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Residential Schools in Canada 1.

Read the quote from the Superintendant of Indian Affairs 1913-1932 describe the Indian problem he believes the government must fix.
The superintendent says that the Indian problem must be fixed by integrating all of the Indians into mainstream European lifestyle. Of highest importance is the education of young Indians.

2. How many residential schools existed in Canada? About how many of them were within the borders of Alberta (use the map)?
One hundred and thirty residential school existed in Canada from 1884 to 1996. Twenty one schools existed within Alberta.

3. Identify eight things that describe life in residential schools


1.The children were not allowed to speak first nations languages in school. 2.Students did not have any contact with their parents for up to 10 months at a time. 3.Parents and children who did not go to residential schools were fined and jailed. 4.They were not allowed to play Indian games. 5.Students were strapped as punishment. 6.Forced to stay in residence located on the school grounds. 7.Students lived under harsh conditions. 8.Physical and sexual abuse.

4. Examine the timeline on page 183 and do the following: a. Which key sector of society started residential schools in the 1600s?
The sector of society that started residential schools was those who owned boarding schools and created them for First nations. The Recollets, Jesuits, and Ursulines.

b. Identify THREE significant government decisions and explain why they are so important.
1.An amendment to the Indian Act makes I mandatory for parents to send their children to school (1920) 2.The federal government takes over the running of the schools. It begins closing residential school, and requires consent for students to attend. (1969) 3.An agreement provides former students with financial compensations for loss of language and culture. (2005)

c. Summarize the reconciliation process that begins in the 1990s


Claims begin to be filed for abuse, loss of culture and sexual abuse. The Catholic teaching order, Anglican, Presbyterian and United church apologizes. The Canadian government gives students compensation for their loss.

5. Read Flora Merricks account and examine the data on page 185 summarize the long-term effects of residential schools on many of the children who attended.
Short term effects if residential schools for children include; Psychological pain for traumatic ordeals, Physical and emotional abuse. Deep-seated feelings of loss and separation from their families and cultures, Poor self esteem, lack of positive role models and loss of parenting skills. Long term effects could include a generation of children growing up with no heritage of knowledge of the people that came before them. A general hatred for the people that taught them in the schools.

6. What positive, supportive arguments have been made about Canadas residential schools?
Positive arguments that came from Former Indian residential school workers are that the schools were related to orphanages, children with terrible home lives could come and live there. Some believe that the education given to children led to a newly powerful, well-educated leadership in the Aboriginal community. A former student says that learning how to read and write, how to operate machinery and do chores were much appreciated.

7. Summarize the (current) governments response to the legacy of residential schools.


Attitudes of racial and cultural superiority led to a suppression of Aboriginal culture. As a country we are burdened by past actions. That the government disaggregated the Aboriginal people, by some provisions of the Indian act. 245 million dollars was set of to manage counseling and other programs for former students. The federal government set up a department to deal with residential schools to speed up the process of lawsuits. $10,000 lump sum payments for

former students. By accepting this agreement, governments and churches were released from all other claims relating to the residential schools.