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CC NI DUNG C BN CA OFDMA Khi nim v OFDMA OFDM (Orthorgonal Frequency Division Multiplexing) c gii thiu v ng dng nh mt s iu ch hay mt phn

n ca k thut a truy nhp bng cch p dng vic tri m trn min tn s khi to nn h thng MC-CDMA. Trong OFDMA, vn a truy nhp c thc hin bng cch cung cp cho mi ngi dng mt phn trong s cc sng mang c sn. Bng cch ny, OFDMA tng t nh phng thc a truy nhp phn chia theo tn s thng thng (FDMA); tuy nhin n khng cn thit c di phng v ln cn rng nh trong FDMA tch bit nhng ngi dng khc nhau. Hnh 1 m t mt v d v bng tn s thi gian ca OFDMA, trong c 7 ngi dng t a n g v mi ngi s dng mt phn xc nh ca cc sng mang ph c sn, khc vi nhng ngi cn li. f a a d d a a d d a a d d

a c e a c e b b b b

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Hnh 1. V d ca biu s thi gian v OFDMA Th d c th ny thc t l s hn hp ca OFDMA v TDMA bi v mi ngi s dng ch pht mt trong 4 khe thi gian, cha 1 hoc vi symbol OFDM. 7 ngi s dng t a n g u c t c nh (fix set) cho cc sng mang theo bn khe thi gian. OFDMA nhy tn

Trong v d trc ca OFDMA, mi ngi s dng u c mt s sp t c nh cho sng mang. C th d dng cho php nhy cc sng mang ph theo khe thi gian nh c m t trong hnh 2. f a b c c b a b c b c a t Hnh 2. V d ca biu tn s thi gian vi 3 ngi dng nhy tn a, b, c u c 1 bc nhy vi 4 khe thi gian Vic cho php nhy vi cc mu nhy khc nhau cho mi ngi s dng lm bin i thc s h thng OFDM trong h thng CDMA nhy tn. iu ny c li l tnh phn tp theo tn s tng ln bi v mi ngi s dng dng ton b bng thng c sn cng nh l c li v xuyn nhiu trung bnh, iu rt ph bin i vi cc bin th ca CDMA. Bng cch s dng m sa li hng i trn cc bc nhy, h thng c th sa cho cc sng mang ph khi b phainh su hay cc sng mang b xuyn nhiu bi cc ngi dng khc. Do c tnh xuyn nhiu v phainh thay i vi mi bc nhy, h thng ph thuc vo nng lng tn hiu nhn c trung bnh hn l ph thuc vo phainh v nng lng nhiu trong trng hp xu nht. u im c bn ca h thng OFDMA nhy tn hn hn cc h thng DS-CDMA v MC-CDMA l tng i d dng loi b c xuyn nhiu trong mt t bo bng cch s dng cc mu nhy trc giao trong mt t bo. Mt v d ca vic nhy tn nh vy c m t trong hnh 3 cho N sng mang ph, n lun lun c th to ra N mu nhy trc giao. a f e d c b e d c a

b a f

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e d c b a f f e d c b a Hnh 3. V d ca 6 mu nhy tn trc giao vi 6 tn s nhy khc nhau SO SNH OFDMA V MC-CDMA S khc nhau c bn gia k thut OFDMA v MC-CDMA l: Cc ngi dng OFDMA trong cng mt t bo s dng vic t khc nhau cho cc sng mang trong khi MC-CDMA, tt c cc ngi dng s dng ng thi ton b cc sng mang. Cc m trc giao hoc cc m tri tn trc giao c s dng trong MCCDMA phn bit cc ngi dng khc nhau. Tuy nhin do s sai lch m bi cc knh phainh a ng, MC-CDMA mt i s trc giao ca n trong knh ng ln ngay c trong mt t bo n. iu lm phc tp hn k thut san bng cn thit, dn n tn hi SNR v lm gim u im v tnh phc tp ca OFDM qua k thut sng mang n. OFDMA khng c nhc im ny bi v trong mt t bo n tt c cc ngi dng c cc sng mang khc nhau, bng cch y loi tr kh nng xuyn nhiu gia cc symbol v gia cc sng mang. Do OFDMA khng chu nh hng ca cc xuyn nhiu trong mt t bo min l cc nh hng ca vic dch tn s v thi gian gia cc ngi dng c gi mc thp. y l u im c bn ca OFDMA so vi MC-CDMA v DSCDMA v trong cc s xuyn nhiu trong mt t bo l ngun nhiu chnh. T s c trng ca xuyn nhiu trong mt t bo v xuyn nhiu gia cc t bo l 0,55 [5]. Bi v dung lng ca h thng t l nghch vi tng nng lng xuyn nhiu, s tng dung lng ln 2,8 ln c th t c bng cch loi tr tt c cc xuyn nhiu trong mt t bo do tng dung lng ti a ca OFDMA hn hn mng DS-CDMA v MC-CDMA. u im c bn ca vic dng CDMA ni chung hay MC-CDMA ni ring l lm trung bnh tc ng xuyn nhiu. Trong CDMA, nhiu bao gm nhiu tn hiu xuyn nhiu hn so vi nhiu trong h thng khng CDMA. Mi s xuyn nhiu tn hiu chu mt phainh c lp gy bi cc tc ng a ng v che khut (Shadowing). Vi c h thng CDMA v h thng khng CDMA, s gin on lin lc xy ra khi cng sut nhiu tng cng (sau khi gii tri i vi h thng CDMA) vt qu mt gi tr cc i no .

Trong h thng khng CDMA, xuyn nhiu lun lun bao gm cc xuyn nhiu ca mt knh n hay ca vi knh cng li. Do phainh, nng lng xuyn nhiu bin ng tht thng trong mt di rng v th cn lu ti d d tr phainh, iu ny s lm gim dung lng ca h thng. Trong h thng CDMA, nhiu l tng ca rt nhiu cc tn hiu xuyn nhiu. Bi v tt c cc tn hiu ny b phainh c lp nn s thng ging ca cng sut xuyn nhiu tng cng s nh hn nhiu so vi s thng ging cng sut ca tn hiu xuyn nhiu n. V th trong mt h thng CDMA, d tr phainh c th nh hn ng k so vi d tr phainh ca h thng khng CDMA. S ci thin ny v d tr phainh s quyt nh ch yu ti mc tng dung lng ca h thng CDMA. Trong OFDMA, vic trung bnh xuyn nhiu c c bng cch c cc mu nhy khc nhau trong mi t bo. Cc chui nhy c thit k sao cho 2 ngi dng trong cc t bo khc nhau gy nhiu ln nhau ch trong mt phn nh ca tt c cc bc nhy. Trong h thng ti nng (heavily loaded), tc h thng c nhiu ngi s dng cng mt lc, th nhiu bc nhy s gy nhiu nhng s xuyn nhiu s khc nhau mi bc nhy. V th, bng vic sa li hng i qua mt vi bc nhy, cht lng ca OFDMA s b gii hn bi lng trung bnh ca xuyn nhiu hn l b gii hn bi nhiu trong trng hp xu nht. Mt u im na ca OFDMA so vi DS-CDMA v MC-CDMA l c mt s cch tng i n gin lm gim tng xuyn nhiu gia cc t bo. V d nh cc my thu c th nh gi cht lng tn hiu ca mi bc nhy v s dng thng tin ny cung cp cho cc bc nhy b xuyn nhiu nng trong qu trnh gii m. Mt c im quan trng khc ca CDMA l c th thc hin chuyn vng mm bng cch pht ng thi 2 tn hiu t cc trm gc khc nhau trong cng mt knh ti mt my di ng. Vic kt hp cc tn hiu t cc trm gc khc nhau mang li li phn tp, n lm gim d tr phainh mt cch ng k, bi v xc sut c 2 trm gc yu i nh hn nhiu xc sut 1 trm b yu i. Phainh t i c ngha l nng lng cn c pht t i v v th xuyn nhiu c pht ra t hn, iu ny lm tng dung lng ca c h thng. Mt c im tt ca chuyn vng mm CDMA l n khng nh hng ti phc tp ca my di ng. Cng nh i vi my di ng cp, cc tn hiu chng cho ca cc trm gc khc nhau c cng nh hng nh cc tn hiu gy ra bi s truyn a ng. Trong h thng OFDMA c 2 phng php chuyn vng mm c bn c p dng cho c ng ln v ng xung (t trm gc n my di ng v di ng n trm gc). Yu cu cho c 2 phng php l vic pht t cc trm gc i v vic pht ti cc trm gc c ng b s khc bit v tr ti hai trm nm trong phm vi thi gian phng v ca cc symbol OFDM.

K thut th nht l s dng cng mt tp sng mang v cng mt chui nhy nh nhau trong 2 t bo kt ni ti 2 trm gc. V th, trong ng xung, my di ng nhn tng 2 tn hiu vi cng ni dung s liu ging ht nh nhau. My di ng khng th phn bit c gia 2 trm gc; hiu qu chuyn vng mm tng t thm vo thnh phn a ng bn ngoi lm tng li phn tp. Dng chuyn vng ny tng t nh chuyn vng mm trong mng DS-CDMA. K thut th 2 cho chuyn vng mm l s dng cc b sng mang ph khc nhau trong 2 t bo. Khc vi phng php th nht, ng xung, my di ng lc ny phi phn bit gia 2 trm gc. N phi gii iu ch cc tn hiu t 2 trm gc mt cch ring bit, sau cc tn hiu ny c th c kt hp li, tt nht l bng cch s dng b t hp theo t l cc i. Dng chuyn vng ny tng t vi loi c th c dng trong mng khng CDMA. Cc u im ca phng php th 2 tri hn phng php th nht trong ng xung l tng ch SNR tng ln do s phn tp ca my thu v t do hn cho cc trm gc trong vic phn b cc sng mang c sn. phng php th nht, cc trm gc bt buc phi s dng cng cc sng mang. u im chnh ca phng php th nht l vic thc hin n gin hn; khng cn c thm phn cng b tr, ch cn thm mt vi giao thc kt ni ng thi vi 2 trm gc. Phng php th 2 i hi c thm phn cng bi v n buc phi gii iu ch thm mt b sng mang khc K thut n sng mang Cc k thut tri ph c s dng trong cc h thng thng tin di ng th h ba c kh nng chng li pha inh v nhiu, song tn ti nhng yu cu khng thc hin c chng hn: nu ngi dng cn c tc 20 Mbps giao din v tuyn v h s tri ph l 128 (gi tr in hnh hin nay), dn n phi x l tc 2,56 Gbps theo thi gian thc v th cn c rng bng tn ln khng thc t. Mt khc, thy r Do ti nguyn ph tn hn hp, v vy cn phi s dng hiu qu. Do nhng kh khn lin quan n hiu ng gn xa v c s tiu th cng sut ln. Ngoi ra, cc k thut n sng mang i ph km hiu qu i vi pha inh v truyn lan a ng c bit trong trng hp tc bit rt cao. cc phng php iu ch truyn thng M-QAM, M-PSK, khi tc d liu truyn cao th ko theo rng k hiu s gim, n mt gi tr m rng k hiu < tri tr cc i ca knh, khi knh s l knh la chn tn s v gy ISI cho tn hiu thu. y l mt nhc im chnh khin cc h thng s dng cc phng php iu ch truyn thng khng th truyn d liu vi tc cao, hoc gi thnh rt cao i vi nhng dch v yu cu tc d liu cao K thut a sng mang trc giao OFDM OFDM l mt cng ngh cho php tng rng k hiu truyn dn do dung sai a

ng ln hn rt nhiu so vi cc k thut s dng trc y, cho php khc phc nhng nhc im cn bn ca k thut n sng mang. Lch s pht trin OFDM l mt phng php truyn kh phc tp trn knh vt l, nguyn l c bn ca phng php l s dng k thut a sng mang truyn mt lng ln k t ti cng mt thi im. S dng k thut OFDM c rt nhiu u im, l hiu qu s dng ph rt cao, kh nng chng giao thoa a ng tt (c bit trong h thng khng dy) v rt d lc b nhiu (nu mt knh tn s b nhiu, cc tn s ln cn s b b qua, khng s dng). Ngoi ra, tc truyn Uplink v Downlink c th thay i d dng bng vic thay i s lng sng mang s dng. Mt u im quan trng ca h thng s dng a sng mang l cc sng mang ring c th hot ng tc bit nh dn n chu k ca k t tng ng s c ko di . V d, nu mun truyn vi tc l hng triu bit trn giy bng mt knh n, chu k ca mt bit phi nh hn 1 micro giy. iu ny s gy ra kh khn cho vic ng b v loi b giao thoa a ng. Nu cng lng thng tin trn c tri ra cho N sng mang, chu k ca mi bit s c tng ln N ln, lc vic x l vn nh thi, a ng s n gin hn. K thut OFDM do R.W Chang pht minh nm 1966 M. Trong nhng thp k va qua nhiu cng trnh khoa hc v k thut ny c thc hin khp ni trn th gii. c bit l cng trnh khoa hc ca Weistein v Ebert chng minh rng php iu ch OFDM c th thc hin c thng qua cc php bin i IDFT v php gii iu ch OFDM c th thc hin c bng php bin i DFT. Vo u nhng nm 80, i ng k s phng th nghim CCETT (Centre Commun d'Etudes en Tldiffusion et Tlcommunication) da vo cc l thuyt Wienstein v Ebert xut phng php iu ch s rt hiu qu trong lnh vc pht thanh truyn hnh s, l OFDM (Orthogonal Frequency Divionsion Multiplex). Pht minh ny cng vi s pht trin ca k thut s lm cho k thut iu ch OFDM c s dng ngy cng tr nn rng ri. Thay v s dng IDFT v DFT ngi ta c th s dng php bin i nhanh IFFT cho b iu ch OFDM, s dng FFT cho b gii iu ch OFDM. Ngy nay k thut OFDM cn kt hp vi cc phng php m knh s dng trong thng tin v tuyn. Cc h thng ny cn c gi vi khi nim l COFDM (Coded OFDM). Trong cc h thng ny tn hiu trc khi c iu ch OFDM s c m knh vi cc loi m khc nhau vi mc ch chng li cc li ng truyn. Do cht lng knh ( fading v t l tn hiu trn tp m) ca mi sng mang ph l khcnhau, ngi ta thc hin iu ch tn hiu trn mi sng mang vi cc mc iu ch khc nhau. H thng ny m ra khi nim v h thng truyn dn s dng k thut OFDM vi b iu ch tn hiu thch ng (adaptive modulation technique). K thut ny hin c s dng trong h thng thng tin my tnh bng rng HiperLAN/2 Chu u. Trn th gii h thng ny c chun ha theo tiu chun IEEE.802.11a. Cc u v nhc im Bn cnh nhng u im k trn ca k thut OFDM, cc h thng s dng k thut ny cn c nhiu u im c bn khc lit k sau y: * H thng OFDM c th loi b hon ton nhiu lin k t (Intersymbol

Interference- ISI) nu di chui bo v (Guard interval length) ln hn tr truyn dn ln nht ca knh. * Ph hp cho vic thit k h thng truyn dn bng rng ( h thng c tc truyn dn cao), do nh hng ca s phn tp v tn s (frequency selectivity) i vi cht lng h thng c gim nhiu so vi h thng truyn dn n sng mang. * H thng c cu trc b thu n gin. Bn cnh , k thut OFDM cng c mt vi nhc im c bn l: * Mt trong nhng vn ca OFDM l n c cng sut nh cao hn so vi cng sut trung bnh. Khi tn hiu OFDM c iu ch RF, s thay i ny din ra tng t i vi bin sng mang, sau tn hiu c truyn i trn mi trng tuyn tnh, tuy nhin tuyn tnh rt kh gi khi iu ch cng sut cao, do vy mo dng tn hiu kiu ny hay din ra trn b khuych i cng sut ca b pht. B thu thit k khng tt c th gy mo dng trm trng hn. Mo dng gy ra hu ht cc vn nh tri ph, gy ra nhiu gia cc h thng khi truyn trn cc tn s RF k nhau. * Vic s dng chui bo v c th trnh c nhiu ISI nhng li lm gim i mt phn hiu sut ng truyn, do bn thn chui bo v khng mang thng tin c ch. * Do yu cu v iu kin trc giao gia cc sng mang ph, h thng OFDM rt nhy cm vi hiu ng Doppler cng nh l s dch tn (frequency offset) v dch thi gian (time offset) do sai s ng b. - nh hng ca s sai lch thi gian ng b: OFDM c kh nng chu ng tt cc sai s v thi gian nh cc khong bo v gia cc symbol. Vi mt knh truyn khng c delay do hiu ng a ng, time offet c th bng khong bov m khng mt i tnh trc giao, ch gy ra s xoay pha ca cc sng mang con m thi. Nu li time offset ln hn khong bo v th hot ng ca h thng suy gim nhanh chng. Nguyn nhn l do cc symbol trc khi n b FFT s bao gm mt phn ni dung ca cc symbol khc, dn n ISI (Inter-Symbol Interference). - nh hng ca s sai lch ng b tn s: Mt trong nhng vn ln ca OFDM l n d b nh hng bi offset v tn s. Gii iu ch tn hiu OFDM c th gy ra sai v tc bit. iu ny lm cho tnh trc giao gia cc subcarrier b mt i (kt qu ca ICI v s xoay pha khng sa cha c b thu). Sai s v tn s din ra ch yu theo 2 ngun chnh: li ca b dao ng v hiu ng Doppler. Bt k mt s bt ng b no gia b pht v b thu u c th gy ra offset v tn s. Offset ny c th c b bng cch dng b bm tn s, tuy nhin ch khc phc m thi, hot ng ca h thng vn b nh hng. S di chuyn tng i gia b thu v b pht gy ra dch chuyn Doppler ca tn hiu. iu ny c th hiu l s offset tn s trong mi trng truyn t do, n c th khc phc bng mt b b ti b dao ng. Mt vn quan trng ca hiu ng Doppler l tri Doppler, n gy nn bi s di chuyn gia b pht v b thu trong mi

trng a ng. Tri Doppler gy nn bi vn tc tng i gia cc thnh phn tn hiu phn x li, to ra qu trnh "iu ch tn s" cho tn hiu. Qu trnh ny din ra ngu nhin trn cc subcarrier do trong mi trng bnh thng, mt lng ln phn x a ng xy ra. Tri Doppler kh c b v lm suy gim cht lng tn hiu. Ngy nay OFDM c tiu chun ha l phng php iu ch cho cc h thng pht thanh s DAB v DRM, truyn hnh mt t DVB-T, mng my tnh khng dy tc cao HiperLAN/2... S ng dng ca k thut OFDM Vit Nam C th ni mng internet bng rng ADSL (Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line) rt quen thuc Vit Nam, nhng t ngi bit rng s nng cao tc ng truyn trong h thng ADSL chnh l nh cng ngh OFDM. Nh k thut iu ch a sng mang v s cho php chng ph gia cc sng mang m tc truyn dn trong h thng ADSL tng ln mt cch ng k so vi cc mng cung cp dch v internet thng thng. Bn cnh mng cung cp dch v ADSL hin ang c s dng rt rng ri Vit Nam hin nay, cc h thng thng tin v tuyn nh mng truyn hnh s mt t DVBT cng ang c khai thc s dng. Cc h thng pht thanh s nh DAB v DRM chc chn s c khai thc s dng trong mt tng lai khng xa. Cc mng v thng tin my tnh khng dy nh HiperLAN/2, IEEE 802.11a, g cng s c khai thc mt cch rng ri Vit Nam. Cc hng pht trin trong tng lai K thut OFDM hin c c lm phng php iu ch s dng trong mng thng tin thnh th bng rng Wimax theo tiu chun IEEE 802.16a v h thng thng tin di ng th h th t. Trong h thng thng tin di ng th h th t, k thut OFDM cn c th kt hp vi cc k thut khc nh k thut a anten pht v thu (MIMO technique) nhm nng cao dung lng knh v tuyn v kt hp vi cng ngh CDMA nhm phc v dch v a truy cp ca mng. Mt vi hng nghin cu vi mc ch thay i php bin i FFT trong b iu ch OFDM bng php bin i Wavelet nhm ci thin s nhy cm ca h thng i vi hiu ng dch tn do mt ng b gy ra v gim di ti thiu ca chui bo v trong h thng OFDM. Tuy nhin kh nng ng dng ca cng ngh ny cn phi c kim chng c th hn na trong tng lai. Cc ct mc v ng dng quan trng ca OFDM 1957: Kineplex, multi-carrier HF modem 1966: Chang, Bell Labs: thuyt trnh v a ra m hnh OFDM 1971: Weinstein & Ebert ngh s dng FFT v khong bo v 1985: Cimini m t ng dng ca OFDM trong thng tin di ng 1987: Alard & Lasalle: p dng OFDM cho digital broadcasting 1995: Chun ETSI DAB: chun OFDM c bn u tin 1997: Chun ETSI DVB-T 1998: D n Magic WAND trnh din OFDM modems cho mng WLAN 1999: Chun IEEE 802.11a v ETSI BRAN HiperLAN/2 cho Wireless LAN 2000: c dng trong truy cp v tuyn c nh (V-OFDM, Flash-OFDM)

2001: OFDM c c cho nhng chun mi 802.11 v 802.16 2002: c dng trong chun IEEE 802.11g chun cho WLAN 2003: OFDM c c cho UWB (802.15.3a) 2004: c dng trong chun IEEE 802.16-2004 chun cho mng WMAN (WiMAX) c dng trong chun Chun ETSI DVB-H c c cho chun IEEE 802.15.3a, mng WPAN (MB-OFDM) c c cho chun IEEE 802.11n, th h k tip ca mng WLAN 2005: c c cho chun di ng t bo 3.75G (3GPP & 3GPP2) c c cho chun 4G (CJK) So snh mt s k thut OFDM S khc nhau gia OFDM v OFDMA hnh di y

K thut a truy nhp phn chia theo tn s trc giao OFDMA chia bng tn thnh cc bng con, mi bng con l mt sng mang con. Khc vi OFDM, trong OFDMA mi trm thu bao khng s dng ton b khng gian sng mang con m khng gian sng mang con c chia cho nhiu thu bao cng s dng mt lc. Mi trm thu bao s c cp mt hoc vi sng mang con gi l knh con ho. Khi cc trm thu bao khng s dng ht khng gian sng mang con th tt c cng sut pht ca trm gc s ch tp trung vo s sng mang con c s dng. Trong qu trnh truyn dn mi trm thu bao c cp pht mt knh con ring. OFDMA l k thut a truy cp vo knh truyn OFDM ,mt dng ci tin ca OFDM S khc nhau gia OFDMA v SOFDMA: Tht ra th SOFDMA cng l OFDMA ch khc nhau l trong SOFDMA th kch thng FFT c th thay i tu theo rng bng tn nhng khong cch gia cc sng mang con l khng i 10.94KHz. Cn trong OFDMA c kch thc FFT c nh l 2048. Nh vy trong SOFDMA, rng ph ca cc bng con l nh nhau trong cc h thng khc nhau, gip qu trnh chuyn giao thun li hn. Ngoi ra vic tng thch gia cc h thng s lm gim chi ph thit k, xy dng mng.