The Need for Islamic Information Management in the Information Institutions In Malaysia: An Analysis of Problems

Mohd Nazir Ahmad Senior Lecturer Faculty of Information Management, Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM) Islamic Manuscripts Mohd Noor Mamat Senior Lecturer Centre for Islamic Thought and Understanding, Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM) Dr. (Mrs.) Shaista Parvin Muqueem Khan Siti Fatahiyah Mahamood Lecturer Centre for Islamic Thought & Understanding, INTEC Shah Alam:

Mashitah Sulaiman Islamic Manuscripts Lecturer Centre of General Studies, Islamic Science University of Malaysia:

World Congress of Muslim Librarian & Information Scientists 25th -27th November 2008 Putra World Trade Center ______________________


World Congress of Muslim Librarians & Information Scientist Theme Knowledge Empowerment and Information Resources Enrichment On 25th-27th November 2008 At Putra World Trade Centre (PWTC) Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia Sub Theme: Islamic Manuscripts By Dr. (Mrs.) SHAISTA PARVIN MUQUEEM KHAN

Asstt. Librarian Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar Marathwada University Library, Aurangabad – Maharashtra India.

Email: Phon: +91 0240-2393999 Mob: 989060207042


documents or books written by hand on a flexible material such as parchment or paper. 1996) The word manuscript is equally valid for oriental books written by hand on material such as Palm leaves. or bark. such as stone. Allen and Others). and modern manuscripts such as literacy manuscripts. medieval and renaissance manuscript books or codices. by hand scriptus. or Pottery.World Congress of Muslim Librarian & Information Scientists 25th -27th November 2008 Putra World Trade Center ______________________ ISLAMIC MANUSCRIPTS Dr. historical manuscripts or personal papers. and institutional records. written). A manuscript is any document that is written by hand. and to ‘INSCRIPTIONS’ which are writings in cited on hard materials. and for Mexican. strips of bambaoo. it also refers to type written materials (Kent. The term may 3 . ed. Librarian University Library INTRODUCTION According to universal Encyclopedia (Latin Manu. According to the Encyclopedia of library and information science. In the case of modern manuscripts. usually in ink as opposed to printed matter. The use of the term manuscripts in the United States refers to handwritten materials including ancient inscriptions on clay tablets and stone. (Mrs) Shaista Parvin Asstt. metal. pictorial painted on deerskin or other material. (Collingwood. as opposed to being printed or reproduced in some other way.

animal skin and bones as medium for recording. reproduction and preservation of knowledge which further accelerated the rate of generation of manuscripts and books. It ultimately led to the rise in number of libraries. The materials and methods for recording and reproduction of manuscripts changed as per availability of techniques. leaves.Islamic Manuscripts. There are many valuable old manuscripts in such libraries as the Bibliotheqe National of Paris and the Vatican Library. These manuscripts make up some of the most valuable collections of the world. a print out from a PC. writing and preservation of the thoughts contained in documents. prepared in manuscript format. until the time when printing became general throughout the Western World.000 years. 4 . In publishing and academic contexts.World Congress of Muslim Librarian & Information Scientists 25th -27th November 2008 Putra World Trade Center ______________________ also be used for information that is hand-recorded in other way than writing. Many are kept in glass display cases or are stored in underground vaults of the great museums and libraries of the world. a ‘manuscript’ is the text submitted to the publisher or printer in Preparation for publication. Paper substituted tree bark. This led to the promotion of libraries and development of the art of papermaking. usually as a type script Prepared on a typewriters or today. The advent of Islam witnessed an unprecedented growth in the quantity of knowledge and gave birth to a healthy tradition of reading. Handwritten manuscripts were the chief records of human history for about 5.

They promoted libraries in every period and as a natural requirement to man these institutions. By 651 AD it had been recorded. classification and indexing of the intellectual work. the profession of librarianship emerged emphasizing on preservation. established at that time still reminds us the bright historical past of Muslims. which grew rapidly from insignificant beginnings. 5 . copying. It was only when a great number of the ‘Huffaz’ (trained people who had committed the Qur’an to memory) were killed in battle that it was realized that memory alone could never be accurate enough. Great care was taken to maintain the accuaracy of the book and to preserve it on the materials available at that time. and the Holy book would have to be written down. For a short period after the revelation of the Holy Qur’an the Arabs continued to follow the old oral tradition. From the very spread of Islam.D. The Bait-ul-Hikmah (House of Wisdom) 786-809 A. Quran is the holiest books of Muslims.World Congress of Muslim Librarian & Information Scientists 25th -27th November 2008 Putra World Trade Center ______________________ During the regin of Caliph Haroon al-Rasheed. into a major art form the beauty of which has been unsurpassed. the city of Baghdad had about 300 libraries. the disciples of the Prophet maintained the text of Quran which was revealed to him in parts. The Arabs were poets and storytellers of high ability who trained and improved their memories. Interest in the art of writing was not a feature of pre-Islamic society. The purpose of the collection is to illustrate something of the history and development of Islamc calligraphy. It contains the language of God revealed to the Prophet through the angle Gabril. codified and official copies sent to all centers of Muslim learning. It was from these copies that every future edition of the Holy Qur’an has been taken.

The rounded script was written on materials like leather. An outstanding scribe mentioned in Arabic sources was Qutbah al Muharrir. Because neither style was particularly attractive they were not considered suitable for recording the Qur’an. Many people experimented with different styles but most did not survive the test of time.World Congress of Muslim Librarian & Information Scientists 25th -27th November 2008 Putra World Trade Center ______________________ It was the necessity of recording the Qur’an precisely that played such a central role in beautifying the writing so that is might be worthy of divine revelations. Jalil. Islamic teachings state that the Holy Book was revealed to the Prophet Mohammed (pbuh) in Arabic and so the language has the status of divine speech. The Father of Arabic grammer is considered to be Abu’l Aswad Du’ali of Basra (d. with the well-educated person. and that included Sultans and Emperors. He is thought to have developed the four important styles known as Thuluth. Those that did are known as Al Aqlam al Sittah of The Six Pens. These six styles have survived to this day and are 6 . In the following centuries scribes became highly trained and respected people. At an early stage no vowel signs were used and so similar shaped consonant could not be easily differentiated. Two of his students continued his work and devised a method of using these dots to differentiate between consonants and similarly shaped letters. considering at an honour to learn to write under the guidance of and eminent scribe. while the straight style could be incised into wood. There were a number of early Arabian scripts of two main types. 688AD). Nisf and Tumar. a round curved one and a long straight version. onto flat stones and camel bones. He is thought to have invented the system of colored dots that indicate vowel signs.

The UNESCO had complied a CD containing some of the dated San‘a manuscripts as a part of “Memory of the World” programme. Muhaqqaq. In this CD there are more than 40 Qur’anic manuscripts which are dated from 1st century of hijra (in both Hijazi and Kufic scripts). Islamic manuscripts have been studied for quite a while and many are well known. Riq’a and Tawqi. the main Mosque of San‘a. It is considered to be the first mosque in Yemen and among the oldest in Islamic world. More 7 . one of them belonging to early 1st century. The Great Mosque. The Great Mosque of San‘a established in 6th year of hijra when the Prophet entrusted one of his companions to build a mosque. Rayhani. in large unpointed Kufic script. The manuscript collection (ca. Naskhi. It contains some of the rarest Islamic manuscripts in the world. San‘a. (Amjad Ali. Zayd Ibn Thabit and Salman al-Farsi. each of 150 pages. Maktabat al-Jami ‘al-Kabir (Maktabat al-Awqaf). The Maktabat al-Awqaf.World Congress of Muslim Librarian & Information Scientists 25th -27th November 2008 Putra World Trade Center ______________________ called Thuluth. including rare manuscripts of the Qur’an. 2005) Islamic Manuscripts contain an as yet almost untapped source of the rich Islamic heritage. in two parts. Naskhi and Riq’a are taught in modern schools. Yemen. The museums. Institutes and collections described below contain Qur’anic manuscripts from Ist century of hijra onwards. Among the manuscripts in the collection is a copy of the Qur’an reputed to be in the handwriting of Al-Iman ‘Ali Ibn Abi Talib. 7.000) of the Great Mosque is housed in three libraries in the mosque complex.

150 in Turkish.). The total number of manuscripts in this library is 50. with articles by Hussa Sabah Salim al-Sabah.065 are in Arabic. Al-qFurqan Islamic Heritage Foundation: London.755 out of which 47. It contains priceless and rare manuscripts from the Islamic heritage. Masahif San‘a.than 45 manuscripts have been dated from the period 1st / 2nd century of hijra. Egypt. P. 2nd and 3rd centuries of hijra can be seen at this website. R. Cairo. World Congress of Muslim Librarian & Information Scientists 25th -27th November 2008 Putra World Trade Center ______________________ Dar al-Kutub al-Misriyya (Egyptian National Library). Dar al-Athar al-Islamiyyah: Kuwait. 664-667. 996 in Persian and 2. G. M. World Survey Of Islamic Manuscripts covers the catalogue of manuscripts at the Great Mosque published in various boo • • • Memory Of The World: San‘a Manuscripts. Geoffrey Roper (ed. Dreibholz in both Arabic and English. A few more examples of the 1st and 1st / 2nd century Qur’anic manuscripts from San‘a can be found in the book Masahif San‘a. U. Jenkins. Volume III. Puin. 1985. World Survey Of Islamic Manuscripts. CD-ROM Presentation. especially from the first four centuries of hijra. as well as extremely rare illustrated manuscripts unmatched anywhere else in the world. A few examples of the manuscripts from 1st.P. UNESCO. This book is a catalogue of an exhibition at the Kuwait National Museum. 1992. The manuscript collection in Dar al-Kutub is regarded as one of the largest and most important in the world. There is a high proportion of manuscripts copied in the early centuries of Islam. It 8 .

Of the 29.000 manuscripts in Arabic. 1-12 for 102 AH/ 720 CE and 107 AH / 725 CE. • T.Roper (ed. Publications of the Khedivial Library. old and illuminated Qur’anic manuscripts. Moritz. Iran.). W. See Pl.p. p.000 manuscripts it possesses. • B. respectively.000 are manuscripts of the Qur’an. 11. Arabic Palaeography: A Collection Of Arabic Texts From The First Century Of The Hijra Till The Year 1000. thus making it the largest Qur’anic manuscript collection in the world. World Survey Of Islamic Manuscripts. and some written by famous calligraphers. 212-218. Arnold & A. No. Al-Furqan Islamic Heritage Foundation: London. p. It is also important in that it contains a large number of magnificent. Persian and Turkish. Volume I. Mashhad. including several old Kufic Qur’anic manuscripts written on deer skin. This library has one of the oldest (established in 861 AH/1457 CE) collections of Islamic manuscripts in the Muslim world and the most important in Iran. The manuscripts are 9 .22. It has about 29. The Pegasus Press. Grohmann. Cairo. Astan-I Quds-I Razavi Library. 31-34 and Pl. A complete reference of catalogue of the manuscripts can be seen in: • G. other with marvelous illuminations from 3rd century hijra (9th century CE) onwards.World Congress of Muslim Librarian & Information Scientists 25th -27th November 2008 Putra World Trade Center ______________________ holds two of the earliest dated Qur’anic manuscripts dating from dating 102AH / 720 CE and 107 AH/ 725 CE. 1929. 1905. 1992. 16. The Islamic Book: A Contribution to Its Art And History From The VII-XVIII Century.

with each surah heading bearing its own distinct style of decoration. Al-Furqan Islamic Heritage Foundation: London.World Congress of Muslim Librarian & Information Scientists 25th -27th November 2008 Putra World Trade Center ______________________ catalogued in various publications as can be seen in the reference below. The manuscript collection of the Islamic Museum consists entirely of masahif of the Qur’an. This great collection include magnificent calligraphic works from as early as 10 . One of the most important manuscript in this collection is the Kufic copy of the second half of the Qur’an. Jerusalem. Islamic Museum. p. The complete reference of catalogue of the manuscripts in this museum can be see in: • G.). Beit al-Qur’an. Al-Husayan b. The Beit al-Qur’an collection of Qur’anic manuscripts is one of the most comprehensive of its type in the world. the transcription of which attributed to Al-Hasan b.p. 1992. Roper (ed. • G. Roper (ed. Volume II. Al-Furqan Islamic Heritage Foundation: London. ‘Ali b. Abi Talib. Manama. numbering 644. 481-486. Palestine. 1993. Bahrain. World Survey Of Islamic Manuscripts. World Survey Of Islamic Manuscripts.). The pages in this manuscript are beautifully illuminated. donated over centuries to Al-Aqsa Mosque and the Dome of the Rock. This museum was established in 1923 by the Islamic Legal Council in Palestine. Volume I. 579-581. pp. the covers are also decorated on both sides. but are of the Mamluk period.

United Kingdom. The Nasser David Khalili Collection Of Islamic Art. 192 pp. Yaqut al-Musta’simi. • D. The Nasser David Khalili Collection Of Islamic Art contains the largest and most comprehensive range of Qur’anic material in private hands. This book includes a Qur’an that retains its original illumination by the greatest calligrapher of the Middle Ages. from China to Andalusian Spain. Manuscripts World Congress of Muslim Librarian & Information Scientists 25th -27th November 2008 Putra World Trade Center ______________________ from 1st and 1st /2nd century of hijra are available at this website. The Qur’anic manuscripts in this collection are described and illustrated in four lavish volumes. Khalili Collection of Islamic Art Vol. 1992. Other masterpieces include a Qur’an written in gold from twelfth-century 11 . It is managed by the Nour Foundation. They are written in various scripts and are dated from late 1st century of hijra onwards. The entire history of Qur’an production from the seventh to the twentieth century is covered. I. and includes items from centers as far apart as India and Spain. II. It is a privately owned collection. The references are: • F. The Nour Foundation in collaboration with Oxford University Press has published the collection. The Nasser D. James. 240 pp. The Nasser D.the first century hijra (7th/8th CE) to the present day. Oxford University Press. Khalili Collection of Islamic Art Vol. London. The Abbasid Tradition: Qur’ans Of The 8th To The 10th Centuries AD. Deroche. Oxford University Press. from all regions of the Islamic world. The Master Scribes: Qur’ans of the 10th to 14th Centuries. 1992.

Stanley. A. The Nasser D. 1999. The holdings – nearly 300 in total – include exceptional items that feature the work of many of the most famous master calligraphers. III. Bayani. The Art of the Pen Calligraphy of the 14th to 20th Centuries. • N. France.World Congress of Muslim Librarian & Information Scientists 25th -27th November 2008 Putra World Trade Center ______________________ Iraq. Holds examples of Islamic Calligraphy that span six centuries and demonstrate the continuity of this central art form into the modern era. 1999. 256 pp. Covers the period 1700-1900 and items from Islamic Africa. Syria. India and the Far East. Oxford University Press. Afer Timur: Qur’ans of the 15th and 16th Centuries. 1992. 334 pp. This book includes fifteenth century Qur’ans in Iran. • D. • M. including Seyh Hamdullah and Hafiz Osman. James. the only twelfth-century Qur’an from Valencia. The Decorated Word: Qur’ans of the 17th to 19th Centuries. F. and a manuscript that is possibly the earliest Qur’an to survive from India. 248 pp. and India as well as sixteenth century Qur’ans in Iran and India. The Nasser D. Oxford University Press. Paris. V. 12 . Khalili Collection of Islamic Art Vol. Iran. Khalili Collection of Islamic Art Vol. Constantionple. Khalili Collection of Islamic Art Vol. Bibliotheque Nationale. Safwat. Ottoman Turkey. The Nasser D. Contadini & T. Egypt. Oxford University Press. IV.

• G. Especially noteworthy are some Quranic manuscripts of the first centuries after hijra. • F. The Oriental Institute Museum holds a decent collection of Qur’anic manuscripts dated from second half of the first century of hijra (classified as 1st/2nd) onwards. Roper (ed. United States of America. The Oriental Institute Museum.000). Photographs of some undated Quranic manuscripts written in Hijazi script at Bibliotheque Nationale can be seen in ref. these collections rank among the most important in Europe and cover nearly all subjects (total ca. University of Chichago. The relevant reference to look for is the following: 13 . pp. 1. 12. 1983. Bibliotheque Nationale: Paris. 1992. Division des Manuscripts Orientaux. Volume I. Deroche. 2. The manuscripts are written in Makkan. please see ref. Volume I. Catalogue des Manuscripts Arabes (Les Manuscripts Du Coran). Kufic and Maghribi scripts suggesting their origin from wide geographical locations in the Islamic world. 212-218. For catalogues of collection at Bibliotheque Nationale.World Congress of Muslim Librarian & Information Scientists 25th -27th November 2008 Putra World Trade Center ______________________ Successor to the old Bibliotheque Royale. These are kept in the Department des Manuscrits.). Al-Furqan Islamic Heritage Foundation: London. World Survey Of Islamic Manuscripts. the Bibliotheque Nationale has assembled collections of Islamic manuscripts formed over the centuries and regularly augmented by purchases and gifts. Chicago.

Dublin. dated to the ninth and tenth centuries CE. 1967. The Islamic Collection is one of the finest in existence and is internationally renowned for the overall high quality and scope of its material. Persian and Turkish manuscripts including many superb copies of the Qur’an. 14 . The published manuscripts are in the following books: • A.• World Congress of Muslim Librarian & Information Scientists 25th -27th November 2008 Putra World Trade Center ______________________ N. through to those produced in the early years of the twentieth century. The real gem of the collection and indeed one of the most treasured objects of the entire Library – is the splendid Qur’an copied by the famed calligrapher Ibn al-Bawwab in Baghddad in the year 1001. The Koran Illuminated: A Handlist Of The Korans In The Chester Beatty Library. 1939. University of Chicago Press. Abbott. The Rise Of The North Arabic Script And Its Kur’anic Development. • D.: Dublin. J. Hodges Figgis & Co Ltd. The Chester Beatty Library. James. Arberry. Qur’ans And Bindings From The Chester Beatty Library: A Facsimile Exhibition. With A Full Description Of The Kur’an Manuscripts In The Oriental Institute. World of Islam Festival Trust: London. 1980. The Library houses examples of the earliest Islamic manuscripts. The Islamic Collection in The Chester Beatty Library contains almost four thousand Arabic. Ireland.

The manuscript reflects changes in the orthography and “lay-out” of the sacred text. The Chester Beatty Library: A Handlist Of The Arabic Manuscripts. The relevant publication is: • E. Issue 4: One Of The Most Important Qur’anic MSS In The World. St. Vols. The Institute Of Oriental Studies.. Emery Walker (Ireland) Ltd. Makkan or Madinan) script contain about 40% of the text of the Qur’an (ful texts of 22 surahs and fragments of another 22). J. 1-8. 1293 A. St. This institute houses one of the oldest Qur’anic manuscripts dated to the last half of the 8th century CE and has been published in the Issue 4: One Of The Most Important Qur’anic MSS In The World. Petersburg. Arberry. It has 81 large parchment folios in Hijazi (i. Petersburg (Russia).e.islamicmanuscript.D. Rezvan. THESA Company.. Margaret’s Donnybrook: Dublin. Tareq Rajab Museum. 1955. The museum possesses some fine examples of the writings of renowned calligraphers such as Yaqut Al Musta’simi (d. St. Russian Academy of Sciences.). 15 . A. (www.• World Congress of Muslim Librarian & Information Scientists 25th -27th November 2008 Putra World Trade Center ______________________ A. The Institute Of Oriental Studies has recently started a project that deals with compiling the manuscripts in the electronic format. Kuwait The Tareq Rajab Museum in Kuwait has a large and important collection of Al Qur’an and manuscripts from all periods and countries (including NW Chine) around the Islamic world.

Topkapi Palace Library.World Congress of Muslim Librarian & Information Scientists 25th -27th November 2008 Putra World Trade Center ______________________ Although little of his work has survived. A complete catalogue was compiled and published by F. was turned into a museum in 1924. These Qurans and Commentaries. Among these are seven believed to be inscribed by Caliph Osman (RA). The collection of Qurans. Almost all have been prepared by famous calligraphers. the home of the Ottoman sultans and the administrative center of the Ottoman Empire for four hundred years. gilded by master gilders. The 1600 or more Qurans found in the first volume of the Arabic catalogue are preserved in the Palace Library as rare books.E. nine accredited to Caliph Ali (RA). the manuscripts. Persian and Turkish. which have been gathered from the various pavilions. found in many pavilions and rooms. Istanbul The present Topkap Palace. number more than two thousand. the Islamic manuscripts preserved in this new library have been sorted out into categories of Arabic. Karatay in 1960. India. comprises texts of the Quran inscribed during the 7th – 19th centuries in Arabia. The first of the Arabic catalogues contains Qurans and works of Quranic commentary. his influence was of outstanding importance to the development of calligraphy. two ascribed to Hasan and Hussein 16 . Today. Iran. were gathered together to form the New Library. and bound by the most capable bookbinders of the times. the richest to be found anywhere in the world. buildings and rooms of the Palace and are classified by the name of the location where they were found. Maghrib (North Africa) and the lands dominated by the Seljuks and Ottomans.

are the Qurans written in vertical form (M.32). surah titles. Islamic Manuscripts from Mali African and Middle Eastern Division. marginal rosettes and sajdah marks. twenty one Chagatay translations and one Uygur translations. Also in the Palace collection are Qurans prepared in North African cities such as Ceuta and Marrakech between the 12th and 16th centures. The script used in Baghdad and North Africa was more dynamic and of slighter dimension.World Congress of Muslim Librarian & Information Scientists 25th -27th November 2008 Putra World Trade Center ______________________ (RA) as well as many translations. most characterized with its horizontal and vertical lines. whose name is derived from Kufa. The first Qurans were written on parchment in the 7th – 8th centuries in a monumental type of script called kufic. for example).H. an early Islamic center. is a style of Arabic script closest to pictorial design. Library of congress.74. thirty-nine Farsi translations. The first Qurans written in kufic script. besides the one believed to have been recited by khaliph Osman (RA) at the moment of his death (A.3 M. The kufic script of Iran differed from the kufic of the regions of Baghdad and North Africa. Kufic script. These are written on parchment on thick dark paper in Maghribi kufic with gilded fontispiece. This script. illuminated surah headings. In addition to those written on parchment. There are twenty one Turkish translations. there are those of the 9th-11th centuries inscribed on thick dark paper with sepia ink using delicate kufic lines. 17 . showed regional peculiarities in the 9th century.

Subject coverage is broad and comprehensive. Among the most famous examples of Persian painting are the 16th-century Peck Shahnamah and Muin Musavvir’ 1673 portrait of the Safavidera painter Riza ‘Abbasi.500 Islamic manuscripts. Firestone Memorial Library. Princeton’s rich holdings constitute the premier collection of Islamic manuscripts in the Western Hemisphere and are among the finest in the world. Ottoman Turkish.World Congress of Muslim Librarian & Information Scientists 25th -27th November 2008 Putra World Trade Center ______________________ Islamic manuscripts from Mali features 32 manuscripts from the Mamma Hairdra commemorative Library and the Library of Check Zyni Baye of Boujbeha. chiefly bound paper codices containing more than 20. there are also illuminated Qur’ans. Mali. The Manuscripts are chiefly in Arabic but also include Persian. both in Timbuktu. and housed at the Harvey S.bk) Princeton University Library: Princeton has the largest collection of Islamic manuscripts in North America and one of the finest such collections in the Western world. The collection is located in the Manuscripts Division of the Department of Rare Books and Special html/malihome. history and biography. especially of the Prophet and other 18 . and other languages of the Islamic world.loc.000 texts. (memory.html. While the world of Islamic learning is the chief emphasis. Among the greatest treasures of the Princeton University Library are some 9. including theology based both on Quran and tradition (hadith). and other examples of Islamic book arts. Islamic law (fiqh). Persian illustrated manuscripts and miniatures.

the library has recently embarked on a four-year project under the overall direction of Don C. Hitti (1938). made possible by generous support from the David A. science. • • Catalogue of Arabic manuscripts (Yolanda section) in the Garrett Collection. with access provided by published catalogs. Hand list of Arabic manuscripts (New series) in the Princeton University Library. and modern personal papers relating to the Near East. Ormsby (1987). principally those compiled by Philip K. book arts and illustration.World Congress of Muslim Librarian & Information Scientists 25th -27th November 2008 Putra World Trade Center ______________________ religious leaders. magic and the occult. and Rudolf Mach and Eric L. The Princeton Library has long been committed to making these collections available to researchers worldwide. In order to improve access to these rich collections and share them worldwide through digital technology. Thousands of additional manuscripts. language and literature. calligraphy collections. the library’s Curator of Manuscripts. For published description of manuscripts one can refer “Descriptive catalogue of the Garrett collection of Arabic manuscripts in the Princeton University Library. and other aspects of the intellectual and spiritual life of the Islamic world and its diverse peoples. Moghadam and Yahya Armajani (1939). are described briefly in an online checklist. Rudolf Mach (1977). Skemer. 19 . Mohammed E. including most of the Persian and Ottoman Turkish holdings. The Manuscripts Division also holds Arabic papyri and documents.

The Islamic Manuscripts Collection is classified as the Abdul Hamid. Horace Miner. McGregor. commentaries on commentaries. poetry. Arabic. Islamic traditions (Hadith). Tiflis.• World Congress of Muslim Librarian & Information Scientists 25th -27th November 2008 Putra World Trade Center ______________________ Prelimary check list of uncatalogued Islamic manuscripts in the Department of Rare Book and special collection Princeton University Library.300 manuscripts in Near Eastern languages. commentaries (Tafsir). Suleiman. history. belles letters. the international bibliographic utility.princeton. Nuttall. mathematics. and other works of criticism). The subjects covered by these manuscripts include: The Islamic sciences. philosophy. Yahuda. The Islamic Manuscripts Collection and its catalogue are maintained in the Special Collection Library of the Hatcher Graduate Library. theology (Kalam). Nearly one-third (about 312) of the manuscripts have been fully catalogued and are accessible in MIRLYN and OCLC (WorldCat) (link from UM only).edu) University of Michigan Library: Islamic Manuscripts Collection The Collection has approximately 1. 20 . biography (Sirah). Frank Schulte Collection). Philology. and several other smaller collection (192 manuscripts in the Walter Koelz. Stephen Spaulding. geography. namely. (www. astronomy and astrology. Persian and Turkish. and Jurisprudence (Fiqh). Quran (texts. Heyworth-Dunne.

World Congress of Muslim Librarian & Information Scientists 25th -27th November 2008 Putra World Trade Center ______________________ Slovakia-Basagic’s Collection of Islamic Manuscripts in the University Library of Bratislava Basagic’s collection contains unique manuscripts and essential works of medieval Islamic scholarly literature and belles letters.200 years old. Tima Tima is an Islamic manuscripts association is an international effort to protect Islamic manuscripts at Cambridge. The 284 manuscript volumes and 365 printed volumes portray the more than a thousand yearlong development of Islamic civilization from its commencement to the beginning of 20th century. some of which are more than 1.000 handwritten texts. the 21 . Riyadh The Main Library provides accommodation for more than on million books. In addition to nearly 23. acquiring. (www. The King Faisal Center for Research and Islamic Studies has undertaken the challenging mission of locating. and indexing all known Islamic manuscripts worldwide. starting from 1729. spanning the interval from 12th to 19th century. or copying. authenticating. The collection covers the fields of Islamic Studies and Islamic King Faisal Center For Research And Islamic Studies. and prints from two centuries.islamicmanuscripts.

13th c. In some. Tipu Sultan’s Library and Fort William College Library. important also for calligraphy). Asiatic Society.). Kharidat al-Qasr (12th c. Of the many Islamic Manuscripts there are some. It was founded in 1784. Some of the manuscripts belonged to the Mughal Imperial Library. Of these only a few may be mentioned: Tahdhib Sharh As-Sab’ at Mullaqat (early 12th c. A-Madkhul (13th c. Kolkata The Asiatic Society is a premier oriental institution of the Asian continent. It is varied and rich. Tuhfat al-Ahbar fi usul at Hadith wa’l Akhbar (15th c. Kitab al-I’lan (18th c. and covers most of the Indian language and scripts and eve several Asian ones. Islamic Section comprises of manuscripts in Arabic.World Congress of Muslim Librarian & Information Scientists 25th -27th November 2008 Putra World Trade Center ______________________ manuscript archives have more than 18. which are extremely rare and unique. Pushto. Turkish.). Persian. Qalaid alIquian wa Mahasin al-Ayan (12th c.). some of them being autographed. AlJam Baynas as-Sahihin abridged version with autograph.D.).). Tafsir-i-Quran (Persian.000 microfilms and hundreds of photocopies. Saha’ if-i-Shara’ if or Duraral Mansur 22 . and Urdu. Arabic). numbering more than seven thousand. Some are extremely rare and some are rich and varied in textual contents. The Asiatic Society holds rare and invariable collection. They cover every branch of Islamic history and learning. ranging in date from the first quarter of the 12th Century A. etc..). the calligraphy is most excellent while a few others bear miniature paintings of high quality and style. (13th c.

) World Congress of Muslim Librarian & Information Scientists 25th -27th November 2008 Putra World Trade Center ______________________ Rampur Raza Library. an autographed copy). The Raza Library has preserved some rare collection like the seventh century AD Quran written on parchment in early Kufic script attributed to Hazrat Ali. The collection of Arabic manuscripts here is considered as the oldest with rare specimens of Islamic calligraphy and bookbinding. who served three caliphs of Baghdad as prime minister and died on July 20. Another copy of ninth century Quran written on parchment is attributed to Iman Abul Hasan Musa.D. The celebrated scholar and calligrapher Ibn Muqla. 941 AD. Asian and Far Eastern countries of the world. It also contained 23 . The special feature of the collection is that it is rich in deluxe Codexes of the Holy Quran representing Muslim Calligraphy at its highest from the 8th to 18th century A.. and Adab-i-Alamgiri (18th c.742 manuscripts. copied the Quran in the early Naskh style. Hyderabad The Salarjung Museum of Hyderabad is the repository of the artistic achievements of diverse European. Rampur The Rampur Raza Library is a very rich in the resources on Indo-Islamic studies and arts.(Persian. Salarjung Museum And Library. 19th c. Among them is the seventh century AD Quran written on parchment in early Kufic script attributed to Hazrat Ali. Salarjung Museum Library contains 7. Another specimen of the holy Quran written in the eighth century AD is attributed to Imam Jafar Sadiq.

There are many sites on Internet. which are regarded as ARCHIVES. but more particularly the original version before it has been printed. which help in recreating the past and deciphering the history of mankind. Information professions distinguish between manuscripts. of a literary or musical composition in hand written or typescript form. which typically form part of a library collection and official documents or records. CONCLUSION Manuscripts literacy a document of any kind that is written by hand. Manuscripts represent the selected fragment of time. The manuscripts literature of the Islamic world is a vast area of study. Islamic manuscripts have been studied for quite a while and many are well known.World Congress of Muslim Librarian & Information Scientists 25th -27th November 2008 Putra World Trade Center ______________________ genuine manuscripts and autograph copies of royal and historical personages and famous calligraphers like Yaqut-i-Must’ asimi. which ambition is to provide information everyone who is interested in the Islamic manuscripts. 24 .

Amjad Ali.princeton.: Encyclopedia of Library and Information Science. (www. Sidney. Vol. 5. Vol. Kent. New York. Publicatoins. Marcel Dekker. (2005): Oriental Manuscirpts Worldwide. (www. New 6. eds.262 3. Collingwood.S.118 25 . Regency publishing.islamicmanuscripts. Allen and Others. (www. ed (1996): Twenty first century universal encyclopedia. p. 2.World Congress of Muslim Librarian & Information Scientists 25th -27th November 2008 Putra World Trade Center ______________________ BIBLIOGRAPHY 1.18. p.islamicmanuscript. 17.

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