiently in a crowded departure lounge for a delayed flight or trying to find luggage which has gone astray, plane fares may seem unreasonably high, but in reality we are not paying enough for air travel. Under the “polluter pays principle”, where users pay for the bad effects they cause, the damage caused by planes is not being paid for. Aircraft fuel is not taxed on international flights and planes, unlike cars, are not inspected for CO2 emissions. Also, the Kyoto agreement does not cover greenhouse gases produced by planes, leaving governments to decide for themselves who is responsible.

so it is up to individual travellers to do what they can to help.org. and was happy to pay Future Forests 25 pounds to plant the 3 trees which balance my share of the CO2 produced by my return flight. and exotic destinations more popular than ever. whose supporters include Coldplay and Pink Floyd. but most businesspeople still prefer to meet face-to-face. A company called Future Forests. Another company. it is hard to persuade British tourists to choose Blackpool instead of Bangkok. offers a similar service. . However with prices of flights at an all time low. and for a small fee will plant the number of trees which will absorb this CO2. The most obvious way of dealing with the problem is to not travel by plane at all. Yesterday I returned to Japan from England.So what can be done to solve the problem? Well. Now the only thing making me lose sleep is jet lag. The Future Forest website calculates the amount of CO2 you are responsible for producing on your flight. it will be decades before air travel is not damaging to the environment. Friends of the Earth also advise using teleconferencing for international business meetings. Environmental groups like Friends of the Earth encourage people to travel by train and plan holidays nearer home. or Skegness over Singapore. offers a service which can relieve the guilty consciences of air travellers. but invests your money in energy saving projects such as providing efficient light bulbs to villagers in Mauritius. Governments don’t seem to be taking the problem seriously. co2. However there is a way of offsetting the carbon dioxide we produce when we travel by plane. although aircraft engine manufacturers are making more efficient engines and researching alternative fuels such as hydrogen.

causing the temperature of the Earth to rise. Scientists predict that in the near future the climate in Britain will resemble that of the Mediterranean. but in reality we are not paying enough for air travel. are not inspected for CO2 emissions. Beatrice Schell.000 feet at the vast expanses of empty ocean and uninhabited land. Environmental groups like Friends of the Earth encourage people to travel by train and plan holidays nearer . Aircraft fuel is not taxed on international flights and planes. and the free time to spend it in. so it is up to individual travellers to do what they can to help. So what can be done to solve the problem? Well. planes produce far more carbon dioxide (CO2) than any other form of public transport. the Kyoto agreement does not cover greenhouse gases produced by planes. people in the developing world are having to deal with problems created mainly by those of us in developed countries. it is now possible to fly around the world for little more than the contents of our weekly pay packets. When you are waiting impatiently in a crowded departure lounge for a delayed flight or trying to find luggage which has gone astray. "One person flying in an airplane for one hour is responsible for the same greenhouse gas emissions as a typical Bangladeshi in a whole year. the damage caused by planes is not being paid for. there are a huge number of fascinating places to explore. we may also find that many tourist destinations such as The Maldives have disappeared under water because of rising sea levels. where users pay for the bad effects they cause. although aircraft engine manufacturers are making more efficient engines and researching alternative fuels such as hydrogen. leaving governments to decide for themselves who is responsible. and wondered how people can have any major effect on the Earth? I have." And every year jet aircraft generate almost as much carbon dioxide as the entire African continent produces. a spokeswoman for the European Federation for Transport and Environment says that. unlike cars.AEROPLANES AND GLOBAL WARMING Have you ever looked out of the window of a passenger plane from 30. If global warming continues. plane fares may seem unreasonably high. and CO2 is now known to be a greenhouse gas. Also. Under the “polluter pays principle”. Governments don’t seem to be taking the problem seriously. The most obvious way of dealing with the problem is to not travel by plane at all. contribute to one of the biggest environmental problems that we face today – global warming. ironically a popular destination for British holidaymakers flying off to seek the sun. As usual. and for many people. a gas which traps the heat of the sun. The cost of air transport has decreased rapidly over the years. Unfortunately. especially in rich countries. For those of us lucky enough to have money to spend. it will be decades before air travel is not damaging to the environment. But it is now becoming pretty clear that we are causing a great deal of damage to the natural environment. And the planes which rush us in comfort to destinations around the globe.

Yesterday I returned to Japan from England. Friends of the Earth also advise using teleconferencing for international business meetings. or Skegness over Singapore. offers a similar service. co2. and exotic destinations more popular than ever.org. . A company called Future Forests. but most businesspeople still prefer to meet face-to-face. However there is a way of offsetting the carbon dioxide we produce when we travel by plane. whose supporters include Coldplay and Pink Floyd. offers a service which can relieve the guilty consciences of air travellers. but invests your money in energy saving projects such as providing efficient light bulbs to villagers in Mauritius. it is hard to persuade British tourists to choose Blackpool instead of Bangkok.home. and for a small fee will plant the number of trees which will absorb this CO2. Now the only thing making me lose sleep is jet lag. However with prices of flights at an all time low. and was happy to pay Future Forests 25 pounds to plant the 3 trees which balance my share of the CO2 produced by my return flight. Another company. The Future Forest website calculates the amount of CO2 you are responsible for producing on your flight.

water. This meant that poor countries were only left with one choice if they wanted to get richer – doing business with everyone else on the planet. Development is happening everywhere around the world and it has started to be called “globalisation”. the banks and the big companies that are involved in international trade. or to buy expensive luxuries. The Soviet Union and countries closely connected with it made another different world. if you look at it another way. so they don’t do much to help people in their own countries. However. Many of the poorest countries got professional “help” to do this from the International Monetary Fund. all of the human race is developing… Twenty years ago the world was divided into three parts. . International trade can’t help these countries at all. or in fact the places where the Cold War could turn into a real one. The world’s wealth ends up going to the richest organisations in the richest countries. During the same period the economies of the rich countries have been changing. Then the second world disappeared. These rich people tend to spend or save their money in the capitals of rich countries. schools and doctors? For people living in the rich countries talking about “development” usually means feeling sorry for poor people in poor countries. The “first world” was the rich countries of Western Europe. or feeling happy about pop stars or politicians who say they have done something to help them. The World Bank and other organisations. and then there was the “Third World” – countries which had to choose which side they were on. in fact they are changing faster and faster with every new technology and fashion. These organisations lent them money and told them what kind of political changes to make in their country. It leaves the poor countries either to pay back loans. The worst situation occurs in areas where there are no resources that the rest of the world wants to buy. There is a serious argument that this process is unfair and that it is causing a lot of poverty in poor countries and in rich ones. the economic parts of the argument go something like this: International trade is good for a minority of people who receive the profits from big transactions. It’s clearly not true that that these countries have finished developing. A lot of industries have closed down or been moved abroad. North America and Japan. weapons and other things that only the “First World” produces. But.Nama : Jumawati B 10535 3702 08 DEVELOPMENT by John Kuti Why are there so many people in the world without food. The “Third World” did not get its name for being poor but for being outside of the Cold War. There has been a big increase in the employment of people who provide services – complicated services like investments or insurance and simple ones like sandwiches. Some of the “anti-globalists” are really not interested about economics at all.

It leaves the poor countries either to pay back loans. the banks and the big companies that are involved in international trade. It’s clearly not true that that these countries have finished developing. The worst situation occurs in areas where there are no resources that the rest of the world wants to buy.DEVELOPMENT Why are there so many people in the world without food. The “first world” was the rich countries of Western Europe. But. and then there was the “Third World” – countries which had to choose which side they were on. Many of the poorest countries got professional “help” to do this from the International Monetary Fund. North America and Japan. However. Development is happening everywhere around the world and it has started to be called “globalisation”. This meant that poor countries were only left with one choice if they wanted to get richer – doing business with everyone else on the planet. so they don’t do much to help people in their own countries. Some of the “anti-globalists” are really not interested about economics at all. During the same period the economies of the rich countries have been changing. The “Third World” did not get its name for being poor but for being outside of the Cold War. . or to buy expensive luxuries. International trade can’t help these countries at all. the economic parts of the argument go something like this: International trade is good for a minority of people who receive the profits from big transactions. Then the second world disappeared. The World Bank and other organisations. if you look at it another way. or feeling happy about pop stars or politicians who say they have done something to help them. There is a serious argument that this process is unfair and that it is causing a lot of poverty in poor countries and in rich ones. in fact they are changing faster and faster with every new technology and fashion. These organisations lent them money and told them what kind of political changes to make in their country. The world’s wealth ends up going to the richest organisations in the richest countries. weapons and other things that only the “First World” produces. These rich people tend to spend or save their money in the capitals of rich countries. The Soviet Union and countries closely connected with it made another different world. A lot of industries have closed down or been moved abroad. water. schools and doctors? For people living in the rich countries talking about “development” usually means feeling sorry for poor people in poor countries. or in fact the places where the Cold War could turn into a real one. There has been a big increase in the employment of people who provide services – complicated services like investments or insurance and simple ones like sandwiches. all of the human race is developing… Twenty years ago the world was divided into three parts.

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