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KWU TURBINE
GOVERNING SYSTEM















NOTE

Some of the druwings given in this write-up ure for informution purpose onIy und muy
not be correct in every respect, Reuders ure udvised to refer the munufucturer's
munuuIs for detuiIs



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TURBINE GOVERNING SYSTEM

In order to maintain the synchronous speed under changing load/steam conditions,
the KWU turbine supplied by BHEL is equipped with electro-hydraulic governor;
fully backed-up by a hydraulic governor. The measuring and processing of electrical
signal offer the advantages such as flexibility, dynamic stability and simple
representation of complicated functional systems. The integration of electrical and
hydraulic system has the following advantages:

Exact load-frequency droop with high sensitivity.

Avoids over speeding of turbine during load throw offs.

Adjustment of droop in fine steps, even during on-load operation.

Elements of Governing System

The main elements of the governing system are as follows:

Remote trip solenoids (RTS).

Main trip valves (Turbine trip gear).

Starting and Load limit device.

Speeder Gear (Hydraulic Governor).

Aux. follow-up piston valves.

Hydraulic amplifier.

Follow-up piston valves.

Electro-Hydraulic Converter (EHC).

Sequence trimming device.

Solenoids for load shedding relay.

Test valve.

Extraction valve relay.

Oil shutoff valve.

Hydraulic protective devices.

REMOTE TRIP SOLENOIDS (RTS)

The remote trip solenoid operated valves are two in number and form a part of
turbine protection circuit. During the normal operation of the turbine, these
solenoids remain de-energised. In this condition, the control oil from the governing
rack is free to pass through them to the main trip valves. The solenoids gets
energised whenever any electrical trip command is initiated or turbine is tripped


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manually from local or UCB. Under energised condition the down stream oil supply
after the remote trip solenoids gets connected to drain and the upstream will be
blocked. By resetting Unit Trip Relays (UTR) from UCB, these solenoids can be reset.

REMOTE TRIP SOLENOIDS

MAIN TRIP VALVES

The main trip valves (two in numbers) are the main trip gear of the turbine protective
circuit. All turbine tripping take place through these valves. The control oil from
remote trip solenoids is supplied to them.

TURBINE TRIP GEAR


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Under normal conditions, this oil flows into two different circuits, called as the Trip
Oil and Auxiliary Trip Oil. The Trip Oil is supplied to the Stop Valves (of HP Turbine
and IP Turbine), Auxiliary Secondary Oil circuit and Secondary Oil circuits. The
Auxiliary Trip Oil flows in a closed loop formed by main trip valves and turbine
hydraulic protective devices (Over Speed trip device, Low Vacuum trip device and
Thrust Bearing trip device).

The construction of main trip valves is such that when aux. trip oil pressure is
adequate, it holds the valves' spools in open condition against the spring force.
Whenever control oil pressure drops or any of the hydraulic protective devices are
actuated, the main trip valves are tripped. Under tripped condition, trip oil pressure
is drained rapidly through the main valves; closing turbine stop and control valves.


STARTING AND LOAD LIMIT DEVICE

The starting and load limit device is used for resetting the turbine after tripping, for
opening the stop valves and releasing the control valves for opening. The starting
device consists of a pilot valve that can be operated either manually by means of a
hand wheel or by means of a motor from remote. It has got port connections with the
control oil, start-up oil and auxiliary start-up oil circuits. The starting device can
mechanically act upon the hydraulic governor bellows by means of a lever and link
arrangement.

Before start-up, the pilot valve is brought to its bottom limit position by reducing the
starting device to 0% position. This causes the hydraulic governor bellows to be
compressed thus blocking the build-up of secondary oil pressure. This is known as
control valve close position. With the valve in the bottom limit position (starting
device = 0%) control oil flows into the auxiliary start-up circuit (to reset trip gear and
protective devices) and into the start-up oil circuit (to reset turbine stop valves). A
build-up of oil pressure in these circuits can be observed, while bringing the starting
device to zero position. When the pilot valve i.e. the starting device position is raised,
the start-up oil and auxiliary start-up oil circuits are drained. This opens the stop
valves; ESVs open at 42% and IVs open at 56% positions of the starting device.
Further raising of the starting device release hydraulic governor bellows which is in
equilibrium with hydraulic governor's spring tension and primary oil pressure
(turbine speed), and raises the aux. sec. oil pressure; closing the aux. follow-up
drains of hydraulic governor.

SPEEDER GEAR

The speeder gear is an assembly of a bellow and a spring, the tension of which can
be adjusted manually from UCB by an electric motor or locally by a hand wheel. The
bellow compression depends upon the position of the starting device and the speeder
gear position, which alters the spring tension on the top of the bellow. The bellow is
also subjected to the primary oil pressure, which is the feedback signal for actual
turbine speed. The zero position of speeder gear corresponds to 2800 rpm i.e.
hydraulic governor comes into action after 2800 RPM. The bellow and spring
assembly is rigidly linked to the sleeves of the auxiliary follow-up piston valves. The
position of the sleeve changes with the equilibrium position of the bellow.



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HYDRAULIC SPEED TRANSMITTER

The hydraulic speed
transmitter runs in the MOP
bearing and operates on the
principle of a centrifugal
pump. The variation of
pressure in the discharge line
is proportional to the square
of the machine speed. This
primary oil pressure acts as
the control impulse for the
hydraulic speed governor.
The transmitter is supplied
with control oil via an oil
reservoir. An annular groove
in the speed transmitter
ensures that its inside is
always covered with a thin
layer of oil to maintain a
uniform initial pressure.
Excess oil drains into the
bearing pedestal.




CURVE SHOWING TURBINE SPEED Vs PRIMARY OIL
PRESSURE







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AUXILIARY FOLLOW-UP PISTON VALVES


Two Auxiliary Follow-up pistons
are connected in parallel and the
trip oil is supplied to them
through orifice. The sleeves of
these valves are attached to the
speeder gear bellow link. The
position of the sleeve determines
the draining rate of trip oil
through the ports. Accordingly
the trip oil pressure downstream
of these valves changes. Oil
downstream of auxiliary follow-up
pistons circuit is termed as
AUXILIARY SECONDARY OIL.
Hence, aux. follow-up piston
valves can be said to control
auxiliary secondary oil pressure.


SEQUENCE TRIMMING DEVICE

The function of the sequence trimming device or HP/IP TRIM DEVICE is to prevent
any excessive HP turbine exhaust temperature due to churning. It changes response
of main and reheat control valves. When the reheat pressure is more than 32
Kg/cm
2
and load less than 20% the IP turbine tends to get loaded more than HP
turbine. The steam flow through HP turbine tends to fall to very minimum, causing a
lot of churning and excessive exhaust temperature. The trim device operates at this
moment trimming the IP turbine control valve. The control valves of HPT open more
to maintain flow of steam, reducing the HPT exhaust temperature.

It consists of a spring-loaded piston assembly, which is supported by control oil
pressure from beneath, under normal conditions. The control oil is supplied via an
energised solenoid valve. When the turbine loads is less then 40 MW and hot reheat
pressure is more than 32 kg/cm
2
the solenoid valve gets de-energised cutting out the
control oil supply to the trim device.

The trim device trips under spring pressure. The trim device is connected to the
follow-up piston valves of IP control valves by means of a lever. Upon tripping, the
trim device alters the spring tension of follow-up pistons of IP pistons control valves,
draining the secondary oil. The IP control valves openings are trimmed down.


HYDRAULIC AMPLIFIER

Hydraulic Amplifier consists of a pilot valve and an amplifier piston. The position of
the pilot valve spool depends upon the aux. secondary oil pressure. Depending upon
the pilot spool position, the control oil is admitted either to the top or the bottom of
the amplifier piston. The other side of amplifier is connected to the drain. The
movements of the amplifier piston are transformed into rotation of a Camshaft
through a piston rod and a lever assembly. A feedback linkage mechanism stabilises
the system for one particular aux. secondary oil pressure.


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HYDRAULIC AMPLIFIER


1. Amplifier piston
2. Follow-up piston
3. Sleeve
4. Shaft
5. Lever
6. Feedback lever
7. Pilot valve
8. Compression spring
9. Adjusting screw


a : Control oil
b : Secondary oil
b1 : Aux. Sec oil
c : Return oil


SOLENOIDS FOR LOAD SHEDDING RELAY

A pair of solenoid valves has been incorporated in the IP Sec oil line on control valves
and Aux Sec. oil line, in order to prevent the turbine from reaching high speed in the
event of sudden turbine load throw-off. The control valves are operated (closed) by
the load-shedding relay when the rate of load reduction exceeds a certain value. The
solenoid drains the IPCV secondary oil directly. Direct draining of IP Sec oil circuit
causes the reheat valves to close without any significant delay. The HP control valves
are closed due to draining of aux. secondary oil before the hydraulic amplifier, by the
second solenoid valve. The extraction stops valves controlled by IP secondary oil
acting through extraction valves relays also get closed. After an adjustable time delay
(approx. 2 seconds) the solenoid valves are re-closed and secondary oil pressure
corresponding to reduce load builds-up in the HP and IP turbine secondary oil lines.

FOLLOW-UP PISTON VALVES

The trip oil is supplied to the follow up piston valves through orifices and flows in
the secondary oil piping to control valves. The secondary oil pressure depends upon
position of sleeves of follow-up piston valves; which determines the amount of
drainage of trip oil.

There are in all twelve follow-up piston valves. Six of them are associated with
hydraulic amplifier and six of them with EHC in the governing system. The follow-up
piston valves constitute a minimum value gate for both the governors. This means
the governor with lower reference set point, is effectively in control. This is also
termed as HYDRAULIC MINIMUM SELECTION of governors.

The drain port openings of follow-up pistons of hydraulic amplifier depends on
auxiliary secondary oil pressure, upstream of aux. follow-up pistons; and that of
electro hydraulic converter, on the piston of pilot spool valve of the elector-hydraulic
converter (i.e. EHC output).


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FOLLOW-UP PISTON VALVES

TEST VALVE

1. Bolt
2. Hand wheel
3. Spindle
4. Cover
5. Oil Seal
6. Bushing
7. O-ring
8. Valve Cover
9. Valve Body
10. Trip Oil
11. Piston sleeve
12. Trip Oil
13. Piston valve
14. Spring plate
15. Spring
16. Spacer
17. Bottom cover
18. Trip oil
19. Drain
20. Trip oil
21. Startup oil




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Each of the HP and IP stop valves' servomotors receives trip oil through their
associated test valves. The test valves have got port openings for trip oil as well as
start-up oil. The test valves facilitate supply of trip oil pressure beneath the
servomotor disc. (Stop valve open condition, under normal operation). For the
purpose of resetting stop valves after a tripping, start-up oil pressure is supplied to
the associated test valves, which moves their spool downwards against the spring
force. In their bottom most position the trip oil pressure starts building up above the
stop valve servomotor piston while the trip oil beneath the disc gets connected to
drain. When start-up oil pressure is reduced the test valve moves up draining trip oil
above the servomotor piston and building the trip oil pressure below the disc, thus
opening the stop valve. A hand wheel is also provided for manual operation of test
valves.

EXTRACTION N.R.V
S
AND EXTRACTION VALVE RELAY

Four pair of swing-check valves are provided in the extraction lines to the feed
heaters (LP Heaters No: 2,3, Deaerator and HPH No: 5) to prevent back flow of
condensed steam into the turbine from heaters on account of high levels in the
heaters. There are two NRVs provided in each of these extraction lines and is force
closing type. Both these valves are free-swinging check type, however the first valve
is equipped with an actuator. In case of flow reversals, both the valves are closed
automatically. The actuator assists the fast closing of the first valve. The mechanical
design of force-closed valves is such that they are brought into free-swinging position
by means of trip oil. They are open as soon as differential pressure is sufficient. If
the trip oil pressure falls, the spring force closes the valve when steam pressure
either falls or is lowered (reduced load).

The extraction valve relay, its changeover valve and its solenoid valve control the trip
oil to each of the actuators of force closing type valves. In case of turbine trip or
sudden load reduction, by energising the associated solenoid valve, draining of trip


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oil pressure through extraction valve relay assists closing movements of FCNRVs. In
both the cases the actuator is devoid of trip oil and its spring force closes the NRV.
Extraction (4) FCNRV solenoid is also energised additionally by lower differential
pressure in the extraction line.


b : Control Oil
c : Return Oil
b1 : Secondary Oil
x : Trip Oil
b2 : Secondary Oil
x1 : Trip Oil

COLD REHEAT SWING CHECK VALVE

Two numbers of swing check valves are provided on the CRH lines from which the
steam is drawn for HPH-6. Their pilot valves via their rotary servomotor in
proportion to secondary oil pressure operate the CRH NRVs. They open out fully
when main control valves open up corresponding to 5-10% of maximum turbine out-
put. Only when the control valves are closed to this threshold again, the NRVs
return into steam flow by the hydraulic actuator, so that when the steam flow ceases
in the normal direction, they are closed by the torque of rotary servomotor. Even
when the pressure of secondary oil has not built up sufficiently, NRVs can be opened
up like safety valves when the upstream pressure rises above the downstream side
pressure by one bar.








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VACUUM BREAKER


The function of the vacuum breakers is to cause an increase in condenser pressure
by conducting atmospheric air into the condenser together with the steam flowing
from the LP Bypass. When the pressure in the condenser increases, the ventilation
of the turbine balding is increased, which causes the turboset to slow down so that
the running down time of the turboset and the time needed for passing through
critical speeds are shortened.







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Electro-Hydraulic Governor (EHG)

Electro-Hydraulic Governor (EHG) works in parallel with Hydraulic governor at all
times of requirements. Basically the Electro-Hydraulic Converter (EHC) is the
connecting element between the electrical and hydraulic parts of the turbine
governing control system for carrying out the Electro-Hydraulic Governing of the
turbine.

The Electro-Hydraulic Governor (EHG) is beneficial in

Offering the flexibility, dynamic stability, dependability, excellent operational
reliability, Low transients and steady-state speed deviations at all instances.
Maintaining exact load frequency droop with high sensitivity.
Providing reliable operation at times of grid isolation conditions.
Operating the turbo-generator Safely in conjunction with TSE.

In KWU turbines, Electro-Hydraulic Governing has been achieved through various
electronic / selector modules configured in four modes of controls:

Admission Control mode,
Speed Control mode,
Load Control mode
Pressure Control mode.

The Hydraulic governor and the EHG system have been designed such that the
governor with lower set point takes over or assumes the system control, as such
normally, the set point of the Hydraulic Governor must be set above that of the
Electro-Hydraulic Governor when EHG is effective. In cases, when EHG fails to cause
shut-off, the set point that is, affected is that of Hydraulic Governor.

In such situations the Tracking Device provides a revised set point of 5-10% above
the EHG set point and it causes increase in small load when the control is
transferred to Hydraulic-Governor. The tracking device is either switched on or off
manually but when EHG failure or turbine trip occurs, the tracking device is
switched off automatically thus tracking under faulted operation mode is prevented
or prohibited. More details on tracking actions are covered in the follow-up circuits
of the speed/load control modes.

Electro Hydraulic Converter

Electro Hydraulic Converter converts the electrical signal in to the hydraulic signals
and large positioning forces are generated in control valves. The electrical signal from
governor control circuit operates the sleeve and pilot valve spool; this regulates the
trip fluid drain. Under steady state condition pilot is at central position; in deflected
position, the control oil is admitted above or below the amplifier piston. The motion
of the amplifier piston is transmitted via a lever to a camshaft, which actuates the
sleeves of follow-up piston valves, causing secondary oil pressure to change. The
speed, load, and pressure signals are measured and converted into conditioned
signal in electronic modules.



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1. Differnetial transformer
2. Amplifier casing
3. Amplifierpiston
4. Piston rod
5. Valve bushing
6. Piston valve
7. Grooved ball bearing
8. Spring dics
9. Compression spring
10. Sleeve
11. Casing support
12. Moving coil system

a. control oil
b. Trip Oil

Electro Hydraulic Converter

Admission Valve (spool) Controller

Admission Valve (spool) Controller also referred as the position controller is Common
for all three modes of EHG, and it supplies the operating current for driving the
plunger coil. The Position controller loop uses a PID control mode for processing
outputs that provide the driving current signal to the plunger and regulate the oil
drains of HP/IP control valves (CV); thereby it controls steam supply into the
turbine.

The current in the plunger coil is increased for closing the HP /IP CV and vice versa
for opening of the HP /IP Control Valve. The reference signal therefore works in
reverse manner (rise in the coil current for low reference condition). By using two
Nos of differential transformer (housed in EHC), feedback signal from the valve lift is
derived to ensure proper stationing of plunger spool.

Whenever current through the plunger coil gets interrupted or the electrical feedback
circuit gets faulted, the reference value of the Hydraulic controller determines the
actual valve position. Although the force to the plunger coil and to the control sleeve
is, considerably smaller, but the regulating signal to the secondary auxiliary oil flow
as transformed is quite large. The figure below gives various connections and
modules used in EHG.







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Actual speed (nact) Measurement:

Actual speed nact is acquired by three digital speed pickups (Hall probes) in the form
of pulses /frequency. Channel-2 is utilized while other two-channel pick-up remains
redundant; electronically switching ensures no affect in channel in service and also
a full - proof monitoring. The selected sensed speed channel signal is further divided
into three measuring signals (f/v of 0-60 Hz, low range 0-6 Hz & full range 0-60 Hz
and a quartz frequency standard) for various other applications in the EHG and
other circuits.


The difference of actual speed and time dependent speed signals (nact - nRTD) form
the input error of the Speed controller which outputs control signal (in the path as
explained in selection section) through the selection modules for driving the EHC
and finally establishing the EHG.


ACTUAL SPEED MEASUREMENT



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TURBINE PROTECTION SYSTEM

Turbine protection system performs to cover the following functions: -

a. Protection of turbine from inadmissible operating conditions.

b. In case of plant failures, protection against subsequent damages.

c. It restricts occurring failures to minimum.

Standard turbine protection system comprises the following:

Mechanical/hydraulic turbine protection.

Electrical turbine protections.


BLOCK DIAGRAM OF TURBINE PROTECTION AND ATT

Mechanical Hydraulic Turbine Protection

The design of mechanical hydraulic protection equipment is in accordance
with hydraulic break current principle and consists of following:


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a. Two manual trip devices (main trip valves)

b. Two speed monitors (over speed trip device)

c. One hydraulic low vacuum device

d. Two solenoid valves for trip initiation (remote solenoid valves)

As explained earlier, turbine stop and control valves are tripped to close position if
the trip oil pressure is reduced below the minimum value. The main trip valves allow
rapid draining of trip oil in case they are operated either manually or automatically
by the reduction of aux. trip oil pressure. Aux. trip oil pressure can be drained
because of actuation of hydraulic low vacuum trip device, over speed trip device or
thrust bearing trip device. The principle of functioning of individual hydraulic trip
devices is explained in details under the chapter of Automatic Turbine Testing
System.

Remote trip solenoids act as interfaces between mechanical hydraulic and electro-
hydraulic protection equipment of turbine. Upon receiving the electrical trip
command, the solenoids get energised and close the valves. Thus control oil supply
to main trip values is cut off leading to their closure.

Electrical Hydraulic Turbine Protection

Electrical turbine trip equipments comprise two-channel redundancy and function
on operating current principle. All electrical trip criteria act on the two remote trip
solenoid valves to energise the solenoids.

The electro-hydraulic turbine protection equipment features -

- Two solenoid operated valves for trip initiation (Remote trip solenoids).

- Emergency trip contactor cabinet containing trip channels 1 and 2

- Monitors with signal conditioning

- One substitute channel to ensure uninterrupted transmission of eventual
turbine trip signals during testing by ATT.

The remote trip solenoids (RTS) have already been described. Operation of any one
channel causes energising both solenoid-operated valves leading to turbine trip
eventually. Transmitters that cause a trip in the case of any electrical tripping signal
are conditioned and monitored via binary signal conditioning of the ATT system or
via the central analog/binary signal conditioning.



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TURBINE PROTECTION FOR 200MW KWU SETS


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Turbine Trip Actuation Circuits

The turbine protection system is sub divided into two parts:

a. Protective circuits for the standard turbine protection equipments or criteria.

b. Protective criteria from other areas.

Standard criteria are specified by the turbine manufacturer and are responsible for
full protection of turbine under various specific conditions, which are:


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1. Manual tripping devices (Turbine trip gear local operating lever)

2. Speed monitors (over speed trip devices)

3. Thrust bearing trip device

4. Hydraulic low vacuum trip device

5. Electrical low vacuum trip device

6. Lub oil pressure protection

7. Fire protection

8. Manual turbine tripping (electrical UCB switch)


Protection criteria from other areas are as follows:

Boiler trip (MFR)
Boiler drum level very high ( > + 225 mm wcl )
Main steam temperature trip ( < 480
o
C )
Trip from functional group control (ATRS shut-down programme)
Generator trip

Like low vacuum tripping (electrical) the low steam temperature protection also
comprises 'Arming' and 'Disarming' features to facilitate re-start of turbine, under
low main steam temperature conditions.

Over Speed Trip Device

Two hydraulically operated over speed trips are provided to protect the turbine
against over speeding in the event of load coincident with failure of speed governor.

OVER SPEED TRIP DEVICE

1. Bearing pedestal
2. Spindle
3. Spring
4. Piston
5. Piston body
6. Spring
7. Pawl
8. Over speed trip bolt
9. Shaft journal
10. Limit switch

c: Return Oil
u: Auxiliary Stratup Oil
x: Auxiliary Trip Oil


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When the preset over speed is reached, the eccentric fly bolt activates the piston and
limit switch via a pawl. This connects the auxiliary trip oil to drain thereby
depressurising it. The loss of auxiliary trip medium pressure causes the main trip
valve to drop, which in turn causes the trip oil pressure to collapse.

Low Vacuum Trip Device


In the hydraulic low vacuum trip device, a compression spring set to a specific
tension pushes downwards against diaphragm, the topside of which is subject to the
vacuum. If the vacuum is too weak to counteract the spring tension, the spring
moves valve 6 downwards. The pressure beneath valve is thereby dispersed and the
auxiliary trip medium circuit is connected to drain. The resultant depressurisation of
the auxiliary trip oil actuates main trip valves MAX51 AA 005 and MAX51 AA 006
thereby closing all turbine valves.

The electrical tripping on low vacuum occurs through a pressure switch on the
vacuum line to mechanical hydraulic low vacuum trip device also at the same
condenser pressure. When turbine is started up again, this pressure switch is
interlocked against a second pressure switch, which monitors this condition and
prevents continuation of tripping initiation when condenser pressure is high.

Thrust Bearing Trip Device

The function of the thrust bearing trip is to monitor the shaft position in the bearing
pedestal and, if a fault occurs, to depressurize the auxiliary trip medium and thus
the trip oil in the shortest possible time, thereby tripping the turbine.



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1. Compression
spring
2. Bearing pedestal
3. Piston
4. Valve body
5. Turbine shaft
6. Pawl
7. Torsion spring
8. Piston
9. Compression
spring
10. Limit switch
11. Knob

a: Test Oil
c: Return Oil
u: Aux. Startup Oil
x: Aux. Trip Oil

The two rows of tripping cams, which are arranged on opposite sides of turbine
shaft, have a specific clearance, equivalent to the permissible shaft displacement,
relative to pawl of the thrust-bearing trip. If the axial displacement of the shaft
exceeds the permissible limit, the cams engage pawl, which releases a piston to
depressurise the auxiliary trip oil and at the same time to actuate limit switch.

Electrical tripping of turbine is achieved by fire protection along with
closure/stoppage of total control oil supply to turbine governing system by tripping
the emergency stop valve on the control oil line. The fire protection trip is achieved
by manual Pushbutton in UCB or automatically by very low MOT level (- 150 mm
below the normal working level 'O'). Please refer to the associated logics at the end of
this chapter. Also fire protection-1 (automatic actuation) gets bypassed if the barring
gear valve is 'not closed'.


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FIRE PROTECTION-1 CHANNEL-1



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FIRE PROTECTION-2 CHANNEL-1


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FIRE PROTECTION OIL TANK LEVEL MONITOR







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KwU TURBINES: FUNCTION OF DIFFERENT OILS
TRIP OIL
FUNCTION :
To open the stop valves and generate auxiliary secondary oil
and secondary oil
SOURCE : Control oil
SUPPLY DEVICE : Main Trip Gears
AUXILIARY TRIP OIL
FUNCTION : To engage and operate the main trip valves
SOURCE : Trip oil
SUPPLY DEVICE : Main Trip Gears
AUX. SECONDARY OIL
FUNCTION : To provide the position signal for the hydraulic governor
SOURCE : Trip oil
SECONDARY OIL
FUNCTION : To provide the position signal for the control valve servomotor
SOURCE : Trip oil
PRIMARY OIL
FUNCTION : To supply speed signal to hydraulic governor
SOURCE : Control oil
SUPPLY DEVICE : Hydraulic Speed Transmitter
START UP OIL
FUNCTION : To supply control signals for the stop valves
SOURCE : Control oil
SUPPLY DEVICE : Starting Device
AUX. START UP OIL
FUNCTION : To reset the Hydraulic Protective devices
SOURCE : Control oil
SUPPLY DEVICE : Starting Device
TEST OIL
FUNCTION : To test the hydraulic trip devices
SOURCE : Control oil
SIGNAL OIL
FUNCTION : To operate LPBP valves
SOURCE : Control oil










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DIFFERENCE BETwEEN KwU & LHw TURBINE GOVERNING SYSTEH: 210 Hw


KWU LMW
1.
The types of governor used is Electro-hydraulic
backed up by Hydraulic governor
The types of governor used is Hydro-
mechanical
2.
Governing type used is throttle governing Nozzle type governing is provided
3.
Speed of the m/c is controlled right from
turning gear speed by Electro-hydraulic
governor
Speed of the m/c is controlled by
Governor from 300-3450 rpm
4.
Regulation range of Electro-hydraulic
governor can be varied from 2.5 to 8% in steps
of 0.5% (Regulation range of hydraulic
governor is 7%)
Regulation range is 4%1%
5.
Transient speed rise
a) When control valves are mounted near
casing is 8%
b) When control valves are mounted away
from casing as in BHEL sets is 8.5%
Transient speed rise is 6 to 7%
6.
Dead band of Governing system: 0.01% Dead band of Governing system: 0.3%
7.
Closing time of servomotors
a) HP i) ESV: 0.2 Sec
ii) Control valve: 0.4 Sec

b) IP i) IV: 0.8 Sec
ii) Control valve: 0.8 Sec.
a) HP ESV: 0.35 Sec

b) IP: IV: 0.4 Sec
c) Control valve servomotor: 0.5 Sec.
8.
Control oil pressure 8.0 Kg/cm
2
Control oil pressure 20.0 Kg/cm
2

9.
Size of HP Stop valve (ESV)
i) 160 mm - 2 nos
ii) zie of HP control valves 128 mm - 2 nos) (0.8
times of ESV)
iii) Size of IV valves - 320 mm (2 nos)
iv) Size of IP control valves - 256 mm (02 nos)
Size of control valves 1,2,3,4 (4 nos)
125,150,150.150 mm


Size of IV valves 320 mm (2nos)

Size of IP control valves (4nos)
10.
Automatic turbine testing is provided to check
the protective devices while M/C is in
operation
Automatic testing device is not provided
to check the protective devices while
M/C is in operation
11.
All Gov.elements like Main trip valve, EHC
follow up piston block etc. are kept outside
and assembled in separate cabinet
All Gov. elements like Fly weight
governor, Summation pilot, Follow pilot;
Emergency Gov. pilots are mounted in
front pedestal.
12.
Trimming device provided for IP control valves
is used for controlling HP exhaust temp. in case
of following low load operation.
(HP Exhaust or CRH pressure>32 KSC and
Generator load < 20%)
There is no trimming device provided for
IP control valves


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13.
In all types of starts HP control valves control
from 0 to 100%. IP control valves have
controlling function along with HP control
valve up to 40%, further control is done by HP
control valves.
In cold and warm start HP control valves
control from 0 to 100%. There is no control
on IP control. In case of hot start, IP
control valves control the M/C up to
30MW. Further control is by HP control
valves for HP & LP bypass system.
14.
Actual over speed test is carried out by means
of separate test lever provided in Hydraulic
governor. Both over speed governor are
tested together.
Actual over speed test is carried out by
means of Speeder gear after selecting
the respective governor by means of
selector of emergency governor lever.
15.
Electrical pressure controller is provided to
unload the M/C in case the main steam
pressure drops by more than 10% of rated
value.
Initial steam pressure unloading (ISPUG)
hydraulic device has been provided to
unload the M/C in case main steam
pressure drops more than 10% of the
rated value.
16.
Load shedding Relay is provided to control the
acceleration rate during sudden reduction in
output load.
The electrical signal is converted into
hydraulic signal by actuation of EHT.
17.
Hydraulically driven Emergency shut-off valve
is provided to interrupt the supply to the
governing rack.
No such device is provided
18.
IP control valves opens after HP control valves
HP control valves opens after IP control
valves
19.
The output signal of speed controller
(electrical) is automatically matched to the
output signal of load controller from the rated
power on down to station load. The speed
controller is then in stand by mode and stands
ready to provide station load in case of load
shedding.
Such facility does not exist, as the Turbine
is not provided with Electro hydraulic
governing system.
20.
Stop & control valves are provided in same
casing
Stop & control valves are mounted in
different casing
21.
Control valves are mounted away from
turbine
Control valves are integral parts of
turbine
22.
Control valves movement is in horizontal
direction
Control valves movement is in vertical
direction
23.
Each control valve can be tested for spindle
freeness during operation
Such facility is not available during
operation of the M/C
24.
Each control valve has a separate servomotor
Only one servomotor operates all HP & IP
control valves.












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TYPICAL PROBLEHS OF KwU TURBINE GOVERNING SYSTEH

PROBLEM
Change over
valve not getting
reset

OBSERVATION
Change over valve in trip
condition and control oil
pressure low


SOLUTION
On line full flow filter
self cleaning by knob
rotation


RECOMMENDATION
On line full flow filter self
cleaning by regular
knob rotation



PROBLEM
Emergency
Governor operating
within operating
speed range

OBSERVATION
Unit frequently tripping in
over speed during rolling at
speed lower than 3000 rpm.


SOLUTION
Check test oil pressure.
Check proper latching of
reset unit. Check the
position and mass of the
over speed bold


RECOMMENDATION
Period testing of O/S
Governor by simulation









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PROBLEM
LP By pass Not
Resetting

OBSERVATION
Getting reset after bypassing
condensate pressure
mechanical switch


SOLUTION
Open the switch found
bellow found damaged.
It was replaced. Normal
operation of LP BP
observed


RECOMMENDATION
Bellow changed OR If
operation required
before replacement.
Ensure temperature
switch working properly.
Replace bellow at the
earliest.

PROBLEM
Electro Hydraulic
Converter Hunting

OBSERVATION
Calibration of EHC checked
with Calibrator and found
oscillating


SOLUTION
Opened the EHC and one leaf out of
three leaves spring of electro hydraulic
converter found damaged. Spring was
replaced. Stabilization voltage set to
negative (-1 mV). Problem was solved.

PROBLEM
LP Bypass Water
Injection Valve Not
Closing


OBSERVATION
Signal Oil Pressure was low and
W I actuator drain line was hot


SOLUTION
Signal oil inlet was wrongly
connected with valve actuator.





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PROBLEM
HP CV Oscillating
(Hunting)


OBSERVATION
HPCV & HP Secondary Oil
Pressure Hunting


SOLUTION
Damping device was opened
and ball was found missing. It was
put back, oscillation of valve
stopped.




PROBLEM
Startup Speed Not
Rising

OBSERVATION
Startup device and speeder
Gear liver link was broken


SOLUTION
Lever was changed,
problem was solved


RECOMMENDATION
Same problem was
repeated after about a
month. Spring setting was
set right and stroke of
starting device and
speeder gear was re-
adjusted. Problem solved
permanently.

















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PROBLEM
HP Control Valve
Not Opening

OBSERVATION
HP Secondary oil pressure
was not building up. This was
checked in Hydraulic mode
as well as EHC mode


SOLUTION
Follow up pilot block
inspection cover was
opened and one of the
three control pilot was
found loose and fell down.
It was placed in position.


RECOMMENDATION
Pilot was tightened in
position with a small
screw and little glue
smooth operation of
HPCV

PROBLEM
HP Stop valve Not
opening


OBSERVATION
Test valve was checked and
found clearance of slide
and sleeve more.


SOLUTION
Test valve was
replaced. Problem
solved.


RECOMMENDATION
Quality of oil/FRF to be
maintained for no
corrosion / mechanical
pitting. Avoid frequent
operation of manual
testing devices.









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PROBLEM
IP Stop Valve Not
Opening


OBSERVATION
Test valve was checked and
found OK. Flow of Trip oil to
SV actuator was felt, as line
was hot.


SOLUTION
Actuator was opened
and a nut was found
in between piston
and disc


RECOMMENDATION
Fault at assembly shop
do not attempt to open
the Hydraulic Actuator
without the expert
guidance.

PROBLEM
CRH NRV not
opening


OBSERVATION
Supply and return line was
found hot.


SOLUTION
Servomotor was
opened and servicing
was done its seal was
found damaged. It
was replaced.


RECOMMENDATION
Change all the gasket
and seals if opened in
governing system and
control oil system.