Nama : Jumawati B NIM :10535 3702 08

AEROPLANES AND GLOBAL WARMING
by Mike Rayner

Have you ever looked out of the window of a passenger plane from 30,000 feet at the vast expanses of empty ocean and uninhabited land, and wondered how people can have any major effect on the Earth? I have. But it is now becoming pretty clear that we are causing a great deal of damage to the natural environment. And the planes which rush us in comfort to destinations around the globe, contribute to one of the biggest environmental problems that we face today – global warming. For those of us lucky enough to have money to spend, and the free time to spend it in, there are a huge number of fascinating places to explore. The cost of air transport has decreased rapidly over the years, and for many people, especially in rich countries, it is now possible to fly around the world for little more than the contents of our weekly pay packets. Unfortunately, planes produce far more carbon dioxide (CO2) than any other form of public transport, and CO2 is now known to be a greenhouse gas, a gas which traps the heat of the sun, causing the temperature of the Earth to rise. Scientists predict that in the near future the climate in Britain will resemble that of the Mediterranean, ironically a popular destination for British holidaymakers flying off to seek the sun. If global warming continues, we may also find that many tourist destinations such as The Maldives have disappeared under water because of rising sea levels. As usual, people in the developing world are having to deal with problems created mainly by those of us in developed countries. Beatrice Schell, a spokeswoman for the European Federation for Transport and Environment says that, "One person flying in an airplane for one hour is responsible for the same greenhouse gas emissions as a typical Bangladeshi in a whole year." And every year jet aircraft generate almost as much carbon dioxide as the entire African continent produces. When you are waiting impatiently in a crowded departure lounge for a delayed flight or trying to find luggage which has gone astray, plane fares may seem unreasonably high, but in reality we are not paying enough for air travel. Under the “polluter pays principle”, where users pay for the bad effects they cause, the damage caused by planes is not being paid for. Aircraft fuel is not taxed on international flights and planes, unlike cars, are not inspected for CO2 emissions. Also, the Kyoto agreement does not cover greenhouse gases produced by planes, leaving governments to decide for themselves who is responsible.

. whose supporters include Coldplay and Pink Floyd. although aircraft engine manufacturers are making more efficient engines and researching alternative fuels such as hydrogen. it is hard to persuade British tourists to choose Blackpool instead of Bangkok. Another company. The most obvious way of dealing with the problem is to not travel by plane at all. Friends of the Earth also advise using teleconferencing for international business meetings. The Future Forest website calculates the amount of CO2 you are responsible for producing on your flight. but invests your money in energy saving projects such as providing efficient light bulbs to villagers in Mauritius. or Skegness over Singapore. A company called Future Forests. and exotic destinations more popular than ever. Yesterday I returned to Japan from England. Now the only thing making me lose sleep is jet lag. However with prices of flights at an all time low. but most businesspeople still prefer to meet face-to-face. Environmental groups like Friends of the Earth encourage people to travel by train and plan holidays nearer home.So what can be done to solve the problem? Well. offers a similar service. it will be decades before air travel is not damaging to the environment. co2. However there is a way of offsetting the carbon dioxide we produce when we travel by plane. and was happy to pay Future Forests 25 pounds to plant the 3 trees which balance my share of the CO2 produced by my return flight.org. so it is up to individual travellers to do what they can to help. and for a small fee will plant the number of trees which will absorb this CO2. Governments don’t seem to be taking the problem seriously. offers a service which can relieve the guilty consciences of air travellers.

we may also find that many tourist destinations such as The Maldives have disappeared under water because of rising sea levels.AEROPLANES AND GLOBAL WARMING Have you ever looked out of the window of a passenger plane from 30. contribute to one of the biggest environmental problems that we face today – global warming. and wondered how people can have any major effect on the Earth? I have. The most obvious way of dealing with the problem is to not travel by plane at all. people in the developing world are having to deal with problems created mainly by those of us in developed countries. When you are waiting impatiently in a crowded departure lounge for a delayed flight or trying to find luggage which has gone astray. Governments don’t seem to be taking the problem seriously. If global warming continues. Under the “polluter pays principle”. unlike cars. the Kyoto agreement does not cover greenhouse gases produced by planes. Also. So what can be done to solve the problem? Well. ironically a popular destination for British holidaymakers flying off to seek the sun." And every year jet aircraft generate almost as much carbon dioxide as the entire African continent produces. Scientists predict that in the near future the climate in Britain will resemble that of the Mediterranean. planes produce far more carbon dioxide (CO2) than any other form of public transport. it is now possible to fly around the world for little more than the contents of our weekly pay packets. Beatrice Schell. and the free time to spend it in. The cost of air transport has decreased rapidly over the years. there are a huge number of fascinating places to explore. Aircraft fuel is not taxed on international flights and planes. As usual. and for many people. For those of us lucky enough to have money to spend. but in reality we are not paying enough for air travel. especially in rich countries. Unfortunately. But it is now becoming pretty clear that we are causing a great deal of damage to the natural environment. "One person flying in an airplane for one hour is responsible for the same greenhouse gas emissions as a typical Bangladeshi in a whole year. plane fares may seem unreasonably high. although aircraft engine manufacturers are making more efficient engines and researching alternative fuels such as hydrogen. causing the temperature of the Earth to rise. so it is up to individual travellers to do what they can to help. and CO2 is now known to be a greenhouse gas. a spokeswoman for the European Federation for Transport and Environment says that. are not inspected for CO2 emissions. it will be decades before air travel is not damaging to the environment. And the planes which rush us in comfort to destinations around the globe.000 feet at the vast expanses of empty ocean and uninhabited land. a gas which traps the heat of the sun. where users pay for the bad effects they cause. leaving governments to decide for themselves who is responsible. the damage caused by planes is not being paid for. Environmental groups like Friends of the Earth encourage people to travel by train and plan holidays nearer .

Now the only thing making me lose sleep is jet lag. A company called Future Forests. it is hard to persuade British tourists to choose Blackpool instead of Bangkok. and exotic destinations more popular than ever.home. The Future Forest website calculates the amount of CO2 you are responsible for producing on your flight. However there is a way of offsetting the carbon dioxide we produce when we travel by plane. but most businesspeople still prefer to meet face-to-face. offers a service which can relieve the guilty consciences of air travellers. Another company. or Skegness over Singapore.org. . whose supporters include Coldplay and Pink Floyd. However with prices of flights at an all time low. Friends of the Earth also advise using teleconferencing for international business meetings. Yesterday I returned to Japan from England. and was happy to pay Future Forests 25 pounds to plant the 3 trees which balance my share of the CO2 produced by my return flight. co2. and for a small fee will plant the number of trees which will absorb this CO2. offers a similar service. but invests your money in energy saving projects such as providing efficient light bulbs to villagers in Mauritius.

It leaves the poor countries either to pay back loans. Development is happening everywhere around the world and it has started to be called “globalisation”. . There has been a big increase in the employment of people who provide services – complicated services like investments or insurance and simple ones like sandwiches. International trade can’t help these countries at all. The “Third World” did not get its name for being poor but for being outside of the Cold War. so they don’t do much to help people in their own countries. It’s clearly not true that that these countries have finished developing. These rich people tend to spend or save their money in the capitals of rich countries. weapons and other things that only the “First World” produces. or feeling happy about pop stars or politicians who say they have done something to help them. The World Bank and other organisations. The world’s wealth ends up going to the richest organisations in the richest countries. if you look at it another way. Many of the poorest countries got professional “help” to do this from the International Monetary Fund. the economic parts of the argument go something like this: International trade is good for a minority of people who receive the profits from big transactions.Nama : Jumawati B 10535 3702 08 DEVELOPMENT by John Kuti Why are there so many people in the world without food. all of the human race is developing… Twenty years ago the world was divided into three parts. The worst situation occurs in areas where there are no resources that the rest of the world wants to buy. water. and then there was the “Third World” – countries which had to choose which side they were on. The Soviet Union and countries closely connected with it made another different world. But. North America and Japan. There is a serious argument that this process is unfair and that it is causing a lot of poverty in poor countries and in rich ones. Some of the “anti-globalists” are really not interested about economics at all. These organisations lent them money and told them what kind of political changes to make in their country. in fact they are changing faster and faster with every new technology and fashion. This meant that poor countries were only left with one choice if they wanted to get richer – doing business with everyone else on the planet. schools and doctors? For people living in the rich countries talking about “development” usually means feeling sorry for poor people in poor countries. A lot of industries have closed down or been moved abroad. the banks and the big companies that are involved in international trade. or to buy expensive luxuries. During the same period the economies of the rich countries have been changing. The “first world” was the rich countries of Western Europe. However. Then the second world disappeared. or in fact the places where the Cold War could turn into a real one.

It leaves the poor countries either to pay back loans. if you look at it another way. A lot of industries have closed down or been moved abroad. schools and doctors? For people living in the rich countries talking about “development” usually means feeling sorry for poor people in poor countries. This meant that poor countries were only left with one choice if they wanted to get richer – doing business with everyone else on the planet. But. North America and Japan.DEVELOPMENT Why are there so many people in the world without food. or to buy expensive luxuries. Many of the poorest countries got professional “help” to do this from the International Monetary Fund. There is a serious argument that this process is unfair and that it is causing a lot of poverty in poor countries and in rich ones. The “Third World” did not get its name for being poor but for being outside of the Cold War. These rich people tend to spend or save their money in the capitals of rich countries. Some of the “anti-globalists” are really not interested about economics at all. or in fact the places where the Cold War could turn into a real one. During the same period the economies of the rich countries have been changing. The world’s wealth ends up going to the richest organisations in the richest countries. the economic parts of the argument go something like this: International trade is good for a minority of people who receive the profits from big transactions. or feeling happy about pop stars or politicians who say they have done something to help them. the banks and the big companies that are involved in international trade. so they don’t do much to help people in their own countries. International trade can’t help these countries at all. It’s clearly not true that that these countries have finished developing. However. and then there was the “Third World” – countries which had to choose which side they were on. all of the human race is developing… Twenty years ago the world was divided into three parts. The Soviet Union and countries closely connected with it made another different world. The worst situation occurs in areas where there are no resources that the rest of the world wants to buy. The “first world” was the rich countries of Western Europe. These organisations lent them money and told them what kind of political changes to make in their country. There has been a big increase in the employment of people who provide services – complicated services like investments or insurance and simple ones like sandwiches. . weapons and other things that only the “First World” produces. Then the second world disappeared. The World Bank and other organisations. in fact they are changing faster and faster with every new technology and fashion. water. Development is happening everywhere around the world and it has started to be called “globalisation”.

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