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1. Tng quan mng ton quang...................................................................4 1.1 Cc kiu mng ton quang ...............................................................4 1.

2 Kin trc mng ton quang...............................................................6 1.2.1 Kin trc chc nng (functional architecture) ...........................6 1.2.1.1 Lp mng knh quang (Optical Channel Layer Network)......7 1.2.1.2 Lp mng ghp knh quang....................................................7 1.2.1.3 Lp mng truyn dn quang....................................................8 1.2.2 Kin trc mng (network architecture)......................................8 1.2.1.1 Kin trc AT&T/MIT-LL/DEC AON.....................................8 1.2.1.2 Kin trc Bellcores AON.....................................................13 2. Cc linh kin v thit b c bn trong mng ton quang.......................14 2.1 Si quang.........................................................................................14 2.2 B pht/thu tn hiu quang..............................................................16 2.3 B lc v b ghp knh quang........................................................17 2.4 B chuyn mch quang...................................................................18 2.5 B chuyn i bc sng................................................................19 2.5.1 Chuyn i bc sng O-E......................................................20 2.5.2 Chuyn i bc sng ton quang...........................................20 2.6 B khuch i quang.......................................................................21 2.7 Cu trc mng DWDM...................................................................24 2.7.1 Thit b u cui OLT..................................................................26 2.7.2 B ghp/xem OADM...................................................................27 2.7.3 B kt ni cho quang OXC........................................................30 3. Mt s cng ngh quan trng trong mng AON...................................36 3.1 Cng ngh knh quang...................................................................36 3.1.1 Knh quang..............................................................................36 3.1.2 ng dn bc sng v ng dn bc sng o.................43 3.2 Cng ngh chuyn mch knh quang.............................................44 3.2.1 Cu trc chuyn mch WP.......................................................47 3.2.2 Cu trc h thng chuyn mch WP/VWP..............................47 3.2.3 Cu trc chuyn mch ma trn y .....................................49 3.3 Cng ngh chuyn mch gi quang. ..............................................50 4. Kt lun.................................................................................................54 4.1 ng dng ca mng ton quang......................................................54 4.2 Nhng hn ch ................................................................................56 4.3 Kt lun v khuyn ngh..................................................................57

M U S bng n ca mng Internet, s pht trin s lng ngi s dng, s pht trin ca cc ng dng v dch v mi trn nn IP, l nhng g m chng ta chng kin trong vng gn mt thp k qua. Xt v mt k thut, p ng c s pht trin , h tng mng truyn dn bao gm mng ng backbone v mng truy nhp v ang phi nng cao dung lng bng cch chuyn dn sang mng truyn dn cp si quang. Mng truyn dn quang p ng c rt nhiu yu cu v dung lng (ti a 50Tbps), chi ph xy dng v tnh bo mt thng tin. Hai cng ngh quan trng gn y gip tng dung lng h thng l WDM v khuch i si quang EDFA. T khong nm 1986 tr li y c rt nhiu cc dn xy dng mng ng trc cp quang bin quc tc trin khai, gip tng cng kh nng trao i thng tin gia cc quc gia, lnh th trn th gii. Tip n l cc mng ng trc trn t lin cc quc gia c xy dng trn nn tng truyn dn si quang. Vo u nm 1988, cc cng ngh SONET v SDH l nhng ch nng c cp n nh l nhng chun ghp knh cho cc mng ng trc trong tng lai. SONET v SDH l cc chun thit k t u cho cc h thng TDM (chim a s vo nhng nm 1980). S dng TDM, mt lung d liu tc cao hn c to ra trc tip bng cch ghp cc knh c tc bit thp hn. Thc t c rt nhiu cc h thng SDH/SONET v vn ang c trin khai. Cc h thng TDM dung lng cao hot ng tc OC-192 hoc 10Gbps. Tuy nhin ta s gp kh khn khi mun chuyn ln tc OC-768 hoc ln hn do hn ch tn s hot ng ca linh kin in t. n nm 1997, cng ngh WDM c nh gi l cng ngh ghp knh s mt gip tng dung lng h thng ln hng trm ln, gim chi ph u t. Cng ngh WDM cho php ghp nhiu knh tc bt khc nhau trn cng mt si quang bng cch t cc knh trn cc bc sng khc nhau. Hin nay c thit b ghp knh WDM c kh nng ghp 80 knh (bc sng). Vi vic ch x l tn hiu quang ti cc node mng, loi b s hn ch ca thit b in t, v a ra mt mng mi tn l mng ton quang (AON). Mng ton quang nh tuyn bc sng c coi l ng c vin cho mng backbone din rng th h tip theo. Mng AON c xy dng t cc thit b ghp knh WDM (km theo kh nng xen/tch) v cc thit b u cho OXC (cross-connect). H thng DWDM c kh nng ghp 32 bc sng hoc nhiu hn trong di 1550nm, tng dung lng trn si quang ang c v trong sut vi tc bt. Mng AON lm vic vi cc bc sng khc nhau lp vt l, ghp knh WDM v nh tuyn theo bc sng. N gm cc node nh tuyn bc sng quang c ni vi nhau bng cc kt ni si quang. Mt lightpath phi c thit lp gia hai node nh tuyn bt k trc khi chng trao i thng tin. Mng s phi xc nh tuyn (route/path) ni node ny v gn mt bc sng ri cho cc kt ni dc theo ng i. Lightpath chnh l mt kt ni quang trc tip gia hai node khng qua bt k mt thit bin t trung gian no. thit lp mt

lightpath, thng thng yu cu mng phi phn b mt bc sng chung trn tt c cc kt ni dc theo ng i ca lightpath. chnh l yu cu v tnh lin tc bc sng, iu khin cho mng nh tuyn bc sng khc vi cc mng in thoi chuyn mch truyn thng. Mt yu cu s b t chi nu khng c bc sng chung cn ri trn ton tuyn. Mt trong nhng mc tiu c bn ca bi ton thit k mng AON nh tuyn bc sng l phi gim ti thiu xc sut nghn ton mng. Bi tiu lun ny trnh by v Tng quan Mng ton quang: Kin trc ca mng, chi tit v cc thit b v linh kin trong mng ton quang, ng thi cng nu ln nhng cng ngh quan trng trong mng ton quang nh chuyn mch v ghp knh quang. Nhm sinh vin thc hin:

- Hong Trung Hiu (CB100629) - Phm Vn Hng (CB100637) - Phm Huyn () - Nguyn Mnh Linh () - Nguyn S Thanh Sn () - Hong Vn Thng()

1. Tng quan mng ton quang


1.1 Cc kiu mng ton quang
Mng ton quang c th phn chia thnh: Passive Optical Networks (PONs), Transparent Optical Networks (TONs), v Ultra-high-speed Optical Networks (UONs). Cc mng ny c tho lun chi tit mc sau. a. Passive Optical Networks (PONs) PON s dng c thnh phn quang th ng nh: cp quang, directional coupler, star coupler, router th ng, v b lc. Nhn chung, PN c thit k cho truyn thng khong cch ngn, b hn 30 dm. Vi khong cch ngn, tn hiu quang khng yu cu khuych i. N loi tr vic s dng tt c cc thnh phn th cc yu cu nng lng in x l. PONs cng p ng cc yu cu v gi thnh r, tin cy cao v bng thng ln. Do vy, n c xem nh l mt gii php hp dn cho mng cc b (Local Area Networks LANs) v mng Metropolitan Area Networks (MANs). Mng LANs v MANs ton quang th ng c th c cu hnh s dng topo hnh sao, cy, bus v vng. Chng c th c s dng trong cc ng dng nh: Fiber to The Curb (FTTC) Fiber to The Building (FTTB) Fiber to The Home (FTTF)

Thm vo , PONs c th c s dng cng vi cc mng khc cung cp tn hiu quang trong truyn thng im a im. Nhng mng ny gm Digital Loop Carrier (DLC) Integrated Access, Wireless Multi-channel Multi-point Distribution System (MMDS), High Dt-rate Digital Subscriber Line (HDSL) v Very High Dt-rate Digital Subscriber Line (VDSL) S dng PON c th gim gi thnh ca DLC bi vic cung cp gii php feeder cp quang a im. H thng PON c th c dng gia Central Office v thit b u cui xa DLC, do , n cung cp gii php vng cc b bng rng. Cc mng khng dy bng rng yu cu mng feeder bng thng cao t Central Office ddeens nhiu trm. Cc trm gc c th c kt ni v lu lng ngc v Central Office c th c tng ln nh PON. Theo truyn thng, kin trc bus cp ng trc tn hiu analog c s dng chnh trong mng CATV (cable television). Cc mng cp ng trc yu cu b khuch i gi thnh cao v t khi bo tri, hin ti c thit k choc ho cc dch v n cng. Kin trc Hybrid Fiber Coax (HFC) cho php mng CATV cung cp dch v song cng. Mt cch in hnh, mng HFC c th dung cp dung lng knh t 30 n 40Mb/s cho downstream, s dng knh analog 6MHz chia s bi khong 100 250 h. Tuy nhien, HFC c vn vi dung lng upstream, nhng c th khc phc bng cch trin khai PON gia trm head-end v cc node quang.

Cng ngh PON over HFC cung cp dch v song cng, t li, cn bng, nhng yu cu cn thit cho cc ng dng tng tc bng rng. PON c th dng WDM, Sub-Carrier Multiplexing (SCM), OTDM hoc s kt hp cc cng ngh ny truyn dn phc hp cc tn hiu video, voice, dt, bao gm Plain Old Telephone Service), Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN), T1/E1, T3/E3, OC-3, OC-12, OC-48 v Truyn hnh k thut s, tng t. b. Transparent Optical Networks (TONs) TONs cho php tn hiu truyn qua cc node trong mng khng ph thuc vo iu ch tn hiu, tc dt, v cc c im c th. PONs c th c xy dn theo nhiu ng. Tuy nhin, tnh linh ng, hiu nng cao, kh nng t local n global l nhng mc tiu chnh cho vic s dng PONs. Trong khi hu ht cc thnh phn quang c th c thit k c lp vi kiu tn hiu, nhng tn ti v gii hn truyn dn do nhng yu cu v hiu nng end-to-end cho cc dng tn hiu v cc tc truyn d liu. Cc kiu tn hiu khc nhau c nhy khc nhau ti suy hao tch ly nh: tn sc n sc, tn sc phn c, nhiu khuch i, nhiu xuyn knh, v cc tnh cht phi tuyn quang hc. Xa hn, n rt kh h tr truyn dn tn hiu analog bi v tnh nhy cm vi phn x quang hc v nhng yu cu tuyn tnh stringent cho laser s dng trong b chuyn i bc song. Do , mng ton quang trong sut c th khng hon ton l trong sut. gim bt vn ny, c mt s xut nh ngha cc mc trong sut trong mng ton quang trong sut. Nhng mc ny l: +) 4T-transparent-trong sut v dng iu ch, m ng dy, tn s ng h, nh dng truyn dn +) 3T-transparent- Trong sut v m ng dy, hi phc clock, v nh dng truyn dn +) 2T-transparent-Trong sut v tn s ng h v nh dng truyn dn +) 1T- Trong sut v nh dng truyn dn c. Ultra-high speed optical network AONs tc siu cao s dng cc c im v tc rt cao ca cc hin tng quang hc truyn ti cc xung quang siu ngn (hoc solitons), 100 Gb/s hoc ln hn trn khong cch rt di. Mt s cc cng ngh ch cht cn thit cho vic xy dng cc mng ton quang AONs tc siu cao bao gm cc xung quang siu ngn, ghp knh, truyn dn siu nhanh ca solitons, phc hi ng h, v cc b m quang. Cc xung quang siu ngn c th c to ra bng cch s dng cc b laser bn dn tng ch-chuyn mch v Mode-Locked Laser (MLLs). Thng thng, AONs tc siu cao s dng OTDM C hai c tnh vt l ca si quang iu khin vic thit k mng quang. Th

nht l tn sc n sc. y l tnh cht tuyn tnh ca tt c cc si quang gy ra khin cho nh sng vi tn s khc nhau c vn tc khc nhau. Xung nh sng c xu hng tri rng ra v khin cho kh c th khi phc dng bit. Tnh cht th hai l khi nh sng truyn trong si quang, n gy ra nhng thay i cc nh c nh ngha bi nng lng v hnh dng ca xung, gi l hiu ng Kerr. Gii php l format cc xung ny mt cch c bit tn dng hai c im nay. iu ny dn n tn sc c cn bng v hiu qu nn trit tiu nhau. Cc xung mt nng lng dn n mt sng trong si quang. Khi nng lng tiu hao, nn phi tuyn dng li v xung bt u tri rng. iu nay yu cu cc si quang b tn sc nn li xung nh sng. Trong OTDM, phc hi clock l rt cn thit c lng chnh xc thng tin nh thi trong tn hiu n u cui nhn tn hiu. N cho php receiver ng b vi lung thng tin n. Hai k thut phc hi clock c xut cho mng ton quang tc siu cao s dng OTDM. Trong k thut th nht, mt ng h quang cc b c tc iu khin bi ngun RF c kha ti dng xung OTDM dn. Trong k thut th hai, Nonlinear Optial Loop Mirror (NOLM) c s dng nh cm bin phase bit quang. NOLM bao gm mt coupler fiber 3-db vi hai cng tham gia xuyn sut chiu di si quang. Sau khi ng h quan c khi phc, b tch knh cn m cc slot mong mun hoc header ca tn hiu quang n s dng thit b lu tr quang. Xa hn, n cn gim tc dt nhawmcf giao tip tin hiu mong mun vi receiver cho vic x l dt k tip. Tuy nhin, b nh quang random access khng tn ti, thay vo , ta s dng cc line hoc loop quang delay nh l b m quang. Mng ton quang tc siu cao c nhiu bc tin v hiu nng, tuy nhin nhiu cng ngh cn thit h tr cc chc nng trong mng ton quang tc siu cao mi ch c trong phng th nghim. Do vy mng ton quang tc siu cao c xem nh l mt gii php vi mc tiu v lu di.

1.2 Kin trc mng ton quang


1.2.1 Kin trc chc nng (functional architecture) ITU-T pht trin kin trc truyn ti chc nng cho cc mng truyn ti quang. Kin trc chc nng truyn ti c quy nh trong khuyn ngh G.872. Kin trc truyn ti m t nhng chc nng AON t 1 quan im cp mng. N da vo ti khon cu trc phn lp ca 1 mng quang, thong tin c tnh client, s kt hp phn lp client/server, cu trc lien kt mng, v chc nng lp mng. Chc nng lp mng bao trm truyn dn tn hiu quang, a php knh, gim st, nh tuyn, nh gi hot ng v kh nng sng st ca mng. Phm vi hin ti ca kin trc ch gii hn cho tn hiu s. Hn na, kin trc ch dnh cho WDM. Cc k thut a ghp knh quang khc nh OTDM, OCDM cn c nghin cu thm.

Cc kin trc vn chuyn chc nng s dng cc phng php m hnh ha m t trong ITU-T Khuyn ngh G.805, - Kin trc chc nng chung ca mng chuyn vn. Theo phng php ny, cc mng truyn ti quang hc b chia thnh nhng lp mng chuyn vn c lp. Mi tng mng c th c phn chia mt cch ring bit trong mt cch phn nh cu trc ni b ca lp mng. Hnh 1 m t lp cu trc ca mng truyn ti quang. Chng bao gm mt lp knh mng quang, mt phn ghp knh quang hc lp mng, v truyn mt phn quang hc tng mng.

Hnh 1. Layered Structure of Optical Transport Network 1.2.1.1 Lp mng knh quang (Optical Channel Layer Network) Lp mng knh quang cung cp kt cui mng end to end ca cc knh quang cho s truyn t minh bch thng tin client ca nhng nh dng khc nhau, chng hn nh truyn dn s ng b SDH, cn ng b PDH v ch truyn bt i xng ATM. cung cp mng ent to end, nhng kh nng sau y c bao gm trong lp mng knh quang: Kt ni knh quang sp xp li cho nh tuyn mng linh ng X l mo u knh quang m bo tnh ton vn ca knh quang p ng thng tin Knh quang gim st cc chc nng kch hot nhng hot ng cp mng v cc chc nng qun l nh l cung cp kt ni, trao i thng s QoS, v tnh sng st ca mng. 1.2.1.2 Lp mng ghp knh quang N cng cp chc nng cho mng ca 1 tn hiu quang a bc song. Kh nng sau y ca mng c bao hm trong mc ny: Phn ghp knh quang kt ni sp xp li cho linh hot mng nh tuyn a bc sng ; X l mo u phn ghp knh quang m bo tnh ton vn ca phn ghp knh quang a bc sng tng thch thong tin.

Ghp knh quang gim st cc chc nng m bo cp phin cc hot ng v cc chc nng qun l nh l cung cp kt ni phin a ghp knh v tnh sng st cu mng 1.2.1.3 Lp mng truyn dn quang Phn ny cung cp chc nng cho truyn dn tn hiu quang trn phng tin quang ca nhng kiu khc nhau nh l si quang n mode v a mode. Chc nng ny cng bao gm kh nng cho gim st khuch i quang hoc cc trm lp. 1.2.2 Kin trc mng (network architecture) Kin trc mng quang ang trong giai on pht trin. Tt c phi c xem xt bi NS/EP m bo tnh tng thch ca n. Mt trong s c trnh by di y. 1.2.1.1 Kin trc AT&T/MIT-LL/DEC AON T hp c sn xut bi cng ty American Telephone and Telegraph (AT&T), Digital Equiment Corporation (DEC), v Massachusetts Instude of Technology Lincoln Laborary (MIT-LL) pht trin hai mng trn c s WDM v OTDM. Nhng kin trc c kim tra theo ng dng NS/EP. a. Kin trc c s WDM Kin trc cung cp m rng qua bc sng s dng li v Time Division Multiplexing (TDM). Nh th hin trong hnh, kin trc s ba mc (V d, Level-0 (L-0), Level-1 (L-1), v Level-2 (L-2) ca mng con. Mi mng con l mt mng ton quang hot ng c lp.

mc thp nht ca s l cc mng con L-0, mi mng l mt mng LAN hiu nng cao. Ngi dng truy nhp mng L-0 qua u cui quang (Optical Terminal OT). Mi OT c kt ni ti mng con L-0 s dng cp cp quang. Mi mng con L-0 chia s ni b bc sng vi s m rng s dng li bc sng ca cc mng L-0 khc nhau. mc gia ca s l mng con L-1 hoc cc mng metro (Metropolitan Area Network - MAN). Mi MAN lin kt vi nhiu mng con L-0 v cung cp bc sng s dng li theo cc mng con L-0 khc nhau qua nh tuyn bc sng th ng. mc cao nht ca s l mng con L-2. Mng ny l mt mng din rng (Wide Area Network - WAN), bao gm nhiu node kt ni theo m hnh mesh. N lin kt vi cc mng con L-1 bng cc b nh truyn v b chuyn i bc sng. Mi mng con cung cp ba dng dch v ti mng con hoc cc OT lp di n. Nhng dch v ny c phn loi thnh dch v Type-A, Type-B, Type-C v thc hin cc chc nng: Dch v Type-A: Mi dch v cung cp ng quang ring cho kt ni pointto-point, point-to-multipoint v multipoint-to-multipoint. Vi mi dng, qua dch v Type-A, u cui quang c th cung cp point-to-point OC-192 v point-to-multipoint video a im. Mt virtual c chia s phng tin LAN, V-LAN, c th c cu hnh qua multipoint-to-multipoint knh A. u cui quang trn kt ni V-LAN qua giao thc a truy nhp nh slotted ALOHA. ALOHA l mt phng thc truy nhp a knh, c pht trin bi trng i hc HAWAII. Dch v Type-B: N l dch v TDM t lch, trong sut vi khe thi gian ca n v hu dng cho cc ng dng bng thng thp. Mt ngi s dng c th truyn d liu trong nhiu tc v nh dng khc nhau trong mt khe hay mt nhm khe, tuy nhin, chng nn c ci t mt kt ni c th m bo khn nng hi ph ca tn hiu u nhn. Dch v Type-B, h tr kt ni point-to-point, point-to-multipoint, multipoint-to-multipoint, song cng, v n cng. Nhng dch v m u cui quang cung cp qua knh B bao gm kt ni OC-3, mng Ethernet hoc Fiber Distributed Data Interface (FDDI). Dch v C: l mt dch v gi d liu khng t lch. Trong dch v ny, mt gi thng tin c th c truyn trong mt gi d liu c th v nhiu nh dng khc nhau trn mt bc sng. Dch v ny khng trong sut nu n phi phc v kt ni chung gia tt c cc ngi dng trong mng ton quang. N c th c s dng cho s t cu hnh ca mng, qun l v iu khin mng, mng bo hiu. N c s dng chnh cho vic phn chia ti nguyn, hot ng mng, qun tr, v duy tr. Mi mng con c mt ngi t lch/chia vc iu khin cc chc nng bao gm c cp pht bc sng v khe thi gian cho cc im truy nhp (Access Point AP). Nhng AP c giao tip quang gia cc OT v mng ton quang. Ngi t

lch c th c thc thi trong mt hay nhiu OT hoc trong node ring, c kt ni ti mi mc ca mng con. Mt thut ton phn tn c s dng chn mt OT l Ngi chia vic gia cc OT. Nu mt ngi t lch b hng, thut ton phn tn s thc hin li. Trn c s cc mc ca mng con, vic t lch (schedule) c chia lm ba mc: level-0 (L-0), level-1 (L-1), level-2 (L-2) theo chc nng c thc hin cc mc tng ng: Scheduling mc 0: Ngi phn lch L-0 m nhim chc nng sau: Xc thc, y quyn, v cc dch v yu cu cho kt ni Type-A, Type-B, Type-C t AP trong mng ton quang L-0 ca n; Phn phi v la chn thng tin thi gian cn thit cho vic thit lp kt ni Type-B; Duy tr mt schedule chnh xc cho tt c cc bc sng v cp nht schedule khi kt ni c ci t hoc b ngt; La chn thng tin ti khon; v Kt ni vi ngi phn lch L-1 ca n, m bo cc chnh sch iu khin v qun l, v thc hin mt vi chc nng ph tr nh nh x tn ti a ch (name-to-address mapping). Scheduling mc 1: H tr thm cho cc chc nng ca ngi phn lch L0, mt ngi phn lch L-1 phi thc hin chc nng sau: Xc thc, y quyn v p ng cc yu cu cho kt ni L-0 v L-1; Cung cp chc nng matchmaker thit lp mt ng bc sng t mt thnh phn L-0 AON ca n ti ci khc; Thit lp kt ni Multicast s dng tn s cp, hnh sao chn lc; Kt ni gia ngi chia vic L-2 ca n cp pht ng nh sng khi cn thit; Cung cp thng tin thi gian cc L-0 AON ca n thit lp kt ni Type-B. Level-2 Scheduling: B sung cho cc trng trch ca ngi chia vic L-0 v L-1, ngi chia vic L-2 phi xc thc, y quyn v gii quyt cc yu cu t kt ni lin tuyn vi L-1. Trong kin trc s ny, khi mt OT cn thit lp mt kt ni, n gi mt kt ni n ngi phn lch L-0. Yu cu kt ni bao gm nhiu tiu chun nh dng ca yu cu dch v, a ch ca OT yu cu, lu thng mong mun v u tin. Khi nhn c mt yu cu kt ni, ngi phn lch xc nh ch trong mng L-0 AON ca n hay khng. Nu ch trong mng L-0 AON ca n, th n s xc

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nh s sn sng ca ti nguyn cn thit. Nu ti nguyn sn sng th kt ni c thit lp. Nu ch khc mng L-0 AON, nhng cng mang L-1 AON, th ngi phn lch L-0 yu cu ngi phn lch L-1 la chn bc sng cung cp ng truyn gia L-0 ngun v ch. Nu ch khng trong cng L-1 AON, th ngi phn lch L-0 yu cu ngi phn lch L-1 ca n tm ng truyn s dng mt bc sng ri trong mng. Mt ng sng c thit lp, qu trnh thit lp kt ni hon tt nh m t trn. Chng ta kim nghim vic s dng chc nng u tin mc OT. Trong khi u tin n gin l phn b ti nguyn logic v vt l. N c hnh dung l phng php lin kt c gi tr vi NS/EP v vi NCS. b. Kin trc c s OTDM Kin trc c s OTDM c pht trin iu khin kt ni siu tc . Tuy nhin, c cc trng im sau:

1) S cn thit cho mt kin trc, m bo c dch v bng thng m bo v


dch v bng thng truy nhp ngu nhin theo yu cu (BOD) cng mt thi gian;

2) S cn thit cho mt chnh sch m s iu chnh chia s bng thng hiu


qu v cng bng vi cc ngi dung BOD di mi iu kin lu lng mng khc nhau.

3) S cn thit cho mt thut ton n gin thc thi mt tc yu cu


bi cc mng quang. Trn c s nhng trng im trn, Helical LAN (HLAN) c xut. HLAN l mt kin trc rnh khung c s v xut hin p ng ng thi tt cc tiu chun trn. N s dng bus n hng xon v cng c thc thi trong cu trc tuyn tnh, ci m c th thch hp hn cho mng MAN. Kin trc HLAN c thit k hot ng ti 100Gb/s, v n c th thch nghi vi tc ln hn.Kin trc ny c m t nh hnh 3, mt si quang c chia thnh ba phn on khng chng cho l Transmitter (GBW and BOD), and Receiver (RCV). on GBW c s dng truyn ti lu lng cn m bo bng thng. on BOD c s dng truyn ti lu lng ci m yu cu bi BOD, cui cng on RCV c s dng nhn lu lng truyn trn bus.

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Hnh 3. Kin trc HLAN

Hnh 4. Cu trc Frame HLAN Mi nt trn bus c trang b mt b x l headend /slot, n v giao thc logic, c ch phc hi clock, v cc b m. Mi Headend to ra khe (slots) rng v t chng trn xe bus. Kin trc HLAN c th h tr tc khe l 107 n 108 slots/s. Cc cu trc khung c minh ha trong hnh 4. Mi nt dch v c c bng cch chng yu cu t headend thng qua dch v BOD hoc bt k cc c s khc. i vi yu cu dch v GBW, nu c th cc headend phn b dnh khe, ti cc nt yu cu trn phn khc GBW. Bt k khe GBW khng s dng c s dng cho dch v BOD. i vi yu cu dch v BOD, headend to ra th phn b bng cch s dng khe cm mc. Phn b mt s lng nht nh cc th cho mi im nh du trn khe cm nhn. Ngoi ra, cc th c gim mi khe thi gian c s dng. Khi khng c d liu gi, s th ca node c thit lp li tr li cc th gc. ngn chn cc tc nghn nt c lu lng cao, headend gim st cc khe free cui bus. Nu khng c khe free c quan st trong mt khong thi gian nht nh, di ca khong phn b th tng ln. Kt qu l gim bng thng sn c cho cc nt ring l. Nu headend cc quan st nhiu rnh

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cui bus, n lm gim di ca khong phn b th. iu ny cung cp bng thng rng hn cho ngi dng c nhn. 1.2.1.2 Kin trc Bellcores AON Bellcore, i hc Columbia v mt s phng lab nghin cu khc cng tham gia nghin cu, pht trin mt kin trc khc. Kin trc WAN c dung lng cao da trn nn tng DWDM v inh tuyn bc sng, v c kh nng m rng v m-un v s lng cc mng ngi s dng, s lng cc nt, phm vi a l cng nh nng lc mng tng hp.

Hnh 5: Kin trc mng ton quang a bc sng Bellcore Nh c th hin trong hnh v 5, cc kin trc mng bao gm cc thit b ton quang c cha cc thit b chuyn mch nh tuyn bc sng. Theo tnh lin tc bc sng hn ch cho cc mng nh tuyn bc sng, hai lightpaths (cn gi l knh thng tin lin lc quang ) c chung mt lin kt si thng thng khng nn c phn cng cng mtbc sng. Trong cc hnh, 1, 2, 3 l bc sng v c sn ca mng. Bc sng 1 l c s dng trong hai lightpaths cho A-B v CD kt ni k t khi hai ng dn s dng bc sng khc nhau, nh tuyn chuyn mch. 2, v 3 c th chim cc con ng gia cc bc sng, nh tuyn chuyn mch, v chng l tn s khc nhau. Tuy nhin, nu mt chuyn i hoc nh tuyn nt cng c trang b vi mt b chuyn i bc sng,th bc sng lin tc ch bin mt, v lightpath c th c chuyn gia bc sng khc nhau trn tuyn ng t ngun n ch. V l do ny, nh tuyn v chuyn dch bc sng l mt thch thc chnh trong mng nh tuyn bc sng m khng cn chuyn i bc sng. Hn na, vic thiu cc chuyn i bc sng tng xc sut ca kt ni chn bi v cng mt bc sng c th khng c ti

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tt c cc nt cho mt lightpath c bit trn tuyn ng t ngun n ch. Bc sng chuyn i l rt tn km v khng c s dng ti tt c cc nt trong mng. Kin trc Bellcore s dng b chuyn i bc sng ch ti cc nt chn trong mng li ca mnh. 3.3.2.3 Kin trc OCDM-c bn Mt kin trc in hnh OCDM-c bn th hin trong hnh 6. Trong kin trc ny, cc nt c kt ni vi mt b ghp sao th ng NxN. Cc b m ha OCDM ca mint pht hin mt "1" cht bi mt lot cc xung quang hc siu nhanh gi l m a ch hoc dy tn hiu. Cc bit "0" khng m ha v c i din bi mt dy s ton khng. Mi nt tn hiu ca ring m ho c gi n cc b ghp saonNv pht sng ti tt c cc nt.

Hnh v 6. Kin trc OCDM-c bn Mc tiu ch ca mt h thng OCDM l dnh cho mi nt trch xut d liu vi m a ch ca n trong s hin din ca tt c cc chui xung quang ca ngi ngi dng khc. Do , mt h thng OCDM c thit k vi ba iu kin ban u sau y: Mi tng quan t ng cho mt m OCDM nn cng ln cng tt m bo rng tn hiu nhn c l ln hn nhiu so vi nhiu nn trong h thng.

Mi tng quan cho gia hai m khc nhau cn cng nh cng tt m


bo mi m c th d dng phn bit vi tt c cc m OCDM khc.

Cc chuyn dch mi tng quan t ng cung cp mt m OCDM do


cho php OCDM c gim thiu hot ng m khng cn ng b ha.

2. Cc linh kin v thit b c bn trong mng ton quang


2.1 Si quang
Si quang (Optical fiber) c chn lm mi trng truyn dn tn hiu trong cc mng tc cao do n s hu nhiu u im vt tri so vi cc mi trng truyn dn truyn thng. C th lit k ra nh : Ph tn s dng rng, suy hao thp, tiu th cng sut t, khng b gy nhiu bi in t trng bn ngoi, s dng vt liu ch to t, nh gn v gi thnh r hn. Cng nh m cc h thng thng tin quang thng c t l BER rt thp, nh hn 10-11

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Tuy nhin si quang vn tn ti cc hin tng vt l nh: suy hao, tn sc, v cc hiu ng phi tuyn lm nh hng n vic tn dng ti a ti nguyn ca n, c bit trong cc mng ng trc tc cao. C hai vng suy hao thp quan trng hay c s dng:1300nm, b rng 200nm, suy hao nh hn 0.5dB/Km; v 1550nm, b rng 200nm, suy hao thp khong 0.2dB/Km. Bng thng c tnh xp x 50THz theo cng thc: f
c 2

Hnh 7. Ph suy hao ca si quang C hai loi si quang l si quang n mode(SMF) v si quang a mode (MMF). Nhc im chnh ca si quang a mode l do hin tng tn sc gia cc mode (Iinter-mode Dispersion), lm gim gi tr tch BR*D ( BR- Bit Rate; D Distance) xung ch cn vi chc Mb/s/Km. S dng si quang c chit sut bc (Step- Index), v si quang chit sut gim dn (Graded- Index) c th nng ln hng (Gb/s )-Km, tuy nhin vn khng m bo khi khong cch truyn dn ln. Trong khi , si quang n mode loi b tn sc gia cc mode bng cch gim ng knh ca li si quang. Tuy nhin, hin tng tn sc (Chromatic Dispersion)-do s tn ti nhiu thnh phn hi trong ph tn hiu quang truyn trong si quang gy nn- li l yu tnh hng su sc n cht lng truyn quang. Mt s loi si quang n mode chun, do ITU-T khuyn ngh hay c dng trong cc mng truyn dn quang gm c : Non- Dispersion Shifted Fiber (G.652), Dispersion-Shifted (C.653), 1550-nm Loss minimized Fiber (G.654) v Nonzero-Dispersion Fiber (G.655) NDSF (ITU-T G.652 ) L loi si quang c s dng nhiu nht. Nc ch to ti u cho vng 1310nm, c tn sc bng 0 ti chnh bc sng 1310nm, v gn 20ps/nm-Km bc sng 1550nm.

DSF (ITU-T G.653)

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L loi si quang c thit k ti u cho vng 1500-1600nm, c h s tn sc xp x 3.3ps/nm-Km ti ca s 1550nm v gn bng 0 ti bc sng 1550nm. Loi si quang ny khng ph hp cho mng WDM do nh hng ca cc hiu ng phi tuyn.

1550nm Loss Minimized Fiber (ITU-T G.654)


y l loi si quang n mode chun c bit, c tn hao rt thp ti vng ca s 1550nm. ITU G.654 c thit k ti u cho vng 1500-1600nm. Bc sng cutoff hiu dng l mt thng s quan trng trong thit k loi si ny. Tn hao thp l nh s dng li thu tinh tinh khit. Sn xut ITU G.654 tt km, gi thnh cao, nn nt c s dng. Loi si quang ny ph hp nht l cho h thng cp quang bin hoc mng cp quang ng trc NZ-DSF (ITU-T G.655) L loi si quang SMF c h s tn sc ln hn mt gi tr khc khng c vng 1500nm. Hin tng tn sc ny lm gim nh hng ca cc hiu ng phi tuyn nh: FXM, SPM,XPM xut hin trong cc h thng DWDM. Loi si quang ny ph hp nht, hot ng ti u nht l ti vng 1500-1600nm.

2.2 B pht/thu tn hiu quang


B pht tn hiu quang B pht tn hiu quang (Optical transmitter) c chc nng chuyn tn hiu in thnh tn hiu quang. nh sng pht ra t cc ngun ny c bm vo si quang truyn i. C hai loi linh kin dng lm ngun pht quang hin nay l LED (Light Emitting Diode) v LASER ( Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission Radiation). Cc ngun pht sng quang cn c cc tnh cht vt l sau : Ph hp vi kch thc si quang

Bm cng sut vo si quang m bo tn hiu c th c pht


hin u thu vi suy hao bit trc. Pht ra nh sng bc sng c suy hao v tn x thp. rng ph hp gim thiu tn x. Duy trc tnh n nh trong iu kin mi trng thay i Cho php iu ch trc tip cng sut quang pht ra Gi thnh thp v tin cy cao LEDs l ngun pht l tng cho cc h thng quang a mode s dng trong mng LAN hoc cc mng truy cp. Tuy nhin LEDs khng th cung cp nh sng vo si quang n mode trn mt khong cch truyn dn ln.

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LASER l ngun pht nh sng c s dng ph bin nht trong cc h thng truyn dn quang. Hu ht cc h thng pht Laser c thit k lm vic vi nhng bc sng c quy nh bi ITU-T. i vi cc h thng WDM, ngi ta thng dng loi ngun Laser c thiu chnh c n cc bc sng khc nhau (Tunable Laser) nhm tit kim chi ph. Cch khc l dng cc Laser c nh bc sng (Fixed Tune Laser) DFB lm vic rt tt vi cc ng dng hin nay. Vi cc h thng WDM c s bc sng ln gm hng chc n hng trm bc sng, cch ny tr thnh rt tn km, gy kh khn cho nh sn xut v cng tc vn hnh Mt la chn khc l dng mng Laser (Laser Array), bao gm mt tp cc Laser, vi mi Laser hot ng mt bc sng c nh khc nhau. Nhng mt hn ch l s bc sng c sn trong mt mng Laser l c nh v hin ti gii hn khong 20 bc sng. Thit b thu tn hiu quang Thit b thu tn hiu quang (Optical Receiver) thc hin chuyn i tn hiu quang thnh tn hiu in bng cch s dng linh kin Photodetector to ra dng in c cng t l vi cng sut quang thu c. Dng in sau c khuch i v cho i qua mt thit b ngng. Mt bt pht i c xc nh l mc 0 hay 1 ph thuc dng in ny trn hay di mt ngng no trong sut thi gian bit. Ni cch khc s quyt nh c thc hin da vo cng nh sng trong sut khong thi gian bit .

2.3 B lc v b ghp knh quang


Cc b lc quang (Optical Filter) l nhng thnh phn ch yu trong h thng truyn dn WDM i vi t nht hai ng dng l ghp v tch cc bc sng, cc thit b ny c gi l cc b ghp knh (MUX) v cc b phn knh (DEMUX). Ngoi ra b lc cn lm phng li v lc nhiu trong cc b khuch i quang.

Hnh 8. B lc v b ghp knh Mt b lc n gin l mt thit b hai cng chn mt bc sng v loi b cc bc sng khc. N c th c mt cng th ba thm vo m trn thu c cc bc sng b loi b. Mt b ghp knh (MUX) kt hp cc tn hiu cc bc sng khc nhau trn cc u vo a tn hiu kt hp mt u ra chung. B DEMUX thc hin chc nng ngc li. MUX v DEMUX c dng trong cc

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thit b u cui mng WDM, cc b kt ni cho bc sng (WXC) v cc b ghp knh xen/tch bc sng (ADM). MUX v DEMUX c th c ni lin tng to ra cc WXC. Hnh 9 l mt v d v WXC c nh. Thit b gi cc tn hiu t mt u vo n mt ng ra da trn bc sng. WXC ng c th c xy dng bng cch kt hp s dng cc b chuyn mch quang vi cc b ghp knh v phn knh.

Hnh 9. B kt ni cho c nh .

2.4 B chuyn mch quang


Cc mng thng tin quang trc y s dng chuyn mch in t ti cc node mng. Tuy nhin ngy nay tc ca chuyn mch in t khng th p ng vi yu cu v tc bit, v hiu sut s dng bng thng ca si quang. Chuyn mch in t cc node trung gian trong mng cng lm gia tng tr. Nhng yu t ny thc y s pht trin ca mng ton quang trong cc thnh phn chuyn mch in t c thay th bng chuyn mch quang vi kh nng chuyn mch cc lung d liu quang bng thng cao. Cc b chuyn mch quang c s dng trong cc mng quang cho nhiu ng dng khc nhau. Mi ng dng yu cu thi gian chuyn mch v s cng chuyn mch khc nhau. Mt ng dng ca cc b chuyn mch quang l cung cp cc lightpaths. Trong ng dng ny, cc chuyn mch c s dng bn trong cc b WXC nhm cu hnh li chng cung cp cc lightpaths mi. S phi c mt phn mm dng qun l mng tu cui n u cui. Mt ng dng quan trng khc l chuyn mch bo v. y cc chuyn mch c s dng chuyn cc lung lu lng t mt si chnh sang mt si khc trong trng hp si chnh b hng. Ton b qu trnh chuyn lung phi c hon thnh trong hng chc ms, bao gm thi gian tm ra li, thng tin li n cc phn t mng iu khin vic chuyn mch, v thi gian chuyn mch tht s. V vy thi

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gian chuyn mch yu cu khong mt vi ms. C th c cc dng chuyn mch bo v khc nhau, ph thuc vo phng php sc s dng, s lng cng chuyn mch cn thit c th thay i t hng trm n hng ngn cng khi s dng trong cc b kt ni cho bc sng. Cc b chuyn mch quang cng l phn t quan trng trong mng chuyn mch gi quang tc cao. Trong cc mng ny, cc chuyn mch c s dng chuyn cc tn hiu trn c s cc gi. Vi ng dng ny, thi gian chuyn mch phi nh hn nhiu thi gian ca mt gi nn cn c cc b chuyn mch tc cc cao. V d kch thc ca mt cell trong mng ATM l 53bytes tc 10Gbps di 42ns, v vy thi gian chuyn mch yu cu khong mt vi ns. Cc b chuyn mch quang cn c s dng nh l c biu ch bn ngoi m vng d liu trc mt ngun Laser. Trong trng hp ny, thi gian chuyn mch phi l mt phn nh ca rng bit. Do mt biu ch bn ngoi cho mt tn hiu 10Gbps (vi mt khong thi gian bit 100ps) phi c thi gian chuyn mch khong 10ps.

2.5 B chuyn i bc sng


B chuyn i bc sng (Wavelength Converter) l thit b c kh nng chuyn i tn hiu quang t bc sng ny u vo sang mt bc sng khc ng ra. B WC rt hu ch trong vic lm gim xc sut nghn mng. Nu cc b WC c tch hp vo cc b OXC trong mng ton quang, th cc kt ni c th c thit lp gia ngun v ch ngay c khi bc sng khng c trn tt c cc tuyn ca ng i. Chng s gip loi b s bt buc v tnh lin tc bc sng. Di y l mt sc im m mt b WC l tng nn c: Trong sut i vi tc bit v cc nh dng tn hiu. Thi gian to bc sng u ra nhanh Chuyn i c c nhng bc sng ngn v di Di bc sng rng i vicc tn hiu vo/a C t s SNR cao m bo kh nng ghp tng C nhy thp vi phn cc ca tn hiu vo Chi ph thp v lp t n gin

Cc b chuyn i bc sng c th c chia thnh hai dng da vo lng chuyn i c th. Mt s b chuyn i bc sng y c thchuyn mt bc sng ng vo thnh bt k bc sng no ng ra. Mt b chuyn i bc sng gii hn ch c th chuyn mt bc sng ng vo thnh mt s cc bc sng no ng ra. Mt mng m c cc b chuyn i bc sng u tt c cc node s c cht lng tt hn xt v kha cnh ti thiu ha xc sut nghn. Tuy nhin, iu ny kh thc hin trong thc t do yu t chi ph v ph

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thuc cc gii hn k thut. V vy thng mt mng ch c mt s node c trang b cc b WC y hoc gii hn. V vy vn la chn cc node thch hp c cc b WC tr nn ht sc quan trng. Cc k thut thit k b chuyn i bc sng c th c chia ra hai dng chuyn i bc sng quang-in v chuyn i bc sng ton quang. Di y s trnh by hai k thut ny. 2.5.1 Chuyn i bc sng O-E Trong phng php ny, tn hiu quang trc tin c chuyn thnh tn hiu in s dng mt b tch sng. Lung bit c lu tr trong b m . Sau tn hiu in c dng d li ng vo ca mt Tuable Laser to thnh mt bc sng mong mun ng ra. Phng php ny khng thch hp cho cc tc bt cao hn 10Gb/s. S tiu hao nhiu cng sut hn v cc th tc phc tp l mt s tr ngi c phng php ny khi so vi cc phng php khc. Tuy nhin qu trnh chuyn i O-E nh hng mt cch bt li n tnh trong sut. 2.5.2 Chuyn i bc sng ton quang Trong phng php ny tn hiu quang trong min quang trong sut qu trnh chuyn i. Ta c th chia phng php ny thnh cc loi sau: a) Chuyn i bc sng s dng hiu ng kt hp Cc phng php ny da vo hiu ng trn 4 bc sng. Trn bc sng pht sinh t hiu ng phi tuyn trong si quang khi c nhiu hn 2 bc sng cng truyn trn mt si quang. Kt qu l sinh ra mt bc sng khc m cng t l vi cng d cc sng tng tc. Trn bc sng duy tr thng tin v pha v bin , cung cp mt s trong sut nghim ngt. N cng l phng php duy nht cho php ng thi chuyn mt tp nhiu bc sng ng vo thnh mt tp cc bc sng ng ra v c th cung cp cc tn hiu vi tc bit vt qua 100Gb/s. Trong hnh 10, gi tr n=3 tng ng vi FWM v n=2 tng ng vi DFG. Cc k thut ny c m t di y:

Trn bn bc sng (FWM) : FWM c s dng trong cc si thy


tinh, n lm cho ba sng quang vi cc tn s f a , f b , v f c vi a#b,c tng tc vi nhau trong h thng ghp knh a bc sng to ra bc sng th t c tn s f abc = fa + fb fc . FWM c th thc hin c trong cc ng dn sng bn dn hoc trong mi trng tch cc nh b SOA. K thut ny cho php to ra sc lp dng iu ch v tc bit. Tuy nhin hiu sut chuyn i t nng lng bm vo thnh nng lng tn hiu khng cao lm.

Pht sinh tn s sai phn (DFG) : DFG l kt qu ca s tng tc


phi tuyn ca mt mi trng vi hai sng quang : mt sng bm v mt sng tn hiu. K thut ny cung cp mt phm vi trong sut hon ton m khng thm vo

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nhiu, nhng hiu sut thp v nhy vi s phn cc. Kh khn chnh trong vic thc hin k thut ny nm ch lm khp pha ca cc sng tng tc v ch to mt ng dn sng suy hao thp t c nng sut chuyn i cao.

Hnh 10. Chuyn i bc sng b) Chuyn i bc sng dng iu bin cho (XPM) K thut ny s dng cc thit b bn dn tch cc nh cc b khuchs i quang hc v laser bn dn.

B khuch i quang bn dn (SOA) ch XGM v XPM :


Nguyn tc s dng mt b khuch di ch iu ch cho li hay h s khuch i (XGM) nh sau : tn hiu ng vo iu ch li trong SOA. Mt tn hiu sng lin tc (CW) bc sng ng ra mong mun ( c ) c iu ch bng s thay i li cho n mang cng thng tin vi tn hiu ng vo ban u. Tn hiu CW c th c phng vo SOA cng hng hoc ngc hng vi tn hiu vo. XGM cho ra mt tn hiu c chuyn i bc sng o ngc li so vi tn hiu ng vo. Phng php XGM d dng thc hin, tuy nhin n gp tr ngi l so li ca lung bt c chuyn i. Hot ng ca b chuyn i bc sng s dng SOA trong mode iu ch xuyn pha XPM da vo s ph thuc ca ch s khc x ca SOA vo mt sng mang trong vng tch cc. Mt tn hiu i vo siu ch ch s khc x v kt qu liu ch pha ca tn hiu CW c php chuyn i. Vi XPM, tn hiu ng ra c chuyn i c th bo cng c th khng. XPM mang li hiu qu cao hn so vi XGM.

Laser bn dn: S dng laser bn dn n mode, cng laser c


iu ch bi nh sng tn hiu ng vo thng qua s bo ha. Tn hiu ng ra thu c bo so vi tn hiu ng vo.

2.6 B khuch i quang


Trong qu trnh truyn cng tn hiu quang b suy hao do cc hin tng vt l trong si quang gy nn. Ngoi ra cc thnh phn quang khc, nh cc b ghp ni, mi hn cng gy ra suy hao. Sau mt khong cch nht, suy hao tch ly lm cho tn hiu b yu dn n mc di nhy ca b thu quang. Do c th truyn c tn hiu quang i xa, ngoi vic tng cng sut pht ban

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u, ta phi dng cc b lp ti sinh hoc b khuch i quang sau mt khong cch truyn nht nh. Mt b lp ti sinh s phi thc hin bin i O/E/O, nn n s lm hn ch tnh trong sut i vi c tnh tn hiu truyn, ng thi tng chi ph bo tr. K thut khuch i quang mang li nhiu thun li hn cc b lp. B khuch i quang khng ph thuc vo tc bit v cc nh dng tn hiu. Mt h thng s dng khuch i quang c th d dng nng cp hn, v d nh n mt tc bit cao hn m khng cn phi thay th cc b khuch i. Hn na, cc b khuch i quang c mt bng thng kh rng nn c th c dng khuch i ng thi nhiu tn hiu WDM. Nu khng vi mi bc sng ta phi c mt b lp. iu ny cho thy cc b khuch i quang tht s cn thit cho cc h thng ghp knh theo bc sng. y ta s xem xt hang loi khuch i quang c bn: EDFA ( EribiumDoped Fiber Amplifiers) v SOA (Sermiconductor Optical Amplifiers) B khuch i EDFA B khuch i quang EDFA hot ng trong di t 1530nm n 1560nm. Cu to EDFA gm mt on silica ma phn li c cy vo cc ion E3+ ca nguyn t Eribi. u cui si quang, mt laser pht i mt tn hiu (pumped signal) vo si quang. kt hp tn hiu gc t u vo vi tn hiu laser, ngi ta dng mt b ghp ph c t trc on cp. Thng thng s c mt b cch ly c dng trc ng vo hoc ng ra ca b khuych i ngn cn s phn x ngc tr li vo trong b khuch i.

Hnh 11. Cu to b khuch i EDFA Tn hiu bm kch thch cc nguyn t Er3+n mt mc nng lng cao hn. S chuyn dch mc nng lng ca in t t cao xung thp s pht ra mt photon, c goi l bc x t pht nu nh khng c bt c mt tc ng no khc chen vo, hoc bc x kch thch do s c mt ca cc photon cha nng lng bng nng lng dch chuyn. Thi gian sng ca cc in t mc nng lng cao vo khong 10-9s m bo cho cc ion E3+ i c khuch i tn hiu bng bc x kch thch. Khi tn hiu u vo c bm vo EDFA, n kch thch

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s pht x ca nh sng t cc ion trng thI kch thch, do vy khuch i cng sut tn hiu. Hu ht cc EDFA c bm bng laser vi bc sng 980nm hoc 1480nm. Bc sng 980nm cho hiu sut li khong10dB/mW, trong khi bc sng 1480nm cho hiu sut khong 5dB/mW. Mt hn ch ca khuch i quang l li ph khng ng u. li ph EDFA c v trong hnh 12 di y. Ngoi ra, cc b khuch i cng khuch i nhiu nh tn hiu, v vng tch cc ca b khuch i cng t ng pht ra cc photon v vng tch cc ca b khuch i cng t ng pht ra cc photon, lm hn ch hiu sut ca b khuch i.

Hnh 12. ng cong li khuch i theo bc sng Mt s phng php lm phng li ca EDFA c nghin cu nh s dng b lc quanh tn s 1530nm nn nh trong vng ny. Tuy nhin khi c nhiu b khuch i EDFA c ghp lin tng, mt nh khc xut hin quanh bc sng 1560nm, lc mt b lc tn s 1560nm c s dng. Mt phng php khc l hiu chnh cng sut pht u vo cho cng sut trn mi bc sng nhn c bn thu nh nhau. Cch ny c p dng trong mng vng Ring WDM.

B khuch i quang bn dn SOA


V c bn b khuch i SOA (Semiconductor Optical Amplifier) c cu to l mt ghp ni P-N (xem hnh 13). Lp gia c hnh thnh mi ni hot ng nh l mt vng tch cc. nh sng c khuch i do s pht x kch thch khi n lan truyn qua vng tch cc ny. i vi mt b khuch i, hai u

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cui ca vng tch cc c ph mt lp khng phn x loi b gn sng trong li ca b khuch i.

Hnh 13 S khi ca mt b khuch i bn dn Hai dng Laser bn dn c bn l Fabry-Perot Amplifier v TravellingWave Amplifier (TWA). S khc nhau c bn gia hai loi ny l tnh phn x ca hai gng u cui. Tnh phn x ca Fabry-Perot khong 30%, ca TWA khong 0.01%. Tnh phn x cao hn trong Fabry-Perot gy ra cng hng trong b khuch i lm cho di thng hp khong 5GHz. V vy TWA thch hp hn Fabry Perot dng cho cc mng WDM. Ngy nay cc b khuch i bn dn c tht c li 25dB vi mt bo ho l 10dBm, nhy phn cc l 1dB v phm vi bng thng 40nm. Mt thun li ca cc b khuch i bn dn l kh nng tch hp chng vo cc thnh phn khc.

2.7 Cu trc mng DWDM


Trong phn ny ta s i tm hiu cu trc tng qut ca mt mng WDM. Cu trc ca mng c m t trong hnh 14 gm cc thit b u cui (OLT), cc b ghp knh xen/tch quang (OADM) v cc b kt ni cho quang OXC lin kt vi nhau qua cc kt ni si quang. Hnh v khng ch ra cc b khuch i quang, c trin khai dc theo tuyn truyn dn nhm m bo cng sut quang ti u thu. Ngoi ra, trong cc OLT, OADM, OXC cng c th tch hp cc b khuch i quang bn trong b suy hao. y, OLT c trin khai rng ri, OADM c trin khai phm vi nh hn v OXC ch mi bt u c trin khai. Cu trc mng ny lin kt cc mng thuc cc loi khc nhau nh mng vng (Ring), mng mt li (mesh). Mt sc im ng ch ca kin trc ny:

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S dng li bc sng: Nhiu lightpath trong mng c th s dng


cng bc sng khi chng khng trng nhau trn bt c tuyn no. Kh nng s dng li ny cho php mng h tr mt s ln cc lightpath s dng mt s gii hn cc bc sng.

Chuyn i bc sng: Lightpath c th tri qua nhiu chuyn i


bc sng dc theo l trnh (route) ca n. Chuyn i bc sng c th ci thin hiu qu s dng cc bc sng trong mng. Chuyn i bc sng cng cng cn thit nhng phn gip danh mng ngoi nhm a cc tn hiu t cc ngun bn ngoi vo bc sng ph hp s dng bn trong mng.

Tnh trong sut: Ngha l cc lightpath c th mang d liu vi cc


tc bit, nh dng khc nhau.

Mang tnh chuyn mch knh: Cc lightpath c cung cp lp


quang c th c thit lp v kt thc theo yu cu. iu ny ging nh vic thit lp v gii phng cc knh trong mng chuyn mch knh.

Kh nng d phng: Mng c th c cu hnh sao cho trong trng hp bt mt lightpath no , cc ligthpath c th c nh tuyn li bng cc ng thay th mt cch t ng .

Hnh 14. Cu trc mng nh tuyn bc sng DWDM

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2.7.1 Thit b u cui OLT


Thit b u cui l phn t mng tng i n gin xt v mt cu trc. Chng c dng u cui ca mt lin kt im-im ghp v phn knh cc bc sng. Hnh 15 m t ba phn t chc nng bn trong mt OLT gm: b tip sng (transponder), b ghp knh bc sng (Wavelength Multiplexer) v mt b khuch i quang khng c v ra trn hnh. B tip sng c chc nng bin i tn hiu i vo t ngi s dng sang mt tn hiu ph hp s dng trong mng v tng t theo chiu ngc li. Giao din gia ngi s dng v b tip sng c th thay i ph thuc vo ngi s dng, tc bit v khong cch hoc suy hao gia ngi dng v b chuyn tip. Giao din ph bin nht l SONET/SDH.

Hnh 15. Cu trc mt thit b u cui OLT Tn hiu c th cn c chuyn sang mt bc sng thch hp trong mng quang. Cc bc sng to ra bi b tip sng tun theo cc tiu chun ca ITU trong ca s 1.55micromet, trong khi tn hiu n c th l tn hiu 1,3micromet. B tip sng c th thm vo phn vo u (overhead) nhm mc ch qun l mng. N cng c th thm thng tin sa li FEC, c bit cho cc tn hiu 10Gbps v cc tc cao hn. Trong mt s trng hp, vic lm thch nghi ch cho hng i vo v bc sng ITU hng ngc li c gi trc tip n thit b ngi s dng. Trong mt s trng hp khc, ta c th trnh s dng b tip sng bng cch thc hin chc nng thch nghi bn trong thit b ngi s dng nh phn t mng SONET c ch ra trong hnh 15. Tn hiu ra khi b tip sng c ghp knh vi cc tn hiu khc cc bc sng khc nhau s dng b ghp knh theo bc sng pht ra trn mt si quang. Thm vo , c th phi s dng b khuch i quang y cng sut tn hiu ln trc khi chng c gi n b phn knh, ri truyn ti b tip sng hoc trc tip n thit b ngi s dng.

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OLT cng l u cui ca mt knh gim st quang OSC. OSC c mang trn mt bc sng ring, tch bit vi cc bc sng mang lu lng. N dng gim st vic thc hin ca cc b khuch i dc theo tuyn, v mt s chc nng qun l khc.

2.7.2 B ghp/xem OADM


OADM (Optical Add-Drop Multiplexer) l thit bc s dng trong cc h thng WDM ghp v nh tuyn cc knh quang vo i vo/ra mt si quang n mode (SMF). y l loi node quang thng hay c dng xy dng mng quang cu trc mch vng. y Add v Drop ch ra kh nng a thm mt hay nhiu knh bc sng mi vo tn hiu WDM a bc sng ang c v /hoc tch (rt) mt hay nhiu knh bc sng, ri nh tuyn sang mt tuyn khc ca mng (xem hnh 16). Mt thit b OADM c th coi nh lm mt loi chuyn mch quang (Optical Cross-connect) c bit.

Hnh 16. Cu to ca mt b OADM s dng FBG v hai b Circulator Cu trc in hnh ca mt OADM gm 3 khi: Khi tch knh quang (Optical Demux), khi ghp knh quang (Optical Mux), gia l khi chuyn mch quang (optical switch). Tt c cc lightpath i trc tip qua OADM gi l cut-through ligthpath., trong khi nhng lightpath c xen/rt ti node OADM gi l added/dropped lightpath. Mt OADM c cc chuyn mch quang c th cu hnh li t xa c gi l ROADM (Reconfigurabel OADM). V mt vt l, c mt s cch thc hin OADM. C rt nhiu cng ngh tch/ghp knh nh: dng b lc, FBG (Fiber Bragg Gratings) vi cc b Circulator quang, Cng c rt nhiu cc cng ngh chuyn mch hay cu hnh li: Fiber Patch Panel, cng ngh MEMS, cc chuyn mch quang nhit v tinh th lng trong cc mch dn sng phng. Mc du c chc nng xen/rt, nhng OADM li khc vi cc b ADM (Add-Drop Multiplexer) v dng tn hiu lm vic. OADM xen/rt cc knh

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quang trong mng WDM, trong khi ADM xen/rt cc lung TDM tn hiu in trong mng SONET/SDH. B xen/tch quang cung cp mt phng tin iu khin lu lng hiu qu trong mng. OADM c th dng ti nhng v tr khuch i trong cc mng ng trc, nhng cng c th s dng nh nhng phn t mng c lp. hiu c cc li ch ca b xen/tch quang, ta xt mt mng gia ba node A,B, v C vi cc bnh tuyn IP t mi node nh trong hnh 17. Da vo cu trc mng, lu lng gia A v C i xuyn qua node B. n gin ta gi thuyt cc tuyn kt ni hon ton song cng ging nh hu ht cc mng quang hin nay.

Hnh 17. Vai tr ca OADM trong mng 3 node Gi s yu cn lu lng nh sau: mt bc sng gia A v B, mt bc sng gia B v C, v ba bc sng gia A v C. By gi ta xy dng h thng WDM im ni im p ng nhu cu lu lng ny. Trong gii php a ra trong hnh 17.a, mi lin kt im im s dng mt OLT cui tuyn. OLT gm cc b Mux/demux, cc b tip sng. Ch ph b tip sng l mt phn quan trng trong chi ph chung ca mng. Node B c hai OLT, mi OLT kt thc bn bc sng v v vy yu cu bn b tip sng. Tuy nhin, ch c mt trong bn bc sng ny l dnh cho node B, cc bc sng cn li c s dng cung cp lu lng gia A v C. V th sau trong tm b tip sng node B dng iu khin lu lng. y l vic lm tn km. Xt gii php dng OADM trong hnh 17.b. Thay v thc hin cc h thng WDM im ni im, ta trin khai mt mng nh tuyn bc sng. Mng s dng mt OLT node A v C v mt OADM node B. OADM tch mt trong bn bc sng, sau kt thc trong cc transponder. Ba bc sng cn li i xuyn qua trong min quang s dng cc k thut lc tng i n gin, m khngphI kt thc trong cc transponder. Kt qu l ch chai transponder cn

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thit node B thay v tm transponder nh gii php 17.a. iu ny cho thy OADM s gim bt chi ph ng k.

Hnh 18. Cc loi ROADM trong mng ton quang c th cu hnh li Tuy nhin cc OADM hin ti kh cng nhc do n khng c kh nng thay i la chn cc knh c tch vi xuyn qua bng phn mm iu khin khi ang hot ng. Vi ROADM (Reconfigurable OADM) s dng cc b lc v laser hiu chnh p ng c yu cu v tnh mm do ca cu hnh h thng. Cc mng ton quang cu hnh li c c b khung chnh l cc node ROADM (xem hnh 18 trn). Hin nay c 4 loi ROADM chnh gm ROADM loi I/II, WSS (Wavelength Selective Switches), v OXC (Optical Cross-Connects). Bng 1tng hp cc c im quan trng ca cc loi ROADM ny

Loi ROADM

S lng knh Add/Drop

Nhiu bc sng trn mt cng Khng

Cc cng ngh thnh phn

ROADM loi I

Wavelength Blocker (LCD

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(Fixed Ports)

or MEMS) +Fixed Filters (TFF) Demux + Small Switch Array + Mux (PLC)

ROADM loi II (Any to any port)

Khng

Wavelength Blocker( LCD or MEMS)+Tunalbe Filters/Lasers Demux+Small Switch Array+Mux+MxN Switches (PLC)

WSS (Any multiple s to any port OXC (Any multiple s from any port to any port)

M-1 (1xM WSS) N/A (Mesh connectivity only)

1xN Wavelength Selective Switch (LCD or LCoS or MEMS) NxN Matrix Switch (PLC) NxN Wavelength Selective Switch (LCD or LCoS or MEMS)

Bng 1. So snh cc loi ROADM

2.7.3 B kt ni cho quang OXC


OADM l phn t mng hu ch iu khin cc cu trc mng n gin nh cu trc tuyn tnh hoc cu trc vng Ring vi s bc sng t. Vi mng c cu trc mt li phc tp hn v s bc sng s dng nhiu hn, ngi ta phi s dng mt phn t khc l b kt ni cho OXC. OXC l thit b dng chuyn mch cc tn hiu quang tc cao trong mng si quang. C th coi OADM l mt trng hp c bit ca OXC. OXC c t v tr trung tm, iu khin lu lng ln. Mt OXC cng l phn t mng chnh cho php cu hnh li cc mng quang, cc lightpath c thit lp v gii phng theo yu cu, ch khng c cung cp mt cch c nh. C mt s cch thc hin mt OXC. Loi th nht thc hin OXC trn min in t. Sau khi c tch knh qua b Demux, tt c cc tn hiu quang u

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vo c chuyn i sang tn hiu in. Cc tn hiu in ny sau c chuyn mch bi mt module chuyn mch in t. Cui cng cc tn hiu in chuyn mch c chuyn i tr li tn hiu quang bng cch s dng chng iu ch cc b laser v sau cc tn hiu quang thu c sc ghp knh vi nhau trc khi a vo si quang truyn i. Loi cu trc ny gi l OXC cu trc OEO. Cc cross-connects da trn mt qu trnh chuyn mch OEO c hn ch l chuyn mch in t s hn ch bng thng cc i ca tn hiu. Tuy nhin, ta li d gim st cht lng tn hiu trong thit b OEO, v tt c cc tn hiu c chuyn i sang tn hiu in ti nodechuyn mch. Mt u im na l cc tn hiu quang c ti to li, nn khng gy ra tn sc hay suy hao khi tn hiu quang i qua node chuyn mch. Mt OXC in tc gi lopaque OXC. Cch th hai thc hin OXC l chuyn mch cc tn hiu quang trong thit b ton quang. Loi OXC ny c gi l Transparent OXC hay Photonic Cross-Connect (PXC). C th l, qua khi tch knh quang (Optical Demux)tn hiu quang c tch thnh cc knh bc sng, ri c a n khi chuyn mch quang(Optical Switch). Sau chuyn mch, cc knh quang ny c ghp knh, ri pht vo si quang bng cc b ghp knh quang (Optical Mux). Loi cu trc OXC ny s gi nguyn c cc c im v tc bit v trong sut vi giao thc lp trn. Tuy nhin do cc tn hiu ny c duy tr dng quang, nn kh gim st cht lng tn hiu quang. Mt loi OXC th ba kt hp c hai loi trn, gi l translucent OXC. Trong cu trc ny, c mt tng chuyn mch bao gm mt khi chuyn mch quang v mt khi chuyn mch in. Cc tn hiu quang i qua tng chuyn mch c th c chuyn mch bng khi chuyn mch quang hoc khi chuyn mch in. Trong hu ht cc trng hp, khi chuyn mch quang hay c s dng hn do tnh trong sut ca n. Khi tt c cc giao din ca khi chuyn mch quang u bn, hoc do tn hiu quang cn c ti to thng qua qu trnh chuyn i O/E/O th khi chuyn mch in c s dng. Nh vy node Translucent OXC c kh nng kt hp c hai u im l trong sut vi tn hiu quang v kh nng ti to, gim st cht lng tn hiu quang OXC lm vic trc tip vi cc phn t mng SONET/SDH cng nh cc b IP Router v cc chuyn mch ATM, cc thit b u cui WDM v cc b OADM nh ch ra trong hnh 19. Mt s ngi coi OXC nh l mt b chuyn mch kt ni cho vi cc thit b u cui OLT xung quanh. Ta c th xy dung mng s dng cc thit b OXC v OLT t cc nh sn xut khc nhau. OXC cung cp nhiu chc nng nh sau:

Cung cp dch v: Mt OXC s cung cp cc lightpath cn gi l dch v, trong mt mng ln mt cch t ng m khng phi bng tay. Kh nng ny tr nn quan trng khi gii quyt s bc sng ln hn trong mt node hoc vi s node trong mng ln. N cng kh quan trng khi cc lightpath trong mng

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cn c cu hnh li p ng vi s thay i lu lng. Cc OXC c th cu hnh t xa m nhn chc nng ny.

Hnh 19. Kt ni OXC vi cc phn t khc

Bo v lightpath: Bo v lightpath khi si bt v khi thit b gp s c trong mng l nhng chc nng quan trng nht c mong i t b kt ni cho. B kt ni cho l mt phn t mng thng minh. N c th pht hin ra s c trong mng v nhanh chng nh tuyn li cc lightpath. Cc b kt ni cho cho php nng cao hiu qu s dng bng thngcho cc mng mesh.
tc bit v cc nh dng khung ty l mt thuc tnh mong mun ca cc OXC.

Trong sut i vi tc bit: Kh nng chuyn mch cc tn hiu vi

Thc hin chuyn i bc sng: Ngoi vic chuyn mch mt tn hiu t cng ny sang cng khc, OXC cng c th kt hp thm kh nng chuyn i bc sng bn trong.
Thc hin ghp knh WDM

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Hnh 20. Mt s cu trc OXC c trin khai Hnh 20 l mt s cu trc ca OXC c trin khai trong thc t. Hnh 20.a m t mt OXC gm mt li chuyn mch in bao quanh bi cc b chuyn i quang-in (O/E). OXC hot ng vi cc OLT thng qua cc giao din quang phi WDM, tiu biu 1310nm. OLT c cc b tip sng chuyn tn hiu ny bc sng WDM thch hp, hoc t OXC c th c cc laser bc sng ring bit hot ng vi cc OLT m khng cn nhng b tip sng gia chng. Hnh 20b,d m t cc OXC vi mt li chuyn mch quang. S khc nhau chnh nm ch cc OXC lm vic vi nhng thit b WDM. Lu rng cc cu hnh 20a,b v c u c chuyn i bc sng v ti sinh tn hiu trong bn thn OXC hoc s dng cc b tip sng gn vo cc OLT. kh nng phc hi tn hiu, v chuyn i bc sng, cu hnh hnh 20.d c b sung thm vo b kt ni cho li in t nh trong hnh 21. Cu hnh ny cho php hu ht cc tn hiu c chuyn mch trong min quang, ti thiu chi ph v ti a dung lng mng, trong khi cho php ta nh tuyn cc tn hiu xung lp in khi cn thit.

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Hnh 21. Node mng kt ni chuyn mch quang v chuyn mch in Trong hnh 22, tn hiu vo trong cc i si quang khc nhau trc tin c phn knh bi cc OLT. Tt c cc tn hiu cng mt bc sng cho trc c gi n mt b chuyn mch dnh cho bc sng , v cc tn hiu t cc ng ra ca cc chuyn mch c ghp li vi nhau bng cc OLT. Trong mt node vi F i si WDM v W bc sng trn mi cp si, s xp t ny s dng F b OLT v W b chuyn mch 2Fx2F. iu ny cho php bt k tn hiu trn bt k bc sng no c rt cc b. Ngc li cu hnh hnh 16 s dng F b OLT v mt b chuyn mch 2WFx2WF cung cp cng dung lng. V d xt F=4 v W=32 l nhng gi tr thc t hin ang dng. Trong trng hp ny cu hnh hnh 22 s dng 4 b OLT v 32 b chuyn mch 8x8. Ngc li cu hnh 20.b cn 4 b OLT v mt chuyn mch 256x256. Nh bit, cc b chuyn mch quang cng ln th cng kh ch to hn so vi nhng chuyn mch nh.

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Hnh 22. Cu trc OXC ci tin Do vy s dng cu hnh 22 mng li s la chn vi chi ph thp hn cho cc b chuyn mch quang khng nghn kch thc ln hn. Tuy nhin, ta khng xem xt lm th no ti u s b kt cui xen/rt (l cc transponder hoc cc giao din O/E). C hai hnh 21 v 22 u gi thit c cc cng kt thc tt c WF tn hiu. Hu nhy l trng hp him khi no xy ra, v ch mt phn lu lng s cn c ly xung v cc thit b kt cui tht tin. Nu thc s cn WF kt thc trn mt chuyn mch in, th gii php tt nht l s dng cu hnh li in trong hnh 20.a. Nu ta c tng cng T thit b u cui, tt cu c cc laser chnh c bc sng v ta mun rt bt c tn hiu no trong s WF tn hiu, iu ny yu cu mt chuyn mch quang TxWF thm vo gia nhng b chuyn mch v cc thit b kt cui nh trong hnh 23. Ngc li, vi mt b chuyn mch khng nghn kch thc ln, ta chn gin kt ni T thit b kt cui n T cng ca b chuyn mch ny, to ra mt chuyn mch (WF+T)x(WF+T).

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Hnh 23. Cu trc OXC mi nht Tm li s dng m hnh 22 ta cn phi tnh lun s si, phn lu lng c xen/rt, s b kt cui v cc kh nng iu chnh cng nh cc thng s ring bit trong thit k. Hin nay cc OXC c li chuyn mch in vi ton b dung lng ln n mt vi Tb.s, c kh nng phn lung xung ti lung STS-1 (51Mbps) c mt trn th trng. Cc OXC vi trung tm chuyn mch quang vi hn 1000 cng cng ang ni ln nh cc sn phm thng mi.

3. Mt s cng ngh quan trng trong mng AON


3.1 Cng ngh knh quang
3.1.1 Knh quang Dung lng truyn dn im-im tng ln hn hai ln trong vng mt thp k qua nh vic s dng truyn dn si quang, vi h thng c tc 10Gb/s ang c xy dng. Tuy nhin, cc h thng SDH, ATM, v h thng IP gp phi mt cn tr khi mun tng tc truyn dn ln 10Gbps, chnh l s hn ch tc ca thit b chuyn mch in t ti cc node. Cng nghng dn quang (Optical path) l bc ngot ph b s hn ch ny. Cc ng dn quang c tch bit bng cc bc sng khc nhau. S ra i ca n to ra bc nhy vt v c dung lng truyn dn v tc chuyn mch (Cross-connect

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throughput) bng vic khai thc cc cng ngh WDM vnh tuyn bc sng (Wavelength routing).

Bng 2. Cc cng ngh knh ghp knh bng 2 mt s cng ngh ghp knh v to ng dn khc nhau c so snh v cch nhn bit path v c ch nh tuyn. Cc path lp 2 c nhn ra nh nhn/mo u (Label/header)gn vo gi/t bo(packet/cell). Cc ng dn s ca SDH v PDH lp 1 c xc nh bng v tr khe thi gian trong khung TDM. Trong WDM, cc bc sng c s dng phn bit cc path vi nhau. nh tuyn bc sng c cc c im quan trng sau: nh tuyn bng phn cng cho php thng lng ca node nh tuyn rt ln. nh tuyn da trn c ch Store and Forward rt kh, do thiu b nh. nh tuyn bc sng cho php ti mt thi im nh tuyn c nhiu tn hiu cnh dng khc nhau trn cng mt si quang. Mt mnh ca cng ngh WDM v nh tuyn theo bc sng l cho php xy dng c cc h thng truyn dn quang c kch thc nh, tiu th cng sut thp, v c thng lng cc ln. Tuy nhin s lng path trn mt si quang b hn ch khong nh hn 1000, dung lng ca mt path khong hn vi trm Mb/s. V vy ng dn quang c ng dng nhiu nht l tng dung lng ng trans access gia cc node nh m t hnh 19. Cc ng dn in (Electric Path), nh cc ng dn s, VP, LSP, sc s dng lm ng dn

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truy nhp dch v cung cp cc dch v c th v thc hin k thut lu lng cn thit. Hin ti cc ng dn quang khng nhng s thay th tt c cc ng dn in, m cn b sung cho chng v d di dng cc ng dn transacces. Theo , cc mng ng dn quang s dn dn thay th cc mng da trn ng dn in. Tm li, cng nghng dn quang mng li li ch v cng to ln cho mng truyn dn ni chung, c th l: ng dng cng ngh WDM nng cao dung lng truyn dn nh tuyn bc sng nng cao thng lng ca node chuyn mch Kh nng truyn dn linh hot Kh nng bo v/phc hi mng hiu qu Dung lng ng dn >1Gb/s, v s lng ng dn trn mt si quang <1000

Hnh 24. ng dng ca ng dn quang Nng cao thng lng chuyn mch Trong khi cng ngh WDM lm tng dung lng truyn dn, nng cao hiu qu s dng bng thng si quang, thnh tuyn bc sng (Wavelength routing) li m rng thng lng ca node chuyn mch. Thng lng ca mt h thng chuyn mch ng dn quang ln hn h thng chuyn mch TDM rt nhiu, ng thi phn cng thc hin cng n gin mc d lu lng cn chuyn qua rt ln. l bi vnh tuyn bc sng khng nhy vi dung lng ng dn ch cn cc thit b quang thng (Passive Optical Devices), khng cn ng b gia cc ng dn quang (cc knh WDM khng cn c ng b

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Tng thng lng mng vi c ch Cut-through quang Hnh 25 so snh cng ngh IPoWDM (IP over WDM) vi cc cng nghng dn quang (v d photonic MPLS ). Trong mng IPoWDM, truy nhp tuyn truyn dn si quang, tt c cc tn hiu WDM trong si quang phi c bin i thnh tn hiu in v kt thc mi node. Ton b bng thng tn hiu trn mi tuyn phi c nh tuyn (tng gi mt) da trn phn mo u ca gi ti mi node gi i qua. Trong mng IP, hu ht cc gi n gin chi qua node, v ch mt phn ca ton b dung lng si quang c kt cui ti mi node. Nu lu lng c nh tuyn khng s dng chuyn i O/E v khng thc hin x l tng gi mt ti node, th vic x l IP ti node ny c gim thiu v thng lng tng cng ca node tng ln rt ln. iu ny c th thc hin bng vic s dng cc ng dn quang vnh tuyn bc sng.

Hnh 25. IP over WDM nh tuyn ng dn quang c th c thc hin t cc linh kin th ng. K thut ny s loi b tnh trng nghn lu lng hay thy cc node nh tuyn hin nay. y lu im ng ch khi dung lng tuyn tng cng rt ln do n gim thiu vic chuyn i lung bit tc cao t dng ni tip sang song song v x l tn hiu in. Nghn tht c chai do x l in c tho g nh vic a ra s dng cc ng dn quang. Gim chi ph xy dng mng Chi ph mng c th gim nh vic s dng cc ng dn quang (IP over Photonic) trong cc mng c thng lng ln. Hnh 26 l mt v dtnh ton chi ph mng. Gi thit cc giao din IP router c tc d 2.5Gb/s, v tc truyn dn ca mt si quang 20Gb/s (ghp WDM 8 bc sng). Ch c chi ph node lc

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tnh do chi ph truyn dn khng quan trng trong tng chi ph mng nhu im ca truyn dn WDM. R rng l s dng chuyn mch PTS s gim chi ph node tng cng so vi phng php nh tuyn IP x l tn hiu in (All-Electronic IP router) cn gi l IPoWDM. Khi s node trung gian tng ln, nhng li ch chi ph ny cng tr ln quan trng hn. L do l bi vnh tuyn cc ng dn quang dung lng ln s gim chi ph cc node trung gian.

Hnh 26. Gim chi ph vi h thng XC ng dn quang D dng m rng thng lng h thng chuyn mch quang Cc ng dn quang d b vi nhau, nn rt d thc hin ghp/tch cc ng dn quang tc cao do khng cn phi thc hin ng b bit. c tnh d b ny cho php chng ta thit k h thng chuyn mch vi kh nng tng thng lng (s bc sng trn mt si quang, s si quang, v tc ca knh) bng cch lp thm cc module vo h thng (xem hnh 27). Khi ta c th thay i h thng d dng nhm p ng mi yu cu vthng lng t ra. iu ny c bit c ngha kinh t khi u t xy dng mt h thng mi.

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Hnh 27. M rng dung lng h thng chuyn mch quang L nn tng h thng truyn dn i vi cc dch v IP, cc cng ngh khc nhau nh: IP overATM/ [SDH/SONET]/WDM hay IPover[SDH/SONET]/WDM ang c pht trin. Hnh 28 l v d mt m hnh phn lp, trong c mt s chc nng ca mi lp b lp li cc lp khc. Nh cc chc nng ghp knh, nh tuyn, v chc nng bo v/phc hi u c mt tt c cc lp. Khng ch tn ti lp li chc nng, m cn xy ra xung t v chc nng bo v/phc hi khi mng xy ra li gia cc lp.

Hnh 28. M hnh phn lp vi s lp li chc nng

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i vi mng quang WDM, ng dn quang c thit k c th h tr cc nh dng tn hiu in khc nhau. Nh ni trn, cc dng tn hiu in khc nhau c mang trn cc bc sng khc nhau trong mt si quang s dng gn bc sng. R rng, ng dn quang s cung cp mt h tng truyn dn truyn c nhiu dng tn hiu khc nhau, nhanh chng v d dng nng cp a ra cc dch v mi.

Hnh 29. So snh mng nh tuyn tn hiu in vi mng truyn dn quang Hnh 29 so snh cc mng nh tuyn cng nghin t vi mng truyn dn quang da trn cng nghng dn quang. C hai c im quan trng i vi mng truyn dn quang. Th nht l sn gin ho mng truyn dn li ( ch cn nh tuyn bc sng v do vy ch cn dng mt loi thit bnh tuyn OXC (Optical cross-connect)/OADM (Optical Add/Drop Multiplexer)), nh tuyn cho cc dng tn hiu in khc nhau trong lp quang. Th hai l vic tch cc chc nng lp li v lp bin. Lp li (core network) c nhiu node thng lng cao c kt ni bng cc tuyn c dung lng ln v tt cu c d phng, c kh nng bo v/phc hi. Cc node x l tn hiu in nm mng bin (edge network) kt ni trc tip vi nhau bng cc ng dn quang.

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3.1.2 ng dn bc sng v ng dn bc sng o Cc ng dn quang c tch bit vi nhau bng bc sng ca chng. C hai loi ng dn quang: WP (Wavelength Path) v VWP (Virtual Wavelength Path). i vi WP, mt ng dn quang c thit lp gia hai node bng cch phn b mt bc sng cho ng dn . Cc node trung gian dc theo WP thc hin nh tuyn WP theo bc sng ny. Cn i vi VWP, bc sng ca n c phn b trn tng tuyn (link). V vy bc sng ca mi VWP trn tuyn ch c ngha ni b thay v ton mng nh ca WP. iu ny ging nh nguyn tc gn VPI (Virtual Path Identifier) trong mng ATM. V l do ny, loi ny c gi l Virtual WP. Trong m hnh VWP s cn b chuyn i bc sng ti cc node chuyn mch.

Hnh 30. So snh WP v VWP Hnh 30 so snh hai loi ng dn quang ny. Yu cu l phi thit lp 4 WP, v 4 VWP trn cc tuyn ging nhau. Kt qu l m hnh WP cn s dng 3 bc sng, VWP s dng ch 2 bc sng. Tc l m hnh VWP ti a mc ti s dng li bc sng trong mng cho php s dng t bc sng hn. Trong qu trnh sp xp to WP, bi ton gn bc sng v bi ton nh tuyn phi c gii quyt ng thi, mi WP c gn mt bc sng khc

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nhau trn mt si quang. Vi ti nguyn bit trc (s si quang v s bc sng trn mt si), node phi nh tuyn quang (Optical Path route) v gn bc sng, theo mt thut ton ti u (RWA).

3.2 Cng ngh chuyn mch knh quang


Cng ngh chuyn mch knh c s dng t lu trong cc h thng vin thng. Nhc im ca cng ngh ny l thi gian chuyn mch ln v hiu sut s dng ti nguyn thp. Vi s pht trin bng n lu lng IP, cng ngh chuyn mch knh dn b thay th bi cc cng ngh chuyn mch mi c tc chuyn mch cao: chuyn mch gi (ATM), chuyn mch nhn (MPLS). Trong khi truyn dn cp si quang dn khng nh c nhng u im vt tri ca n so vi cc loi truyn dn truyn thng. Trn mi trng truyn dn quang, ta c cc loi chuyn mch quang: Chuyn mch knh quang, Chuyn mch quang gi (Optical Packet Switching), Chuyn mch quang nhn (Optical Label Switching), v chuyn mch nhm quang ( Optical Burst Switching). Mng ng dn quang WDM cung cp cc chc nng: truyn dn, ghp knh, nh tuyn, gim st...vv, v x l trn nn quang. H thng chuyn mch ng dn quang (OPXC) ti mi node l thnh phn quan trng to nn backbone cho mng ng dn quang WDM. Mt h thng OPXC in hnh (xem hnh 26) gm b chuyn mch quang (OXC), b chuyn i bc sng (W/C), truyn dn WDM (WDM-T), v cc chc nng ghp/tch ti (PAD- Payload Assembler/Disassembler). Chc nng W/C cn c trong mng VWP nhng li khng cn trong mng WP. Giao din Node Mng (ONNI- Optical Network-Node Interface) c cung cp bi WDMT, v giao din User-Mng (OUNI- Optical User Network Interface) c thc hin bi PAD.

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Hnh 31. Cu hnh chc nng ca mt node OXPC H thng OPXC c thit k gm N cng si quang vo/ra, v c kh nng ghp WDM ti a M bc sng trn mt si quang. Trong N cng vo ra ny, u cng dng cho cc giao din ni i thng qua PAD vi cc thit bin t khc (chuyn mch in t). Khi OXC chuyn mch bt ku vo quang n u bt k cng si quang no. Chc nng OXC cng bao gm c chc nng xen/tch quang OADM (Optical Adds/Drops Multiplexing), dng xen/tch cc ng dn quang t/n PAD . Hu ht cc h thng mng Ring WDM ch thc hin cc chc nng OADM. Khi chc nng WDM-T m bo cht lng truyn dn WDM cht lng cao vi cc node OPXC ln cn. Cc chc nng 3R (Reshaping, Retiming, Regeneration) v gim st cht lng cng c th c tch hp trng khi WDM-T. ton b mng WDM c vn hnh, qun l, viu khin, th mi khi chc nng phi c chc nng gim st. Mng WDM c thit k c th khi phc khi nhn c cc thng tin li bo li t lp truyn dn.

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Hnh 32. S pht trin cng ngh iu khin ng dn quang Cc cng ngh iu khin (thit lp/khi phc/ngt) ng dn pht trin t iu khin tnh sang iu khin ng (xem hnh 32). H thng truyn dn quang im-im c xy dng vo khong nm 1990 l bc pht trin u tin ca mng quang WDM. Tip n l pht trin mng WDM vng, c chc nng OADM bc sng c nh s dng cc b lc quang. Vic pht trin cc b chuyn mch quang kch c nh m u cho kh nng iu khin linh hot bc sng gn trong OADM. Cc th h tip theo ca h thng WDM gn lin vi s ra i ln lt ca cc h thng ti node mng: OXPC, Photonic MPLS Router, Next-generation Photonic MPLS Router. Photonic MPLS Router gm hai phn OPXC v IP Router , iu khin mi ng dn quang theo lu lng IP. OPXC nhn cc lnh iu khin thit lp/gii phng/ khi phc ng dn quang t IP router. Phn sau y gii thiu cc cu trc khc nhau ca OPXC c kh nng h tr cc h thng mng WDM vng v mng mesh-like m vic vn hnh chng da trn m hnh client/server hoc peer -to-peer.

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3.2.1 Cu trc chuyn mch WP

Hnh 33. Cu trc h thng chuyn mch WP Cu trc h thng node OPXC loi WP c cho l n gin v chi ph hiu qu so vi loi VWP, mc d bi ton gn bc sng phi c gii quyt xong trc khi cu hnh mng. Loi h thng ny ph hp cho cc mng WDM vi yu cu lu lng gn nh c nh (tnh). Hai dng cu trc chnh ca h thng thuc loi ny c cho trn hnh 33. Trong c hai cu trc u yu cu cn c M b chuyn mch ma trn NxN. Mi module chuyn mch tng ng vi mt bc sng v thc hin chuyn mch WP ca mt trong N si quang u vo ti WP ca mt trong N si quang u ra. S khc nhau gia hnh 33.a v 33.b l vic s b lc iu chnh c (tunable filter) v b ghp ni quang (optical coupler) thay v s dng cc b Mux v Demux nh trn hnh 33.b. Khi tunalbe filter c s dng thay cho fixed-wavelength filer trc phn chuyn mch ma trn NxN. Nh hnh 33.b, cng mt bc sng trn cc si quang u vo khc nhau, c th kt thc node. Khng c b pht c v trong hnh 33 ngha l h thng chuyn mch WP ny l mt h thng trong sut (transparent system). 3.2.2 Cu trc h thng chuyn mch WP/VWP Mt s cu trc c th p dng cho c hai loi h thng chuyn mch WP v VWP. Hnh 34.a m t cu trc c s dng cc b chuyn mch ghp ni v phn phi (DC-SWs). Hnh 34.b l cu trc MxN DC-SW (ch rng khi chc nng PAD khng c v). Cu trc ny cho php kt ni bt k mt trong M si quang u vo vi mt trong N si quang u ra. Nu N=1 ta c b ghp quang Mx1. Vi cu hnh nh vy, cc ng dn quang u vo vu ra c ni vi nhau theo cch khng b nghn. O y h thng vn hnh phn t mng

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(NE-Network Element) phi m bo WP ca bt k si quang u vo no khng xy ra tranh chp vi WP u ra . Nu c chc nng chuyn i bc sng W/C th h thng d dng trnh c tranh chp v bc sng u ra nh trn. W/C s chuyn sang bt k bc sng no cn ri trn si quang u ra. Vi W/C khng ph thuc vo tc bit, th ta c h thng OPXC trong sut.

Hnh 34. Cu trc h thng chuyn mch WP/VWP Ta c th thc hin c h thng ny bng cch thay th mch chc nng W/C bng mt b pht WDM bc sng c nh. H thng ny c kh nng module ho cao, do vy vic trin khai h thng st chi ph hiu qu ph hp cho tng giai on pht trin. Cu trc h thng da trn chuyn mch song song c m t trn hnh 35. Cc tn hiu WDM trn mi si quang u vo c phn phi cho MxN cng vi hai tng ghp ni quang, v sau mi tn hiu c chn ra bi khi chuyn mch Nx1. Tip n, b tunable filter lc ra bc sng yu cu (mt ng dn quang) vc khi pht WDM chuyn i sang mt bc sng c nh no trc khi pht i. Kt hp chc nng ca tunalbe filter (hoc fixed filter) v optoelectronic 3R c th to thnh mt b chuyn i bc sng da trn m hnh la chn bc sng ti u vo. Cu trc ny h tr chuyn mch VWP s dng mch chuyn i bc sng W/C, cho php khng xy ra nghn .

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Hnh 35. Cu trc chuyn mch song song 3.2.3 Cu trc chuyn mch ma trn y Cu trc ca loi chuyn mch ma trn y (Full Matrix Cross-Connect Switch )gm mt khi chuyn mch quang (NxM) x (NxM) cng t gia cc b pht (transmitter). Nu khng c cc b pht, th h thng s tr thnh chuyn mch transparent WP. Hai cch c th dng thc hin khi chuyn mch quang (NxM) x (NxM) cng l: chuyn mch khng gian mt tng (A single-stage switch), v chuyn mch Clos ba tng do C.Clos a ra u tin (xem hnh 31). Khi chuyn mch Clos ba tng gm N chuyn mch MxL tng u vo, L chuyn mch NxN tng gia v N chuyn mch LxN tng u ra. Nu L>=2M-1 th s khng xy ra nghn. V d khi thit k mt h thng OPXC 16 cng si quang (N=16), vi s bc sng ghp knh trn mt si quang l M=32, th thng ly L=64 (>=63), v s lng cng trn ma trn chuyn mch l NxM=512. Khi chuyn mch quang (NxM)x(NxM) cho php chuyn mch cho (crossconnection) vi (NxM) b pht WDM, mi b pht c mt ngun sang bc sng c nh.

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Hnh 36. Cu trc chuyn mch ma trn y

3.3 Cng ngh chuyn mch gi quang.


a) Gii thiu cng ngh chuyn mch gi Cng ngh chuyn mch gi quang thuc cng ngh chuyn mch gi. Hnh 37 l S khi chc nng ca mt nt chuyn mch gi tng qut. Cu trc gm 2 phn: khi chuyn mch (Switching Fabric) v khi x lmo u (Header Processor). Gi sc chuyn t mt u vo sang mt hay nhiu u ra. Cu to gi u vo gm hai phn mo o (header) v ti (payload). Khi Nt nhn c gi, n s tch ly phn mo u v chuyn thng tin mo u ny xung khi x l mo u xc nh u ra cho gi. B x l mo u s thit lp khi chuyn mch khng gian chuyn phn payload n ng u ra mong mun. Khi hai hay nhiu payload cng c hng ti mt u ra ti mt thi im, chng s c tm thi a vo b m . Khi x l mo u s ti to li mt mo u mi v gn n vo payload trc khi gi c a ra mt ng ra.

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Hnh 37. S khi chc nng ca mt nt chuyn mch gi

Nu ch xt v v tr t cc b m trong khi chuyn mch, ta c 3 loi cu trc chuyn mch nh hnh 33. M hnh th nht (xem hnh 33a), tranh chp c gii quyt ngay ti u vo. Mi cng u vo c trang b mt b m lu cc gi n theo c ch FIFO. Di c ch ty s iu khin b m pht gi vo phn chuyn mch (Switching media). Nhc im ca m hnh ny l c tr ln. Gi s cng u vo A v B u c gi mun c chuyn n cng mt cng ra X. Theo mt c ch pht gi no , ch cho php cng A c pht gi n cng X, trong khi cng B s b chn. Nh vy cng B khng th gi gi tip theo mc d cng u ra ca gi ny ang ri. Loi nghn ny gi l nghn u dng (Head of Line Blocking). Loi nghn HOL ny nh hng n thng lng ca phn chuyn mch. Rt nhiu cc thut m v pht gi c nghin cu hn ch nh hng ca loi nghn ny.

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Hnh 38. Cc loi chuyn mch khng gian M hnh chuyn mch th hai cho hnh 38b c b m c thit k t u ra. Trong m hnh ny phn chuyn mch c th truyn ng thi nhiu gi n t cc ng vo khc nhau ti cng mt ng ra. Mi ng ra c t mt b m trnh tranh chp u ra. B m c th nhn v lu tr tm thi nhiu gi ti cng mt thi im, sau pht gi ti ng ra ca n tng gi mt theo kiu FIFO. M hnh ny th n gin nhng cn b m v phn chuyn mch c tc cao hn nhiu. C th l n khng cn b m phc tp v mt thut pht trnh nghn HOL. Nhng n li yu cu b m phi c kh nng cha gi nhanh gp N ln s vi tc pht ng vo khi phn chuyn mch c N cng vo. M hnh chuyn mch th 3 (hnh 38c) c b m c dng chung cho tt c cc ng vo v ng ra. Mi ng vo lu tt c cc gi b m trung tm, v mi ng ra truy cp b m ny theo kiu FIFO. M hnh ny c hiu sut s dng b nh tt hn hai m hnh trn, tuy nhin vic qun l b nh ca b m trung tm phc tp hn rt nhiu. b) Cng ngh chuyn mch gi quang (Optical Packet-Switching) Nh gii thiu trn, xt v v tr b m ta c 3 loi m hnh chuyn mch gi. Trong nt chuyn mch gi quang, cc b m thng c thc hin bng cc dy tr si quang do b nh truy nhp ngu nhin vn cha c trong thc t. Do cu trc chuyn mch cn qun l b nh phc tp nh l loi chuyn mch th 3, khng ph hp cho chuyn mch gi quang. Trong phn ny ch cp n hai m hnh chuyn mch th nht v th hai c thc hin cho chuyn mch gi quang. Vi gi thit tt c cc gi c chiu di cinh, vic s dng dy tr si quang l ht sc thun li. Hnh 39 l mt v d v cu trc chuyn mch gi quang ma trn 3x3 v 5 khe thi gian, c b m u vo. N gm 2 phn b m gi quang v chuyn

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mch khng gian quang. trnh tranh chp ti u ra ca b chuyn mch, cc b m bng dy tr si quang. Trong v d ny, ng vo 1 v 2 ng thi u c cc gi vo khe thi gian 0 vi cng ch n l ng ra C. B m gi lm tr gi u tin ca ng vo 2 ti khe thi gian th 2. Gi hin ang s hu khe thi gian th 2 phi c tr xung khe thi gian th 2 hoc tr hn. Cc khe thi gian th 3 v th 4 cng xung t vi gi ng vo 1. V vy, gi vn nm khe thi gian khe thi gian th 2 c tr xung khe thi gian th 5 v cc khe thi gian th nht, th ba v th t ng vo 2 u trng. Nhng khe trng ny chnh l nhn t lm gim thng lng ca chuyn mch gi quang. Cui cng khi chuyn mch khng gian chuyn tt cc cc gi ny ti cc ng ra m khng xy ra tranh chp.

Hnh 39. Mt v d v cu trc chuyn mch gi quang 3x3 Hnh 40 l v d v mt chuyn mch gi quang m u ra, gm mt bus qung b (broadcast bus), cc b m gi, v b la chn knh bc sng (Wavelength Channel Selector). Kin trc ny s dng m hnh ghp knh WDM s dng b m u ra. Mt knh bc sng c nh c gn cho mi ng vo, cc gi quang vo c ghp vi nhau theo cch ghp WDM vc phn phi t mi ng ra qua broadcast bus (b ghp quang- optical coupler ). Cc b m gi WDM c t mi ng ra. Nu mt gi WDM ghp hai hay nhiu gi c cng ch ng ra, b m gi lu v gi ti b chn knh WDM. B chn knh WDM lc ra gi mong mun trong cc gi ca gi WDM. Cu trc y ca mt nt chuyn mch gi quang gm 4 khi con c m t trn hnh 41. Giao din u vo gm mt khi lc header, lc ra thng tin mo u trn gi; khi ng b (synchronizer) thc hin nh thi li cc gi. Khi li chuyn mch truyn cc gi ti u ra ph hp. Giao din u ra thc hin gn header mi vo gi, v c th phi ti to li d liu vchuyn n sang

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mt bc sng khc. Khi iu khin thc hin qun l b m v thut ton trnh xung t.

Hnh 40. Mt v d v chuyn mch gi m u ra

Hnh 41. Cu trc chuyn mch gi quang y

4. Kt lun
4.1 ng dng ca mng ton quang
y c mt tim nng ng dng rng ln ca AONs trong thng mi, chnh ph, khoa hcTrong ngn hn, phn ln nhng ng dng c th c h tr bi cc mng in t hoc in quang. Tuy nhin, tp hp nhiu nhng dch v v gi c, tnh linh ng, v h tr minh bch bi AONs c th chng minh s vt tri vi cc mng in hoc in quang.

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Hnh 42. AON applications Phm vi ng dng c th chia lm 3 loi. Loi th nht bao gm ng dng s dng nhng dch v s truyn thng. Tc d liu ca ng dng ny trong phm vi t Kb/s ti Gb/s. H c th phn loi su hn na bng 4 loi nh bao gm nhng ng dng yu cu Gb/s, chuyn mch gi nhanh nh l ATM, s trc quan, m phng v nhng kt ni siu my tnh. ng dng th hai vt qu yu cu 100Mb/s d liu nh kt ni mng LAN, truyn hnh vi nt cao DHTV, s ha video thng thng, v nhng trm lien kt ni. Dng th 3 bao gm cc ng dng 10 Mb/s nh l cc mng m thanh s a knh v mng my tnh Ethernet, v 4 loi con c ng dng hn 1 Mb/s hoc nh hn nh l dch v thoi v RS 232. Loi th 2 bao gm nhng dch v analog. Th d nh, trong s phn tn nhng knh truyn hnh qung b a knh, nhiu knh c x l nh mt n v. K t khi tc c s ha tng ln, gi c r hn v n gin hn gi 1 nh dng analog. Dng th 3 bao gm nhng ng dng m cn thit 1 giao din quang. Nhng ng dng c th cn thit cho 1 tc truyn ti rt cao, mt nh dng tn hiu khng bit trc, hoc mong mun d dng nhng c tnh c o ca mng ton quang. Tin nng ng dng trong loi ny bao gm cc trm lm vic video trong tng lai, cc my ch c s d liu, v HDTV Mt s th nghim ban u khc nhau chng minh 1 s kt qu ng dng t cc loi trn. Th d nh ARPAtafi tr cho tp on AON, to nn AT&T, DEC v MIT LL, th nghim hi ngh truyn hnh, y hc t xa, kt ni siu my tnh, lp hc t xa v nhng ng dng khc.

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4.2 Nhng hn ch
AONs hng n s tin tin hn tnh kh dng h thng, kt ni v gi thnh bng cch cho php truyn thng tin m khng cn i qua b chuyn i quang in . Tuy nhin, nguyn l ca mng ton quang tng i mi v hin nay, mt s lng khng nh cc vn v thch thc mi ang gp phi. Mt vi vn v gii hn ca mng AONs s c bn tho di y Cc k thut ghp knh khc nhau nh l WDM v OTDM c xut chia s bng thng ln ca si quang. K thut OTDM c th s dng xy dng mng AON c kh dng rt cao. Khi so snh vi mng AON da trn WDM, th mng AON da trn OTDM vn cn giai on non tr, mi bt u bi v hu ht cc thit b cn rt t v chng thm ch vn b gii hn trong phng nghin cu thc nghim. Bi vy, Tnh kh thi trong tng lai gn dng nh s vn l mng da trn WDM hn l mng da trn OTDM . K thut Transparency s tr thnh mt trong cc thuc tnh chnh trong mng AONs. Tuy nhin, C rt nhiu dng transparency khc nhau, khng phi tt cc cc nhm tn nhiu quang u c th c truyn qua bt chp cc yu cu v tuyn tnh v nh dng iu ch. l cc nguyn do chnh dn ti cc hiu ng v s lan truyn nhiu siu m, b iu ch, cc thnh phn chn la bc sng v cc gii hn SNR. Nguyn l ca vic phn tng kin trc, chng nng lp transport l mang n nhiu tin tch, bao gm kh nng ca mi lp c th trin, pht trin c lp vi cc lp khc. Bi vy, cn phi m bo kh nng hot ng xuyn tng gia cc lp khc nhau, c bit l vi chc nng iu khin v qun l ca chng. Thch thc y gm 2 phn: th nht l cc c tnh lin vn hnh cho c phn cng v phn mm phi c xc nh. Th hai l 1 NMS cn c thit k v pht trin tch hp cc h thng qun l thnh phn c trng ca lp v c tnh vendor Vic iu khin v qun l mng trong AONs cng mang n nhiu thch thc mi. N bao gm nh l chc nng qun l mng khi li, qun l hiu sut v qun l cu hnh. Tiu chun ca cc chc nng qun l mng bn cht l t c kh nng hot ng qua nhiu h thng cung cp v nhiu min qun tr. Hin nay, c ITU-T v ANS T1X1.5 u ang lm vic v cc tiu chun ca cc chc nng ny. Bo mt cng l 1 kha cnh quan trng ca AONs v yu cu c bit lin quan n 1 lng ln d liu c th b li hoc b h hi trong trng hp b tn cng bt ng . Kha cnh ny cha c nh gi mt cch y . Nhiu tin ch cng c ngha l pht hin ra nhiu kh nng c th tn cng bao gm tn cng ph hoi ri rc, tn cng a im, v tn cng h thng iu khin, cc tn cng giao thc l iu cn thit.

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4.3 Kt lun v khuyn ngh


Cc mng truyn thng hin nay bao gm, hu ht cc phn l tp hp ca cc b chuyn mch in lin kt cc kt ni si quang im-im cho khong ngn, vng th cng nh khong cch xa. Qua vi nm gn y, dn n yu cu v vic cn c thay th, thay i mng c th cung cp bng thng cao hn, tc cao hn v kh nng mm do cao hn. t c nhng yu cu trn, th cc mng hin ti cn c nng cao bng cch thm nhiu si quang v nhiu chuyn mch hoc nng cp chuyn mch. 1 gii hn chnh ca cc mng l hin tng nghn c chai min in ( electronic bottleneck ) bao gm 2 yu t. Th nht l tt c cc thng tin c vn chuyn trn si quang phi c x l ti phn to tc d liu in m tng thch vi thit b chuyn mch in theo trnh t vi Gbps, v th 2 l cc thng tin truyn qua b chuyn i quang in gy ra hao ph , tr thi gian. S l tn hiu in, v cc b chuyn i quang in d liu ti tt c cc node mng trung gian. AONs c th truyn thng tin vi tc rt cao m khng cn qua b chuyn i quang in. Trong tng lai, Aons s mang n kh dng bng thng rt ln ca si quang v nng cao hiu qu s dng n t c yu cu tng cao bng thng. WDM, OTDM hoc OCDM s c s dng ph bin nng cao hiu qu s dng bng thng si quang. OTDM v OCDM cha thc s hon ho khi so snh vi WDM v cc ng dng ca chng hin nay vn ch gii hn mt vi thc nghim. Ph thuc vo cc c tnh chc nng ca chng, c 3 loi AONs l passive, transparent v ultra-fast. Passive v transparent AONs c th dng WDM hoc OTDM, nhng ultra-fast AONs ch c th s dng OTDM. Nhng mng AONs c th c s dng trong kinh doanh, thng mi, y hc, v gio dc h tr 1 di rng cc ng dng. Cc kh nng ng dng bao gm kt ni my tnh vi tc siu cao, truy nhp th vin in t, telemedicine, Video conferencing, VoD, hc trc truyn v nhiu ng dng a phng tin khc. Rt nhiu cc ng dng c th c s dng nng cao thng tin NS/EP trong cc tnh hung khn cp. V vy, mng AONs c th c xem nh l kh nng thay th cc mng in t.. trong cc tnh hung khn cp. Khi m cc mng ton quang c 1 nguyn l r nt, th cng vic tip theo cn thit l v bo mt, vn hnh lin mng, v iu khin v qun l trong AONs. Cc t chc tiu chun nh l ITU-T v ANSI v nhiu t chc nghin cu khc hin ang nghin cu cc vn ny. Khi m cng ngh v tiu chun c chun ha , AONs c th chng t ngha c th lm c h tr cc thng tin NS/EP trong sut cc tnh hung khn cp .

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