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GRAMMAR

ENGLISH GRAMMAR
Contents:

1-Parts of speech
1-Nouns and ar cles 2-Pronoun 3-Verb 4-Adjec ve
2- English tenses
Simple tenses 1- Simple Past / 2- Simple present / 3-Simple future Continuous tenses 4- Past Continuous / 5- present Continuous / 6-future Continuous Perfect tenses 7- Past Perfect / 8- present Perfect / 9-future Perfect Perfect Continuous tenses 10-present Perfect Continuous / 11-Past Perfect Continuous List of irregular verbs 12-future Perfect Continuous

5-Adverb 6-Preposi on 7-Conjunc on 8-Interjec on

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Word does not become a part of speech until it is written or spoken in a sentence. This principle is important because a word can function as more than one part of speech, depending where it is located and how it is used in the sentence. For example, the word reading can be used as different parts of speech. ü Reading is an enjoyable pastime. (noun) ü She has been reading since she was three. (verb) ü The reading assignment took me two hours. (adjective)

1-Nouns and articles:
Nouns are words that name people, places, things, or ideas/ qualities. The following table lists a variety of nouns. Agadir Cashier Cat Kinds of nouns • Common noun: names general, nonspecific, places, people, things, or ideas. They start with a small letter unless they begin a sentence. For example: writer, city, park, hospital, woman, religion • Proper nouns: name specific people, places, things, or ideas. They always start with a capital letter. For example: Victor Hugo, Agadir, Christianity • Abstract nouns: are the opposite of concrete. They name something that you cannot perceive with your five senses – something that does not physically exist. For example: happiness, freedom, Christianity • Concrete nouns : name something that you can perceive with your five senses – something that physically exists. For example: cat, chocolate, stick • Countable nouns: can be counted, and they use both the singular and the plural forms. Anything that you can make plural is a countable noun. For example: clock/clocks, poem/poems. We can use the indefinite article a/an with countable nouns: A dog is an animal. When a countable noun is singular, we must use a word like a/the/my/this with it: I want an orange. (not I want orange.) Where is my bottle? (not Where is bottle?) When a countable noun is plural, we can use it alone: I like oranges. Bottles can break. We can use some and any with countable nouns: I’ve got some dollars. Have you got any pens? New York Accountant dog lake boy horse horse

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roads. Personal pronouns show person. balls. For example: box. or idea.We can use a few and many with countable nouns: I’ve got a few dollars. relative. the first person. Church beauty Agadir boys grammar men trouble mice Canada meat loyalty March company sunrise Church: common. • Uncountable nouns: cannot be counted. For example: milk. the second person. possessive. like the noun. thing. water • Compound nouns: These are made up of two or more smaller words. the third person. audience. For example: boxes. converted by Web2PDFConvert. that is. indicate whether the pronoun stands for the person speaking. intensive. the word train is a common. demonstrative. the person spoken to. 1. For example: tablecloth. Kinds of Pronouns 1. Since they cannot be counted.. faces. countable. objective).com . is used in the common sentence patterns as subject. thing. practice For each word below indicate whether it is: a) Common or proper b) concrete or abstract c) singular or plural d) count or non-count: The first one is done for you. I haven’t got many pens. singular noun. For example. they. haircut. concrete. swarm • Singular nouns : These refer to one person. or idea. rice. place. singular. reflexive. count boy news equipment jury fragrance surprise Lions’ Club 2-Pronouns: A pronoun is a word that is used in place of a noun or another pronoun The pronoun. object … Pronouns may be classified as personal (subjective. place. • Collective Nouns: are singular nouns that refer to a group of things as one whole. dining-room . Personal pronouns also have number and case. they only use the singular form. ball • Plural nouns : These refer to more than one person. indefinite. Note: nouns would fit into more than one category. or the person spoken of. road. concrete. For example: class. They generally end in with an s. face. Interrogative.

SINGULAR: myself yourself himself herself itself PLURAL: ourselves themselves ourselves Ø The intensive pronoun usually comes after the word it stands for and emphasizes that word. /Those are good apples. Subject case I like bananas. or things. Relative pronouns. his. Those papers arc soiled. which. and that. They are formed by adding -self or-selves (plural form) to certain personal pronouns. ü I myself gave him the directions. That shirt is torn. converted by Web2PDFConvert. Ø The reflexive pronoun points the action back toward the subject. 4. SINGULAR: this. her. Intensive and reflexive pronouns have the same forms. This is the man whom I saw.com . ü The president himself met the reporters.Employees must always be ready to give their best service to each customer. whom. This is the man who saw me. its. whose. This is the house that Jack built. ü She bought the dress for herself. This s the man whose house I saw. that PLURAL: these. possessive case This is my home. This party is fun. This is the man that I saw. These shoes are too expensive. ü I am the person who called earlier today. to point out particular persons. ü The door that I closed last night is now open. objective case would you please give me your hat Note: My. Who. they are demonstrative adjectives./That is Jim’s shirt These are her pencils. ü Do you consider yourself his friend? 3. places. Demonstrative pronouns are used only in the third person. our and there are always used as adjectives 2. those This is my party. ü She bought herself a new dress. your. OR An employee must always be ready to give his (or her) best service to each customer. When these pronouns modify nouns. ü The boy whose knife I found lived across the street.

com . ü Each of the employees has a job to do. 2. which. and whom are used to refer to people. The couple who just arrived on the plane kissed each other.ü Here is the painter whom we met last year. places. All of my friends saw that movie. ü Somebody took the key to the storeroom. 6. 7. Indefinite pronouns refer to particular persons. did you? 5. The interrogative pronouns are who. 1. Exercise 2 converted by Web2PDFConvert. We did most of the work ourselves. Did they give themselves a pre-test before writing that exam? 4. Sherri did not take your boots. and what. ü Nobody has his or her ticket. Who brought the ketchup? 3. but he took mine instead. ü Who is that girl? ü What is the date of his birth? ü Who is going to the dance next week? ü Whom will you ask about the schedule? ü Which do you like best. whose. Interrogative pronouns introduce question sentences. “What can I do to help those people?” 10. whose. whom. or things in a vague and general manner. That and which are used to refer to things. 9. Most indefinite pronouns another either no one both all anybody everybody one few any anyone everyone somebody many none anything neither someone several some each nobody something prac ce Exercise 1 Underline and identify each pronoun used in these sentences. 5. Something is missing from this formula. We can tell you who leaked that information to the press! 8. You didn’t give that to them. Note: who. Always ask yourselves. CDs or tapes? ü What are you going to wear tomorrow? 6.

Please tell him that we said hello. I held the door for them. 1. demonstrative pronoun 6. Will they be able to move the belongings by themselves? 15. 14. 8.com . 3. 2. he photographed it. 7. For the total of ten pronouns. 2. both of them are my friends. count it only once. reflexive (REF). Can you finish the cleaning by three o’clock? 4. Action Verbs As their name implies. these verbs show action. indefinite pronoun 5. Please bring yours to us. possessive pronoun 7. reflexive pronoun Exercise 3 Underline the pronouns found in each sentence. He hurt himself during gym class. So I tried to calm myself down and think about other things besides being unable to sleep. 11. himself G. 9. relative pronoun 4.Circle ten different pronouns in this paragraph.Match the term on the left with the example on the right. The action doesn’t always mean movement. converted by Web2PDFConvert. if a pronoun appears more than once within the paragraph. I could not fall asleep last night. After Jerry spotted the giraffe. 13. interrogative pronoun 3. everybody E. This is the way to do it. All of my work paid off when I finally fell asleep. Those are the best ones to buy. A. Neither of them is the winner of the race. This is pretty unusual. or indefinite (IND) pronoun. our C. what F. and helping verbs (also called auxiliary verbs). which 3-Verb: There are three main types of verbs: action verbs. Above each pronoun label its type using These abbreviations: personal (PER). Example: she thought about bears. these B. interrogative (INT). they D. 1. personal plural 2. It felt as if somebody kept knocking on the window keeping me up most of the night. 12. Everything has gone well for us. Who is the person with her? 5. demonstrative (DEM). Ours is older than theirs. 6. Will she watch someone while Sarah goes shopping? 10. linking verbs.

4. Transitive verb takes a direct object to complete its meaning. and therefore. Example: (used with the action verb love) you will love these sausages. there are 13 linking verbs. I run. the verb thought does not show movement. The sailors looked intently at the horizon for signs of another ship. 3. feel. Linking Verbs These types of verbs link the subject of a sentence with a noun or adjective. being Other Linking Verbsappear. bear) Exercice 1 Practice In your notebook. converted by Web2PDFConvert. sound. There are only 24 helping verbs Be am is are was were been being may might do did does having have has had could must shall can will should would A verb can be transitive or intransitive. Thus. 5. Example: kamal became a famous musician. The soup smells good. been. Thus. remain. The children became excited before the snow storm. As is clear in the last example. turn Helping Verbs These do just what their name implies. endure. If you count all of the forms of “to be” as one word. it is still a verb. seem. is. but it is a mental action. become. identify the verbs in the following sentences and record whether they are action or linking verbs. grow. am.( I fall. 1. There can be more than one of them used in a single verb phrase. this change from intransitive to transitive often is accomplished by a change in basic meaning (stand. smell. Memorize these! Forms of be be.In that example. I am falling. But many verbs can be both transitive and intransitive: I run/I run the race. stay. was. taste. the statements (I kill) or (I build) are not complete until it is clear whom I kill or what I build. the sun is shining ) are complete sentences. are. were. I am not your teacher.com . To complete we say: I built a house / I killed a lion Intransitive verb does not require a direct object to complete its meaning. The action of the verb does not “pass over” to another person or thing. He looks taller than Mario. look. I can stand/ I can stand it no longer. 2. They help action verbs or linking verbs. I stand.

(Which players? Which coaches? Which reporter?) ü Tired and hungry . 8. 9. Suddenly. plastic. tired and hungry . She fell down the stairs and broke her leg. Whose? (Caroline’s. ( Which article?) ü Kent owns those surfboards. his. That newspaper publishes editions in both Toronto and Vancouver. Indicate the main verb in each of the following sentences. It answers the questions. special) . ( What kind of story?) ü The recent article has that information. ( What kind of campers?) Types of adjectives: proper adjective is formed from a proper noun. Wolves always howl at the moon. 11. many) .com . its. 4-Adjectives: An adjective modifies (qualifies or limits the meaning of ) a noun or a pronoun. What kind? Which one(s)? How many? How much? Which one? ( yellow. ( Which surfboards?) ü Wendy paid fifty dollars for the jacket. the campers reached the lodge.6. ( How many dollars?) ü Much space was devoted to her artwork. and the auxiliary or helping verb(s). This food would taste good on a cold winter’s night. John’s) ü Carrie read an interesting story. How many? ( sixteen. several. 10. reached the lodge. ( How much space? An adjective can come before or after the noun or pronoun it describes: ü Older cards are found on the table. the. (Which cards?) ü T all players and intelligent coaches were interviewed by the interested reporter. that) What kind? (furry. 7. Madonna sings and dances well. I felt sick after the party. Moroccan bread Proper NounProper Adjective America American school English English grammar Hicham Hicham’s car converted by Web2PDFConvert. 12. ( What kind of campers?) ü The campers. he slammed the door and drove down the lane.

converted by Web2PDFConvert. but they don’t follow the patterns listed above. Aicha is more beautiful than her neighbor. The little girl ran along the dusty road. This means that something can have more or less of the adjective’s quality. black-and-blue mark newly painted mural hometown hero recently purchased People sometimes confuse adjectives with nouns or with pronouns. 3. PositiveComparativeSuperlative bad worse worst good better Best little less least many more most I am good at grammar and my friend is better than me. Regular superlatives end in -est or start with most. Exercise 1 Copy these sentences in your notebook and then underline the adjectives 1. Positive Comparative Superlative ambitious more ambitious most ambitious cold colder Coldest comfortable more comfortable most comfortable dry drier Driest funny funnier Funniest organized more organized most organized pretty prettier Prettiest sharp sharper Sharpest Aicha is richer than her neighbor. Six delicious cookies were cooling on the rack. Which problem?) ü This is difficult. (This is an adjective since it answers the question. We Use a before words that start with a consonant sound ( a joking man or a lucky lottery player) and an before words that start with a vowel sound ( an hour’s wait or an interesting story). The dark brown painted dripped on the new white carpet. (This is a pronoun since it takes the place of a noun and does not modify a noun or a pronoun. ü This problem is difficult. Irregular Comparatives and Superlatives These can still be given in degrees. and the are the most frequently used adjectives. Here are some points to remember.com . but you are the best. Practice. Although they are sometimes referred to as articles. they are really adjectives.compound adjective is a word composed of two or more words.) a/ an/the The words a. Regular comparatives end in -er or start with more. an. Regular Comparatives and Superlatives Most adjectives can be described in degrees. 2.

Adverbs describe verbs. adjectives. ( Yearly is an adverb since it modifi es the verb contributes and answers the question. ( Very modifies the adjective happy and answers the question. ( When will Mohamed eat?) Adverbs modify adjectives: Karim is very happy. or another adverb. Adjectives do not. and when is it an adjective? Adjectives describe nouns and pronouns. . A beautiful red rose bloomed in a quiet corner of that flower garden. an adjective. -Helen has a yearly membership at the local health club. ( How did he eat?) I walk there . The old curtains were torn and faded. After a few hours. ( Late is an adverb since it tells when Mike arrived. Exercise 2 Thirteen of the words in this activity are not adjectives. (Too modifies the adjective unrealistic and answers the question. nine miles from Marrakech. These apples are juicy and red. 5. Define them. ( Late is an adjective because it tells which delivery.com . 7. . Adverbs do not.) -Helen contributes yearly . 6.4. ( Yearly is an adjective since it modifies the noun membership and tells which membership. ( Rather modifies the adverb recently and answers the question. they arrived at the train station. Many adverbs end in – ly . Adverbs make writing more specifi c and more exact. 5-Adverb An adverb is a word that modifi es (qualifi es or limits) a verb. Twenty-seven are adjectives. Here are some adverbs that do not end in – ly : Adverbs modify verbs: John ate quickly . ( Where did I walk?) Mohamed will eat soon . How recently?) When is a word an adjective.) Practice Exercise 1 Identify the adverb(s) in each sentence. How quickly?) He moved rather recently. and they flapped in the light breeze. To what extent?) The program was too unrealistic. and other adverbs. . 8. When does Helen contribute ?) -Mike arrived late .) -The late delivery cut down on sales in the supermarket. The long summer months are usually hot and dry. To what extent?) Adverbs modify other adverbs: Aicha walks too quickly. converted by Web2PDFConvert. Adverbs answer any of these four questions: Where? When? How? To what extent? . ( Too modifies the adverb quickly and answers the question.

He has never taken a standardized test before he came to this class. 7. 1. ( Aboard is an adverb because it takes only one word needed to tell where Karim walked. converted by Web2PDFConvert. 3. Call me around four o’clock. She enthusiastically encouraged her students to attend the retreat. Note there may be sentence/s with no preposition. 3. 5. 6. Exercise 2 6-Prepositions: A common preposition is a word that shows the relationship between a noun or a pronoun and another word in the sentence. The cat has lazily lain by the window all day. the flowers began to bloom. ) Here are the most commonly used prepositions: But is a preposition only when it can be replaced by the word except. The glass was carefully removed from the carpet. So in the sentence. Where? When? How? To what extent? by itself.) -Karim walked aboard the ship.” but is a preposition since it connects All and Teddy and can be replaced by the word except. The temperature is several degrees below zero. ( Down is a preposition because it takes more than a single word to tell where he fell. Soon after the rainstorm. Adverb or preposition? The difference between a preposition and an adverb is that an adverb answers the questions. It is a matter concerning bad behavior. 4. The track team ran into the hills. 1. The team played well in the championship even though the victory was not theirs. ( Under connects the idea of swam and bridge . –The man swam under the bridge.com . I have fallen down.) -He fell down the stairs. 5.Ex. ( Aboard is a preposition because it takes more than one word to tell where Karim walked. ( Down connects walked and aisle . 2.) –She walked down the aisle. We found the sleeping cat underneath the blanket. The parents joined in the conversation 2. ( Around connects walked and campus. Ronnie fell asleep during the professor’s lecture.) PRACTICE Underline the preposition in each of the following sentences. “All but Teddy went inside. 8. Both common and compound prepositions need more than just themselves to answer the same questions: -He fell down . 4.) –Julie walked around the campus and toward town.) -Karim walked aboard . ( Down is an adverb because it takes only one word to tell where he fell. Toward connects walked and town.

( And joins the names Karim and Hicham.) Either go with them or stay here and help. yet. an independent clause can converted by Web2PDFConvert. 15. B ut.) Not only will they leave now. either/or. ( So joins two sentences or two complete ideas.) Remember the made-up word FANBOYS when you memorize the coordinating conjunctions. 13. Y et. but they will also not be here to help clean up. 14.) Subordinating conjunctions: are words that introduce subordinate clause = ( incomplete sentences ) A subordinate clause is a clause that cannot stand alone. (The correlative conjunctions join two sentences or complete ideas. These seven words are for. A coordinating conjunction is a single connecting word. N or. or. The children slid down the slide yesterday. correlative conjunctions . but since they cannot stand alone. ( Or joins the names Paula and Jeannine. 7-Conjunctions A conjunction connects words or group of words .) He went neither to the stadium nor to the concert hall during this vacation. 12. see. I. (The correlative conjunctions illustrate a choice. S o) stands for a coordinating conjunction. and. are coming). We lost contact over time. neither/nor. An independent clause is also a group of words with a subject and a verb. (Remember that a clause is a complete sentence or a group of words with a subject and a verb. The couple walked near the bridge. ) Paula or Jeannine can go with you tonight. Each letter in this word ( F or. but. (The correlative conjunctions join two prepositional phrases. These five pairs of words are: both/and. 10. There are three types of conjunctions: coordinating conjunctions . They all have subjects (you. This letter is addressed to your sister. and so. but I will be busy tonight.com . unlike a subordinate clause. Subordinate Clause Examples: unless you are allergic whenever I see your cat since you are coming These are not complete sentences. A nd. nor. Karim and Hicham are my brothers. The strong man swam across the wide lake. O r. (The correlative conjunctions join two names. Correlative conjunctions are pairs of connecting words. they are subordinate clauses. Both Henry and Henrietta are leaving the dance now. 11.9.) We must leave early so we can get to the wedding reception on time. ( But joins two sentences or complete ideas.) It is always introduced by a subordinating conjunction. But. and whether/or. not only/but also. ) I would like to help you. I pointed toward the tall building. and subordinating conjunctions. you) and verbs (are. This group is under great suspicion.

Goodness Hurray gracious Oh Hey Oh no Yea Oops Alas Ugh Yes Wow converted by Web2PDFConvert. Since you are coming. ——— I would like to go. I won’t bring my cat. If you use too many interjections. because. ———The captain looked for a better route. ——— Can you please drive more slowly? 4. since. I won’t bring my cat. only if. so that. . pronoun (PN). than.stand alone. whenever. won’t bring). Subordinating conjunctions let us join subordinate clauses with independent clauses: Examples: I will bring my cat unless you are allergic. unless. provided that. 2. Include one when you want to make your point. . even if. once. your writing loses its power and effectiveness. Independent Clause Examples: I sneeze. Then write its abbreviation on the line before the sentence. even though. till. An interjection is often followed by an exclamation point (!) when the emotion is strong or a comma (. There is a list of most useful subordinating conjunctions: after. 8. as though. by the time when. verb (V). as. wherever. 3. where. before. 8-Interjections An interjection is a word that expresses strong feeling or emotion: . and they can stand alone. until. if. while. ——— Wow ! Are we there already? 7. as much as. I sneeze. Whenever I see your cat. An interjection usually comes at the beginning of the sentence. ———Slow down. preposition (P). as soon as. ———He is our legislator. though. but I have to help my sister. adjective (ADJ). in case. as if.) when the emotion is mild. that. verbs (will bring. Adverb (ADVB). I will bring my cat. 6. Here are some common interjections: Bravo Horrors Exercise 1 Decide whether each underlined word is a noun (N). although. in order that. 5. They all have subjects (I). sneeze. ———I can certainly use your help during the ordeal. Do not overuse interjections. as long as. ———The pictures fell from the table. conjunction (C). These are all complete sentences. 1.com . or interjection (I).

II. ——— This is a very pretty necklace. English Tense System In some languages. 15. ———Diplomacy is the best tactic. of an action in relation to the time of speaking. 16. They are exactly the same. with examples using a regular verb. In this lesson we look at the idea behind tense.9. ———This extravagant home is overpriced even for today’s market. 12.com . ——— Mom and Dad just returned from Charlotte. how to avoid confusing tense with time. ——— Helene cautiously approached the dog. North Carolina. and the structure of the basic tenses. 17. the concept of tense is very important. 13. ——— We will probably hinder the process if we try to help them. and sometimes the continuation or completeness. ———I am not hungry. 20. These are the forms of the main verb (regular) that we use to construct the tenses: base verb past past participle present participle -ing work workedworked working These are the forms of the main verb (irregular) that we use to construct the tenses: base verb past past participle present participle -ing sing sangsung singing converted by Web2PDFConvert. ——— They think that their dog will like it. we look at two aspects of the tense: Structure: How do we make the tense? Use: When and why do we use the tense? What is a Tense? tense (noun): a form of a verb used to indicate the time. 11.ENGLISH TENSES Introduction to English tenses In each lesson. ———Either the giraffe or the monkey will be fed now. ——— Can you help with the moving? 18. ———Some of these stories are discussed often. 19. verb tenses are not very important or do not even exist. ———They will do most of the moving themselves. Some grammar books use the word progressive instead of continuous. an irregular verb and the verb be. In English. 10. 14.

we. we were.com Exception! The verb to be is different. subject+main verbThe structure for positive sentences in the simple past past tense is: eg: I was at work yesterday. to Rabat? at home? subject main verb I. It is the same for all persons (I did. we use: past form only or auxiliary did + base form I sang Here you can see examples of the past form and base form for irregular verbs and regular verbs: V1 base work regular verb explode like go irregular verb see sing V2 past worked exploded liked went saw sang V3 past participle worked exploded liked gone seen sung The past form for all regular verbs ends in ed. right? converted by Web2PDFConvert. Look at :these examples with the main verbs go and work subject + I You She We ? Did Did did did you they not not auxiliary verb main verb went worked go work go work to school. he did etc). To make a question. Note: You do not need the past participle form to make the simple past tense. you did.1-Simple Past Tense How do we make the Simple Past Tense? To make the simple past tense. he/she/it was. yesterday. + he/she/it You. with me. You need to learn it by heart. And the base form and past form do not change. We conjugate the verb to be (I was. in Ouarzazate. we. they I. they Was was were was were I. they were). happy. you were. there. subject+auxiliary verb+not+main verbThe structure for negative sentences in the simple past tense is: did base · auxiliary verb+subject+main verb did base eg: Jamal did not go to work yesterday. very hard. It is shown here for completeness only. Look at these examples: . The structure for question sentences in the simple past tense is: eg: Did you play tennis last week? The auxiliary verb did is not conjugated. and we do not use an auxiliary for negative and question sentences. we exchange the subject and verb. The past form for irregular verbs is variable. he/she/it not not here. he/she/it You.

coffee? coffee? I.30am yesterday. *we say (or understand) the time and/or place of the event + Jamal drove to Casablanca on Monday. they He. we. 3.com . we. but we almost always use the simple past tense for the action. they do He. she. What did you eat for dinner? Note that when we tell a story. coffee. We may use the past continuous tense to “set the scene”. you. *Were you angry? Here are some more examples: 2-Simple Present Tense How do we make the Simple Present Tense? subject +auxiliary verb+main verbThere are three important exceptions: do base I sing 1. they He. we. it not not not French. she. it Am ? Are Is main verb am are is am are is I you. we. we do not normally use the auxiliary. we do not use an auxiliary. you. even for questions and negatives. He sat down in the corner of the lounge and quietly drank his…” *We were not late (for the train). she. in the past.You. old. He took off his coat. old. she. he/she/it you. For the 3rd person singular (he. coffee. late? late? late? The action is not only happening now +(We work at night) The statement is always true +(The Moon goes round the Earth. For the verb to be. He didn’t like the movie. if we say the time or place of the event. we. French. In general. they right? late? How do we use the Simple Past Tense? We use the simple past tense when: *the event is in the past *the event is completely finished examples + The car exploded at 9. or habitually. It was cold. she. Notice that there is no auxiliary: How do we use the Simple Present Tense? We use the simple present tense when: The action is general (we are students) The action happens all the time. The door opened and James Bond entered. Look at these examples with the main verb like: subject + ? I. we. she. she.) converted by Web2PDFConvert. they he. we usually use the simple past tense. coffee. 2. which was very wet. it). they he. we add s to the main verb or es to the auxiliary. it I . you. it Look at these examples with the main verb be. we. we cannot use the present perfect. French. old.? Was Were I. For positive sentences. + We did not sing at the concert. they He. present and future +(John drives a taxi) subject I + You. we must use the simple past tense. Look at this example of the beginning of a story: “The wind was howling around the hotel and the rain was pouring down. it Do Does does I. and ordered a drink at the bar. I lived in that house when I was young. it auxiliary verb main verb like likes not like not like like like coffee.

We ? Will ? Will will will will will you they main verb open finish not be not leave arrive want the door. Here are some examples: +The sky is very black. We are saying what we think will happen. It‘s going to snow. we contract with won’t. like this: How do we use the Simple Future Tense? speaking. +It’s 8. *We often use the simple future tense with the verb to think before it: +I think I will have a holiday next year. at school tomorrow. Look at these examples: +We will see what we can do to help you 1.com .30! You‘re going to miss the train! converted by Web2PDFConvert.I will sing 3-Simple Future Tense The simple future tense is often called will.She .No Plan *We use the simple future tense when there is no plan or decision to do something before we speak. Again. before me. I will I’ll …etc Contractions : *When we use the simple future tense in speaking. *We use going to when we have the intention to do something before we speak. on time? dinner? I will not I won’t. +I don’t think I’ll buy that car. We are saying what we think will happen. We make the decision spontaneously at the time of + We will see what we can do to help you. Look at these examples: +We‘re not going to paint our bedroom tomorrow. Our prediction is based on present evidence. we had no firm plan before speaking. == In these examples. How do we make the Simple Future Tense? The structure of the simple future tense is: subject +auxiliary verb WILL+main verb invariable will base V For negative sentences in the simple future tense. we exchange the subject and auxiliary verb. yet. Look at these example sentences with the simple future tense: subject auxiliary verb +I +You . Here are some examples: +It will rain tomorrow. we often contract the subject and auxiliary verb: *For negative sentences in the simple future tense. +When are you going to go on holiday? 2-Prediction *We often use the simple future tense to make a prediction about the future. + Who do you think will get the job? *We also use going to to make a prediction about the future. we insert not between the auxiliary verb and main verb. because we make the simple future tense with the modal auxiliary will. For question sentences. there is no firm plan. We have already made a decision before speaking. The decision is made at the time of speaking.

We ? Were ? Were was were were you they main verb watching TV . I was watching TV . Look at these examples: I was working at 10pm last night. We use it to say what we were in the middle of doing at a particular moment in the past. For question sentences. she. we insert not between the auxiliary verb and main verb. we exchange the subject and auxiliary verb. Mary. They were not playing football at 9am this morning. .He. At 8pm yesterday. The action started before that moment but has not finished at that moment. yesterday I watched a film on TV The film started at 7pm and finished at 9pm. What were you doing at 10pm last night? What were you doing when he arrived? converted by Web2PDFConvert. Look at these example sentences with the past continuous tense: subject auxiliary verb +I + You .I was singing 4-Past Continuous Tense The past continuous tense is an important tense in English. When we use the past continuous tense. our listener usually knows or understands what time we are talking about. working not helping not joking. How do we make the Past Continuous Tense? The structure of the past continuous tense is: subject + auxiliary verb BE + main verb conjugated in simple past tense present participle was were base + ing For negative sentences in the past continuous tense. . it was How do we use the Past Continuous Tense? The past continuous tense expresses action at a particular moment in the past. being playing silly? football? hard. For example.com .

it exploded. 2. we have two actions: 1. while I was walking past it. Ram went home early because it was snowing. We can join the two ideas with when or while.com . 2. in London. How do we make the Present Continuous Tense? The structure of the present continuous tense is: subject+auxiliary verb+main verb Look at these examples: be base + ing subject auxiliary verb +I +You . long action (watching TV). football. expressed with past continuous tense short action (telephoned). It is very different from the simple present tense.We ? Is am are is are he main verb speaking to you.She . When the car exploded The car exploded I was walking past it.) We use: when + short action (simple past tense) while + long action (past continuous tense) There are four basic combinations: I was walking past the car when it exploded. Past Continuous Tense + Simple Past Tense We often use the past continuous tense with the simple past tense. 1. watching TV? converted by Web2PDFConvert. We use the past continuous tense to express a long action. (Notice that “when you telephoned” is also a way of defining the time [8pm]. And we use the simple past tense to express a short action that happens in the middle of the long action. While I was walking past the car I am singing 5-Present Continuous Tense We often use the present continuous tense in English. In the following example. expressed with simple past tense We can join these two actions with when: I was watching TV when you telephoned. We were having dinner when it started to rain. both in structure and in use.She was cooking when I telephoned her. reading not staying not playing this.

For question sentences. The action will start before that moment but it will not have finished at that moment.. at Christmas etc. we insert not between will and be. the car. 2-Action in the future (When are you starting your new job? ) We can also use the present continuous tense to talk about the future—if we add a future word!! We must add (or understand from the context) a future word. Look at these example sentences with the future continuous tense: subject auxiliary verb auxiliary verbmain verb be be not be not be be be working at 10am. we exchange the subject and will. I am living with my sister until I find an apartment. for example. tomorrow I will converted by Web2PDFConvert. we contract with won’t. I will be singing 6. We only use the present continuous tense to talk about the future when we have planned to do something before we speak. How do we use the Future Continuous Tense? The future continuous tense expresses action at a particular moment in the future. We’ve already booked the table.Action happening now (I am eating my lunch) The action may not be happening exactly now. especially for I and we. We’re eating in a restaurant tonight. we often contract the subject and will: eg: I will———– I ‘ll. next year. in June. dinner at home. football? +I + You . examples · · I am taking my exam next month. “Future words” include.? Are they waiting for John? How do we use the Present Continuous Tense? We use the present continuous tense to talk about: 1.She . tomorrow. examples Muriel is learning to drive.We ? Will ? Will will will will will you they watching TV? When we use the future continuous tense in speaking.etc I will not———– I won’t…etc For spoken negative sentences in the future continuous tense. like this: We sometimes use shall instead of will. and it is not permanent or habitual..com .Future Continuous Tense How do we make the Future Continuous Tense? subject +auxiliary verb WILL+auxiliary verb BE+main verb invariable will invariable be present participle base + ing For negative sentences in the future continuous tense. We have already made a decision and a plan before speaking. but it is happening just before and just after now. For example. lying using having playing on a beach tomorrow.

I didn’t know who he was. we insert not between the auxiliary verb and main verb. This is the past in the past. thought. “Mary wasn’t at home when I arrived. They were hungry. It will be raining when you return.” “Really? Where had she gone?” We often use the past perfect tense in reported speech after verbs like said. For question sentences.) We would arrive (base) ==We’d arrived ==We’d arrive. When we use the future continuous tense. I had just eaten.We ? Had ? Had had had had had you they main verb finished stopped not gone not left. The past perfect tense expresses action in the past before another action in the past. This tense talks about the “past in the past”. had——. we exchange the subject and auxiliary verb. asked. Take your umbrella. How do we make the Past Perfect Tense? The structure of the past perfect tense is: subject +auxiliary verb HAVE +main verb conjugated in simple past tense past participle had V For negative sentences in the past perfect tense. … to school. For example: The train left at 9am. We arrived at 9. I had never seen him before. What will you be doing at 10pm tonight? What will you be doing when I arrive? She will not be sleeping when you telephone her.start work at 2pm and stop work at 6pm: so we say: At 4pm tomorrow.She . I had sung 7-Past Perfect Tense The past perfect tense is quite an easy tense to understand and to use. They won’t be watching TV at 9pm tonight. told. we often contract the subject and auxiliary verb: I my work. We ‘ll be having dinner when the film starts. Look at these example sentences with the past perfect tense: subject auxiliary verb +I + You . wondered: converted by Web2PDFConvert. (It is always clear from the context. the train had left So we : say The train had left when we arrived. When we arrived.I’d…. our listener usually knows or understands what time we are talking about.etc We had arrived (past participle) before me.com . I will be working. They had not eaten for five hours. Look at these examples: I will be playing tennis at 10am tomorrow.. Look at some more examples I wasn’t hungry. arrived? eaten dinner? When speaking with the past perfect tense.15am.

football.etc I How do we use the Present Perfect Tense? This tense is called the present perfect tense. to Rome. They’ve gone home. have—— I’ve…. I thought I had met her before. In fact. we usually contract the subject and auxiliary verb. That is because it uses concepts or ideas that do not exist in those languages. He explained that he had closed the window because of the rain. How do we make the Present Perfect Tense? The structure of the present perfect tense is: subject+auxiliary verb+main verb have past participle Here are some examples of the present perfect tense: subject auxiliary verb +I + You .We ? Have ? Have have have has have you they main verb seen eaten not been not played finished? done it? extraterrestrial mine. but it gives speakers of some languages a difficult time. There is always a connection with the past and with the present. but I was wrong. Here are some examples: When we use the present perfect tense in speaking. We also sometimes do this when we write. Contractions with the present perfect tense I’ve finished my work. I asked them why they had not finished.Look at these examples: He told us that the train had left. I wondered if I had been there before. There are basically three uses for the present converted by Web2PDFConvert.com . The problems come with the use of the tense. the structure of the present perfect tense is very simple.She . I have sung 8-Present Perfect Tense The present perfect tense is a rather important tense in English.

will and have all together: I will have—. change ex: I have bought a car.perfect tense: 1. the train will have left. converted by Web2PDFConvert. They will be tired when they arrive. I have been here since 9 o’clock.com . The future perfect tense is quite an easy tense to understand and use. John hasn’t called since February.. 3. *We use for to talk about a period of time—5 minutes. You will arrive at the station at 9. *We use since to talk about a point in past time—9 o’clock. I will have arrived at the office by 8. Monday Here are some examples: I have been here for 20 minutes. we often contract the subject and will. have left when you arrive = The train will Look at some more examples: You can call me at work at 8am.We ? Will ? Will auxiliary verb will will will will you they not not + auxiliary verb HAVE invariable have auxiliary verb have have have have have have + main verb past participle V main verb finished forgotten gone left. John hasn’t called for 6 months. to school. In speaking with the future perfect tense. They will not have slept for a long time.She . For example: The train will leave the station at 9am. 1st January. continuing situation ex: He has been ill for 2 days. We often use for and since with the present perfect tense.15am. 2 weeks.I’ll have / I’ll’ve…. How do we make the Future Perfect Tense? The structure of the future perfect tense is: subject + auxiliary verb WILL invariable will subject +I + You . Sometimes. This is the past in the future. experience ex: I have seen how it works. When you arrive. 6 years. we contract the subject. arrived? received it? by 10am. etc How do we use the Future Perfect Tense? The future perfect tense expresses action in the future before another action in the future. 9-Future Perfect Tense. me by then. The future perfect tense talks about the past in the future. 2.

expecting her. Somebody had been smoking. I could smell cigarettes. For question sentences.. but it expresses longer actions in the past before another action in the past. It had not been running well for a long time. I was not surprised. I’d been How do we use the Past Perfect Continuous Tense? The past perfect continuous tense is like the past perfect tense. Here are some more examples: John was very tired.”B. we insert not after the first auxiliary verb. my car broke down.We ? Had ? Had had had had had you they auxiliary verbmain verb been been not been not been been been working.com . For example: Ram started waiting at 9am. playing tennis.etc. we often contract the subject and first auxiliary verb: example: I had been . When I arrived. drinking? waiting long? When speaking with the past perfect continuous tense. Look at these example sentences with the past perfect continuous tense: subject auxiliary verb +I +You . Suddenly. working well. Ram had been waiting for two hours. converted by Web2PDFConvert. He had been running. we exchange the subject and first auxiliary verb.A “Mary won’t be at home when you arrive. Had the pilot been drinking before the crash? 11-Present Perfect Continuous Tense.It . = Ram had been waiting for two hours when I arrived.”Really? Where will she have gone?” I had been singing 10-Past Perfect Continuous Tense How do we make the Past Perfect Continuous Tense? The structure of the past perfect continuous tense is: subject +auxiliary verb HAVE +auxiliary verb BE+main verb present participle base + ing conjugated in simple past tense past participle had been For negative sentences in the past perfect continuous tense. I arrived at 11am.

[We're still studying now. There is usually a connection with the present or now. converted by Web2PDFConvert. playing seeing doing football. An action that has just stopped or recently stopped We use the present perfect continuous tense to talk about an action that started in the past and stopped recently. *I have been watching TV since 7pm. her? their homework? for one hour. There is usually a result now. too much. we often contract the subject and the first auxiliary. We also sometimes do this in informal writing.com .] We use for to talk about a period of time—5 minutes. An action continuing up to now We use the present perfect continuous tense to talk about an action that started in the past and is continuing now. [I am still reading now. 2.How do we make the Present Perfect Continuous Tense? The structure of the present perfect continuous tense is: subject+auxiliary verb+auxiliary verb+main verb have has been base + ing Here are some examples of the present perfect continuous tense: subject auxiliary verb +I + You . 6 years.] How long have you been learning English? [You are still learning now. There are basically two uses for the present perfect continuous tense: 1. I have been I’ve been … etc Here are some examples: I’ve been reading. I’m tired [now] because I‘ve been running. CONTRACTIONS When we use the present perfect continuous tense in speaking.] We have not been smoking. The car’s been giving trouble. Here are some examples: *I have been studying for 3 hours. This is often used with for or since. How do we use the Present Perfect Continuous Tense? This tense is called the present perfect continuous tense.We ? Have ? Have have have has have you they auxiliary verbmain verb been been not been not been been been waiting talking raining. 1st January. [And we are not smoking now. I have been reading for 2 hours.It . Why is the grass wet [now]? Has it been raining? You don’t understand [now] because you haven’t been listening. We use since to talk about a point in past time—9 o’clock. 2 weeks.] We‘ve been studying since 9 o’clock. Monday.

com . football? +I + You . using waiting playing the car. we contract with won’t. For question sentences. were beat became Past Participle awoken been beaten become converted by Web2PDFConvert. there are many others. Base Form awake be beat become Past Simple awoke was. travelling for two days. we insert not between will and have. He will be tired when he arrives.12-Future Perfect Continuous Tense I will have been singing How do we make the Future Perfect Continuous Tense? The structure of the future perfect continuous tense is: subject + auxiliary verb WILL+ auxiliary verb HA VE+ auxiliary verb BE+ main verb invariable will invariable have past participle been present participle base + ing For negative sentences in the future perfect continuous tense. like this: I will not I won’t …etc How do we use the Future Perfect Continuous Tense? We use the future perfect continuous tense to talk about a long action before some point in the future.She . He will have been travelling for 24 hours.We ? Will ? Will will will will will you they watching TV? I’ll … etc When we use the future perfect continuous tense in speaking. Of course. but these are the more common irregular verbs. Look at these examples: I will have been working here for ten years next week. we often contract the subject and auxiliary verb: example: I will= For negative sentences in the future perfect continuous tense. we exchange the subject and will. Look at these example sentences with the future perfect continuous tense: subject auxiliary verb auxiliary verbauxiliary verbmain verb have have not have not have have have been been been been been been working for four hours. Irregular Verbs List This is a list of some irregular verbs in English. long.

com .begin bend bet bid bite blow break bring broadcast build burn buy catch choose come cost cut dig do draw dream drive drink eat fall feel fight find fly forget forgive freeze get give go grow hang have hear hide hit hold hurt keep know lay lead learn leave lend let lie lose make began bent bet bid bit blew broke brought broadcast built burned/burnt bought caught chose came cost cut dug did drew dreamed/dreamt drove drunk ate fell felt fought found flew forgot forgave froze got gave went grew hung had heard hid hit held hurt kept knew laid led learned/learnt left lent let lay lost made begun bent bet bid bitten blown broken brought broadcast built burned/burnt bought caught chosen come cost cut dug done drawn dreamed/dreamt driven drunk eaten fallen felt fought found flown forgotten forgiven frozen gotten given gone grown hung had heard hidden hit held hurt kept known laid led learned/learnt left lent let lain lost made converted by Web2PDFConvert.

mean meet pay put read ride ring rise run say see sell send show shut sing sit sleep speak spend stand swim take teach tear tell think throw understand wake wear win write meant met paid put read rode rang rose ran said saw sold sent showed shut sang sat slept spoke spent stood swam took taught tore told thought threw understood woke wore won wrote meant met paid put read ridden rung risen run said seen sold sent showed/shown shut sung sat slept spoken spent stood swum taken taught torn told thought thrown understood woken worn won written Edited by : abdessamad converted by Web2PDFConvert.com .

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