Nama : Jumawati B NIM :10535 3702 08

AEROPLANES AND GLOBAL WARMING
by Mike Rayner

Have you ever looked out of the window of a passenger plane from 30,000 feet at the vast expanses of empty ocean and uninhabited land, and wondered how people can have any major effect on the Earth? I have. But it is now becoming pretty clear that we are causing a great deal of damage to the natural environment. And the planes which rush us in comfort to destinations around the globe, contribute to one of the biggest environmental problems that we face today – global warming. For those of us lucky enough to have money to spend, and the free time to spend it in, there are a huge number of fascinating places to explore. The cost of air transport has decreased rapidly over the years, and for many people, especially in rich countries, it is now possible to fly around the world for little more than the contents of our weekly pay packets. Unfortunately, planes produce far more carbon dioxide (CO2) than any other form of public transport, and CO2 is now known to be a greenhouse gas, a gas which traps the heat of the sun, causing the temperature of the Earth to rise. Scientists predict that in the near future the climate in Britain will resemble that of the Mediterranean, ironically a popular destination for British holidaymakers flying off to seek the sun. If global warming continues, we may also find that many tourist destinations such as The Maldives have disappeared under water because of rising sea levels. As usual, people in the developing world are having to deal with problems created mainly by those of us in developed countries. Beatrice Schell, a spokeswoman for the European Federation for Transport and Environment says that, "One person flying in an airplane for one hour is responsible for the same greenhouse gas emissions as a typical Bangladeshi in a whole year." And every year jet aircraft generate almost as much carbon dioxide as the entire African continent produces. When you are waiting impatiently in a crowded departure lounge for a delayed flight or trying to find luggage which has gone astray, plane fares may seem unreasonably high, but in reality we are not paying enough for air travel. Under the “polluter pays principle”, where users pay for the bad effects they cause, the damage caused by planes is not being paid for. Aircraft fuel is not taxed on international flights and planes, unlike cars, are not inspected for CO2 emissions. Also, the Kyoto agreement does not cover greenhouse gases produced by planes, leaving governments to decide for themselves who is responsible.

The most obvious way of dealing with the problem is to not travel by plane at all.org. Another company. A company called Future Forests. Friends of the Earth also advise using teleconferencing for international business meetings. although aircraft engine manufacturers are making more efficient engines and researching alternative fuels such as hydrogen. Environmental groups like Friends of the Earth encourage people to travel by train and plan holidays nearer home. Yesterday I returned to Japan from England. Now the only thing making me lose sleep is jet lag. offers a similar service. and for a small fee will plant the number of trees which will absorb this CO2. and exotic destinations more popular than ever. and was happy to pay Future Forests 25 pounds to plant the 3 trees which balance my share of the CO2 produced by my return flight. . co2. or Skegness over Singapore. whose supporters include Coldplay and Pink Floyd. However with prices of flights at an all time low. but most businesspeople still prefer to meet face-to-face.So what can be done to solve the problem? Well. The Future Forest website calculates the amount of CO2 you are responsible for producing on your flight. so it is up to individual travellers to do what they can to help. Governments don’t seem to be taking the problem seriously. offers a service which can relieve the guilty consciences of air travellers. it is hard to persuade British tourists to choose Blackpool instead of Bangkok. However there is a way of offsetting the carbon dioxide we produce when we travel by plane. it will be decades before air travel is not damaging to the environment. but invests your money in energy saving projects such as providing efficient light bulbs to villagers in Mauritius.

contribute to one of the biggest environmental problems that we face today – global warming. If global warming continues.AEROPLANES AND GLOBAL WARMING Have you ever looked out of the window of a passenger plane from 30. leaving governments to decide for themselves who is responsible. "One person flying in an airplane for one hour is responsible for the same greenhouse gas emissions as a typical Bangladeshi in a whole year. Governments don’t seem to be taking the problem seriously. and CO2 is now known to be a greenhouse gas. it will be decades before air travel is not damaging to the environment. So what can be done to solve the problem? Well. planes produce far more carbon dioxide (CO2) than any other form of public transport. As usual. but in reality we are not paying enough for air travel. and the free time to spend it in. we may also find that many tourist destinations such as The Maldives have disappeared under water because of rising sea levels. causing the temperature of the Earth to rise. The cost of air transport has decreased rapidly over the years. The most obvious way of dealing with the problem is to not travel by plane at all. and for many people. For those of us lucky enough to have money to spend. there are a huge number of fascinating places to explore. the Kyoto agreement does not cover greenhouse gases produced by planes. Scientists predict that in the near future the climate in Britain will resemble that of the Mediterranean. where users pay for the bad effects they cause. And the planes which rush us in comfort to destinations around the globe. it is now possible to fly around the world for little more than the contents of our weekly pay packets.000 feet at the vast expanses of empty ocean and uninhabited land. But it is now becoming pretty clear that we are causing a great deal of damage to the natural environment. a gas which traps the heat of the sun. Environmental groups like Friends of the Earth encourage people to travel by train and plan holidays nearer . a spokeswoman for the European Federation for Transport and Environment says that. especially in rich countries. although aircraft engine manufacturers are making more efficient engines and researching alternative fuels such as hydrogen." And every year jet aircraft generate almost as much carbon dioxide as the entire African continent produces. people in the developing world are having to deal with problems created mainly by those of us in developed countries. unlike cars. and wondered how people can have any major effect on the Earth? I have. Under the “polluter pays principle”. plane fares may seem unreasonably high. Beatrice Schell. ironically a popular destination for British holidaymakers flying off to seek the sun. so it is up to individual travellers to do what they can to help. the damage caused by planes is not being paid for. Also. Unfortunately. Aircraft fuel is not taxed on international flights and planes. When you are waiting impatiently in a crowded departure lounge for a delayed flight or trying to find luggage which has gone astray. are not inspected for CO2 emissions.

Another company. A company called Future Forests. but invests your money in energy saving projects such as providing efficient light bulbs to villagers in Mauritius. Now the only thing making me lose sleep is jet lag. offers a similar service.org. and exotic destinations more popular than ever. but most businesspeople still prefer to meet face-to-face. co2. whose supporters include Coldplay and Pink Floyd. Friends of the Earth also advise using teleconferencing for international business meetings. .home. offers a service which can relieve the guilty consciences of air travellers. However there is a way of offsetting the carbon dioxide we produce when we travel by plane. and was happy to pay Future Forests 25 pounds to plant the 3 trees which balance my share of the CO2 produced by my return flight. The Future Forest website calculates the amount of CO2 you are responsible for producing on your flight. or Skegness over Singapore. and for a small fee will plant the number of trees which will absorb this CO2. it is hard to persuade British tourists to choose Blackpool instead of Bangkok. Yesterday I returned to Japan from England. However with prices of flights at an all time low.

Nama : Jumawati B 10535 3702 08 DEVELOPMENT by John Kuti Why are there so many people in the world without food. It leaves the poor countries either to pay back loans. schools and doctors? For people living in the rich countries talking about “development” usually means feeling sorry for poor people in poor countries. . The worst situation occurs in areas where there are no resources that the rest of the world wants to buy. water. the economic parts of the argument go something like this: International trade is good for a minority of people who receive the profits from big transactions. Some of the “anti-globalists” are really not interested about economics at all. The Soviet Union and countries closely connected with it made another different world. the banks and the big companies that are involved in international trade. The world’s wealth ends up going to the richest organisations in the richest countries. But. and then there was the “Third World” – countries which had to choose which side they were on. A lot of industries have closed down or been moved abroad. During the same period the economies of the rich countries have been changing. The “first world” was the rich countries of Western Europe. so they don’t do much to help people in their own countries. The “Third World” did not get its name for being poor but for being outside of the Cold War. Many of the poorest countries got professional “help” to do this from the International Monetary Fund. or to buy expensive luxuries. if you look at it another way. However. It’s clearly not true that that these countries have finished developing. These rich people tend to spend or save their money in the capitals of rich countries. There is a serious argument that this process is unfair and that it is causing a lot of poverty in poor countries and in rich ones. There has been a big increase in the employment of people who provide services – complicated services like investments or insurance and simple ones like sandwiches. Development is happening everywhere around the world and it has started to be called “globalisation”. Then the second world disappeared. International trade can’t help these countries at all. North America and Japan. or in fact the places where the Cold War could turn into a real one. The World Bank and other organisations. weapons and other things that only the “First World” produces. These organisations lent them money and told them what kind of political changes to make in their country. in fact they are changing faster and faster with every new technology and fashion. or feeling happy about pop stars or politicians who say they have done something to help them. This meant that poor countries were only left with one choice if they wanted to get richer – doing business with everyone else on the planet. all of the human race is developing… Twenty years ago the world was divided into three parts.

in fact they are changing faster and faster with every new technology and fashion. or in fact the places where the Cold War could turn into a real one. the economic parts of the argument go something like this: International trade is good for a minority of people who receive the profits from big transactions. The world’s wealth ends up going to the richest organisations in the richest countries. Some of the “anti-globalists” are really not interested about economics at all.DEVELOPMENT Why are there so many people in the world without food. This meant that poor countries were only left with one choice if they wanted to get richer – doing business with everyone else on the planet. There is a serious argument that this process is unfair and that it is causing a lot of poverty in poor countries and in rich ones. or feeling happy about pop stars or politicians who say they have done something to help them. These organisations lent them money and told them what kind of political changes to make in their country. The Soviet Union and countries closely connected with it made another different world. It leaves the poor countries either to pay back loans. weapons and other things that only the “First World” produces. or to buy expensive luxuries. A lot of industries have closed down or been moved abroad. These rich people tend to spend or save their money in the capitals of rich countries. schools and doctors? For people living in the rich countries talking about “development” usually means feeling sorry for poor people in poor countries. and then there was the “Third World” – countries which had to choose which side they were on. It’s clearly not true that that these countries have finished developing. if you look at it another way. There has been a big increase in the employment of people who provide services – complicated services like investments or insurance and simple ones like sandwiches. The World Bank and other organisations. water. However. so they don’t do much to help people in their own countries. The “Third World” did not get its name for being poor but for being outside of the Cold War. The “first world” was the rich countries of Western Europe. International trade can’t help these countries at all. Many of the poorest countries got professional “help” to do this from the International Monetary Fund. The worst situation occurs in areas where there are no resources that the rest of the world wants to buy. But. Development is happening everywhere around the world and it has started to be called “globalisation”. all of the human race is developing… Twenty years ago the world was divided into three parts. . Then the second world disappeared. the banks and the big companies that are involved in international trade. North America and Japan. During the same period the economies of the rich countries have been changing.

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