The Need for Islamic Information Management in the Information Institutions In Malaysia: An Analysis of Problems

Mohd Nazir Ahmad Senior Lecturer Faculty of Information Management, Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM) naziruitm@yahoo.com Islamic Manuscripts Mohd Noor Mamat Senior Lecturer Centre for Islamic Thought and Understanding, Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM) mohdnoor@salam.uitm.edu.my Dr. (Mrs.) Shaista Parvin Muqueem Khan Siti Fatahiyah Mahamood Lecturer Centre for Islamic Thought & Understanding, INTEC Shah Alam: sitif006@salam.uitm.edu.my

Mashitah Sulaiman Islamic Manuscripts Lecturer Centre of General Studies, Islamic Science University of Malaysia: mashitah@usim.edu.my

World Congress of Muslim Librarian & Information Scientists 25th -27th November 2008 Putra World Trade Center ______________________

wCOMLIS-2008

World Congress of Muslim Librarians & Information Scientist Theme Knowledge Empowerment and Information Resources Enrichment On 25th-27th November 2008 At Putra World Trade Centre (PWTC) Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia Sub Theme: Islamic Manuscripts By Dr. (Mrs.) SHAISTA PARVIN MUQUEEM KHAN

Asstt. Librarian Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar Marathwada University Library, Aurangabad – Maharashtra India.

Email: muqista@yahoo.co.in Phon: +91 0240-2393999 Mob: 989060207042

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such as stone. and for Mexican. strips of bambaoo. metal. or bark. or Pottery. by hand scriptus. 1996) The word manuscript is equally valid for oriental books written by hand on material such as Palm leaves. Allen and Others). it also refers to type written materials (Kent. and institutional records. as opposed to being printed or reproduced in some other way. and modern manuscripts such as literacy manuscripts. ed. The use of the term manuscripts in the United States refers to handwritten materials including ancient inscriptions on clay tablets and stone. The term may 3 . pictorial painted on deerskin or other material. medieval and renaissance manuscript books or codices. and to ‘INSCRIPTIONS’ which are writings in cited on hard materials. According to the Encyclopedia of library and information science.World Congress of Muslim Librarian & Information Scientists 25th -27th November 2008 Putra World Trade Center ______________________ ISLAMIC MANUSCRIPTS Dr. written). (Mrs) Shaista Parvin Asstt. In the case of modern manuscripts. historical manuscripts or personal papers. usually in ink as opposed to printed matter. A manuscript is any document that is written by hand. (Collingwood. documents or books written by hand on a flexible material such as parchment or paper. Librarian University Library INTRODUCTION According to universal Encyclopedia (Latin Manu.

until the time when printing became general throughout the Western World.World Congress of Muslim Librarian & Information Scientists 25th -27th November 2008 Putra World Trade Center ______________________ also be used for information that is hand-recorded in other way than writing. a print out from a PC. a ‘manuscript’ is the text submitted to the publisher or printer in Preparation for publication. The advent of Islam witnessed an unprecedented growth in the quantity of knowledge and gave birth to a healthy tradition of reading. The materials and methods for recording and reproduction of manuscripts changed as per availability of techniques.000 years. prepared in manuscript format. In publishing and academic contexts. There are many valuable old manuscripts in such libraries as the Bibliotheqe National of Paris and the Vatican Library. Paper substituted tree bark. It ultimately led to the rise in number of libraries. usually as a type script Prepared on a typewriters or today. reproduction and preservation of knowledge which further accelerated the rate of generation of manuscripts and books. writing and preservation of the thoughts contained in documents. leaves. These manuscripts make up some of the most valuable collections of the world.Islamic Manuscripts. animal skin and bones as medium for recording. 4 . Handwritten manuscripts were the chief records of human history for about 5. This led to the promotion of libraries and development of the art of papermaking. Many are kept in glass display cases or are stored in underground vaults of the great museums and libraries of the world.

the city of Baghdad had about 300 libraries. Quran is the holiest books of Muslims. and the Holy book would have to be written down.World Congress of Muslim Librarian & Information Scientists 25th -27th November 2008 Putra World Trade Center ______________________ During the regin of Caliph Haroon al-Rasheed. From the very spread of Islam. They promoted libraries in every period and as a natural requirement to man these institutions. It contains the language of God revealed to the Prophet through the angle Gabril.D. It was from these copies that every future edition of the Holy Qur’an has been taken. The purpose of the collection is to illustrate something of the history and development of Islamc calligraphy. 5 . the disciples of the Prophet maintained the text of Quran which was revealed to him in parts. The Arabs were poets and storytellers of high ability who trained and improved their memories. For a short period after the revelation of the Holy Qur’an the Arabs continued to follow the old oral tradition. into a major art form the beauty of which has been unsurpassed. By 651 AD it had been recorded. which grew rapidly from insignificant beginnings. Great care was taken to maintain the accuaracy of the book and to preserve it on the materials available at that time. classification and indexing of the intellectual work. Interest in the art of writing was not a feature of pre-Islamic society. It was only when a great number of the ‘Huffaz’ (trained people who had committed the Qur’an to memory) were killed in battle that it was realized that memory alone could never be accurate enough. The Bait-ul-Hikmah (House of Wisdom) 786-809 A. established at that time still reminds us the bright historical past of Muslims. copying. the profession of librarianship emerged emphasizing on preservation. codified and official copies sent to all centers of Muslim learning.

Many people experimented with different styles but most did not survive the test of time.World Congress of Muslim Librarian & Information Scientists 25th -27th November 2008 Putra World Trade Center ______________________ It was the necessity of recording the Qur’an precisely that played such a central role in beautifying the writing so that is might be worthy of divine revelations. Nisf and Tumar. In the following centuries scribes became highly trained and respected people. a round curved one and a long straight version. and that included Sultans and Emperors. while the straight style could be incised into wood. He is thought to have invented the system of colored dots that indicate vowel signs. with the well-educated person. 688AD). Islamic teachings state that the Holy Book was revealed to the Prophet Mohammed (pbuh) in Arabic and so the language has the status of divine speech. These six styles have survived to this day and are 6 . onto flat stones and camel bones. There were a number of early Arabian scripts of two main types. The Father of Arabic grammer is considered to be Abu’l Aswad Du’ali of Basra (d. The rounded script was written on materials like leather. Jalil. He is thought to have developed the four important styles known as Thuluth. An outstanding scribe mentioned in Arabic sources was Qutbah al Muharrir. Because neither style was particularly attractive they were not considered suitable for recording the Qur’an. considering at an honour to learn to write under the guidance of and eminent scribe. Two of his students continued his work and devised a method of using these dots to differentiate between consonants and similarly shaped letters. Those that did are known as Al Aqlam al Sittah of The Six Pens. At an early stage no vowel signs were used and so similar shaped consonant could not be easily differentiated.

Islamic manuscripts have been studied for quite a while and many are well known. 2005) Islamic Manuscripts contain an as yet almost untapped source of the rich Islamic heritage. The Great Mosque. (Amjad Ali. Institutes and collections described below contain Qur’anic manuscripts from Ist century of hijra onwards. including rare manuscripts of the Qur’an. one of them belonging to early 1st century. San‘a. Rayhani. Zayd Ibn Thabit and Salman al-Farsi. The museums. The Great Mosque of San‘a established in 6th year of hijra when the Prophet entrusted one of his companions to build a mosque. in large unpointed Kufic script. in two parts. Naskhi and Riq’a are taught in modern schools. each of 150 pages. The UNESCO had complied a CD containing some of the dated San‘a manuscripts as a part of “Memory of the World” programme. the main Mosque of San‘a.000) of the Great Mosque is housed in three libraries in the mosque complex. Maktabat al-Jami ‘al-Kabir (Maktabat al-Awqaf). Riq’a and Tawqi. Muhaqqaq. Among the manuscripts in the collection is a copy of the Qur’an reputed to be in the handwriting of Al-Iman ‘Ali Ibn Abi Talib. More 7 . 7. Yemen. The Maktabat al-Awqaf. In this CD there are more than 40 Qur’anic manuscripts which are dated from 1st century of hijra (in both Hijazi and Kufic scripts). It contains some of the rarest Islamic manuscripts in the world.World Congress of Muslim Librarian & Information Scientists 25th -27th November 2008 Putra World Trade Center ______________________ called Thuluth. It is considered to be the first mosque in Yemen and among the oldest in Islamic world. Naskhi. The manuscript collection (ca.

with articles by Hussa Sabah Salim al-Sabah.150 in Turkish. UNESCO. Cairo. World Survey Of Islamic Manuscripts covers the catalogue of manuscripts at the Great Mosque published in various boo • • • Memory Of The World: San‘a Manuscripts. Dar al-Athar al-Islamiyyah: Kuwait. 1985. especially from the first four centuries of hijra.755 out of which 47. Puin. G. 664-667. World Congress of Muslim Librarian & Information Scientists 25th -27th November 2008 Putra World Trade Center ______________________ Dar al-Kutub al-Misriyya (Egyptian National Library). Dreibholz in both Arabic and English. This book is a catalogue of an exhibition at the Kuwait National Museum. A few examples of the manuscripts from 1st. The manuscript collection in Dar al-Kutub is regarded as one of the largest and most important in the world. There is a high proportion of manuscripts copied in the early centuries of Islam. M. Volume III. It 8 . A few more examples of the 1st and 1st / 2nd century Qur’anic manuscripts from San‘a can be found in the book Masahif San‘a. The total number of manuscripts in this library is 50. 996 in Persian and 2. Jenkins. Geoffrey Roper (ed. U. 1992. Al-qFurqan Islamic Heritage Foundation: London. Egypt. It contains priceless and rare manuscripts from the Islamic heritage. P.065 are in Arabic.). 2nd and 3rd centuries of hijra can be seen at this website. Masahif San‘a. R. as well as extremely rare illustrated manuscripts unmatched anywhere else in the world.P. CD-ROM Presentation.than 45 manuscripts have been dated from the period 1st / 2nd century of hijra. World Survey Of Islamic Manuscripts.

000 are manuscripts of the Qur’an. See Pl. Volume I. including several old Kufic Qur’anic manuscripts written on deer skin. p. Mashhad. Publications of the Khedivial Library. No. 1905. Al-Furqan Islamic Heritage Foundation: London. Arnold & A.). A complete reference of catalogue of the manuscripts can be seen in: • G. It is also important in that it contains a large number of magnificent. old and illuminated Qur’anic manuscripts.000 manuscripts it possesses. The manuscripts are 9 . p. Moritz. The Islamic Book: A Contribution to Its Art And History From The VII-XVIII Century. • T. other with marvelous illuminations from 3rd century hijra (9th century CE) onwards.p. Grohmann. 16. and some written by famous calligraphers. Of the 29. 212-218.World Congress of Muslim Librarian & Information Scientists 25th -27th November 2008 Putra World Trade Center ______________________ holds two of the earliest dated Qur’anic manuscripts dating from dating 102AH / 720 CE and 107 AH/ 725 CE.22. thus making it the largest Qur’anic manuscript collection in the world. Cairo. This library has one of the oldest (established in 861 AH/1457 CE) collections of Islamic manuscripts in the Muslim world and the most important in Iran. Persian and Turkish. The Pegasus Press. World Survey Of Islamic Manuscripts. 31-34 and Pl. 11. • B.000 manuscripts in Arabic. W. 1-12 for 102 AH/ 720 CE and 107 AH / 725 CE. Arabic Palaeography: A Collection Of Arabic Texts From The First Century Of The Hijra Till The Year 1000. respectively. Iran. It has about 29. 1929.Roper (ed. 1992. Astan-I Quds-I Razavi Library.

This museum was established in 1923 by the Islamic Legal Council in Palestine. 579-581. donated over centuries to Al-Aqsa Mosque and the Dome of the Rock. 481-486. but are of the Mamluk period. Abi Talib. The Beit al-Qur’an collection of Qur’anic manuscripts is one of the most comprehensive of its type in the world. Islamic Museum. World Survey Of Islamic Manuscripts. p. the covers are also decorated on both sides. Al-Furqan Islamic Heritage Foundation: London.World Congress of Muslim Librarian & Information Scientists 25th -27th November 2008 Putra World Trade Center ______________________ catalogued in various publications as can be seen in the reference below. numbering 644. The manuscript collection of the Islamic Museum consists entirely of masahif of the Qur’an.). One of the most important manuscript in this collection is the Kufic copy of the second half of the Qur’an. World Survey Of Islamic Manuscripts. the transcription of which attributed to Al-Hasan b. Roper (ed. Bahrain. The pages in this manuscript are beautifully illuminated. Al-Furqan Islamic Heritage Foundation: London. pp. Palestine.p. Manama. Beit al-Qur’an. Volume II. This great collection include magnificent calligraphic works from as early as 10 . 1993. ‘Ali b. • G. Volume I. The complete reference of catalogue of the manuscripts in this museum can be see in: • G. Jerusalem. Roper (ed. with each surah heading bearing its own distinct style of decoration. Al-Husayan b. 1992.).

The Abbasid Tradition: Qur’ans Of The 8th To The 10th Centuries AD. Manuscripts World Congress of Muslim Librarian & Information Scientists 25th -27th November 2008 Putra World Trade Center ______________________ from 1st and 1st /2nd century of hijra are available at this website. 1992. I. II.the first century hijra (7th/8th CE) to the present day. The Nour Foundation in collaboration with Oxford University Press has published the collection. from all regions of the Islamic world. Other masterpieces include a Qur’an written in gold from twelfth-century 11 . London. The Nasser David Khalili Collection Of Islamic Art. Oxford University Press. The Nasser D. 192 pp. The entire history of Qur’an production from the seventh to the twentieth century is covered. It is managed by the Nour Foundation. • D. Deroche. The Nasser D. The references are: • F. The Nasser David Khalili Collection Of Islamic Art contains the largest and most comprehensive range of Qur’anic material in private hands. This book includes a Qur’an that retains its original illumination by the greatest calligrapher of the Middle Ages. 1992. United Kingdom. James. from China to Andalusian Spain. Yaqut al-Musta’simi. It is a privately owned collection. Oxford University Press. 240 pp. Khalili Collection of Islamic Art Vol. and includes items from centers as far apart as India and Spain. The Master Scribes: Qur’ans of the 10th to 14th Centuries. They are written in various scripts and are dated from late 1st century of hijra onwards. Khalili Collection of Islamic Art Vol. The Qur’anic manuscripts in this collection are described and illustrated in four lavish volumes.

Oxford University Press. • D. The Nasser D. 1999. 334 pp. • N. The Nasser D. III. Iran. Khalili Collection of Islamic Art Vol. 12 . Ottoman Turkey. Covers the period 1700-1900 and items from Islamic Africa. 1992. France. Paris. Egypt. Oxford University Press. India and the Far East. Bayani. Constantionple. The Decorated Word: Qur’ans of the 17th to 19th Centuries. 1999. Holds examples of Islamic Calligraphy that span six centuries and demonstrate the continuity of this central art form into the modern era. 248 pp. Safwat. Afer Timur: Qur’ans of the 15th and 16th Centuries. Syria. The Art of the Pen Calligraphy of the 14th to 20th Centuries. James. The Nasser D. A. Contadini & T. Khalili Collection of Islamic Art Vol.World Congress of Muslim Librarian & Information Scientists 25th -27th November 2008 Putra World Trade Center ______________________ Iraq. The holdings – nearly 300 in total – include exceptional items that feature the work of many of the most famous master calligraphers. V. Stanley. the only twelfth-century Qur’an from Valencia. IV. and a manuscript that is possibly the earliest Qur’an to survive from India. • M. Bibliotheque Nationale. Khalili Collection of Islamic Art Vol. including Seyh Hamdullah and Hafiz Osman. This book includes fifteenth century Qur’ans in Iran. Oxford University Press. and India as well as sixteenth century Qur’ans in Iran and India. F. 256 pp.

• G. Especially noteworthy are some Quranic manuscripts of the first centuries after hijra. Kufic and Maghribi scripts suggesting their origin from wide geographical locations in the Islamic world. The Oriental Institute Museum. The manuscripts are written in Makkan. World Survey Of Islamic Manuscripts. • F. 2.). Catalogue des Manuscripts Arabes (Les Manuscripts Du Coran). Division des Manuscripts Orientaux. Photographs of some undated Quranic manuscripts written in Hijazi script at Bibliotheque Nationale can be seen in ref. the Bibliotheque Nationale has assembled collections of Islamic manuscripts formed over the centuries and regularly augmented by purchases and gifts. 1. 1983. Volume I. The Oriental Institute Museum holds a decent collection of Qur’anic manuscripts dated from second half of the first century of hijra (classified as 1st/2nd) onwards. please see ref. Roper (ed. Al-Furqan Islamic Heritage Foundation: London. these collections rank among the most important in Europe and cover nearly all subjects (total ca. These are kept in the Department des Manuscrits.World Congress of Muslim Librarian & Information Scientists 25th -27th November 2008 Putra World Trade Center ______________________ Successor to the old Bibliotheque Royale. For catalogues of collection at Bibliotheque Nationale. The relevant reference to look for is the following: 13 . Bibliotheque Nationale: Paris. 1992. United States of America. 12. 212-218.000). Volume I. Deroche. University of Chichago. pp. Chicago.

Abbott. J. Hodges Figgis & Co Ltd. The Library houses examples of the earliest Islamic manuscripts. Dublin. With A Full Description Of The Kur’an Manuscripts In The Oriental Institute. The published manuscripts are in the following books: • A.• World Congress of Muslim Librarian & Information Scientists 25th -27th November 2008 Putra World Trade Center ______________________ N. The Islamic Collection is one of the finest in existence and is internationally renowned for the overall high quality and scope of its material. The Koran Illuminated: A Handlist Of The Korans In The Chester Beatty Library. Ireland. through to those produced in the early years of the twentieth century. Arberry. Persian and Turkish manuscripts including many superb copies of the Qur’an. The Rise Of The North Arabic Script And Its Kur’anic Development. The Islamic Collection in The Chester Beatty Library contains almost four thousand Arabic. dated to the ninth and tenth centuries CE. 14 . 1980. • D. The Chester Beatty Library. World of Islam Festival Trust: London.: Dublin. University of Chicago Press. The real gem of the collection and indeed one of the most treasured objects of the entire Library – is the splendid Qur’an copied by the famed calligrapher Ibn al-Bawwab in Baghddad in the year 1001. Qur’ans And Bindings From The Chester Beatty Library: A Facsimile Exhibition. James. 1967. 1939.

The Chester Beatty Library: A Handlist Of The Arabic Manuscripts. Margaret’s Donnybrook: Dublin. The manuscript reflects changes in the orthography and “lay-out” of the sacred text.e. Makkan or Madinan) script contain about 40% of the text of the Qur’an (ful texts of 22 surahs and fragments of another 22). Petersburg. Vols. J.. The Institute Of Oriental Studies.). The museum possesses some fine examples of the writings of renowned calligraphers such as Yaqut Al Musta’simi (d. 1-8. A.D. St. Arberry. 1293 A. THESA Company.• World Congress of Muslim Librarian & Information Scientists 25th -27th November 2008 Putra World Trade Center ______________________ A. (www. This institute houses one of the oldest Qur’anic manuscripts dated to the last half of the 8th century CE and has been published in the Issue 4: One Of The Most Important Qur’anic MSS In The World. St. The relevant publication is: • E. Issue 4: One Of The Most Important Qur’anic MSS In The World. St.islamicmanuscript. The Institute Of Oriental Studies has recently started a project that deals with compiling the manuscripts in the electronic format. Russia. Petersburg (Russia). 15 . It has 81 large parchment folios in Hijazi (i. Rezvan. Emery Walker (Ireland) Ltd.. 1955. Russian Academy of Sciences.org) Tareq Rajab Museum. Kuwait The Tareq Rajab Museum in Kuwait has a large and important collection of Al Qur’an and manuscripts from all periods and countries (including NW Chine) around the Islamic world.

the richest to be found anywhere in the world. The collection of Qurans. the manuscripts. Topkapi Palace Library. two ascribed to Hasan and Hussein 16 . nine accredited to Caliph Ali (RA). and bound by the most capable bookbinders of the times. the home of the Ottoman sultans and the administrative center of the Ottoman Empire for four hundred years. gilded by master gilders. comprises texts of the Quran inscribed during the 7th – 19th centuries in Arabia. Among these are seven believed to be inscribed by Caliph Osman (RA). India. Today. Istanbul The present Topkap Palace. The 1600 or more Qurans found in the first volume of the Arabic catalogue are preserved in the Palace Library as rare books. These Qurans and Commentaries. Karatay in 1960.World Congress of Muslim Librarian & Information Scientists 25th -27th November 2008 Putra World Trade Center ______________________ Although little of his work has survived. his influence was of outstanding importance to the development of calligraphy. Almost all have been prepared by famous calligraphers. the Islamic manuscripts preserved in this new library have been sorted out into categories of Arabic. number more than two thousand.E. Iran. Maghrib (North Africa) and the lands dominated by the Seljuks and Ottomans. were gathered together to form the New Library. was turned into a museum in 1924. buildings and rooms of the Palace and are classified by the name of the location where they were found. Persian and Turkish. found in many pavilions and rooms. which have been gathered from the various pavilions. The first of the Arabic catalogues contains Qurans and works of Quranic commentary. A complete catalogue was compiled and published by F.

These are written on parchment on thick dark paper in Maghribi kufic with gilded fontispiece. In addition to those written on parchment. The first Qurans were written on parchment in the 7th – 8th centuries in a monumental type of script called kufic. there are those of the 9th-11th centuries inscribed on thick dark paper with sepia ink using delicate kufic lines. whose name is derived from Kufa. The first Qurans written in kufic script. The kufic script of Iran differed from the kufic of the regions of Baghdad and North Africa. illuminated surah headings. is a style of Arabic script closest to pictorial design. an early Islamic center.World Congress of Muslim Librarian & Information Scientists 25th -27th November 2008 Putra World Trade Center ______________________ (RA) as well as many translations. Islamic Manuscripts from Mali African and Middle Eastern Division. The script used in Baghdad and North Africa was more dynamic and of slighter dimension. showed regional peculiarities in the 9th century. surah titles. are the Qurans written in vertical form (M. thirty-nine Farsi translations. besides the one believed to have been recited by khaliph Osman (RA) at the moment of his death (A. marginal rosettes and sajdah marks. twenty one Chagatay translations and one Uygur translations. 17 .74. for example). There are twenty one Turkish translations. most characterized with its horizontal and vertical lines.3 M. Library of congress. Kufic script. This script. Also in the Palace collection are Qurans prepared in North African cities such as Ceuta and Marrakech between the 12th and 16th centures.32).H.

history and biography.000 texts.500 Islamic manuscripts. Mali.World Congress of Muslim Librarian & Information Scientists 25th -27th November 2008 Putra World Trade Center ______________________ Islamic manuscripts from Mali features 32 manuscripts from the Mamma Hairdra commemorative Library and the Library of Check Zyni Baye of Boujbeha. and housed at the Harvey S. The Manuscripts are chiefly in Arabic but also include Persian. including theology based both on Quran and tradition (hadith). Firestone Memorial Library. Subject coverage is broad and comprehensive. Ottoman Turkish. Persian illustrated manuscripts and miniatures. there are also illuminated Qur’ans.gov/intldl/mali html/malihome. chiefly bound paper codices containing more than 20. and other examples of Islamic book arts.loc.bk) Princeton University Library: Princeton has the largest collection of Islamic manuscripts in North America and one of the finest such collections in the Western world.html. The collection is located in the Manuscripts Division of the Department of Rare Books and Special Collections. Among the greatest treasures of the Princeton University Library are some 9. Islamic law (fiqh). Among the most famous examples of Persian painting are the 16th-century Peck Shahnamah and Muin Musavvir’ 1673 portrait of the Safavidera painter Riza ‘Abbasi. While the world of Islamic learning is the chief emphasis. especially of the Prophet and other 18 . Princeton’s rich holdings constitute the premier collection of Islamic manuscripts in the Western Hemisphere and are among the finest in the world. (memory. and other languages of the Islamic world. both in Timbuktu.

Rudolf Mach (1977).World Congress of Muslim Librarian & Information Scientists 25th -27th November 2008 Putra World Trade Center ______________________ religious leaders. • • Catalogue of Arabic manuscripts (Yolanda section) in the Garrett Collection. the library has recently embarked on a four-year project under the overall direction of Don C. Hitti (1938). and Rudolf Mach and Eric L. In order to improve access to these rich collections and share them worldwide through digital technology. Ormsby (1987). For published description of manuscripts one can refer “Descriptive catalogue of the Garrett collection of Arabic manuscripts in the Princeton University Library. made possible by generous support from the David A. Skemer. book arts and illustration. and other aspects of the intellectual and spiritual life of the Islamic world and its diverse peoples. The Princeton Library has long been committed to making these collections available to researchers worldwide. science. Thousands of additional manuscripts. The Manuscripts Division also holds Arabic papyri and documents. language and literature. 19 . the library’s Curator of Manuscripts. with access provided by published catalogs. principally those compiled by Philip K. and modern personal papers relating to the Near East. Hand list of Arabic manuscripts (New series) in the Princeton University Library. are described briefly in an online checklist. Moghadam and Yahya Armajani (1939). Mohammed E. including most of the Persian and Ottoman Turkish holdings. calligraphy collections. magic and the occult.

Philology. commentaries (Tafsir). and other works of criticism). Arabic. 20 . the international bibliographic utility. biography (Sirah). Quran (texts.300 manuscripts in Near Eastern languages. geography. history. theology (Kalam). Heyworth-Dunne. Nearly one-third (about 312) of the manuscripts have been fully catalogued and are accessible in MIRLYN and OCLC (WorldCat) (link from UM only). Frank Schulte Collection).edu) University of Michigan Library: Islamic Manuscripts Collection The Collection has approximately 1. belles letters. Yahuda. Nuttall.princeton. (www. namely. poetry. Stephen Spaulding. Tiflis. philosophy. astronomy and astrology. Horace Miner. commentaries on commentaries. Persian and Turkish. The Islamic Manuscripts Collection is classified as the Abdul Hamid. The subjects covered by these manuscripts include: The Islamic sciences. and Jurisprudence (Fiqh). The Islamic Manuscripts Collection and its catalogue are maintained in the Special Collection Library of the Hatcher Graduate Library. McGregor. mathematics. Suleiman. and several other smaller collection (192 manuscripts in the Walter Koelz.• World Congress of Muslim Librarian & Information Scientists 25th -27th November 2008 Putra World Trade Center ______________________ Prelimary check list of uncatalogued Islamic manuscripts in the Department of Rare Book and special collection Princeton University Library. Islamic traditions (Hadith).

some of which are more than 1. and indexing all known Islamic manuscripts worldwide. (www. starting from 1729.islamicmanuscripts. and prints from two centuries. The collection covers the fields of Islamic Studies and Islamic Civilization. Riyadh The Main Library provides accommodation for more than on million books. The King Faisal Center for Research and Islamic Studies has undertaken the challenging mission of locating. The 284 manuscript volumes and 365 printed volumes portray the more than a thousand yearlong development of Islamic civilization from its commencement to the beginning of 20th century.200 years old. acquiring.org) King Faisal Center For Research And Islamic Studies. authenticating.000 handwritten texts. Tima Tima is an Islamic manuscripts association is an international effort to protect Islamic manuscripts at Cambridge.World Congress of Muslim Librarian & Information Scientists 25th -27th November 2008 Putra World Trade Center ______________________ Slovakia-Basagic’s Collection of Islamic Manuscripts in the University Library of Bratislava Basagic’s collection contains unique manuscripts and essential works of medieval Islamic scholarly literature and belles letters. In addition to nearly 23. or copying. spanning the interval from 12th to 19th century. the 21 .

Saha’ if-i-Shara’ if or Duraral Mansur 22 . and Urdu. important also for calligraphy). which are extremely rare and unique.000 microfilms and hundreds of photocopies.World Congress of Muslim Librarian & Information Scientists 25th -27th November 2008 Putra World Trade Center ______________________ manuscript archives have more than 18. (13th c. The Asiatic Society holds rare and invariable collection.. Of the many Islamic Manuscripts there are some. some of them being autographed. Tipu Sultan’s Library and Fort William College Library.). Turkish. A-Madkhul (13th c. Persian. numbering more than seven thousand. Kolkata The Asiatic Society is a premier oriental institution of the Asian continent. 13th c. Some are extremely rare and some are rich and varied in textual contents.).). Some of the manuscripts belonged to the Mughal Imperial Library. Of these only a few may be mentioned: Tahdhib Sharh As-Sab’ at Mullaqat (early 12th c. Qalaid alIquian wa Mahasin al-Ayan (12th c. and covers most of the Indian language and scripts and eve several Asian ones.). They cover every branch of Islamic history and learning. the calligraphy is most excellent while a few others bear miniature paintings of high quality and style. AlJam Baynas as-Sahihin abridged version with autograph.D. Islamic Section comprises of manuscripts in Arabic. In some. It was founded in 1784. Kitab al-I’lan (18th c. etc. Pushto. Arabic).).). Kharidat al-Qasr (12th c. Tafsir-i-Quran (Persian. It is varied and rich. Tuhfat al-Ahbar fi usul at Hadith wa’l Akhbar (15th c. ranging in date from the first quarter of the 12th Century A. Asiatic Society.

Rampur The Rampur Raza Library is a very rich in the resources on Indo-Islamic studies and arts. It also contained 23 .(Persian. 941 AD. copied the Quran in the early Naskh style. 19th c.D. who served three caliphs of Baghdad as prime minister and died on July 20. and Adab-i-Alamgiri (18th c.) World Congress of Muslim Librarian & Information Scientists 25th -27th November 2008 Putra World Trade Center ______________________ Rampur Raza Library. Another copy of ninth century Quran written on parchment is attributed to Iman Abul Hasan Musa. Salarjung Museum Library contains 7.742 manuscripts. Hyderabad The Salarjung Museum of Hyderabad is the repository of the artistic achievements of diverse European.. The special feature of the collection is that it is rich in deluxe Codexes of the Holy Quran representing Muslim Calligraphy at its highest from the 8th to 18th century A. The celebrated scholar and calligrapher Ibn Muqla. Asian and Far Eastern countries of the world. Salarjung Museum And Library. The Raza Library has preserved some rare collection like the seventh century AD Quran written on parchment in early Kufic script attributed to Hazrat Ali. Among them is the seventh century AD Quran written on parchment in early Kufic script attributed to Hazrat Ali. an autographed copy). Another specimen of the holy Quran written in the eighth century AD is attributed to Imam Jafar Sadiq. The collection of Arabic manuscripts here is considered as the oldest with rare specimens of Islamic calligraphy and bookbinding.

Islamic manuscripts have been studied for quite a while and many are well known. which are regarded as ARCHIVES. which help in recreating the past and deciphering the history of mankind. which typically form part of a library collection and official documents or records. of a literary or musical composition in hand written or typescript form.World Congress of Muslim Librarian & Information Scientists 25th -27th November 2008 Putra World Trade Center ______________________ genuine manuscripts and autograph copies of royal and historical personages and famous calligraphers like Yaqut-i-Must’ asimi. There are many sites on Internet. which ambition is to provide information everyone who is interested in the Islamic manuscripts. Manuscripts represent the selected fragment of time. 24 . but more particularly the original version before it has been printed. Information professions distinguish between manuscripts. CONCLUSION Manuscripts literacy a document of any kind that is written by hand. The manuscripts literature of the Islamic world is a vast area of study.

Allen and Others. New Delhi.org) 5.18. (www. Vol. eds.princeton. Sidney.262 3. New York.: Encyclopedia of Library and Information Science. 17. (www. Regency publishing. p. Marcel Dekker.org) 25 . Kent.edu) 6. Collingwood. Amjad Ali. S. ed (1996): Twenty first century universal encyclopedia.islamicmanuscripts.islamicmanuscript.118 4. (www.World Congress of Muslim Librarian & Information Scientists 25th -27th November 2008 Putra World Trade Center ______________________ BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. (2005): Oriental Manuscirpts Worldwide. 2. Publicatoins. Vol. p.S.