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CHAPTER 4

Metal Alloys: Their Structure and Strengthening by Heat Treatment

Kalpakjian Schmid Manufacturing Engineering and Technology

2001 Prentice-Hall

Page 4-1

Induction-Hardened Surface
Figure 4.1 Cross-section of gear teeth showing induction-hardened surfaces. Source: TOCCO Div., Park-Ohio Industries, Inc.

Kalpakjian Schmid Manufacturing Engineering and Technology

2001 Prentice-Hall

Page 4-2

Chapter 4 Outline
Figure 4.2 Outline of topics described in Chapter 4.

Kalpakjian Schmid Manufacturing Engineering and Technology

2001 Prentice-Hall

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Two-Phase System

Figure 4.3 (a) Schematic illustration of grains, grain boundaries, and particles dispersed throughout the structure of a two-phase system, such as a lead-copper alloy. The grains represent lead in solid solution in copper, and the particles are lead as a second phase. (b) Schematic illustration of a twophase system consisting of two sets of grains: dark, and light. The dark and the light grains have separate compositions and properties.

Kalpakjian Schmid Manufacturing Engineering and Technology

2001 Prentice-Hall

Page 4-4

Cooling Curve
Figure 4.4 Cooling curve for the solidification of pure metals. Note that freezing takes place at a constant temperature; during freezing the latent heat of solidification is given off.

Kalpakjian Schmid Manufacturing Engineering and Technology

2001 Prentice-Hall

Page 4-5

Nickel-Copper Alloy Phase Diagram


Figure 4.5 Phase diagram for nickelcopper alloy system obtained at a slow rate of solidification. Note that pure nickel and pure copper each has one freezing or melting temperature. The top circle on the right depicts the nucleation of crystals. The second circle shows the formation of dendrites (see Section 10.2). The bottom circle shows the solidified alloy, with grain boundaries.

Kalpakjian Schmid Manufacturing Engineering and Technology

2001 Prentice-Hall

Page 4-6

Mechanical Properties of Copper-Nickel and Copper-Zinc Alloys


Figure 4.6 Mechanical properties of copper-nickel and copper-zinc alloys as a function of their composition. The curves for zinc are short, because zinc has a maximum solid solubility of 40% in copper. Source: L. H. Van Vlack; Materials for Engineering. Addison-Wesley Publishing Co., Inc., 1982.

Kalpakjian Schmid Manufacturing Engineering and Technology

2001 Prentice-Hall

Page 4-7

Lead-Tin Phase Diagram


Figure 4.7 The lead-tin phase diagram. Note that the composition of the eutectic point for this alloy is 61.9% Sn-38.1% Pb. A composition either lower or higher than this ratio will have a higher liquidus temperature.

Kalpakjian Schmid Manufacturing Engineering and Technology

2001 Prentice-Hall

Page 4-8

Iron-Iron Carbide Phase Diagram


Figure 4.8 The iron-iron carbide phase diagram. Because of the importance of steel as an engineering material, this diagram is one of the most important of all phase diagrams.

Kalpakjian Schmid Manufacturing Engineering and Technology

2001 Prentice-Hall

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Austenite, Ferrite, and Martensite

Figure 4.9 The unit cells for (a) austenite, (b) ferrite, and (c) martensite. The effect of percentage of carbon (by weight) on the lattice dimensions for martensite is shown in (d). Note the interstitial position of the carbon atoms (see Fig. 1.9). Note, also, the increase in dimension c with increasing carbon content; this effect causes the unit cell of martensite to be in the shape of a rectangular prism.

Kalpakjian Schmid Manufacturing Engineering and Technology

2001 Prentice-Hall

Page 4-10

Iron-Carbon Alloy Above and Below Eutectoid Temperature

Figure 4.10 Schematic illustration of the microstructures for an ironcarbon alloy of eutectoid composition (0.77% carbon), above and below the eutectoid temperature of 727 C (1341 F).
Kalpakjian Schmid Manufacturing Engineering and Technology

2001 Prentice-Hall

Page 4-11

Pearlite Microstructure
Figure 4.11 Microstructure of pearlite in 1080 steel, formed from austenite of eutectoid composition. In this lamellar structure, the lighter regions are ferrite, and the darker regions are carbide. Magnification: 2500X. Source: Courtesy of USX Corporation.

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2001 Prentice-Hall

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Extended Iron-Carbon Phase Diagram

Figure 4.12 Phase diagram for the iron-carbon system with graphite (instead of cementite) as the stable phase. Note that this figure is an extended version of Fig. 4.8.
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Microstructures for Cast Irons


(a) (b) (c)

Figure 4.13 Microstructure for cast irons. Magnification: 100X. (a) Ferritic gray iron with graphite flakes. (b) Ferritic Ductile iron (nodular iron), with graphite in nodular form. (c) Ferritic malleable iron; this cast iron solidified as white cast iron, with the carbon present as cementite, and was heat treated to graphitize the carbon. Source: ASM International.

Kalpakjian Schmid Manufacturing Engineering and Technology

2001 Prentice-Hall

Page 4-14

Austenite to Pearlite Transformation

Figure 4.14 (a) Austeniteto-pearlite transformation of iron-carbon alloy as a functionof time and temperature. (b) Isothermal transformation diagram obtained from (a) for a transformation temperature of 675 C (1247 F). (continued)

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Austenite to Pearlite Transformation (cont.)


Figure 4.14 (c) Microstructures obtained for a eutectoid iron-carbon alloy as a function of cooling rate. Source: ASM International.

Kalpakjian Schmid Manufacturing Engineering and Technology

2001 Prentice-Hall

Page 4-16

Hardness and Toughness of Annealed Steels


Figure 4.15 (a) and (b) Hardness and (c) toughness for annealed plain-carbon steels, as a function of carbide shape. Carbides in the pearlite are lamellar. Fine pearlite is obtained by increasing the cooling rate. The spheroidite structure has spherelike carbide particles. Note htat the percentage of pearlite begins to decrease after 0.77% carbon. Source: L. H. Van Vlack; Materials for Engineering. Addison-Wesley Publishing Co., Inc., 1982.

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Page 4-17

Mechanical Properties of Annealed Steels

Figure 4.16 Mechanical properties of annealed steels, as a function of composition and microstructure. Note (in (a)) the increase in hardness and strength and (in (b)) the decrease in ductility and toughness, with increasing amounts of pearlite and iron carbide. Source: L. H. Van Vlack; Materials for Engineering. Addison-Wesley Publishing Co., Inc., 1982.

Kalpakjian Schmid Manufacturing Engineering and Technology

2001 Prentice-Hall

Page 4-18

Eutectoid Steel Microstructure

Figure 4.17 Microstructure of eutectoid steel. Spheroidite is formed by tempering the steel at 700 C (1292 F). Magnification: 1000X. Source: Courtesy of USX Corporation.

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Martensite
(b)

Figure 4.18 (a) Hardness of martensite, as a function of carbon content. (b) Micrograph of martensite containing 0.8% carbon. The gray platelike regions are martensite; they have the same composition as the original austenite (white regions). Magnification: 1000X. Source: Courtesy of USX Corporation.

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Page 4-20

Hardness of Tempered Martensite


Figure 4.19 Hardness of tempered martensite, as a function of tempering time, for 1080 steel quenched to 65 HRC. Hardness decreases because the carbide particles coalesce and grow in size, thereby increasing the interparticle distance of the softer ferrite.

Kalpakjian Schmid Manufacturing Engineering and Technology

2001 Prentice-Hall

Page 4-21

End-Quench Hardenability Test

Figure 4.20 (a) End-quench test and cooling rate. (b) Hardenability curves for five different steels, as obtained from the end-quench test. Small variations in composition can change the shape of these curves. Each curve is actually a band, and its exact determination is important in the heat treatment of metals, for better control of properties. Source: L. H. Van Vlack; Materials for Engineering. Addison-Wesley Publishing Co., Inc., 1982.

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2001 Prentice-Hall

Page 4-22

Aluminum-Copper Phase Diagram


Figure 4.21 (a) Phase diagram for the aluminum-copper alloy system. (b) Various microstructures obtained during the age-hardening process. Source: L. H. Van Vlack; Materials for Engineering. Addison-Wesley Publishing Co., Inc., 1982.

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2001 Prentice-Hall

Page 4-23

Age Hardening

Figure 4.22 The effect of aging time and temperature on the yield stress of 2014-T4 aluminum alloy. Note that, for each temperature, there is an optimal aging time for maximum strength.

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Page 4-24

Outline of Heat Treatment Processes for Surface Hardening


TABLE 4.1
Process Carburizing Metals hardened Low-carbon steel (0.2% C), alloy steels (0.080.2% C) Element added to surface C Procedure Heat steel at 870950 C (16001750 F) in an atmosphere of carbonaceous gases (gas carburizing) or carboncontaining solids (pack carburizing). Then quench. Heat steel at 700800 C (13001600 F) in an atmosphere of carbonaceous gas and ammonia. Then quench in oil. General Characteristics A hard, high-carbon surface is produced. Hardness 55 to 65 HRC. Case depth < 0.51.5 mm ( < 0.020 to 0.060 in.). Some distortion of part during heat treatment. Surface hardness 55 to 62 HRC. Case depth 0.07 to 0.5 mm (0.003 to 0.020 in.). Less distortion than in carburizing. Surface hardness up to 65 HRC. Case depth 0.025 to 0.25 mm (0.001 to 0.010 in.). Some distortion. Surface hardness up to 1100 HV. Case depth 0.1 to 0.6 mm (0.005 to 0.030 in.) and 0.02 to 0.07 mm (0.001 to 0.003 in.) for high speed steel. Extremely hard and wear resistant surface. Case depth 0.025 0.075 mm (0.001 0.003 in.). Surface hardness 50 to 60 HRC. Case depth 0.7 to 6 mm (0.030 to 0.25 in.). Little distortion. Same as above Typical applications Gears, cams, shafts, bearings, piston pins, sprockets, clutch plates

Carbonitriding

Low-carbon steel

C and N

Bolts, nuts, gears

Cyaniding

Nitriding

Boronizing

Low-carbon steel (0.2% C), alloy steels (0.080.2% C) Steels (1% Al, 1.5% Cr, 0.3% Mo), alloy steels (Cr, Mo), stainless steels, high-speed tool steels Steels

C and N

Heat steel at 760845 C (14001550 F) in a molten bath of solutions of cyanide (e.g., 30% sodium cyanide) and other salts. Heat steel at 500600 C (9251100 F) in an atmosphere of ammonia gas or mixtures of molten cyanide salts. No further treatment.

Bolts, nuts, screws, small gears

Gears, shafts, sprockets, valves, cutters, boring bars, fuel-injection pump parts

Part is heated using boron-containing gas or solid in contact with part.

Tool and die steels

Flame hardening

Medium-carbon steels, cast irons

None

Surface is heated with an oxyacetylene torch, then quenched with water spray or other quenching methods. Metal part is placed in copper induction coils and is heated by high frequency current, then quenched.

Induction hardening

Same as above

None

Gear and sprocket teeth, axles, crankshafts, piston rods, lathe beds and centers Same as above

Kalpakjian Schmid Manufacturing Engineering and Technology

2001 Prentice-Hall

Page 4-25

Heat Treatment Processes


Figure 4.23 Heat-treating temperature ranges for plain-carbon steels, as indicated on the iron-iron carbide phase diagram. Source: ASM International.

Figure 4.24 Hardness of steels in the quenched and normalized conditions, as a function of carbon content.
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Properties of Oil-Quenched Steel


Figure 4.25 Mechanical properties of oil-quenched 4340 steel, as a function of tempering temperature. Source: Courtesy of LTV Steel Company

Kalpakjian Schmid Manufacturing Engineering and Technology

2001 Prentice-Hall

Page 4-27

Induction Heating

Figure 4.26 Types of coils used in induction heating of various surfaces of parts.

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2001 Prentice-Hall

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