Está en la página 1de 8

(OH.WURD.VWL.DEVL.

D\ UHIXHU]RVRQRUR

 r4XHVHOVRQLGR" (OVRQLGRHVXQDYDULD.LQGHODSUHVLQGHDLUH.RQHOWLHPSRTXHVH SURSDJDHQXQPHGLRHOVWL.R.RPRHODLUH&RPSDUDGRDODSUHVLQGH DLUHHVWWL.DGH3$6&$/ %DU ODSDUWHTXHVHDOWHUDGHOD SUHVLQ SHODSUHVLQVRQRUD HVPX\SHTXHD(OOPLWHGHOD DXGLHQ.LDKXPDQDVHDO.DQ]DDVOR3D G%V63/  /RQJLWXGGHRQGD\)UH.XHQ.LD  /D IUH.XHQ.LD GH XQD VHDO GHV.ULEH HO QPHUR GH RV.LOD.LRQHV SRU  VHJXQGR XQLGDG +HUW]LR  V  0LHQWUDV TXH OD RQGD SURSDJD .RQ YHOR.LGDG .RQVWDQWH VX ORQJLWXG GH RQGD VH SXHGH GHILQLU .RPR   .I GRQGH   ORQJLWXG GH RQGD .  YHOR.LGDGGHOVRQLGR PV \I IUH.XHQ.LD /RQJLWXG GH RQGD HV OD GLVWDQ.LD TXH .XEUH XQD RQGD GXUDQWH XQD RV.LOD.LQ .RPSOHWD (O UDQJR GH IUH.XHQ.LDV DXGLEOHV .XEUH XQDV  2.WDYDV GHVGH +] KDVWD N+]6X .RUUHVSRQGLHQWH UDQJR GH ORQJLWXGHV GH RQGD .XEULUD GHVGH PWV D  .P OD OX] YLVLEOH .XEUH QL.DPHQWHXQDR.WDYDGHDQP  3URSDJD.LQGHOVRQLGR /D YHOR.LGDG . GH SURSDJD.LQ GH XQD RQGD VRQRUD HV GH DSUR[LPDGDPHQWHPV .DPELD.RQODWHPSHUDWXUDGHODLUH (VWR VLJQLIL.DUD XQRV  .PK R  03+ ./D RQGD QH.HVLWDU SRU .RQVLJXLHQWHPVHJSDUDGHVSOD]DUVHPW(QXQPHGLRKRPRJQHR HO VRQLGR VH GHVSOD]D HQ OQHD UH.WD GH WRGDV IRUPDV ORV DJHQWHV DWPRVIUL.RVSXHGHQGHVYLDUODRQGDD.VWL.D 5HIUD..LQSRU.DSDVGHWHPSHUDWXUD 'HO PLVPR PRGR TXH OD OX] ODV RQGDV VRQRUDV VRQ UHIOH.WDGDV HQ OD VXSHUIL.LHTXHVHSDUDGRVPHGLRVGLVWLQWRV(VWRHVGHELGRDODGLIHUHQWH YHOR.LGDG GHO VRQLGR HQ DPERV PHGLRV (VWH IHQPHQR R.XUUH  SRU HMHPSORHQWUH.DSDVGHDLUH.RQGLVWLQWDVWHPSHUDWXUDV 5HIUD..LQSRUYLHQWR /DYHOR.LGDGGHOYLHQWRDQLYHOGHOVXHORVXHOHVHUPHQRUTXHDPD\RUHV DOWXUDV 3RU HVWH PRWLYR WDPELQ OD YHOR.LGDG GH SURSDJD.LQ GHO VRQLGR.DPELDVHJQODDOWXUDUHVSH.WRHOVXHOR (VWRGDOXJDUDXQHIH.WRGHUHIUD..LQTXHGHVYDHOVRQLGRTXHYLDMD .RQWUDHOYLHQWRKD.LDDUULED\OLPLWDDVHODO.DQ.HGHODIXHQWHVRQRUD HQHVWDGLUH..LQ (OPLVPRHIH.WRR.XUUH.XDQGRODVRQGDVVRQRUDVVHGHVSOD]DQKD.LDOD PLVPDGLUH..LQGHOYLHQWR(QHVWH.DVRVHSRGUDQVRUWHDQREVW.XORV HQWUHODIXHQWHVRQRUD\HOR\HQWH 

7HPSl&      




& >PVHJ@      

.>PVP@      

9HOR.LGDGGHOVRQLGRUHVSH.WRWHPSHUDWXUD


5HIUD..LQSRU.DSDVGHWHPSHUDWXUD


5HIUD..LQSRUYDULD.LRQHVHQODYHOR.LGDGGHO YLHQWR

(6 

3DJ

N+] 


N+] 

N+] 

N+] 

3UGLGDSRUSURSDJD.LQHQHODLUH G% SRUPDSUR[HQWHPSHUDWXUDV! l&\KXPHGDG! 

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

)>+]@          


 P P P P .P .P .P .P .P .P

)UH.XQ.LD\ORQJLWXGGHRQGD

'LIUD..LQ 'LIUD..LQ GHV.ULEH HO IHQPHQR SRU HO TXH OD GLUH..LQ RULJLQDO GH OD RQGDD.VWL.DVHGHVILJXUDSRUXQREMHWR/DGLIUD..LQR.XUUH.XDQGR HO REMHWR \ OD ORQJLWXG GH RQGD  VRQ DSUR[LPDGDPHQWH GHO PLVPR WDPDR /RVREMHWRV.RQVLGHUDEOHPHQWHPVSHTXHRVTXHODORQJLWXGGHRQGD GHOVRQLGRQRWLHQHQGHPDVLDGRHIH.WRHQODSURSDJD.LQGHOPLVPR/D RQGDVRQRUDQRQRWDHOREMHWR

 
'LIUD..LQSRUXQDJXMHUR


'LIUD..LQSRUXQDWURPSHWD

 1LQJQHIH.WR.RQREMHWRV SHTXHRV

 $EVRU.LQ 6L XQD RQGD VRQRUD JROSHD XQ REMHWR VXDYH SRURVR R HOVWL.R VHU DEVRUELGD HQ PD\RU R PHQRU PHGLGD (O ID.WRU GH DEVRU.LQ GHSHQGHUGHODIUH.XHQ.LD\GHV.ULEHHOSRU.HQWDMHGHHQHUJDVRQRUD QRSUHVLQ TXHHVDEVRUYLGDSRUODVXSHUIL.LH(OUHVWRVHUUHIOHMDGR $TX RWUD YH] HO WDPDR GHO REMHWR HV LPSRUWDQWH XQ REMHWR DEVRUEHQWHGHSHTXHRWDPDRQRHOLPLQDUIUH.XHQ.LDVJUDYHV

(6 

3DJ

6XSHUIL.LH

 +]    

 +]    

 +]    

N+] N+] N+]

+RUPLJQ 6XHORGHPDGHUD 3DQHOHVGHPDGHUD 3DQHO GH  PP GH JRPDHVSXPD 3DQHO GH  GH ILEUD GHYGULR

   

   

   













(MHPSORVGHID.WRUGHDEVRU.LQ  

5HOD.LQ       




G%       

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s4XSUGLGDGHQLYHOWHQGUHPRVDP"  [[DVSXHVG%G%G% G%

5HOD.LQGH3UHVLQ6RQRUD\ 9ROWDMH9DORUHVH[SUHVDGRV HQYDORUHVORJDUWPL.RVG%

'LVWDQ.LD G%1LYHO UHVSH.WRDP P P P P P P P
 3UGLGDGHQLYHOSRUGLVWDQ.LD

      

(6 

3DJ


120 dB 2 x 120 dB = 126 dB 126 dB

6XPDGHRQGDVD.VWL.DV 'HSHQGLHQGRGHODORQJLWXGGHRQGDODGLVWDQ.LDHQWUHIXHQWHVVRQRUDV \ODVLWXD.LQGHOR\HQWHVHSXHGHQSURGX.LUGLIHUHQWHVHIH.WRV


100 W 2 x 100 W = 200 W 400 W

'RVVXEZRRIHUVSURGX.LHQGRVHDOHV .RKHUHQWHVWLHQHQHOGREOHGHHIL.LHQ.LDTXH XQRVROR


$UUD\GHVXEZRRIHUVSDUDXQD P[LPDGLUH.WLYLGDGKRUL]RQWDO

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m DPEDV VHDOHV VH .DQ.HODUQ HQ SDUWH R  VL ODV VHDOHV VRQ H[D.WDPHQWH HO PLVPRQLYHOWRWDOPHQWH (OHIH.WRSHLQH &RPEILOWHUHIIH.W  6L XQ SXQWR HV DO.DQ]DGR SRU VRQLGR SURYHQLHQWH GH GRV IXHQWHV VRQRUDV .RQ OD PLVPD VHDO  SHUR GHVGH GLVWLQWDV GLVWDQ.LDV VH SURGX.LU HO OODPDGR  HIH.WR SHLQH /D UD]Q GH HVWH HIH.WR HV TXH .XDQGR OD ORQJLWXG GH RQGD GH XQD IUH.XHQ.LD HV XQ POWLSOR GH OD GLIHUHQ.LDGHGLVWDQ.LDODVVHDOHVGHDPEDVIXHQWHVHVWQHQIDVH HV GH.LU m R m m HW.  \ VH VXPDQ DXWRPWL.DPHQWH /DV IUH.XHQ.LDV TXH OOHJXHQ IXHUD GH IDVH SHmRmmHW. VH .DQ.HODUQ (O JUDGR GH LQIOXHQ.LD GHO HIH.WR SHLQH GHSHQGH GH ORV QLYHOHV UHODWLYRV GH DPEDV VHDOHV HQ HO SXQWR TXH HV.X.KD /DV .DQ.HOD.LRQHV PV VHULDV R.XUUHQ OHYHPHQWH IXHUD GHO HMH  GHO .HQWUR HQWUHGRVDOWDYR.HVGRQGHDPEDVVHDOHV.DVLOOHJDQ.RQHOPLVPRQLYHO SHUR.RQXQGHVSOD]DPLHQWRGHIDVHm

$UUD\GHVXEZRRIHUV SDUDXQDP[LPD GLUH.WLYLGDGYHUWL.DO

)XHQWHVUHIOHMDGDVH[WLHQGHQOD .ROXPQDYLUWXDOPHQWH



     

B A

          

5HVSXHVWDGHIUH.XQ.LDGHGRVVHDOHV TXHLQWHUILHUHQ.RQGLVWLQWDVORQJLWXGHVGH RQGD HIH.WR SHLQH R g.RPE ILOWHUg

(6 

3DJ

5HOSRWHQ.LD      




G%      

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mIXHUDGHHMH(VWHVHUDEVL.DPHQWHHO.RPSRUWDPLHQWRGHXQD .DMD.RQXQDGLVSHUVLQYHUWL.DOGHQRPLQDOGHm G%Dm   'H WRGDV IRUPDV HVWH GLVHR VOR VHUD YOLGR VL ODV .DUD.WHUVWL.DV EVL.DVGHODUHVSXHVWDGHOD.DMDQR.DPELDGHVGHVXHMH.HQWUDOKDVWD m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mVHSXHGH.RQVHJXLU.RQ XQD VROD .DMD GH m  G% D  m  R ELHQ .RQ WUHV .DMDV GH m PDQWHQLHQGRXQQJXORGHmHQWUHHOODV(VWDOWLPDVROX.LQSHUPLWH .ODUDPHQWHXQDPD\RUSUHVLQVRQRUD\XQD.DGDPVUSLGDGHOQLYHO IXHUD GH OD ]RQD D .XEULU &RPR LQ.RQYHQLHQWH H[LVWLU HIH.WR SHLQH DOUHGHGRU GHO HMH .HQWUDOHQWUHGRV.DMDVGHODUUD\(QHVWDV]RQDVQR SXHGHKDEHUXQDVXPDSHUIH.WDPHQWH.RKHUHQWHGHODVIXHQWHV HVWHHV HOPRWLYRSRUHO.XDOHOQJXORHQWUH.DMDVHVPHQRUTXHHOQJXORGH GLVSHUVLQQRPLQDOGHXQDVRODGHODV.DMDV  &XDQWRPHMRUVHDHOGLVHRGH'LUH.WLYLGDG&RQVWDQWHGHOD.DMDPHQRU HOHIH.WRSHLQH

1LYHOGHJDQDQ.LDHQG%VDO DXPHQWDUODSRWHQ.LDD.VWL.D .RQPVIXHQWHVRPVSRWHQ.LD HO.WUL.D

 /  2
G% P G%

G%

P G% G%

3UGLGDGHQLYHOHQUHOD.LQDODGLVWDQ.LDDOR ODUJRGHOD]RQDGHSEOL.R

 /  2

P

G%

G%

P G% G%

P G%

0HMRUDGHOD.RYHUWXUD.RQXQVLVWHPDYRODGR

 /  2
m P G% G%

P VSKHUHG% mV\VWHPG% G% G%

P G% G% 

 0HMRUDGHOD.RYHUWXUD.RQXQGLVHRGH 'LUH.WLYLGDG&RQVWDQWH '& YHUWL.DO

(6 

3DJ

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

 &RPSDUD.LQGH.RYHUWXUDV.RQXQDVROD .DMDGHl\GHXQDUUD\GHl

 



3DUD VRQRUL]D.LQ GH PVL.D


DOWD
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
GLUH.WLYLGDG.RQVWDQWH
ORVSODQRVSDUDODVGLIHUHQWHV IUH.XHQ.LDV  DO PHQRV HQ HO UHD IURQWDO GH OD .DMD  GHEHQ VHU PX\ SDUH.LGDV


  











 



'LDJUDPD3RODU

)D.WRU4 (O ID.WRU 4 GHV.ULEH OD GLUH.WLYLGDG GH XQ HOHPHQWR UHVSH.WR D XQD IUH.XHQ.LDGHWHUPLQDGDSHURQRGLVWLQJXHHQWUHGLUH.WLYLGDGKRUL]RQWDO R YHUWL.DO (V OD UHOD.LQ HQWUH OD SRWHQ.LD VRQRUD UDGLDGD HQ HO HMH UHVSH.WRDOSURPHGLRGHSRWHQ.LDVRQRUDUDGLDGDHQWRGDVGLUH..LRQHV 8QDDOWD4VLJQLIL.DJUDQGLUH.WLYLGDG uQJXORGHGLVSHUVLQQRPLQDO (V HO QJXOR KRUL]RQWDO R YHUWL.DO GQGH HO QLYHO GHV.LHQGH  G% .RQ UHOD.LQ DO HMH .HQWUDO SH m [ m HQ XQD & 3XHGH WDPELQ PRVWUDUVH SRU IUH.XHQ.LDV  SODQR GH GLVSHUVLQ [ IUH.XHQ.LD R GLDJUDPDGHLVREDUDV  'LDJUDPDGHLVREDUDV (Q HO HMH KRUL]RQWDO HVWQ ODV IUH.XQ.LDV HQ HO YHUWL.DO ORV JUDGRV UHVSH.WRDOHMH.HQWUDO\ODVOQHDVLVREDUDVUHSUHVHQWDQG%\G% 8Q .RPSRUWDPLHQWR GH 'LUH.WLYLGDG &RQVWDQWH VH SXHGH REVHUYDU SRU OQHDVLVREDUDVSDUDOHODV(OHMHPSORPXHVWUDODGLVSHUVLQGHXQD.DMD G E&723 GLVSHUVLQQRPLQDOm[m  

G EDXGLRWH.KQLN(6&RPHU.LR$WL.%DU.HORQD(VSDD7HO)D[  LQIRVSDLQ#GEDXGLR.RP (6  3DJ

'(6G EDXGLRWH.KQLN(6

1LYHOHVUHTXHULGRV